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agriculture horticulture

ag1041 primary production in new zealand 1 ncea level 1

2011/1


agriculture/horticulture ncea level 1

Expected time to complete work This work will take you about 22 hours to complete. You will work towards the following standard: Achievement Standard 90920 Agriculture Horticulture Demonstrate knowledge of the geographical distribution of agricultural and horticultural primary production in New Zealand Level 1, Internal 3 credits Booklet 1 – In this booklet you will focus on these learning outcomes: •• understanding the types of farming in New Zealand, where they are found and why •• starting your research on primary products for AG1042Y1 or HT1042Y1 •• practising presenting research about a primary product. In booklet 2 you will focus on these learning outcomes: •• understanding the types of crops grown in New Zealand, where they are found and why •• understanding market factors and how they influence the types of farming or cropping found in a particular area •• finishing your research on primary products for AG1042Y1 (Agriculture course) or HT1042Y1 (Horticulture course).

Copyright © 2011 Board of Trustees of Te Aho o Te Kura Pounamu, Private Bag 39992, Wellington Mail Centre, Lower Hutt 5045, New Zealand. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without the written permission of Te Aho o Te Kura Pounamu. © 2011 te aho o te kura pounamu


contents 1

Primary production in New Zealand

2

The shape of the land: topography

3 Soils 4 Climate 5

Dairy farms

6

High country sheep farming

7

Hill country and lowland sheep and beef farming

8

Your research project

9

Work on research project

10 Work on research project 11

Answer guide

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how to do the work When you see:

1A 1B 1C the1D 1E Complete activity.

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4A 4B 4C 4D 4E this 4Fwork. 4G Your teacher will assess

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You will need: •• 8Ascissors 8B

•• glue or sticky tape

9C (plastic) 9D sheets 9E with 9F maps 9G that 9Hcome9Iwith 9J 9K 9L •• 9Athree9B acetate this booklet

•• coloured pencils or felt pens 10A 10B 10C 10D 10E

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•• access to a library or the Internet

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•• A3 insert sheet that comes with this booklet. Resource overview Each session should take you about one hour to complete. There are two sessions in this booklet that allow time for you to get started on your research topics.

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1 primary production in new zealand learning outcome

I can demonstrate knowledge of types of agricultural and horticultural primary production in New Zealand.

learning intentions In the lesson you will learn to:

•• check you know the meanings of common terms used in agriculture and horticulture •• show the main factors influencing what primary products can be grown in an area •• match different types of farms, orchards and market gardens with photos of what they produce.

introduction

What have you eaten this week? If you have eaten bread, fruit, vegetables, potatoes or meat, or you are wearing anything made out of wool or leather, it has probably come from a farm. Anything that has been grown on a farm, orchard or market garden is called a primary product.

dave jackson

New Zealanders consume much of our food and other products, but over half of our primary products are exported overseas.

Delicious cherries grown in New Zealand.

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primary production in new zealand

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On the definitions. Next each 1K definition, 1B 1Cfollowing 1D table 1E are 1Fsome1G 1H 1I to1J 1L write the word or words that

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match the definition. If you are not sure of the answer, just guess. When you have finished, check your 2C answers the back 2B 2Dfrom2E 2F of the 2G booklet. 2H 2I 2J 2K 2L

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Choose word 3F list: topography; production; 3B 3C from 3Dthis3E 3G 3H primary 3I 3J 3K soil 3L type; climate; temperate; market factors; arable; dairy farming; market garden.

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How a workforce, transport costs and consumers 7C 7D 7E 7F 7G 7H 7I 7J influence where things are grown.

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The shape and steepness of the land in a particular 9Barea. 9C 9D 9E 9F 9G 9H 9I 9J

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produce crops. Producing milk from a herd of cows.

Growing food and fibre on farms, or in market gardens or orchards. A commercial property where vegetables are grown.

The long-term patterns in weather conditions for an area, including average annual rainfall, sunshine hours and temperature trends. The characteristics of soil in an area, including the fertility, depth and the amount of sand, silt and clay that is present.

Check your answers.

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primary production in new zealand

where are things grown and why?

New Zealand has a wide range of climates, topography and soil types, so a wide range of animals and plants can be farmed and grown. If you have travelled through the New Zealand countryside, you will probably have seen different farms, orchards and market gardens. Have you noticed the different animals and crops growing on them? Market factors also influence where things are grown. A farmer or grower may need to employ seasonal workers, keep transport costs down, or be able to get perishable goods to a market quickly. 1A

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1. Fill by writing 1C 1Din the 1Efollowing 1F diagram 1G 1H 1I one 1J word 1Kin each 1L of the outer squares:

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2. In this activity you are going to match farm products with the type of farm they come from. 8D will8E 8I 8J 8K 8L You need: 8F 8G 8H •• scissors 9D

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•• glue or sticky tape

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•• the charts the 10G next few pages 10A 10B 10C 10D 10E on 10F 10H 10I

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•• the pictures from the colour page headed ‘farm products’. Cut out the pictures on the colour page. Find the diary product pictures (anything made out of milk). Stick these on the ‘dairy farming’ chart. Find the pictures of orchard and arable and market garden crops. Stick these on the ‘orchards’ and ‘arable and market garden crops’. Find the pictures of sheep products made from coarse wool. Put these on the ‘sheep and beef farming on flat land or gentle rolling hills’ page. Put the beef products on this page also. Find the other sheep products. Put these on the ‘high country sheep farming’ page. (If you are unsure which page to stick a product onto, check the answers first.)

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primary production in new zealand

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sheep pelt; carpet samples; men’s suit; ball of wool; apples on tree; bales of stacked wool; dave jackson. potatoes; bobby calves; yoghurt; peaches; tomatoes; cheese; milk containers; lanolin cream; chop pack; wheat heads; steak pack; oranges; lettuces; ice cream; barley; instant milk powder; casein bag; butter; barley crop

primary production in new zealand

Farm products.

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primary production in new zealand

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dave jackson

primary production in new zealand

a. dairy farming

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dave jackson

primary production in new zealand

dave jackson

b. orchards

c. arable land and market gardens

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Š dave jackson

dave jackson

primary production in new zealand

d. sheep and beef farming on flat land or gentle hills

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dave jackson

primary production in new zealand

e. high country sheep farming Check your answers.

key points

A primary product: something that has been grown for food or fibre on a farm, orchard or market garden. The main factors influencing the type of things grown in an area are: Topography and soil type Climate Market factors.

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2 the shape of the land: topography learning outcome

I can describe and explain the physical factors influencing the location of primary production systems.

learning intentions In this lesson you will learn to:

•• describe the topography of different types of land •• identify whether farms are intensive or extensive, or somewhere in between.

introduction

Some land is steeper and not as fertile. It is difficult to move animals around steeper land (especially if they need to be moved daily), and some vehicles (such as cultivators and milk tankers) cannot drive on it. The hilly parts of the South Island and North Island have this type of landscape and mostly have sheep, or combination sheep and beef farms on it. Some is put into forestry if the trees can be easily cut down and transported out.

This sunflower crop is growing on fertile flat land near Wellington.

dave jackson

Much farming and crop growing takes place on flat or very gently rolling land. Here, harvesters, tankers and animals can move about easily. The soil is fertile and the land is very productive. Dairy farming, lowland sheep farming, orchards, cropping and market gardening need flat land.

claire neiman

New Zealand has flat land, gently rolling hills, steep hills and mountains. Each of these land types is suited to different types of farming or cropping. The topography of an area is its shape and steepness. Topography describes whether an area is flat, has gently rolling hills, steep hills or is very high and mountainous.

Rolling hill country with pine trees on steeper land.

dave jackson

Some South Island farms are very high and have very steep land. The soil is very poor and vegetation is sparse. This land is suited to Merino sheep that need dry conditions and are not mustered (rounded up) very often.

A high country sheep farm. © 2011 te aho o te kura pounamu

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the shape of the land: topography

This map shows the main agricultural areas of New Zealand and the topography of the land.

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the shape of the land: topography 1A

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2. a. Most of the steep land tends to be around the coast / in the middle (circle or highlight one) of each island. b. Most of the lowland tends to be around the coast / in the middle (circle or highlight one) of each island.

dave jackson

3. The Canterbury Plains run along the east coast of the South Island, and form one of New Zealand’s main grain growing areas. Write one or two sentences to explain why the topography of this area is suitable for growing grain.

The Canterbury Plains.

Check your answers.

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the shape of the land: topography

intensive and extensive

Intensive farming is farming in which high numbers of animals or crop plants are grown in a small space. This land is usually flat. Rolling hill country has moderate numbers of animals per hectare, and is called semi-intensive. Steep hill country has fewer animals per hectare and is called semi-extensive. Extensive farming is farming in which low numbers of animals are in a large space, and is found in the South Island high country. Type of farming

Stocking rate (number of sheep per hectare)

Stocking rate (stock units per hectare)

Intensive

More than 13 (and up to 20) ewes per hectare

More than 13 (and up to 20) stock units per hectare

Semi-intensive

9–12 ewes per hectare

9–12 stock units per hectare

Semi-extensive

2–8 ewes per hectare

2–8 stock units per hectare

Extensive

Less than 1 ewe per hectare

Less than 1 stock unit per hectare

Note: A stock unit is a system that shows the amount of feed that different animals eat. Larger animals eat more so they are worth more stock units. One ewe is worth one stock unit. One cattle beast is worth five stock units. Cattle eat about five times as much pasture as sheep, so an area that can carry 20 sheep can carry only four beef animals. A dairy cow is worth about seven stock units, so an area that can grow enough feed to carry 20 sheep can carry only about three dairy cows.

A. High country sheep farm with 0.9 ewes per hectare. 16

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new zealand sheep and their wool wool board 1980 p. 3.

The following photographs show different types of land. Some land is steeper, so does not grow so much pasture. The stock units per hectare gives a measure of how many animals can be fed per hectare.

B. Rolling hill country sheep and beef farm with nine stock units per hectare. © 2011 te aho o te kura pounamu


ann arnold

dave jackson

the shape of the land: topography

C. D  airy farm with 13 stock units per hectare (about 1.8 cows/hectare).

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D. Hill country sheep farm with four ewes per hectare.

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the shape of the land: topography

2. Draw a diagram or make up a table to contrast an intensive farm with an extensive farm. Explain what makes them different. Include information on steepness, density of stocking, fertility of the soil, and where these farms are found.

Check your answers.

key points

Topography describes the shape and steepness of the land. As land gets steeper, the stocking rate gets less. Flat land is suitable for dairy farming, intensive sheep farming and cropping. Hill country is suitable for sheep and beef farming. High country is suitable for Merino (fine wool) sheep, beef and deer. Intensive farming is farming in which high numbers of animals or crop plants are grown in a small space. Extensive farming is farming in which low numbers of animals are in a large space, and is found in the South Island high country.

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3 soils learning outcome

I can describe and explain the physical factors influencing the location of primary production systems.

learning intentions In this lesson you will:

•• describe the main characteristics of the different types of soil •• list the characteristics of a fertile soil •• explain why different types of farming occur on different soils.

introduction

Soil is the layer over the earth in which plants can grow. It is made up broken down rock, humus (decomposed organic material), water and air. It contains many microscopic organisms, earthworms and other living things.

types of soil

Soils vary throughout New Zealand, and soil type will influence what can be grown and produced. It is classified by the size of the particles that make it up. When rocks break down, they form gravel, which is further broken down to sand particles. Smaller particles than sand are called silt, and smaller still are clay particles. The size of the individual soil particles describes the texture of the soil.

Gravel

Sand

Silt

Clay

Rock Diagram showing relative particle sizes of different rocks and soil types.

When you feel sandy soil it feels gritty and rough, and you can see the individual grains. A sandy soil drains easily, is easy to work, and has plenty of air, and warms up quickly in spring. However sandy soil tends not to hold on to water or nutrients, so needs more fertiliser and watering. It can blow away easily in the wind. Silt soil feels smooth like satin or cornflour between your fingers, and you would need a microscope to see the individual particles. Silt soil is easy to work, drains at a moderate rate, contains a good amount of air for plant roots, and holds onto nutrients. Clay soil feels plastic and tacky, and has the tiniest particles. Clay soil holds tightly to water and nutrients. Unfortunately, it is hard to dig, and can get compacted by animals treading on it. Clay soil can get waterlogged in winter, and can be slow to warm up in spring. © 2011 te aho o te kura pounamu

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Another type of soil you may have heard of is loam soil. This is soil that is made up of sand, silt and clay 1B 1C all1D 1F This1G 1H worked, 1I 1J 1K draining 1L particles mixed1E together. is an easily moderately soil that retains nutrients.

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Look 3C at the 3D following different types.3L 3B 3E table, 3F which 3G compares 3H 3I 3J soil3K

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Complete the word words 4J that best the type of soil. 4B 4C the 4Dtable 4Eby choosing 4F 4G 4H or 4I 4K describes 4L

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Check your answers.

other features of soil

Besides the texture of the soil, the depth and structure of the soil also influences what can be grown on it. Cross section (soil profile) of a deep soil. litter layer: decomposing organic matter topsoil: the plough zone, rich in organic matter and living organisims

subsoil: some organic matter and living organisms

weathered rock: little organic matter or life

solid rock Cross-section (soil profile) of a deep soil. 20

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soils

A really good soil that grows lush pasture or productive crops has deep, rich topsoil. This topsoil has lots of decomposed organic matter, worms and is easily dug or ploughed. It is friable (crumbly). The organic matter found in this rich soil holds on to minerals. It acts like a storehouse of minerals that plants can get easily when they need them. Under the topsoil are layers of subsoil, weathered rock and solid rock. See if you can find these layers on the diagram. As long as the subsoil drains well, crops or good pasture can be grown. Some soils have a hard pan underneath the topsoil. This is a dense layer of soil that restricts root growth and stops drainage. Soil tends to be deeper on flat land. As the land gets steeper the soil tends to get thinner. 1A

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Soil that is cultivated or farmed usually needs fertiliser added to it because crops and animals use up land has dressing 2C 2Dnutrients. 2E Steeper 2F 2G 2H aerial 2I top2J 2K to apply 2L fertiliser.

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Place3D the acetate sheet ‘Soils’ 3I over the 3C 3E 3F headed 3G 3H 3J acetate 3K sheet 3L of New Zealand regions.

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1. Describe over 4H most of4ITaranaki. 4C 4D 4Ethe soil 4F type 4G 4J How 4K would 4L this soil type influence pasture growth in this area?

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dave jackson

volcanic loam soil in the middle of the there high flat 9A 9B 9C North 9D Island, 9E where 9F 9G is9H 9I land 9J 9K 9L and cool temperatures. If soil is stony or lumpy, carrots can grow forked or 10A 10B 10C 10D 10E 10F 10G 10H 10I 10J 10K 10L misshapen. Explain why the volcanic loam soil is a good place to grow carrots.

Check your answers. © 2011 te aho o te kura pounamu

Giant carrot statue in Ohakune.

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soils

key points

Soil is the layer over the earth in which plants can grow. Sandy soil has a gritty texture because of its large grains. It is easy to dig, has plenty of air and drains well, and warms up quickly in spring. However it loses water and nutrients easily. Silt soil has a smooth texture because the grains are small. It has a good amount of air, moderate drainage, and holds nutrients. It tends to be a fertile soil. Clay soil has extremely small grains and feels tacky or plastic. It holds water and nutrients well, but tends to get waterlogged in winter and can be hard to cultivate. Loam soil has a mixture of sand, silt and clay soils and so has a good amount of air, moderate drainage, and holds nutrients. It tends to be a fertile soil. Soils tend to be deeper on flat land, and thinner on steep land. A deep topsoil is important for lush pasture or good crop growth, provided drainage is good.

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4 climate learning outcome

I can explain the climatic factors influencing the location of primary production systems.

learning intentions In this lesson you will:

•• describe the general pattern of wet areas and dry areas of New Zealand •• define moist temperate, moist cool and dry cool •• compare the climate of different places in New Zealand •• specify the climatic needs of different crops and why they are grown where they are.

introduction

What sort of weather do you have today? Is it warm or cold, sunny, cloudy or rainy? Is it windy or calm? Have you had a frosty morning? Is it humid or dry? The weather is what is happening on a single day. If you want to grow crops or keep animals, you need to have information about the rainfall patterns, temperature range, sunshine hours, frosts, and wind strength and direction that you can expect through the whole year. People keep records of these things over many years. The annual pattern of rainfall, temperature, frosts, wind speed and direction is called the climate. Don’t get these mixed up! Weather

Climate

The rainfall, humidity, wind, frost, sunshine, temperature on one particular day.

The annual pattern of rainfall, humidity, temperature, frosts, wind speed and direction over many years.

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9B 9Cthe 9D 9F less 9Gthan9H 9I of rainfall 9J 9K 9L Which side of New Zealand 2. List regions9Ethat have 700 mm in a year.

1. List the three regions that have the highest rainfall. What side of New Zealand are these three locations (east or west)?

do these tend to be on (east or west)?

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3. Some crops such as oranges and grapefruit (citrus crops) do not grow well where there are frosts. Which locations would be best for citrus fruit?

4. The map on clear acetate sheet with the heading ‘Climate’ shows different climate regions of New Zealand:

Moist temperate: areas with good rainfall all year round, and a mild climate.

 Moist cool: areas with good rainfall all year round, and cold temperatures especially in the winter.

Dry cool: areas with lower rainfall, hot in summer, and cold in winter.

Use acetate maps to help you complete the following table. Tick the climate column or columns that describe the climate of each region.

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climate

Climate Region

Moist temperate

Moist cool

Dry cool

Northland Auckland Waikato Bay of Plenty Gisborne/East Coast Hawke’s Bay Taranaki Whanganui Manawatu Wairarapa Wellington Nelson and Bays Marlborough West Coast South Canterbury/North Otago Otago Southland

Check your answers.

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climate

key points

Climate is the average annual pattern of rainfall, temperature, frosts, wind speed and direction in an area. Moist temperate: areas with good rainfall all year round, and a mild climate. Moist cool: areas with good rainfall all year round, and cold temperatures especially in the winter. Dry cool: areas with lower rainfall, especially in summer, and cold temperatures in the winter. The west side of New Zealand tends to have a higher rainfall. The east side of New Zealand tends to have a lower rainfall.

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5 dairy farms learning outcome

You will describe and explain how physical factors and climate factors influence the location of primary production systems.

learning intentions In this lesson you will:

•• explain why the daily routine of a dairy farm requires animals on flat land •• explain why good pasture growth is needed •• locate the four main dairying areas in the North Island and the two main areas in the South Island •• describe modifications needed for farming dairy cows in dry areas such as Canterbury.

water on a dairy farm

Dairy farmers make money from cows producing milk. Rainfall is important for dairy farms as it directly affects water supply. A good water supply is needed to keep grass growing well throughout the season and keep cows milking. Cows drink a lot of water, and the milking shed and milking equipment are washed down every time they are used.

a typical dairy farm day

john nisbet

Very early in the morning, cows are brought into the milking shed.

These cows are walking towards the farm dairy to be milked.

dave jackson

Milking is done by machine. A lot of water is used to keep the milking machinery hygienic and the shed clean.

Milking machines and sheds are kept very clean.

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dairy farms

Once milked in the morning, the cows return to graze until late afternoon. The cows may be given supplementary feed such as hay or silage to keep them in good condition and to keep milk production high. This supplementary feed has been produced on the same farm. dave jackson

The cows are again brought in to the milking shed late in the late afternoon. These cows have been given silage to supplement their diet.

dave jackson

Once the milk has been collected a milk tanker comes once a day to collect milk and take it to a dairy factory or collection point.

This milk tanker collects milk once a day on this farm.

This routine of twice daily milking occurs nine months of the year on most dairy farms. In the winter some farmers stop milking the cows for three months before their new calves are born. This is called ‘drying off’. Some farms supply milk all year around. In this case, part of the herd is milked over winter. Dairy farms are different from a lot of farms because: •• Animals are moved twice daily. •• Dairy cows graze heavily when producing milk. Each cow is worth seven stock units and needs a lot of pasture to keep its milk production high. •• Farms are on flat land where it is easier to grow more grass as the soils are usually more fertile. •• A lot of water is used to clean equipment and for the cows to drink, about 130 litres per cow per day. •• Produce (milk) is collected every day by a tanker.

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1. In5C this activity, you are to use topography 5B 5D 5E 5Fgoing 5G 5Hthe map 5I showing 5J 5K 5L on page 14, and the acetate

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sheets headed ‘Climate’ and ‘Soils’ to help you fill in the following table. Some of the table in for 6F you. 6G 6H 6B has 6Cbeen 6Dfilled6E 6I 6J 6K 6L •• Use the map on page 14 to fill in the topography column of the table.

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dairy farms

7D acetate 7E sheet 7F headed 7G ‘Climate’. 7H 7I Carefully 7J place 7K this 7L over the top of the map on •7C • Find the page 14. Now fill in the climate column on the table. 8C

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•• Remove the ‘Climate’ sheet. Find the ‘Soils’ sheet, and carefully place it on top of the map. Now fill in the soil column on the table. Area

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Topography

Northland

Climate

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Soil

All moist temperate

Taranaki

Mostly flat

Waikato Manawatu Whanganui Canterbury Southland

Number of Dairy Cows (2008) Northland Auckland Waikato Bay of Plenty Gisborne Taranaki Manawatu/Whanganui Hawke's Bay Wellington/Wairarapa Nelson and Bays West Coast Canterbury Otago Southland 0

2

4

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14 16 10 12 Number of cows (hundreds of thousands)

Graph of dairy cows in different regions (2008 figures).

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dairy farms

2. a. From the graph, state the four areas in the North Island that have the most dairy cows.

b. What are the two main dairying areas of the South Island?

c. Explain why these areas are used for dairy farming considering their topography, soil and climate.

dave jackson

3. Some of the dryer areas of the Canterbury Plains and other areas are being converted from sheep farms to dairy farms. This is because there is more profit to be made in dairy farming. The following photos show how water is used on dairy farms in a dry area. Beside each photo write one sentence to describe how water is being used. Write another sentence to explain why it is needed in each case.

Š dave jackson

a. Pivot irrigation of a dairy farm in the Wairarapa.

b. Good pasture growth. 30

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dairy farms

Describe what happens in the shed after milking.

dave jackson

c. Cows leaving the milking shed after milking.

4. Water is a limited resource and has to be used carefully. Most Canterbury irrigation water comes from rivers. Explain what effect dairy farming in the dry areas of Canterbury would have on river water.

Check your answers.

key points

Dairy farms need flat land, a temperate climate and good soil to produce well. The main dairying areas in the North Island are Northland, Waikato, Taranaki, Whanganui and Manawatu. The main dairying areas in the South Island are Canterbury and Southland. Some dryer areas need irrigation to keep pasture production high enough for dairy cows.

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6 high country sheep farming learning outcome

You will describe and explain how physical factors and climatic factors influence the location of primary production systems.

learning intentions In this lesson you will:

•• locate high country sheep farms in New Zealand •• list the characteristics of Merino sheep that make them suitable for high country farming •• describe a high country sheep farm year •• compare high country sheep farming with dairy farming.

introduction

If dairy farms are on flat fertile land, high country farms are at the opposite extreme. They are found in the South Island high country, on the slopes of mountains and their foothills.

Where high country sheep farms are found.

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6B 6F country 6G 6H Look 6C at the 6D photo 6E of the high farm. 6I

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7B 7C 7D you7E 7I characteristics think7F apply 7G to such7H a farm.

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Choose from the following list (you will only 8B 8F 8G 8H 8I need8C to use8D some 8E of the items).

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9B 9D 9E 9F 9Gtemperate 9H 9I List: 9C Cold winters, hot summers;

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climate with no temperature extremes; rich fertile soil;10D thin infertile soil; steep 10A 10B 10C 10E 10F 10G land; 10Hflat10I land; low stocking rate; high stocking rate; fine wool sheep; coarse wool sheep.

dave jackson

Write in the circles on the diagram the

10J 10K 10L Merino sheep on high country.

high country sheep farm

Features of high country farms.

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high country sheep farming

High country farms are in the dramatic and beautiful parts around the mountains of the South Island. They can be anywhere between 120 and 40,000 hectares, the average being 9,200 hectares. That is a very large farm!

The Merino sheep is a great breed for this landscape. Merinos are good foragers (good at looking for food), and can stand the extremes of temperature (–15⁰C in winter to 35⁰C in summer) because of their fine, dense wool. They don’t get footrot badly on the freedraining rocky soils. The ewes usually have just one lamb (unless they are Booroola Merinos), so they have lower pasture requirements. Here is a diagram that shows a typical high country sheep farm year.

dave jackson

Because the land is steep, the climate is cold in the winter, the soil is poor and vegetation slow growing. Much of the land is tussock grassland. The animals are well spread out, often at a stocking rate of less than one stock unit (sheep) per hectare.

This photo shows Merino sheep. Their wool keeps them wellinsulated in this harsh environment. These sheep are eating turnips to supplement pasture.

spring

Sheep are mustered All sheep are shorn Lambs are born Rams sold

winter

summer

All sheep are kept on easier land

Lambs are weaned, tailed and drenched

Supplementary feed is given if needed

Ewes and wethers are moved to higher ground

autumn

Ewes are moved down to good pasture Mating (tupping) takes place

Yearly cycle on high country sheep farm. 34

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Some6D high country farms6G also have some are also set up for tourists and 6C 6E 6F 6H beef 6I cattle, 6J deer, 6Kand 6L

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1. Compare and contrast a high country sheep farm with a dairy farm by filling out the 8C following 8D 8Etable. 8F 8G 8H 8I 8J 8K 8L

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high country sheep farming

outdoor recreation. 7D

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Where farms are found 10A 10B 10C 10D 10E 10F 10G 10H

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High sheep 9I country 9J 9K 9Lfarm 10I

Dairy farm

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Carrying capacity (stock units per hectare) Topography Climate Soil When animals are moved Main product of farm

2. Describe the areas where high country farms are located. Use the following map to help you.

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high country sheep farming

Check your answers.

key points

High country farms are found only in the higher parts of the South Island. The main product is fine wool from Merino sheep. Beef cattle and deer may also be farmed. The Merino is a hardy sheep breed that can withstand the harsh conditions. The climate has very high and low temperature extremes. The topography is very steep, and soil infertile.

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7 hill country and lowland sheep and beef farming learning outcome

You will describe and explain how physical factors and climatic factors influence the location of primary production systems.

learning intentions In this lesson you will:

•• explain the role of soil fertility on stocking rate on hill country and lowland sheep and beef farms •• explain the influence of topography on stocking rate hill country and lowland sheep and beef farms •• locate the areas where hill country and lowland sheep and beef farms are found in New Zealand •• compare and contrast hill country and lowland sheep and beef farms •• explain why some hill country farms have areas of exotic forest.

introduction

In both the North and South Islands hilly and flat country is used for sheep and beef farming. These farms mainly produce: •• coarse and medium thickness wool •• lamb and mutton meat •• cattle meat (beef) •• goat and deer meat (venison).

hill country farms These farms:

•• are suitable for semi-intensive and semiextensive sheep and beef farming •• vary in fertility – many are top-dressed with fertiliser and over sown with grass seed •• have low to moderate pasture growth

•• are more than 400 hectares in size •• are in the hilly parts of the North and South Islands.

© 2011 te aho o te kura pounamu

dave jackson

•• are in cooler areas with moderate to high rainfall A hill country sheep and beef farm.

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hill country and lowland sheep and beef farming

te ara encyclopedia of new zealand photograph by melanie lovell-smith

The most common sheep in New Zealand, especially in the North Island, is the Romney, which is bred for meat and coarse wool. Romney sheep can withstand wetter conditions than Merino sheep. This photo shows how coarse Romney wool is compared to Merino wool. The Romney wool is on the right of the photo.

Other types of sheep that you might see are the Coopworth and the Perendale, both of which have developed from the Romney breed crossed with other breeds. In the South Island, the Corriedale breed and Fine Merino wool (left) compared to coarser Romney wool (right). Halfbred (both types developed from Merino crosses) are more likely to be found. These do better in lower rainfall areas and are meat and medium wool producers. These farms may sell ewes and lambs to lowland sheep farms for growing out for meat.

lowland sheep and beef farms (finishing farms) These farms are: •• intensive •• high-fertility •• on flat or gently rolling land •• of a temperate climate •• up to 400 hectares in size dave jackson

•• found in lower parts of both the North and South Island.

These sheep are on a flat lowland farm.

Ewes and lambs may be brought in from hill country farms (store sheep) to produce fat lambs that are slaughtered for export or domestic consumption. They may have breeds of sheep that have twins and triplets to produce more lambs. These farms also produce mutton and beef, and coarse wool. On gentle hill country and lowland farms prolific Finn sheep are sometimes cross-bred into a flock to give more lambs, and the Texel breed is used to get a meatier carcass. These farms are more fertile and often produce lamb for the Christmas market.

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hill country and lowland sheep and beef farming

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Š ann arnold

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Texel is a meaty sheep breed sometimes found on lowland or

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8D 8E Northland Auckland Waikato 9B 9C 9D 9E Bay of Plenty Gisborne Taranaki 10B 10C 10D 10E Manawatu/Whanganui Hawke's Bay Wellington/Wairarapa Nelson and Bays West Coast Canterbury Otago Southland

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0

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Sheep

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statistics new zealand

Sheep and Beef Cattle Numbers (2008)

Sheep and beef numbers in different regions.

Study the graph and answer the questions: 1. Name the top seven areas of New Zealand that have the most sheep and beef animals.

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hill country and lowland sheep and beef farming

2. Use a coloured pencil or felt pen to colour these areas from question 1 on the following map.

Northland

Auckland Bay of Plenty Waikato Gisborne/ East Coast Taranaki Hawke’s Bay Whanganui Manawatu Nelson and Bays

Wairarapa Wellington Marlborough

West Coast

Canterbury

South Canterbury/North Otago

Otago Southland

Main sheep and beef regions.

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hill country and lowland sheep and beef farming

3. Use the following table to compare hill country with lowland sheep and beef farms. Hill country farms

Lowland farms

Location (where found) Size Topography Climate Soil fertility Pasture growth Main products

Check your answers.

exotic forests

Land in hard hill country is sometimes prone to erosion. When it rains, part of a hillside slips away, taking pasture and topsoil with it. This often happens because the original trees have been removed, and the pasture has been overgrazed. Much of this sort of land has sparse pasture and is not very productive. There is little food for animals to convert into meat and wool. This problem can be overcome by growing trees in these areas. Trees have long roots which help to hold the soil in place and stop erosion. These trees could be: •• native trees that are fenced off and left to regenerate (reproduce and re-establish themselves) •• exotic (not native) trees that are left to hold the hillside with their roots •• exotic trees (such as Radiata pine) grown to be harvested later for timber.

© 2011 te aho o te kura pounamu

These hills and gullies are prone to erosion. The gullies have been left in New Zealand native trees.

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Pine trees can grow on poor soil provided there is good drainage. They can tolerate 1C 1D 1E 1F 1G 1H 1I 1J temperature extremes, but grow better if there is plenty of sunshine over the summer months.

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Farmers can grow around 300 or more trees 3D 3E 3F 3G 3H 3I 3J per hectare, and they can be harvested after about 28 years. 4D

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If trees are grown to be harvested, there has to the logs out once they are cut down. 6D

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dave jackson

1A

These trees are growing on steep land and are being harvested.

Choose the word from the list that matches the meaning in the table: 8A

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List: Erosion, Exotic, Native, Regenerating, Radiata pine. Word

10A 10B 10C 10D 10E

Meaning Reproducing and re-establishing A plant originally found in New Zealand Not native, but from overseas An exotic tree grown for timber in New Zealand Washing away of topsoil and pasture

2. Growing pine trees on steep land can have advantages for farmers. What are at least two good reasons for growing pine trees on steep land?

Check your answers.

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hill country and lowland sheep and beef farming

key points

Hill country farms: •• are suitable for coarse wool sheep, beef, goats and deer •• produce coarse wool, meat, and store animals •• tend to have poor soil, steep topography and a cool moist climate •• are more than 400 hectares •• have a semi-intensive or semi-extensive stocking rate. A store animal is one that is sold to another farm to finish growing before slaughter. Lowland farms: •• are suitable for coarse wool sheep, beef, goats and deer •• produce coarse wool, meat, and finish animals for slaughter •• tend to have good soil, flat or rolling topography and a temperate climate •• are less than 400 hectares •• have intensive stocking rates. Exotic forests: Trees on farms can: •• help reduce erosion on steep land •• grow where there is good drainage •• provide extra income from timber.

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8 your research project learning outcome

You can describe and explain the factors influencing the location of primary production systems.

learning intentions In this lesson you will:

•• choose three types of primary production that you wish to research, and then present these in AG1042Y1/HT1042Y1 •• have a practise at using information given to present a topic.

introduction

In this session you will choose THREE primary products produced in New Zealand. You will then need to research each topic, gathering information to present in AG1042Y1/ HT1042Y1. You can get started on this now, and complete your information gathering while doing these two production booklets. You can also take a little extra time after you have finished these booklets if you need to. You will present a summary of your research in AG1042Y1/HT1042Y1 under test conditions. You will be able to take your research notes with you. You can present each piece of research in one of the following ways: •• a diagram in the template provided •• your own diagram •• an A2-sized poster (four times the size of this page) •• an essay •• a computer file •• a compact disk, or •• an oral (spoken) presentation by yourself, filmed and sent on a compact disk.

possible topics

You need to have at least one topic from list A and one from list B. Your third topic can be another choice from either list. Possible topics are: List A: Agricultural primary production

List B: Horticultural primary production

•• Deer farming for venison

•• Citrus fruit growing (such as oranges)

•• Forestry (pine plantation forestry)

•• Growing brassicas for human consumption (such as cabbages, cauliflowers and broccoli)

•• Semi-intensive sheep and beef

•• Cut flowers

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your research project

When you present your research, make sure you have covered these points for EACH topic: •• Name the type of primary production you have researched. •• Identify the growing areas on a map of New Zealand (an outline map of New Zealand will be provided). •• List at least two key regions of New Zealand where this type of primary production is carried out. •• Describe the factors that these key regions of New Zealand have that enable this type of primary production to be successful. Include information about: –– physical factors (such as topography and soil) –– climatic factors (such as rainfall, temperature, sunshine, frosts, wind) –– market factors (such as transport, labour availability, processing plants, proximity to towns and cities or ports and airports). •• Explain how the physical, climatic and market factors have influenced the geographic distribution of this type of primary production. •• Explain which factors are the most important, and which ones (if any) are not so important. •• Photos, graphs and diagrams can be used to give extra information. •• List all your sources of information. When you have collected together your information you may keep it with you to complete tasks 1, 2 and 3 in AG1042Y1/HT1042Y1. Assessment criteria: Achievement

Achievement with merit

Achievement with excellence

Demonstrate knowledge of the geographic distribution of primary production in New Zealand.

Demonstrate detailed knowledge of the geographic distribution of primary production in New Zealand.

Demonstrate comprehensive knowledge of the geographic distribution of primary production in New Zealand.

Where you can find your information: •• on the Internet •• in books, magazines and newspapers •• from farmers and growers •• from agricultural or horticultural grower organisations •• from the Te Kura website •• ask your teacher to send resources. You will need to have completed your research soon after the end of the next booklet.

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9G

How I plan to find my information:

practice topic presentation: kiwifruit

Kiwifruit is our most valuable fruit export, worth about $800 million in 2008. In this practice question you will present information about where kiwifruit are grown in New Zealand and the reasons why. Use the separate A3 resource page AG1041A to get information about growing kiwifruit. You can use the following template to present your information for this practice question.

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Š 2011 te aho o te kura pounamu


your research project

Name of primary production:

Location of primary production: KEY:

Kiwifruit Name of regions where production occurs:

Factor:

What kiwifruit orchards need:

How these regions of New Zealand provide these needs

Topography

Soil

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your research project

Climate Rainfall Temperature Sunshine Other factors (wind, frost)

Market Factors Labour availability Processing plants Proximity to towns and cities Transport/ports/airports

Importance of each factor: Most important:

Next most important:

Third most important:

Reason:

Reason:

Reason:

Where I got my information:

Your teacher will assess your work.

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9+ 10 work on research project Use this time to continue your research into the three primary products you chose in session 8.

some useful websites Deer farming for venison www.maf.govt.nz/mafnet/rural-nz/overview/nzoverview010.htm Forestry (pine plantation forestry) New Zealand Forest Owners Association: www.nzfoa.org.nz/index.php?/File_libraries_resources/Facts_figures www.forestenterprises.co.nz/fgen/finz/nz_factsandfigures.pdf www.trc.govt.nz/assets/Publications/information-sheets-and-newsletters/land-managementinformation-sheets/agroforestry-information-sheets/42establishingRadiatawoodlot.pdf Semi-intensive sheep and beef www.maf.govt.nz/mafnet/rural-nz/overview/nzoverview008.htm Citrus fruit growing (such as oranges) www.citrus.co.nz/html/industry_information.html www.hortresearch.co.nz/files/aboutus/factsandfigs/ff2008.pdf Growing brassicas for human consumption (such as cabbages, cauliflowers and broccoli) www.bestgardening.com/bgc/howto/vegecabbage01.htm bestgardening.com/bgc/howto/vegecauli01.htm http://bestgardening.com/bgc/howto/vegebroccoli01.htm http://agriculture.kzntl.gov.za/portal/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=r5swjy%2B5swI%3D&tabid=264& mid=726 Cut flowers www.maf.govt.nz/mafnet/sectors/hort/cut.html www.nzflowers.com/home.asp

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11 answer guide 1. primary production in new zealand 1A

1B Definition 1C 1D

2A

2B weather. 2C 2D

3A

3B influence 3C where 3D 3E 3G 3H things 3F are grown.

4A

1E

1F

1G

1H

1I

1J

A mild climate, with no long periods of very hot or cold 2E

2F

2G

2H

2I

2J

How a workforce, transport costs and consumers 3I

1K Word 1L or words 2K

temperate 2L

market factors

3J

3K

4B

The shape and steepness of the land in a particular 4C 4D 4E 4F 4G 4H 4I 4J area.

4K

5A

5B

Land that 5D is able5E to be cultivated by machinery and can5K arable 5C 5F 5G 5H 5I 5J 5L produce crops.

6A

milk from cows.6H 6B Producing 6C 6D 6E a herd 6F of6G

7A

Growing food and fibre on farms, or in market gardens primary production 7B or orchards. 7C 7D 7E 7F 7G 7H 7I 7J 7K 7L

6I

6J

A commercial property where vegetables are grown.

8A

8B The8C 8D patterns 8E 8F 8G conditions 8H 8I for 8J long-term in weather an

9A

9B and9C 9D 9E 9F temperature trends.

area, including average annual rainfall, sunshine hours 9G

9H

9I

9J

3L

topography 4L

6K dairy 6Lfarming

market garden

8K climate 8L 9K

9L

The characteristics of soil in an area, including the soil type 10F 10G 10H 10I 10J 10K 10L fertility, depth and the amount of sand, silt and clay that is present.

10A 10B 10C 10D 10E

1A

1B

1C 1Dinfluencing 1E 1F 1G production: 1H 1I Factors primary

2A

2B

2C

3A

3B

3C

4A

4B

5A

5B

6A

6B 1A

6C 1B

7A

7B 2A

1. Four where 2H more than flat or low: 2B 2C areas 2D of New 2E Zealand 2F 2G 2I half 2Jthe land 2K is 2L

8A

8B 3A

8C 3B

9A

9B 4A

9C 4B

9D 4C

9E 4D

5A

5B

5C

5D

6A

6B

6C

6D

6E

6F

6G

6H

6I

6J

6K

6L

7A

7B 50

7C ag10417D

7E

7F

7G

7H

7I

7J

7K

7L

8A

8B

8C

8E

8F

8G

8H

8I

8J

8K

8L

•• physical (topography and soil) 2D

•• climate

2E

2F

2G

2H

2I

1J

1K

2J

2K

1L

•• market factors 2L

A. Dairy farming: ice cream, yoghurt, bobby calves, fresh milk, milk powder, butter, cheese, casein. 3D 3E 3F 3G 3H 3I 3J 3K 3L B. Orchards: peaches, apples, oranges. C. Arable crops and market gardens: wheat, potatoes, barley, lettuces, tomatoes. 4C 4D 4E 4F 4G 4H 4I 4J 4K 4L D. Sheep and beef farming on flat or gently rolling land: lamb skin, balls of wool, lamb chops, packet of beef steak, carpet samples. 5C 5D 5E 5F 5G 5H 5I 5J 5K 5L E. High country sheep farming: wool bales, woollen suit, lanolin oil from wool. 6D 1C

6E 1D

6F 1E

6G 1F

6H 1G

6I 1H

6J 1I

6K 1J

6L 1K

1L

2. the shape of7Gthe land: topography 7C 7D 7E 7F 7H 7I 7J 7K 7L •8D • Northland 8E 8F 3C 3D 3E •• Waikato

8G 3F

8H 3G

8I 3H

8J 3I

•• Taranaki 8K 8L 3J 3K 3L •• Wellington

9F 4E

9G 4F

9H 4G

9I 4H

9J 4I

9K 4J

9L 4K

4L

5E

5F

5G

5H

5I

5J

5K

5L

2. a. Most of the steep land tends to be in the middle of each island. 10A 10B 10C 10D 10Gtends 10Hto be 10I 10Jthe 10K b. Most10E of the10F low land around coast10L of each island. 3. The Canterbury Plains is a good grain growing area because the area is flat and the soil is fertile.

8D

© 2011 te aho o te kura pounamu


answer guide 1A

1B

1C

1D

2A

2B

2CFarm 2D

2E of2F Type farm2G (dairy,2H crop, sheep)?

2I Stocking 2J rate 2K (stock 2L

3A

3B

3C

3D

3E

3I

4A

4B

4C

A4D

5A

5B

5C

5D

B 6A

6B

6C

6D

7A

7B

7C

C7D

8A

8B

8C

8D

9A

9B

9C

D 9D

1E

1F

1G

1H

1I

1J

1K

1L

3J

3K

3L

Intensive? Extensive? Semi-intensive? Semi-extensive?

4F 4G H4E igh country sheep 4H farm 4I 0.9 4J

4K

4L

Extensive

5E

5K

5L

3F

5F

3G

5G

3H

5H

Rolling hill country sheep and beef farm 6E

units per hectare)

5I

5J

9.0

Semi-intensive

6F

6G

6H

6I

6J

6K

6L

7E farm 7F Dairy

7G

7H

7I 13.07J

7K

7L

8E

8G

8H

8I

8J

8K

8L

9K

9L

8F

Hill country sheep farm 9E

10A 10B 10C 10D 10E

9F

9G

Intensive

4.0

Semi-extensive

9H

9I

9J

10F 10G 10H

10I

10J 10K 10L

2. You may have thought of one or more ways that these farms differ:

1A

1B

2A

Intensive farm

Extensive farm

Flat or very gently rolling topography

Steep land, high hill country

Lots of plants or animals in a small space

Few animals in a large space

Can take up to 20 stock units per hectare

Less than one stock unit per hectare

Land tends to have fertile soil

Land has poor soil

Lots of crops or rich pasture land

Vegetation very thin

Found in the North and South islands

Only in the South Island high country

1D

1E

1F

1G

1H

1I

1J

1K

1L

2B

2C 2D 3. soils

2E

2F

2G

2H

2I

2J

2K

2L

3A

3BSoil3C type 3D

4A

4B

4C

4D

3E 3Fsize 3G Particle Large/small/ 4E mixture 4F 4G tiny/a

3H 3I 3J Drainage Fast/moderate/ 4H 4I 4J slow

3K 3L Nutrients Lost easily/ 4K 4L retained

Special problems, if any (for example, compacts easily)

5A

5BSand 5C

5D

5E 5F large

5G

5H fast

5I

5J

5K easily 5L lost

6A

6B

6D

6E

small

6F

6G

6H

6I

moderate

6J

loses water easily loses nutrients

retained

none

7A

7B

Clay

7C

7D

tiny

7F

7G

slow

7I

7J

retained

gets water-logged compacts easily

8A

8BLoam 8C

8D

a8E mixture 8F

8G

moderate 8H 8I

8J

retained 8K 8L

none

9A

9B

9D

9E

9G

9H

9I

9J

9K

10F 10G 10H

10I

10J 10K 10L

Silt

1C

6C

9C

7E

10A 10B 10C 10D 10E

9F

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7H

6K 7K

6L 7L

9L

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1C 1Dguide 1E answer

1A

1B

2A

2B 1A

2C 1B

3A

3B 2A

1. Most Taranaki loam soil. 3C 3D of 2D 3E 3Fhas3G 3H This 3Iis fertile 3J 3K 3L sustain 2B 2C 2E 2F 2G 2H 2I soil 2Jand will 2K 2L very good pasture growth.

4A

4B 3A

4C 3B

5A

5B 4A

5C 4B

6A

6B 5A

6C 5B

7A

7B 6A

7C 6B

8A

8B 7A

8C 7B

8D 7C

8E 7D

8F 7E

8G 7F

8H 7G

8I 7H

8J 7I

8K 7J

8L 7K

7L

9A

9B 8A

9C 8B

9D 8C

9E 8D

9F 8E

9G 8F

9H 8G

9I 8H

9J 8I

9K 8J

9L 8K

8L

10F 9E 10G 9F 10H 9G

10I 9H

10J 9I 10K 9J 10L 9K

9L

2D 1C

2E 1D

1F

1G

1H

1I

1J

1K

1L

2F 1E

2G 1F

2H 1G

2I 1H

2J 1I

2K 1J

2L 1K

1L

2. The volcanic loam soil is good for growing carrots as it is free draining, fertile, and retains 4D 4EThe 3E 4F 4H without 4I 4J 4K 4L 3C 3D 3F 3G 3H 3I 3J 3K 3L nutrients. carrots4G can grow getting misshapen. 5D 5E 5F 4C 4D 4E 4. climate

5G 4F

5H 4G

5I 4H

5J 4I

5K 4J

5L 4K

4L

1. The three places that have the highest rainfall are the West Coast, Northland and Taranaki. 6D are 6Eall on 6Fthe western 6G 6H 6INew6J 6K 6L These side of Zealand. 5C 5D 5E 5F 5G 5H 5I 5J 5K 5L 2. The places that have lower rainfall are South Canterbury/North Otago, Canterbury and 7D 7E 7F of7G 7H 7I 7J 7K 7L 6C 6D 6E 6F 6I 6J of 6K 6L Marlborough. Two these 6G are on6H the eastern side New Zealand. 3. Northland would be the best place to grow citrus fruit.

Region

10A 10B 9A 10C 9B 10D 9C 10E 9D

Northland

10A 10B 10C 10D 10E Auckland

10F 10G 10H

10I

Moist temperate

Climate

Moist cool

Dry cool

10J 10K 10L

Waikato Bay of Plenty Gisborne/East Coast Hawke’s Bay Taranaki Whanganui Manawatu Wairarapa Wellington Nelson and Bays Marlborough West Coast South Canterbury/North Otago Otago Southland

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1A

1B

1C

1D

1E

1F

1G

1H

1I

1J

1K

1L

2A

2B

2C

2D

2E

2F

2G

2H

2I

2J

2K

2L

3A

3B

3C

3D

3E

3F

3G

3H

3I

3J

3K

3L

4A

4B

4C

4D

4E

4F

4G

4H

4I

4J

4K

4L

5A

1. 5B

5C

Area 5D

5E

5F

5G 5H Topography

5I

5J 5K Climate

5L

6A

6B

6C 6D 6E Northland

6F 6G 300 6H m) 6I Flat (under

6L All6Jmoist6K temperate

Mostly clay, some loam

7A

7B

7C 7D Taranaki

7E

Mostly7G flat 7H 7F

7J temperate 7K 7L Moist

Mostly loam

8A

8B

8C

8D Waikato

8E

Northern hilly, 8I 8F 8G part 8H

Moist 8J temperate 8K 8Land moist cool

Loam, clay, some sandy

9A

9B

9C

9E

9F

5. dairy farms

9D

Manawatu/ Whanganui

10A 10B 10C 10D 10E

1A 2A 3A

7I

(under 300 m)

south very hilly 9G

9H

9J moist 9K 9L Mostly temperate or moist 10I cool 10J 10K 10L

Most over 300 m, some under 300 m

10F 10G 10H

9I

answer guide

Soil

Clay, some loam, some sand

Canterbury

Low near the coast

Moist cool or dry cool

Clay, with pockets of fertile land

Southland

Low in east, hilly in the west

Moist cool or dry cool

Mostly clay

2. a. The four most important dairy areas of the North Island are Waikato, Taranaki, Manawatu/Whanganui and Northland. b. The two in the South Island are Canterbury and Southland. c. All these areas have some flat land which is important for moving cows each day. They all have some areas with good rainfall for grass growth. Loam or clay soil is fertile and can also sustain good grass growth.

1B

1C

1D

1E

1F

1G

1H

1I

1J

1K

1L

3. a. Irrigation is needed for keeping grass growth high. Cows need good pasture to produce a 2B 2Clot of 2Dmilk.2E 2F 2G 2H 2I 2J 2K 2L b. Good rainfall or irrigation is needed to get good grass growth. Cows need plenty of grass 3B 3Cto make 3D milk. 3E 3F 3G 3H 3I 3J 3K 3L c. Water is used to clean milking machines and shed each time the cows have been milked.

4A

4. Water supplied can decrease 4B 4C is4D 4E from 4Frivers, 4Gand4H 4I 4Jhow much 4K water 4L is available for other users.

5A

5B

6A

6B 6Dhot summers, 6E 6F thin 6G 6H soil,6Isteep6J 6L Cold 6C winters, infertile land,6K low stocking rate, fine wool sheep.

7A

7B

7C

7D

7E

7F

7G

7H

7I

7J

7K

7L

8A

8B

8C

8D

8E

8F

8G

8H

8I

8J

8K

8L

9A

9B

9C

9D

9E

9F

9G

9H

9I

9J

9K

9L

10F 10G 10H

10I

10J 10K 10L

5C

5D

5E

5F

5G

5H

5I

5J

6. high country sheep farming

10A 10B 10C 10D 10E

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5L

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2A

2B

2C

2D

2E

2F

2G

2H

2I

2J

2K

2L

3A

3B

3C

3D

3E

3F

3G

3H

3I

3J

3K

3L

4A

4B

4F

4G

4H

4I

4J

4K

4L

5A

5B

5C

5D

5E

5F

5G

5H

5I

5J

5K

5L

6A

6B

1. 6C

6D

6E

6F

6G

6H

6I country 6J 6K 6Lfarm High sheep

Dairy farm

7A

7B

7C

7D

7E

7F

7G

7H

Mountainous country and 7I 7J 7K 7L foothills of the South Island

8A

8B

8C

8D

8E

8F

8G

8H

8I

8J

8K

8L

9A

9B

9C

9D

9E

9F

9G

9H

9I

9J

9K

9L

Many parts of New Zealand, mainly Northland, Waikato, Taranaki, Manawatu, Whanganui, Canterbury and Southland

4C 4Dguide 4E answer

Where farms are found

Carrying capacity (stock units per hectare) 10A 10B 10C 10D 10E 10F 10G 10H Topography

Less than one stock unit per hectare 10I 10J 10K 10L

13–20 stock units per hectare

Very steep land

Flat

Climate

Cool moist, with extreme cold in winter and hot in summer

Moist temperate, good rainfall and no temperature extremes

Soil

Thin, infertile soil

Good fertile soil

When animals are moved

In spring and autumn

Twice a day during the milking season

Main product of farm

Fine wool

Milk

2. High country sheep farms are found in inland Otago and Canterbury along the eastern side of the Southern Alps.

7. hill country and lowland sheep and beef farming 1. The areas that have the most sheep and beef animals are: •• Southland •• Otago •• Canterbury •• Manawatu/Whanganui •• Hawke’s Bay •• Bay of Plenty •• Waikato

54

These areas have rolling hills, temperate climate and moderately fertile soils.

ag1041

© 2011 te aho o te kura pounamu


answer guide

2.

Northland

Auckland Bay of Plenty Waikato Gisborne/ East coast Taranaki Hawke’s Bay Whanganui Manawatu Nelson and Bays

Wairarapa Wellington Marlborough

West Coast

Canterbury

South Canterbury/North Otago

Otago Southland

Š 2011 te aho o te kura pounamu

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answer guide

3. Location (where found) Size

Hill country farms

Lowland farms

Hilly parts of both North and South Islands

Lower parts of both the North and South Island

Over 400 hectares

Up to 400 hectares

1G

1H

1I 1Jgently 1Krolling 1L Steep or

Flat or gently rolling

2F

2G

2H

Cool and moderate to high 2I 2J 2K 2L rainfall

Temperate

3D

Soil fertility 3E 3F

3G

3H

Varies – often3K top dressed 3I 3J 3L

Good

Low to moderate

Good

4C

4D 4E 4F Main products

4G

4H

5B

5C

5D

5E

5F

5G

5H

4I 4J 4K wool 4L Coarse or medium Lamb or mutton Beef 5I 5J 5K 5L Store animals

Coarse or medium wool Lamb Beef

6A

6B

6C

6D

6E

6F

6G

6H

6I

6J

6K

7A

7B

1. 7C

7D Word 7E

7F

7G

7H

7I

7J

7K 7L Meaning

8A

8B

8C

Regenerating 8D 8E 8F

8G

8H

8I

8J

Reproducing and re-establishing 8K 8L

9A

9B

9C

Native9E 9D

9G

9H

9I

9J

A plant 9K 9Loriginally found in New Zealand

10F 10G 10H

10I

Not native, 10J 10K 10L but from overseas

1A

1B

1C

1D 1E 1F Topography

2A

2B

2C

2D

3A

3B

3C

4A

4B

5A

Climate

2E

Pasture growth

Exotic10E 10A 10B 10C 10D

9F

6L

Radiata pine

An exotic tree grown for timber in New Zealand

Erosion

Washing away of topsoil and pasture

2. Two advantages are: •• Trees hold steep hillsides with their roots and stop erosion. •• Extra income.

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ag1041

© 2011 te aho o te kura pounamu


acknowledgements Every effort has been made to acknowledge and contact copyright holders. Te Aho o Te Kura Pounamu apologies for any omissions and welcomes more accurate information. Photos © Dave Jackson Cherries Sheep pelt; Carpet samples; Men's suit; Ball of wool; Apples on tree; Bales of stacked wool; Dairy farming Orchards Arable crops and market gardens Sheep and beef farming on flat land or gentle hills High country sheep farming Rotational grazing A high country sheep farm The Canterbury Plains Rolling hill country Hill country sheep Ohakune carrot Rotary milking Cows feedpad Tanker Dairy irrigation Lush pasture Dairy farm Merino sheep on high country Merino sheep A hill country sheep and beef farm Triplets Trees on hillside with machinery

Diagrams © Statistics New Zealand Graph showing dairy cow numbers Sheep and beef numbers in different regions Graph of kiwifruit hectares per region Illustrations Adele Jackson AG1041A + HT1041A © Zespri

High country sheep farm © New Zealand sheep and their wool Wool Board 1980 p3 Sunflowers © Claire Neiman © Ann Arnold Dairy farm Texel sheep Jerseys © John Nisbet © Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand Photographed by Melanie Lovell-Smith Hills and gullies © Te Kura

© 2011 te aho o te kura pounamu

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57


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