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gy1000ca course and assessment guide ncea level 1


geography (gy1000) teacher contact details When you first make contact with your teacher, please fill out their details below, for future reference.

name: ext:

telephone: 0800 65 99 88 alternative telephone number: email address:

Private Bag 39992, Wellington Mail Centre, Lower Hutt 5045 Please keep your Geography (GY1000) Course and assessment guide in a safe place so that you can use it to plan your study and to record your assessment results. For further information about courses at this level, please refer to Student Guide to Years 11–13 and the Student Guide to National Certificates.

Cover image: © Shutterstock, 45488326 Copyright © 2011 Board of Trustees of Te Aho o Te Kura Pounamu, Private Bag 39992, Wellington Mail Centre, Lower Hutt 5045, New Zealand. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without the written permission of Te Aho o Te Kura Pounamu. © te ah o o te k u ra p ou n am u

contents 1

Welcome to GY1000


Getting started information


GY1000 Course outline


Assessment summary


Additional course materials


Assessment information


Geographic concepts and glossary


Suggested course plan


My Geography assessment record (GY1000)

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welcome to gy1000 Welcome to the NCEA Level 1 Geography (GY1000) course offered by Te Aho o Te Kura Pounamu.

aims of gy1000

Geography is the study of the environment as the home of people. It seeks to interpret the world and how it changes over time – past, present and future. It explores the relationships and connections between people and both natural and cultural environments. Geography investigates the ways in which features are arranged on the Earth’s surface. It describes and explains the patterns and processes that create them. Students learn to think spatially and use maps, visual images and new technologies to obtain, present and analyse information. Geography students are better able to make sense of a complex and changing world and their place in it. In Geography, students have the opportunity to: •• explore real and relevant contemporary contexts •• undertake fieldwork investigations and relate them to geographic issues that affect them •• develop an awareness of the connections between people and places. By studying Geography, students are able to recognise the responsibilities they have in relation to other people, the environment, and the long-term sustainability of the planet. This course is an introduction to geography, its basic skills and concepts. Students will learn how the world’s natural and cultural environments and people interact through studies of population concepts, sustainability and the effects of extreme natural events. The course teaches students how to draw and interpret maps, as well as how to interpret a variety of information and data. There is a focus on both New Zealand and global issues which will develop research and observation skills and give students the ability to take action and solve problems. Students are offered 25 credits towards the National Certificate of Educational Achievement, NCEA Level 1. There are three external standards worth 12 credits and four internal standards worth 13 credits. This course can be endorsed with Merit or Excellence if in a single year you gain 14 or more credits at Merit and/or Excellence within Level 1 Geography. At least three of these credits must be from externally assessed standards and three from internally assessed standards.



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getting started information how this course is delivered

GY1000 is a print-based course, with course material and supplementary material accessed from the online teaching and learning environment (OTLE). Dual enrolled students are expected to access material from OTLE. Other enrolled students may request printed materials to be posted, accepting there will be a delay between enrolment and receiving the first posting. You will receive an email explaining how to log in to OTLE. This email includes a link to set your password if you have not logged into the OTLE before. You can access OTLE by clicking on It is recommended that you bookmark this site in your browser. This will take you to a page with links to your courses. Your username and initial password is your Te Kura student ID number. You will be asked to set a new password when you first log in. After that, if you need to reset your password you can click on the ‘Forgot password’ link on the OTLE login page. If you have difficulties logging in, please email:

organising your study

Plan a regular time to study. Some people learn best from frequent short sessions while others do better with fewer, longer sessions. It is important to have a plan or a timetable and to keep to it. There is a suggested planner in the back of this guide for you to plan your programme of study. You may wish to consult with your subject teacher to help you decide on your plan. Getting your study underway is very important. Your first return of work should be two to three weeks after you first received your initial work. If you have any issues returning your work within this time please contact your subject teacher. For more information on how to study successfully, refer to the Student Guide to Years 11–13 (

te kura codes

Your course code is: GY1000. GY is the code for Geography and 1000 refers to Level 1. ‘GY1003’ refers to a booklet that covers a particular learning topic in the GY1000 course. ‘GY1003Y1’ refers to the first assessment for an Achievement Standard (AS91012) for GY1003. ‘AS’ is the code for Achievement Standard.

resources you need to get going

Te Kura booklets, refill paper, a ruler, coloured pencils, computer and printer, DVD or CD players and a scientific calculator. It would also be useful to have access to an atlas and the internet, although maps and other resources are provided in most instances.

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getting started information


Many assessment activities are self-marked. You’ll find the Answer guide towards the back of each booklet. Use these answers to mark your own work and make corrections where necessary. Self-marking is very important as it gives you instant feedback on how well you understand the ideas, concepts or information that have been covered.


Students are required to send in their self-marked activities as well as their internal or practice external assessments. Internal assessments for this course are: •• open-book tests (for example, GY1003Y1 and GY1011Y1) •• field study research of an urban area (GY1006Y1). The detailed criteria for Achievement Standards will be given in the relevant booklets. They can also be found by searching the subject and level in the NCEA part of the NZQA website ( and then finding the relevant standard(s). The first assessment is called ‘Y1’ for an Achievement Standard and the further assessment opportunity, if there is one, is called ‘Y2’. For example, GY1006Y1 is the first assessment for AS91011 and there is no further assessment opportunity. However, GY1003Y1 is the first assessment for AS91012, and GY1003Y2 refers to the second assessment opportunity. External assessment preparation includes: •• practice external assessments •• Te Kura practice examinations.

time commitment

There are currently eight booklets in this course. GY1005 on AS 1.3 Demonstrate a geographic understanding of the sustainable use of an environment is not available in term 1, 2012. Each contains a note inside the front cover indicating how many hours the topic is likely to take. For example, Booklet GY1001 may take ten hours of work to complete at the normal pace, representing about two weeks of work. Before deciding on your pace of learning, read through this Course and assessment guide and ask yourself the following: •• How much time can I set aside for study each week? •• Will I be able to keep a steady pace of five hours of study each week? •• What do I want to do next year? How many credits will I need to do this? •• Will I be doing externally and internally assessed standards? •• Will I be prepared to sit the external examination in November? •• Will I need specific external or internal credits as a prerequisite for next year’s study or work? Your teacher will help you plan for the year’s work and to set target dates.



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getting started information

normal pace of learning

A normal pace of learning is similar to what a student does at school. As a guide, expect to do at least five hours work per week. This means completing three to four booklets each term so that you complete the course before the November external examinations and the end of the school year.

flexible pace of learning

If you have less than a year because you start later or need to finish earlier, you can decide the pace at which you work. You could still complete the whole course by devoting more time and effort to it. Your teacher can ensure that you receive the resources you need in time to do this.

choosing topics and standards

You may wish to do only some topics. For example, you may only want to do internal standards in this course. You should discuss this with your Learning adviser and teacher. You should consider how well this will meet your learning goals and whether it will meet the specific course entry requirements for tertiary institutions or any future study, and whether you will be able to gain enough credits to achieve your NCEA. To be awarded NCEA Level 1, you will need to gain a minimum of 80 credits at Level 1 (or above) including the 10 credits for literacy and the 10 credits for numeracy. A list of achievement standards from levels 1, 2 and 3 that count towards Level 1 literacy and numeracy can be accessed from:

cover sheets

For example, GY1001 – Detach the back cover of the booklet: this becomes the Cover sheet for your work. Fill it in, sign it and attach to the front of your work before sending it back to Te Kura. Your supervisor also signs this sheet as part of our authenticity requirements (if applicable). All students are encouraged to submit as much as possible of their work online via the OTLE Dropbox. When work requires authentication, students will follow the instructions provided in OTLE.

queries about your work

It is important to contact your teacher if you have any queries about your work. It helps to have your ID number, booklet code (for example, GY1001) and the activity or question number when you contact your teacher, but it is not essential.

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gy1000 course outline


Course item/ booklet


Learning outcomes (if applicable)



Course and assessment guide

GY1001 GY1001A GY1001B GY1001C GY1001D

Introduction to geography

Apply concepts and basic geographic skills to demonstrate understanding of a given environment.

Working towards AS91010


Skills supplement

GY1002 GY1002A

Population geography 1

Demonstrate geographic understanding of population concepts.

Working towards AS91008

GY1003 GY1003Y1

Geographic issues

Describe aspects of a contemporary New Zealand geographic issue.

Assessment for AS91012 (Internal, 3 credits)

GY1004 GY1004B

Population geography 2

Demonstrate geographic understanding of population concepts.

Working towards AS91008


Sustainable resource use

Demonstrate geographic understanding of the sustainable use of an environment.

Assessment for AS91009 (Internal, 3 credits)

GY1006 GY1006Y1

Geographic research: field study

Conduct geographic research, with direction.

Assessment for AS91011 (Internal, 4 credits)

GY1008 GY1008A GY1008C GY1008E

Earthquakes shape our environment

Demonstrate geographic understanding of environments that have been shaped by extreme natural event(s).

Working towards AS91007

GY1011 GY1011Y1

Global patterns

Describe aspects of a geographic topic at a global scale.

Assessment for AS91013 (Internal, 3 credits)


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assessment summary credits offered: 25

ncea level 1 geography (gy1000) Study material (code)

Standard number

Standard title

AS91007 Geography 1.1

Demonstrate geographic understanding of environments that have been shaped by extreme natural event(s)

GY1008 GY1008B

Demonstrate geographic understanding of population concepts

GY1002 GY1004 GY1004B

Demonstrate geographic understanding of the sustainable use of an environment

GY1005 Available online

Apply concepts and basic geographic skills to demonstrate understanding of a given environment

GY1001 GY1001S All booklets

Conduct geographic research, with direction

GY1006 GY1006Y1

Describe aspects of a contemporary New Zealand geographic issue

GY1003 GY1003Y1

Describe aspects of a geographic topic at a global scale

GY1011 GY1011Y1

External, 4 credits AS91008 Geography 1.2 External, 4 credits AS91009 Geography 1.3 Internal, 3 credits AS91010 Geography 1.4 External, 4 credits AS91011 Geography 1.5 Internal, 4 credits AS91012 Geography 1.6 Internal, 3 credits AS91013 Geography 1.7 Internal, 3 credits

assessment tasks

The self-assessments are contained in the booklets. Your internal assessments will be sent to you when you have completed and submitted the work for standards AS91012, AS91013. For the research standard AS91011, you need to consult your teacher before you begin.

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additional course materials additional course materials






The Te Kura online learning site for Level 1 Geography.

NZQA website

Information about the standards, conditions of assessment, past exams and assessment schedules. Includes exemplars of student work.

Te Kete Ipurangi website

Exemplars of internal assessments, with examples of suggested answers.

Studyit website

A student help site with information to support NCEA students. Focuses on Science, Mathematics and English but the general advice, information and forum are useful for Geography students.


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assessment information standards

The National Qualifications Framework has two types of National Standards: Achievement and Unit Standards. Credits from both Achievement Standards and Unit Standards count towards NCEA. In this NCEA Level 1 Geography course, only Achievement Standards are available. Please refer to our Student Guide to National Certificates or Te Kura ( and NZQA ( websites for more information about National Certificates of Educational Achievement and assessment.

internal assessment

Some Achievement Standards are internally assessed. This means that the teachers set and mark your assessments at the school.

external assessment

External assessment means that someone outside the school marks students’ work. This may be through NZQA examinations at the end of the year or by submitting a portfolio or project for subjects such as Graphics, Technology and Art. You will be able to complete practice assessments and Te Kura examinations for external standards.

te kura practice examinations

Students should complete the Te Kura practice examinations for any external standards with a November examination they have entered. It is important that students complete all practice external assessments and examinations. If, for some reason such as illness, you are unable to sit the examinations at the end of the year, you will only be eligible for consideration for a derived grade (compassionate consideration) if you have completed the Te Kura practice examinations.


If you have made mistakes in your standard assessment, your teacher may offer you one resubmission opportunity. This means you have made an error that you are capable of discovering and correcting by yourself. A resubmission allows you to improve your result.

further assessment opportunities for internal assessments

For some standards, you will be able to complete a second assessment called a ‘further assessment opportunity’ to improve your results. These standards are indicated in the course outline. You should take this opportunity where it is available.


Authenticity means students complete and submit work that is their own. When you submit work to Te Kura you sign an authentication declaration that the work you are submitting is your own work and was done under the required assessment conditions. Where applicable, your supervisor signs to confirm this declaration. When submitting work online via the OTLE Dropbox, if it requires authentication, students must follow the instructions provided in OTLE.

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assessment information

derived grades (compassionate consideration)

If for any unexpected reason you are not able to sit your end of year examination or to submit final work towards an external standard (portfolios or projects), you may be eligible for a derived grade. Please refer to the Student Guide to National Certificates and contact your Learning adviser as soon as possible to find out more should you feel this is necessary.


You have the right to query an assessment result if you want further clarification or disagree with the result. If you are still not satisfied, you may appeal. Refer to the Student Guide to National Certificates for more information. You can also appeal any other decisions, procedures or policies about assessments. Contact your teacher or learning adviser if you wish to appeal. More information and a form that students can use to appeal are available on the Te Kura website in the student toolkit area (, and go to ‘Student toolkit’).



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geographic concepts and glossary key geographic concepts

Key concepts are the big ideas and understandings that allow geographers to explore the relationships and connections between people and both natural and cultural environments. Environments – May be natural and/or cultural environments. They have particular characteristics and features which can be the result of natural and/or cultural processes. •• Natural features have been created by nature, not people. –– For example: landforms, indigenous vegetation, lakes and rivers. •• Cultural features exist because people have put them there. –– For example: roads, railways, buildings, plantations, factories, fences, dairy herds. Perspectives: The way people view and interpret environments. Perspectives and values may be influenced by culture, the environment, social systems, technology, economic and political ideology. They may influence how people interact with environments and the decisions and responses that they make. Processes: A sequence of actions, natural and/or cultural, that shape and change environments, places and societies. For example: faulting, erosion and migration. Patterns: The arrangement and distribution of natural and cultural features on the Earth’s surface. May be spatial: the arrangement of features on the Earth’s surface; or temporal: how characteristics differ over time in recognisable ways. Interaction: Involves elements of an environment affecting each other and being linked together. Interaction involves movement, flows, connections, links and interrelationships. Landscapes are the visible outcome of interactions. Interaction can bring about environmental change. Change: Involves any alteration to the natural or cultural environment. Change can be spatial and/or temporal. Change is a normal process in both natural and cultural environments. It occurs at varying rates, at different times and in different places. Some changes are predictable, recurrent or cyclic while others are unpredictable. Sustainability: Means the ability to endure. For humans sustainability is the long-term maintenance of productive, healthy environments and the management of human use of resources. Sustainability is the ability to meet the needs of the present without harming future needs. Māori concepts: Kaitiakitanga: protection and preservation of the environment for future generations. Manaakitanga: behaviour that acknowledges the mana of others through hospitality, generosity, care and welfare. Additional spatial concepts may be studied, such as: Location – where people or features are sited or positioned. Distance – how far away or apart, people or features are, the space between points or features. Accessibility – how easy it is for people, ideas or things to move around. Region – an area with distinctive natural and/or cultural features. Regions may vary in size and characteristics and are continually changing. © te ah o o t e k ur a p o un a m u



geographic concepts and glossary


The following are geographic terms used in the course and their definition. These are the words that are likely to be used in assessment resources and questions. More ‘technical words’, such as glacial features like cirques, are introduced in the appropriate topic. You need to develop a separate glossary for these terms. The definitions are given in a geographic rather than an everyday context. altitude

the height of land above sea level.


the average weather conditions over a long period of time. The elements of climate include rainfall, temperature, sunshine and wind.


preserving the natural environment.


the major land areas of the world, such as Africa.


an area such as a CBD or a region such as Auckland which dominates a surrounding (periphery) area from which it draws people, ideas and materials.


refers to the influences of people rather than nature.


refers to the customs, beliefs and traditions of a group of people.


the scientific and statistical study of population.


the wearing away of the land by nature.


the laying down of eroded material to form new landforms.


an area where the rainfall is generally less than plants need to live on and so often has little vegetation. Deserts can be hot or cold.

developed country

a country with a high level of development and a high standard of living (for example, New Zealand).

developing country

a country with a low level of development and a low standard of living (for example, Nepal).


constantly changing and evolving.


the interrelating natural elements and processes in a natural environment.


components of the environment, such as, relief and climate that may interact.


people leaving one country or region for another.


a distinctive area or region that is formed by the interaction of natural and/or cultural processes (for example, deserts or alpine or city).


the wearing down and transporting away of the Earth’s surface by wind, water or ice.


a break or fracture in the Earth’s crust along which there has been land movement.



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geographic concepts and glossary


a part of the natural or cultural environment that can be seen. A natural feature is something that has not been placed there by people (for example, a mountain). A cultural feature is something placed there by people, such as a bridge or a house (see phenomena).


relates to the processes of rivers and streams.


the structure and composition of the Earth’s crust.


the processes of erosion and deposition by glaciers.


short for gross national product per capita. It is a way of measuring the wealth and level of development by dividing the total earnings of a country by the number of people.


a statement about a topic which may be tested to see if it is right or wrong.


people entering a new country.


a process where industrial activity increases and/or changes. Initially it may involve a change from an economy mainly based on agricultural output to one based on manufacturing.


services that provide the basis upon which an economy operates, especially in transport, communications and power (for example, the network of roads, railway lines and power lines).


particular features related to the shape of the Earth’s surface, such as volcanic cones or river valleys.


an area with particular identifiable features (for example, deserts).

mass movement

an erosion process whereby soil and/or rock slip down a slope.


the movement of people from one country or region to another.


steep land, usually over 1000 metres in elevation from summit to base.


physical and biological phenomena such as rain, rivers, sun.


the region surrounding a core area (see core). It interacts with the core by supplying the core with raw materials and is dependent on the core for many of its processed goods and services.


features or things that can be seen or measured in the environment. They can be natural like fault lines, or cultural like airports.

plate tectonics

the processes by which large sections of the Earth’s crust are moved by convection currents in the upper mantle. These plate movements result in earthquakes, volcanoes, fold mountains and continental drift.


moisture (rain, hail, snow) received on the Earth’s surface from the atmosphere.


the height and shape of the land.

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geographic concepts and glossary

spatial variations

differences that can be seen or measured between one place and another. For instance, you can see different types of vegetation at different altitudes on a mountain like Mt Cook. You can measure and map differences in income within a region like Auckland.

standard of living

a level of living conditions against which others are measured and compared (see GNP).


the process whereby one plate slides beneath another and merges into the mantle.


a series of elements or components that link together, interacting to form a distinctive entity – for example, a river system or a factory system.


related to towns and cities.


a process which results in the formation of volcanoes and associated landforms.


atmospheric conditions (rain, sunshine, wind, temperature) at a certain time.


a process involving the decay and breakdown of surface rocks exposed to the elements of climate.



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suggested course plan Here is a suggested one year plan. The suggestions are based on the assumption that you are going to be enrolled for a full year course at the beginning of the school year. We offer 25 credits at this level but a full-time student would generally complete 20 to 24 credits in a year. However, you may enroll with Te Kura part way through the year and continue your studies the following year. You may choose to select only some of the topics and standards depending on your circumstances. Feel free to discuss your individual programme with your subject teacher who will be willing to adjust the programme to suit your needs. Term

Suggested plan

Time (approximate)


Read GY1000CA and consult your teacher.

1 week

GY1001 Introduction to geography. This resource covers many of the skills that may be tested in the skills standard. Use it to identify skills and ideas you need to study during the year.

3 weeks

GY1003, GY1003Y1 Geographic issue

2 weeks

GY1002 Population studies: Part 1

2 weeks

GY1006 Research: consult your teacher on research topic (urban trail) and send in planning sheet.

A few hours

GY1006Y1 Conduct and process the research.

2 weeks

GY1006Y1 Complete research

1 week

GY1004 Population studies: Part 2

2–3 weeks

GY1011, GY1011Y1 Global patterns

2–3 weeks

GY1008 Extreme natural events

1–2 weeks

GY1008 Extreme natural events

1–2 weeks

GY1005, GY1005Y1 Sustainable use of an environment

3 weeks

Revision and practice exam

2–3 weeks

Complete unfinished work and/or resubmissions. Revision – your teacher will let you know what to revise and the degree of detail examiners require for merit/ excellence grades. With this information you will be able to decide the detail, in terms of the statistics and case studies, you need.

3–4 weeks




Access NZQA website for past exam papers and answers.

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my geography assessment record (gy1000) Standard number

Standard title

Exam/ assessment due date

AS91007 Geography 1.1

Demonstrate geographic understanding of environments that have been shaped by extreme natural events

November exam*

Demonstrate geographic understanding of population concepts

November exam*

External 4 credits AS91008 Geography 1.2 External 4 credits AS91009 Geography 1.3 Internal 3 credits AS91010 Geography 1.4

Grade awarded

Credits achieved

Demonstrate geographic understanding of sustainable use of an environment

External 4 credits

Apply concepts and basic geographic skills to demonstrate understanding of a given environment

AS91011 Geography 1.5

Conduct geographic research, with direction

November exam*

Internal 4 credits AS91012 Geography 1.6 Internal 3 credits AS91013 Geography 1.7 Internal 3 credits

Describe aspects of a contemporary New Zealand geographic issue

Describe aspects of a geographic topic at a global scale

*NZQA examination results available in January.

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GY1000CA 2015  

Geography Course and assessment guide

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