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Virginia’s Nonprofit Sector Shaping the Economic, Cultural and Social Landscape

November 2012 Nonprofit Economic Data Bulletin Number 41 A  joint  report  of  the  Johns  Hopkins  Center  for  Civil  Society  Studies,   The  Community  Foundation  Serving  Richmond  and  Central  Virginia,   and  Virginia  Commonwealth  University by  Lester  M.  Salamon   and Stephanie  L.  Geller with the technical assistance of

S.  Wojciech  Sokolowski


KEY FINDINGS NONPROFITS: A MAJOR ECONOMIC PRESENCE PAGE 4

EMPLOYMENT.    With  nearly  365,200  workers—including   235,100  paid  workers  and  130,100  full-­‐time  equivalent   volunteer  workers—Virginia’s  nonprofit  sector  is  the  third   largest  employer  among  Virginia  industries.   FINANCES.    Amassing  over  $39.2  billion  in  revenues,   spending  over  $37.9  billion,  holding  nearly  $78.0  billion  in   assets,  and  generating  $313  million  in  income  tax  revenues   for  state  government,  Virginia’s  nonprofit  sector  has  a   substantial  financial  footprint  in  the  state.   COMPARATIVE  SIZE.  Though  sizeable,  Virginia’s  nonprofit   sector  is  smaller  than  its  counterparts  nationally.    At  6.6   percent,  the  nonprofit  share  of  total  employment  in   Virginia  trails  the  South  Atlantic  average  of  7.1  percent  and   is  well  below  the  U.S.  average  of  8.4  percent.   REGIONAL  DIFFERENCES.  Virginia’s  nonprofit  sector  would   be  even  smaller  if  not  for  the  large  number  of  nonprofits  in   the  northern  part  of  the  state,  near  Washington,  D.C.      

A DIVERSE SECTOR PAGE 7

IMPACTS.  Active  in  a  range  of  fields—from  social  services,   healthcare,  and  education  to  civic  life  and  the  arts—   Virginia  nonprofits  are  serving  and  enriching  both   individuals  and  communities.   FIELDS.  While  the  bulk  of  Virginia’s  nonprofits  are   religious,  grantmaking,  and  civic  groups,  most  of  the   state’s  nonprofit  economic  activity  and  resources  are   concentrated  in  the  health  field.  

 

STATEWIDE  PRESENCE.  Although  three-­‐quarters  of  the   state’s  nonprofit  organizations  and  workers  are  located   within  the  Northern,  Hampton  Roads,  and  Central  regions,   nonprofits  account  for  above  average  shares  of  total   employment  in  other  areas,  including  the  West  Central,   Valley,  and  Eastern  regions.      

Virginia's nonprofit sector: SHAPING THE ECONOMIC, CULTURAL, AND SOCIAL LANDSCAPE |  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Bulletin  #41    |  i


REVENUES AND GENEROSITY   PAGE 12     SOURCES  OF  REVENUE.  The  major  sources  of  revenue  for  Virginian     nonprofits  are  government  and  fees,  which  account  for  about  two-­‐   thirds  of  total  nonprofit  revenues.  Just  a  third  of  nonprofit  income     comes  from  gifts  and  grants.       GIVING.  Charitable  giving  in  Virginia,  measured  as  a  share  of  adjusted     gross  income,  is  marginally  above  the  U.S.  average.       FOUNDATIONS.  Although  Virginia’s  1,842  private  foundations  held  over     $5.85  billion  in  total  assets  and  expended  over  $655  million,  the  state’s     foundation  field  is  much  smaller  than  its  counterparts  nationwide.             A GROWING SECTOR   PAGE 16     OVERALL  GROWTH.  Virginia’s  nonprofit  sector  experienced     phenomenal  growth  over  the  past  11  years,  with  both  its  expenditures     and  employment  expanding  at  rates  exceeding  the  national  average.       ROFIT  COMPETITION.  Although  nonprofit  employment   FOR-­‐P   increased  in  most  fields  between  2000  and  2011,  for-­‐profit     employment  in  these  fields  also  increased,  in  most  cases  much  faster     than  nonprofit  employment.  As  a  result,  nonprofits  actually  lost  market     share  in  key  fields  including  social  assistance,  universities,  hospitals,     and  nursing  home  care.       RECENT  ECONOMIC  STRESS.  Although  the  2009  American  Recovery  &     Reinvestment  Act,  which  directed  new  revenues  to  nonprofits,  helped     shield  Virginia’s  nonprofits  from  the  full  impact  of  the  2007-­‐ 09     recession,  the  state’s  nonprofit  sector  experienced  considerable  strains     following  the  economic  downturn.  Reflecting  this,  nonprofit     employment  has  experienced  just  marginal  growth  since  2009.             NONPROFIT WAGES   PAGE 23     While  the  average  weekly  wages  of  nonprofit  workers  are  lower  than     those  of  for-­‐ profit  workers,  in  fields  in  which  both  nonprofits  and  for-­‐   profits  are  involved,  nonprofit  workers  often  earn  more  than  their  for-­‐   profit  counterparts.        

KEY FINDINGS

November  2012

V I R G I N I A' S NONPROFIT S E C TO R :  

SHAPING THE ECONOMIC, CULTURAL, AND SOCIAL LANDSCAPE   by  

Lester  M.  Salamon   and  Stephanie  L.  Geller    

with  the  technical  assistance  of  

S.  Wojciech  Sokolowski  

  Johns  Hopkins  University  |  ccss.jhu.edu      

 

   

 

      Report  design  by  Chelsea  Newhouse,    Johns  Hopkins  University.     Cover  design  by  Ashley  Phillips,  The  Community  Foundation,  Richmond.  

 

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Largely  invisible  to  most  Virginians  is  a  set  of  institutions  that,  taken  together,  con-­‐   stitute  the  state’s  third  largest  employer,  deliver  the  lion’s  share  of  health,  cultural     and  social  services,  enliven  the  state’s  democracy,  and  add  immeasurably  to  its     citizens’  overall  quality  of  life.     This  component  of  Virginia’s  many  communities  is  the  vast  array  of  private  hospit-­‐   als,  universities,  symphonies,  art  galleries,  soup  kitchens,  nursing  homes,  family     service  agencies,  churches,  civic  agencies,  environmental  groups,  and  other  diverse     organizations  that  comprise  Virginia’s  private  "nonprofit  sector."       The  present  report  builds  on  the  Johns  Hopkins  Center  for  Civil  Society’s  earlier     1    That  report   analysis  of  Virginia’s  nonprofit  sector,  which  was  published  in  2008.   made  clear  that  Virginian  nonprofit  organizations  play  a  far  more  important  part  in     Virginia’s  economy  and  society  than  is  widely  recognized.  More  specifically,  cover-­‐ ing  the  decade  between  1995  and  2005,  that  report  brought  to  light  four  key     points:       1)   Virginia’s  nonprofit  sector  was  a  major  economic  force  in  the  state,  employing     211,000  workers  (more  than   the  state’s  banking  and  insurance,  and  real  estate     and  leasing  industries  combined)  and  generating  $30.7  billion  in  revenues.     2)   Though  sizeable,  the  state’s  nonprofit  sector  was  proportionally  smaller  than  its     counterparts  elsewhere  in  the  nation.     3)   Virginia’s  nonprofit  employment  grew  nearly  twice  as  fast  as  for-­‐ profit  em-­‐   ployment  over  this  10-­‐ y ear  period.     4)   Because  for-­‐ profits  operating  in  traditional  nonprofit  fields  grew  more  rapidly     over  this  decade  than  their  nonprofit  counterparts,  Virginia  nonprofits  lost     "market  share"  in  a  number  of  major  fields.       In  light  of  the  recent  economic  downturn,  it  is  critical  to  re-­‐ assess  how  Virginia’s     nonprofits  have  fared  since  our  2008  publication,  and  more  importantly,  through     and  following  the  2007–2009  national  recession.  Similar  to  the  previous  report,     this  update  analyzes  several  major  topics:   o   The  overall  size  of  Virginia’s  nonprofit  sector—the  number  of  organizations     and  their  expenditures,  assets,  and  number  of  workers.     o   The  distribution  of  nonprofit  activity  by  field,  region,  and  size  of  organization.     o   The  sources  of  nonprofit  revenue.     o   The  extent  of  nonprofit  growth  over  the  past  decade.     o   The  resulting  changes  in  the  "market  position"  of  nonprofit  providers.     o   The  relative  wage  levels  of  nonprofit  vs.  for-­‐ profit  employers.     Moreover,  following  the  recent  economic  downturn,  this  report  examines  how  the     state’s  nonprofit  sector  fared  not  only  during  the  2007-­‐2009  recession,  but  also     through  its  immediate  aftermath  (i.e.,  2009-­‐2011).       What  emerges  from  this  discussion  is  a  picture  of  a  set  of  institutions  with  far     greater  economic  heft  than  is  commonly  recognized.  However,  the  analysis  also     reveals  real  and  growing  threats  to  the  sector’s  health,  including  increased  compe-­‐   tition  from  for-­‐ profit  entities  and  lingering  effects  from  the  recession.    

Chapter i: INTRODUCTION

VIRGINIA'S NONPROFIT S E C T O R

Shaping the economic, cultural, and social landscape   by Lester M. Salamon and Stephanie L. Geller with the technical assistance of

S. Wojciech Sokolowski

Johns Hopkins University  

NOVEMBER 2012                    

ECONOMIC DATA BULLETIN No. 41 A joint report of The Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies, The Community Foundation Serving Richmond and Central Virginia, and Virginia Commonwealth University         Report  design  by  Chelsea  Newhouse,      Johns  Hopkins  University.     Cover  design  by  Ashley  Phillips,     The  Community  Foundation,  Richmond.  

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Before  elaborating  on  these  findings,  however,  it  is  critical  to  describe  the  context  within  which   Virginia’s  nonprofit  organizations  are  now  operating  because  this  defines  the  needs  to  which   nonprofits  must  respond.  In  addition,  it  will  be  useful  to  spell  out  more  precisely  what  the   nonprofit  sector  is  and  what  portion  of  it  this  report  focuses  on.      

VIRGINIA REALITIES—THE CONTEXT OF NONPROFIT OPERATIONS Population  growth.  Virginia  nonprofits  are  operating  in  a  state  that  is  growing  faster  than  most   others  across  the  country.  In  fact,  between  2000  and  2010,  Virginia  ranked  6th  in  the  nation  in   terms  of  population  growth  (i.e.,  the  actual  number  of  people  added  to  the  state)  and  16th  in   terms  of  its  growth  rate  (13  percent).2  As  of  2011,  the  Census  Bureau  estimated  Virginia’s  pop-­‐ ulation  to  be  8.1  million,  making  it  the  13th  largest  state  in  the  nation.3         This  growth,  however,  has  not  been  uniform  across  the  state.  More  specifically,  the  vast  majori-­‐ ty  of  the  state’s  total  population  growth  (82  percent)  was  concentrated  in  the  state’s  already   most  populous  regions—Northern  Virginia,  Richmond,  and  Hampton  Roads.  Such  significant   growth  translates  into  increased  demands  not  only  for  infrastructure  such  as  schools  and  hous-­‐ ing,  but  also  for  a  wide  range  of  human  and  community  services  ranging  from  child  care  to   nursing  homes,  and  from  recreational  facilities  to  health  clinics.  

  Increasing  diversity.  Moreover,  this  growth  is  leading  to  an  increasingly  diverse  population.   Over  the  past  decade,  Virginia’s  Hispanic  population  grew  by  92  percent—from  just  4.7  percent   of  Virginia’s  population  to  nearly  8.0  percent—making  it  the  state’s  fastest  growing  minority   group.  The  state’s  Asian  population  also  experienced  significant  growth,  increasing  by  nearly  70   percent  to  reach  5.5  percent  of  the  state’s  total  population  over  this  same  period.  These   changes  place  additional  strains  on  the  state’s  nonprofits  as  they  adjust  to  serve  new  groups  of   people.  

  Economic  pressures.  Unfortunately,  these  demands  come  at  a  time  when  the  state  is  still  try-­‐ ing  to  recover  from  the  2007-­‐09  national  recession.  Demonstrating  the  challenging  fiscal  and   social  problems  facing  the  state  are  these  troubling  statistics:     o   Poverty.  Virginia’s  poverty  rate  has  been  rising  since  2006.  Although,  at  11.1  percent,  this   rate  remains  one  of  the  lowest  in  the  nation,  that  fact  masks  some  severe  regional  dispar-­‐ ities.  For  instance,  in  2010,  nearly  20  percent  of  people  residing  in  Virginia’s  Southside   (19.9  percent)  and  Southwest  (18.9  percent)  regions  lived  below  the  poverty  line;  by  con-­‐ trast,  just  6  percent  of  people  from  the  Northern  region  lived  in  poverty.4   o   Health  coverage.  Between  2009  and  2010,  the  number  of  Virginians  without  health  cov-­‐

erage  rose  by  10  percent,  significantly  exceeding  the  national  increase  of  7  percent.  As  a   result,  nearly  15  percent  of  all  Virginians  between  ages  19  and  65  lacked  health  insur-­‐ ance.5   o   Unemployment.  Unemployment  in  the  state  increased  by  14  percent  between  2009  and  

2010—the  largest  increase  in  unemployment  among  all  South  Atlantic  states—and   reached  7.5  percent  in  2010,  its  highest  level  since  the  recession  of  the  early  1980s.6   o   Budget  shortfalls.  Virginia  has  an  estimated  $145  million  budget  shortfall  for  fiscal  year  

2013,  which  could  force  the  state  to  reduce  spending  on  a  range  of  human  services.7  

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WHAT IS THE NONPROFIT SECTOR, AND HOW DO WE MEASURE IT?

  These  serious  social  and  economic  challenges  translate  into  significant  demands  on  the  state’s     private  nonprofit  sector.  But  what  exactly  is  the  "nonprofit  sector"?         For  the  purposes  of  this  report,  we  focus  on  501(c)(3)  organizations,  which  are  defined  in  U.S.   8     tax  law  as  "charitable,  religious,  educational,  scientific,  literary,"  and  related  organizations.   Included  here  are  private,  not-­‐ for-­‐profit  hospitals,  clinics,  colleges,  universities,  elementary     schools,  social  service  agencies,  child  care  centers,  orchestras,  museums,  theaters,  environ-­‐   mental  organizations,  homeless  shelters,  soup  kitchens,  and  many  more.         Gaining  a  clear  understanding  of  these  organizations  is  complicated.  There  are  several   differ-­‐ ent  sources  of  data  on  501(c)(3)  organizations,  each  of  which  offer  different  pictures  of  even     9  Because  the  data  depicting  the  scale   the  most  basic  parameters  of  Virginia’s  nonprofit  sector.   of  the  sector’s  resources—its  revenues,  expenditures,  and  employment—  are  more   reliable     than  those  depicting  the  number  of  organizations,  this  report  focuses  on  these  variables  ra-­‐   ther  than  on  counting  organizations  or  establishments.         To  do  so,  we  draw  on  several  different  data  sources—the  Form  990   filings  nonprofits  submit  to     the  IRS,  the  Quarterly  Census  of  Employment  and  Wages  (QCEW)  employment  records,  recent     surveys  of  volunteering  carried  out  by  the  U.S.  Census  Bureau,  and  Internal  Revenue  Service     data  on  charitable  giving.  The  result  is  a  comprehensive  picture  of  the  scope,  distribution,  and     recent  trends  in  this  important,  but  overlooked,  component  of  Virginia’s  economy  and  society.     It  is  important  to  note,  however,  that  while  the  data  used  in  this  report  comprise  the  most  ro-­‐   bust  and  up-­‐to-­‐date  data  currently  available  on  Virginia  nonprofits,  they  are  not  without  their     limitations,  though  our  use  of  the  more  accurate  QCEW  data  help  us  to  minimize  the  effects  of     APPENDIX A.   these  limitations.  Full  details  on  the  methodology  of  this  report  are  provided  in                                                   Virginia's nonprofit sector: SHAPING THE ECONOMIC, CULTURAL, AND SOCIAL LANDSCAPE |  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Bulletin  #41    |  3


FIGURE 2.1     Nonprofit  employment  and  volunteers  vs.  employment  in       selected  industries*  in  Virginia,  2011       Retail  trade   405     380     Professional  services*    NONPROFIT 130,073   365   NONPROFIT  SECTOR SECTOR   235,113     Education*   319       Accommodations   &  food   302     Health  &  social  services*   299       Manufacturing   239     Administrative  support   204     Construction   186       Finance  &  insurance   123     Transportation   119       Wholesale  trade   112     Other  services*   107       Information   76     Management  of  companies   65       Arts  &  recreation*   60     Real  estate   50   Paid       Utilities   19   FTE**  volunteers     Agriculture   12     T H O U S A N D S   O F   E M P L O Y E E S       *  e  xcludes  nonprofit  employees   **  full-­‐time  equivalent     Source:  Johns  Hopkins  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Project  based  on  QCEW  data      

CHAPTER II: A MAJOR ECONOMIC PRESENCE

 

 

FINDING I: THE PRIVATE NONPROFIT 501(C)(3) SECTOR REMAINS A MAJOR ECONOMIC FORCE IN VIRGINIA. EMPLOYMENT. Virginia’s  private,  nonprofit  organizations  en-­‐ gaged  nearly  365,200  workers  as  of  the  second  quarter  of  2011,   up  from  the  nearly  350,000  workers  detailed  in  our  earlier  re-­‐ port.  This  includes  235,113  paid  workers  and  an  additional   130,073  full-­‐time  equivalent  volunteer  workers.10

 

This  workforce  makes  Virginia’s  nonprofit  sector  the  third  largest   industry  in  the  state  in  terms  of  employment,  behind  only  retail   trade  and  professional  services  (see  FIGURE 2.1).  More  specifically,   including  paid  workers  and  full-­‐time  equivalent  volunteer  work-­‐ ers,  Virginia  nonprofits  employ:    

o  Nearly  thirty-­‐one  times  as  many  workers  as  the   state’s  agriculture  industry.   o  Nearly  twenty  times  as  many  workers  as  the  state’s   utilities  industry.   o  More  than  seven  times  as  many  workers  as  the   state’s  real  estate  industry.   o  Nearly  five  times  as  many  workers  as  the  state’s  in-­‐ formation  industry.   o  More  than  three  times  as  many  workers  as  the  state’s   wholesale  trade  and  transportation  industries.   o  About  three  times  as  many  workers  as  the  state’s   finance  and  insurance  industry.   o  Twice  as  many  workers  as  the  state’s  construction   industry.   o  More  than  one  and  a  half  times  as  many  workers  as   the  state’s  manufacturing  industry.  

  Moreover,  the  paid  workforce  of  Virginia  nonprofits  alone   represents  a  significant  6.6  percent  of  the  total  Virginia  work-­‐ force  (or  1  out  of  every  15  workers)  and  8.1  percent  of  total   private  employment  in  the  state  (or  1  out  of  every  12  private   workers),  more  than  the  state’s  banking  and  insurance,  informa-­‐ tion,  and  utilities  industries  combined.    

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FINANCES.  In  addition  to  being  a  major  employer,  the  Vir-­‐

FIGURE 2.2 Nonprofit  employment  as  a  share  of  total  employment,     Virginia  vs.  the  nation,  the  South  Atlantic,  and  selected     South  Atlantic  states   P E R C E N T   O F   T O T A L   E M P L O Y M E N T  

 

8.4%   7.1%  

6.6%  

6.9%   6.1%   5.7%  

VIRGINIA   VIRGINIA

United   States  

South     Atlantic  

NC  

FL  

GA  

*full-­‐time  equivalent    

Source:  Johns  Hopkins  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Project  based  on  QCEW  data  

 

FIGURE 2.3 Nonprofit  expenditures  per  capita,  Virginia  vs.  the  nation,  the     South  Atlantic,  and  selected  South  Atlantic  states,  2010    

VIRGINIA  $6,318     N O N P R O F I T   E X P E N D I T U R E S   P E R   C A P I T A  

  ginia  nonprofit  sector  has  a  considerable  financial  footprint       in  the  state.  In  particular,  as  of  2010,  Virginia  nonprofits:       o   Generated  over  $39.2  billion  in  revenues.     o   Spent  over  $37.9  billion,  including  over  $11.4  billion  in     wages  and  compensation.     o   Held  nearly  $78.0  billion  in  total  assets.         Moreover,  through  the  $11.4  billion  in  wages  and  compen-­‐   sation  that  they  paid,  Virginia’s  nonprofits  generated  approx-­‐   imately  $313  million  of  state  income  tax  revenues  and  $985     million  in  federal  income  taxes.           FINDING II:   THOUGH SIZEABLE, VIRGINIA’S NONPROFIT SECTOR   REMAINS SMALLER THAN ITS COUNTERPARTS     NATIONALLY.     VIRGINIA NONPROFITS IN CONTEXT. At  6.6  percent,     the  nonprofit  share  of  total  employment  in  Virginia  is  slightly     above  the  averages  of  several  nearby  states,  including  Geor-­‐   gia  (5.7  percent)  and  Florida  (6.1  percent).  However,  expand-­‐   ing  one’s  focus  reveals  that  the  state’s  nonprofit  sector  is     relatively  small  within  both  regional  and  national  contexts.     FIGURE 2.2,  the  nonprofit  share  of  total   Thus,  as  illustrated  in     employment  in  Virginia  trails  behind  the  South  Atlantic  av-­‐   erage  of  7.1  percent  and  is  well  below  the  U.S.  average  of     8.4  percent.         In  fact,  the  size  of  Virginia’s  nonprofit  sector  would  be  even     smaller  if  not  for  the  significant  mass  of  nonprofits  clustered     near  Washington,  D.C.  in  the  northern  part  of  the  state.  De-­‐   monstrating  the  importance  of  this  region  to  the  vitality  of     the  state’s  nonprofit  sector:         o  A  third  of  all  Virginia  nonprofit  employees  work  for  or-­‐   ganizations  located  in  the  Northern  region.     o  Virginia’s  overall  nonprofit  expenditures  per  capita  in     2010  were  $4,725,  which  was  slightly  below  the  U.S.  av-­‐   erage  of  $4,856  but  significantly  higher  than  the  aver-­‐   ages  in  nearby  comparison  states.  However,  in  Virginia’s     Northern  region  they  averaged  $6,318  per  capita—   about  30  percent  above  the  national  average.  In  the     balance  of  the  state,  however,  nonprofit  expenditures     per  capita  averaged  a  much  lower  $3,973—well  below     both  the  U.S.  and  South  Atlantic  averages,  as  shown  in     FIGURE 2.3.  

 $4,856    

 $4,725    

 $4,224    

$3,973    

 $3,620      $3,553      $3,159    

VIRGNIA   Northern     Virginia     United   VIRGINIA Virginia  

excl.     NoVA  

South   States   Atlantic  

NC  

GA  

FL  

 

Source:  Johns  Hopkins  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Project  based  on  990  data  

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FIGURE 2.4     Nonprofit  expenditures  per  $1,000  of  gross  state  product,  Virginia     vs.  the  nation,  the  South  Atlantic,  and  selected       South  Atlantic  states,  2010        $104.18        $94.93        $93.63      $88.16        $84.11      $81.96                               VIRGINIA   United   South     GA   NC   FL     VIRGINIA States   Atlantic       Source:   Johns  Hopkins  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Project  based  on  990  data     and     the  Bureau  of  Economic  Analyses,  Regional  Economic  Accounts                                                   E X P E N D I T U R E S   P E R   $ 1 , 0 0 0   O F   G S P  

 

As  shown  FIGURE 2.4,  Virginia  nonprofit  expenditures  per   $1,000  of  gross  state  product  are  $93.63—slightly  be-­‐ low  the  South  Atlantic  average  of  $94.93,  and  a  full  10   percent  below  the  national  average  of  $104.18.  Al-­‐ though  Virginia  exceeds  some  of  its  South  Atlantic   neighbors  on  this  measure,  this  again  is  likely  due  to   Northern  Virginia’s  above-­‐average  performance.     In  short,  Virginia’s  nonprofit  sector  is  a  major  economic   force,  representing  the  third  largest  employer  among   the  state’s  industries,  and  generating  and  expending  bil-­‐ lions  of  dollars  on  an  annual  basis.  However,  this  sector   remains  smaller    than  many  of  its  counterparts  across   the  nation.  

 

 

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FINDING III:       VIRGINIA’S NONPROFIT SECTOR IS INCREDIBLY     DIVERSE—COMPRISED OF ORGANIZATIONS   REPRESENTING A BROAD RANGE OF SIZES AND   FIELDS, AND OPERATING ACROSS ALL REGIONS OF   THE   STATE.           DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANIZATIONS BY FIELD.     Nonprofits  in  Virginia  are  active  in  a  wide  range  of  fields,     including  the  arts,  education,  health,  social  services,  and     FIGURE 3.1:   civic  life.  As  illustrated  in         o  Nearly  half  of  all  Virginia's  nonprofit  organizations  fall       into  the  religious,  grantmaking,  and  civic  associations     field,  making  this  the  largest  component  of  the  state’s     nonprofit  sector  when  measured  in  terms  of    numbers     of  organizations.  This  category  embraces  places  of  reli-­‐   gious  worship,  foundations  and  fundraising  organiza-­‐ tions,  organizations  that  advocate  for  social  and  politi-­‐   cal  causes  (e.g.,  environmental  advocacy  organiza-­‐   tions),  and  groups  that  protect  or  promote  the  inter-­‐   ests  of  their  members  (e.g.,  professional  associations).     o  Sixteen  percent  of  all  Virginia's  nonprofit  organizations       are  in  the  social  assistance  field,  which  includes  indi-­‐   vidual  and  family  services,  community  food  and  hous-­‐   ing,  relief  services,  vocational  rehabilitation  services,     child  daycare,  and  related  services.     o  Fourteen  percent  of  all  Virginia's  nonprofit  organiza-­‐   tions  are  in  the  arts,  entertainment,  and  recreation     field,  which  embraces  a  variety  of  groups  such  as  per-­‐   forming  arts  companies,  spectator  sports  groups,  and     museums.     o  Nine  percent  of  the  state’s  nonprofit  organizations  are     in  the  health  field,  which  encompasses  ambulatory     health  care  services  (5  percent),  nursing  and  residential     care  facilities  (3  percent),  and  hospitals  (1  percent).     o  Seven  percent  of  Virginia's  nonprofit  organizations  are       in  the  education  field,  which  includes  elementary  and     secondary  schools  (3  percent),  higher  education  insti-­‐ tutions  (1  percent),  and  other  educational  institutions     (3  percent).  

CHAPTER III: A DIVERSE SECTOR

FIGURE 3.1   Distribution  of  Virginia  nonprofits  by  number  of  organizations,   expenditures,  and  employment*,  2010    

Religious,     grantmaking,  &     civic  associations  

46%   25%   10%   16%  

Social     assistance   Arts,     entertainment,     &  recreation  

6%   8%   14%   2%   3%  

Ambulatory     health  

5%   5%   8%  

Professional  &     scientific  services  

4%   4%   7%   4%  

Other  

Nursing  &     residential  care   Elementary     &  secondary     education  

8%   8%  

Organizations   Expenditures   Employment*  

3%   4%   10%   3%   2%   6%   1%  

Hospitals  

Higher     education  

33%   32%   1%   8%   7%  

*Employment  data  are  circa  2011    

Source:  Johns  Hopkins  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Project  based  on  QCEW  &  990  data  

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DISTRIBUTION OF RESOURCES BY FIELD. While  the  bulk  of  Virginia’s  nonprofit  organizations  are  religious,  grantmak-­‐

  ing,  and  civic  groups,  most  of  the  state’s  nonprofit  economic  activity  and  resources  are  concentrated  in  the  health  field.  Thus:         o  Despite  representing  a  mere  9  percent  of  all  nonprofit  organizations  in  the  state,  health  organizations  (i.e.,  hospitals,    ambulatory  health  care  services,  and  nursing  and  residential  care  facilities)  accounted  for  half  of  all  Virginia  nonprofit    jobs  and  42  percent  of  the  state’s  nonprofit  expenditures  in  2010.     o  Hospitals  controlled  the  bulk  of  these  resources.  Though  they  comprised  just  1  percent  of  all  nonprofits  in  the  state,  hos-­‐    pitals  accounted  for  33  percent  of  the  sector’s  expenditures  and  32  percent  of  total  employment.     o  Conversely,  despite  representing  16  percent  of  all  nonprofit  organizations  in  the  state,  social  assistance  nonprofits  ac-­‐  counted  for  just  6  percent  of  the  sector’s  expenditures,  and  8  percent  of  its  employment.             VIRGINIA NONPROFITS IN CONTEXT. As  shown  in  FIGURE 3.2,  the  distribution  of  nonprofit  expenditures  in  Virginia  di-­‐   verges  significantly  from  the  national  pattern:       o  Most  notably,  Virginia’s  religious,  grantmaking,  and  civic  associations  accounted  for  a  significantly  higher  proportion  of    expenditures  than  their  counterparts  nationwide—25  percent  vs.  12  percent.  This  makes  sense,  as  the  state’s  proximity    to  Washington,  D.C.  makes  it  an  ideal  location  for  advocacy  and  civic  groups,  which  fall  into  this  category  .     o  By  contrast,  Virginia  nonprofits  operating  hospitals  and  ambulatory  health  organizations  accounted  for  a  significantly      smaller  share  of  total  nonprofit  expenditures  in  Virginia  than  they  did  nationwide  (33  vs.  42  percent,  and  5  vs.  11  per-­‐ cent,  respectively).       o  Similarly,  at  8  percent,  Virginia  nonprofit  colleges  and  universities  accounted  for  a  smaller  share  of  total  nonprofit  ex-­‐  penditures  than  their  counterparts  across  the  nation  (12  percent).  These  figures  also  make  sense  since  Virginia  has  more    for-­‐profit  higher  education  establishments  and  hospitals  than  the  national  average.         FIGURE 3.2     Distribution  of  nonprofit  expenditures  by  field,  Virginia  vs.  the  nation,  2010         42%         33%   Virginia   United  States       25%           12%   12%     11%     8%   8%   8%   6%   5%     4%   4%   4%   3%   3%   2%   2%   2%   2%       Arts,     Higher     Other   Social     Ambulatory     Professional     Nursing  &     Elementary  &     Hospitals   Religious,     secondary     entertainment,     assistance   health   &  scientific     residential     grantmaking,   education     education   &  recreation   care   services   &  civic     associations     Source:  Johns  Hopkins  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Project  based  on  990  data     P E R C E N T   O F   N O N P R O F I T   E X P E N D I T U R E S  

 

 

 

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DISTRIBUTION BY REGION: A STATEWIDE PRESENCE. About  three-­‐quarters  of  the  state’s  nonprofit  

  organizations  (75  percent)  and  nonprofit  workers  (73  percent)  are  located  within  the  Northern,  Hampton     Roads,  and  Central  regions—the  same  three  regions  in  which  the  bulk  of  Virginia’s  population  resides  (see     APPENDIX B  for  a  description  of  these  regions).  More  specifically,  as  shown  in  FIGURE 3.3:         o  Northern.  A  full  third  of  Virginia’s  nonprofit  employment  was  located  in  the  state’s  Northern  region,     which  contains  several  of  the  state’s  major  urban  areas,  including  Fairfax,  Loudoun,  Arlington,  and  Alex-­‐   andria.  Within  this  region,  44  percent  of  nonprofit  employment  was  concentrated  in  Fairfax  County.  Si-­‐   zeable  proportions  of  nonprofit  workers  were  also  located  in  Arlington  County  (16  percent)  and  Alexan-­‐   dria  City  (13  percent).     o  Hampton  Roads.  Nearly  a  quarter  (23  percent)  of  Virginia’s  nonprofit  employment  was  located  in  the     Hampton  Roads  region,  which  encompasses  Norfolk  and  Virginia  Beach.  Within  this  region,  a  third  of  all     nonprofit  employees  were  in  Norfolk  City.  Other  areas  with  significant  proportions  of  nonprofit  workers     included  Virginia  Beach  City  (19  percent)  and  Newport  News  City  (14  percent).     o  Central.  The  Central  region,  which  includes  Richmond,  accounted  for  17  percent  of  the  state’s  nonprofit       employment.  Within  this  region,  27  percent  of  all  nonprofit  employment  was  located  in  Richmond  City,     and  its  adjacent  county,  Henrico,  accounted  for  24  percent.           FIGURE 3.3     Distribution  of  Virginia  nonprofit  employment,  by  region,  2011                                                           Source:  Johns  Hopkins  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Project  based  on  QCEW  data      

 

 

 

 

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While  nonprofit  employment  is  clustered  in  these  three  regions,  however,  the   density  of  nonprofit  employment—the  proportion  of  an  area’s  total  employment   that  nonprofits  represent—was  actually  higher  in  other  parts  of  the  state.  As   shown  in  FIGURE 3.4:     o  In  the  West  Central  region,  nonprofits  accounted  for  9.1  percent  of  total  em-­‐ ployment,  well  above  the  state  average  of  6.6  percent.  Other  regions  in  which   nonprofits  accounted  for  above  average  shares  of  total  employment  include   the  Valley  region  (9.0  percent),  the  Hampton  Roads  region  (7.8  percent),  and   the  Eastern  region  (7.5  percent).     o  Lexington,  home  to  the  nonprofit  Washington  and  Lee  University  and  well-­‐ known  for  its  numerous  cultural  attractions  (many  of  which  are  also  nonprof-­‐ its)  had  an  especially  large  nonprofit  share  of  total  employment—a  striking   47.4  percent.   o  Other  jurisdictions  with  especially  sizeable  nonprofit  shares  of  total  employ-­‐ ment  included  Williamsburg  City  (24.3),  Winchester  City  (22.7  percent),  and   Norton  City  (20.2  percent).  

FIGURE 3.4   Virginia  nonprofit  employment  as  a  percent  of  total  employment,  by  region,  2011      

Source:  Johns  Hopkins  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Project  based  on  QCEW  data  

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DISTRIBUTION BY SIZE. Virginia  nonprofits  

  also  vary  by  size,  although  the  proportion  of  large     organization  has  grown  over   the  past  several     years.  Thus,  as  of  2010:         o  As  shown  in   FIGURE 3.5,  while  68  percent  of     all  Virginia  nonprofits  had  revenues  less  than     $1  million,  these  organizations  accounted  for     just  one  percent  of  all  Virginia  nonprofit  ex-­‐   penditures.  By  contrast,  most  Virginia  non-­‐   profit  expenditures  (83  percent)  were  made     by  the  four  percent  of  Virginia  nonprofits     with  revenues  of  $50  million  or  more.     o  This  distribution  became  more  skewed  be-­‐   tween  2005  and  2010.  In  2005,  82  percent  of     Virginia  nonprofits  had  revenues  less  than  $1     million,  while  just  one  percent  had  revenues     of  $50  million  or  more.  This  trend  may  be  re-­‐   lated  to  the  economic  downturn,  which  likely     placed  greater  strains  on  the  state’s  smallest     nonprofits.                                                            

FIGURE 3.5 Distribution  of  Virginia  nonprofits  and  expenditures,     by  organization  size,  2010    

Small  (<$1m)   n  =  8982  

Medium  ($1m  -­‐   $9.9m)   n  =  1430  

68%   1%   16%  

Large  ($10m  -­‐   $49.9m)   n  =  300  

Very  large   (шΨϱϬŵͿ   n  =  125  

Organizations  

3%   11%  

Expenditures  

13%   4%   83%  

 

Source:  Johns  Hopkins  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Project  based  on  990  data  

 

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FIGURE 4.1     Proportion  of  Virginia  nonprofit  income  from  government       grants  and  charitable  contributions,  by  field,  2010     United  States     22%     VIRGNIA   VIRGINIA 31%     Religious,   grantmaking,  &  civic     67%   associations     Professional   &  scientific  services     54%     Arts,  entertainment,  &  recreation   53%       Social  assistance   51%       &  secondary  education   Elementary   22%     Ambulatory  health   17%       Education   13%       Higher  education   10%     6%     Nursing  &  residential  care     Hospitals   1%     P E R C E N T   O F   I N C O M E       Source:  Johns  Hopkins  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Project  based  on  IRS  data  

CHAPTER IV: REVENUES AND GENEROSITY

 

 

 

FINDING IV: THE REVENUE BASE OF VIRGINIA’S NONPROFITS, LIKE THAT OF THE NATION’S, DIFFERS SIGNIFICANTLY FROM WHAT IS WIDELY BELIEVED.     Gaining  a  clear  idea  of  the  revenue  base  of  Virginia’s  nonprofits  is   complicated  by  quirks  in  the  available  data  sources,  chiefly  the  990   form.  The  990  form  unfortunately  merges  government  grants  together   with  charitable  gifts,  and  combines  government  contracts  and  "vouch-­‐ er"  payments  (such  as  Medicare  and  Medicaid)  with  nonprofit  fees   from  sales  of  their  services.  This  has  the  effect  of  overstating  the  share   of  nonprofit  revenue  that  comes  from  both  private  charity  and  fees   and  understating  the  share  that  comes  from  government.     Despite  these  limitations,  it  is  still  possible  to  reach  several  conclusions   about  the  revenue  base  of  Virginia  nonprofits.      

FEES AND GOVERNMENT: THE DOMINANT SOURCES. Unques-­‐ tionably,  the  major  sources  of  Virginia  nonprofit  revenue  are  govern-­‐ ment  and  fees  for  service.  More  specifically,  as  of  2010:     o   At  least  69  percent  of  Virginia’s  nonprofit  revenue  came  from  fees,   government  contracts  and  reimbursements,  memberships,  and   property  income,  and  this  figure  does  not  even  include  the  gov-­‐ ernment  support  that  reaches  nonprofits  in  the  form  of  grants.   o   By  contrast,  less  than  a  third  of  total  nonprofit  income  came  from  

gifts  and  grants.  As  this  includes  government  grants,  the  share   supplied  by  private  charitable  support  (e.g.,  private  foundations   and  donations)  was  likely  to  be  much  lower  (see  FIGURE 4.1).   o   Behind  this  average,  however,  there  are  significant  variations  by  

field.  In  particular:   x   Religious,  grantmaking,  and  civic  groups  relied  most  heavily   on  grants  and  contributions,  which  accounted  for  roughly   two-­‐thirds  (67  percent)  of  their  total  income.   x   Other  fields  in  which  grants  and  contributions  constituted   over  half  of  nonprofit  income  included  professional  and  scien-­‐ tific  services  (54  percent);  arts,  entertainment,  and  recreation   (53  percent);  and  social  assistance  (51  percent).   x   By  stark  contrast,  nonprofit  hospitals  received  the  vast  majori-­‐ ty  of  their  income  from  government  contracts,  voucher  pay-­‐ ments,  and  private  fees  and  just  1  percent  from  grants  and   contributions.  

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o     It  is  particularly  interesting  to  note  that  over  the  past  decade,  the  portion  of  Virginia’s  nonprofit  rev-­‐

                                                                                                 

enues  coming  from  grants  and  contributions  did  not  change.  However,  as  shown  in  FIGURE 4.2,  ana-­‐ lyzing  the  data  by  field  reveals  some  notable  variations  that  have  occurred  over  time,  including:  

x   Virginia  nonprofits  in  the  arts  and  recreation  field  grew  more  heavily  reliant  on  grants  and  con-­‐ tributions  over  the  past  ten  years.  Thus,  while  38  percent  of  their  revenues  came  from  grants   and  contributions  in  2000,  in  2010  grants  and  contributions  represented  53  percent  of  all  non-­‐ profit  arts  and  recreation  revenues.   x   By  contrast,  nonprofit  elementary  and  secondary  schools  grew  less  dependent  on  grants  and   contributions,  which  represented  32  percent  of  their  revenues  in  2000,  but  less  than  22  percent   in  2010.  Other  fields  in  which  the  proportion  of  total  revenues  coming  from  grants  and  contribu-­‐ tions  declined  significantly  included  nursing  homes  and  universities.  

FIGURE 4.2   Grant  and  contribution  share  of  Virginia  nonprofit  revenue,  by  field,  2000  vs.  2010  

 

30.7%   30.6%  

VIRGINIA VIRGINIA   21.9%   22.4%  

United  States  

62.0%   67.4%  

Religious,  grantmaking,     &  civic  associations  

57.1%   54.4%  

Professional  &  scientific  services  

38.0%  

Arts,  entertainment,  &  recreation  

53.2%   49.7%   51.2%  

Social  assistance  

32.2%  

Elementary  &  secondary  education  

21.6%   18.3%   16.7%  

Ambulatory  health  

17.7%   10.1%  

Higher  education  

Nursing  &  residential  care  

Hospitals  

2000  

2010  

12.7%   5.9%   1.6%   0.8%   P E R C E N T   C H A N G E   I N   G R A N T   A N D   C O N T R I B U T I O N   R E V E N U E ,   2 0 0 0 -­‐ 2 0 1 1  

 

Source:  Johns  Hopkins  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Project  based  on  IRS  data    

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C O N T R I B U T I O N S   P E R   $ 1 0 0 0   O F   I N C O M E  

 

  FIGURE 4.3     Average  charitable  contributions  per  $1000  of  income,       Virginia  vs.  the  nation,  2009      $28.65          $24.96        $22.88        $21.03      $20.21        $19.33                         South     GA   NC   FL     VIRGINIA   VIRGINIA United     States   Atlantic       Source:  Johns  Hopkins  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Project  based  on  IRS  data               FIGURE 4.4     Foundation  expenditures  per  capita,  Virginia  vs.  the  nation       and  the  South  Atlantic,  2008        $212                $129          $84                   VIRGINIA Virginia   South  Atlantic   Unites  States       Source:  Johns  Hopkins  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Project  based  on  990  data  and     the  Bureau   of  Economic  Analyses,  Regional  Economic  Accounts      

 

E X P E N D I T U R E S   P E R   C A P I T A  

 

RELATIVE GENEROSITY.  As  Figure  4.2  also   shows,  Virginia  nonprofits  received  a  substantial-­‐ ly  higher  proportion  of  their  income  from  grants   and  contributions  in  2010  than  did  nonprofits   nationally  (31  vs.  22  percent,  respectively).  This   does  not  necessarily  mean  that  Virginians  are   much  more  generous  than  their  counterparts   elsewhere,  however.  The  grants  and  contribu-­‐ tions  share  may  appear  significantly  higher  simp-­‐ ly  because  other  revenue  sources  (e.g.,  govern-­‐ ment  contracts  and  voucher  payments)  are  lower   in  Virginia  than  elsewhere.     This  premise  finds  support  in  data  from  the  In-­‐ ternal  Revenue  Service  for  taxpayers  who  itemize   their  deductions.  These  data  suggest  that  Virginia   is  essentially  on  a  par  with  the  nation  in  terms  of   relative  generosity.  As FIGURE 4.3 shows,  as  of   2010,  for  each  $1,000  of  adjusted  gross  income,   Virginians  contributed  an  average  of  $21.03  to   nonprofit  organizations.  This  puts  Virginia  just   marginally  above  the  U.S.  average  of  $20.21,   slightly  below  the  South  Atlantic  average  of   $22.88,  and  considerably  below  nearby  Georgia   and  North  Carolina.       FOUNDATIONS. Nonprofit  foundations   represent  an  important  part  of  Virginia’s  non-­‐ profit  sector.  More  specifically,  as  of  2008:     o  Virginia  boasted  1,842  private  foundations,   which  generated  $629  million  in  revenues,   held  over  $5.85  billion  in  total  assets,  and   expended  over  $655  million  in  so-­‐called   "qualifying  distributions."   o  However,  when  compared  to  counterparts   across  the  country,  it  becomes  clear  that   the  foundation  field  in  Virginia  is  relatively   quite  small.  For  example,  as  of  2008  Virgin-­‐ ia  foundations  expended  $84  per  capita,   which  is  61  percent  less  than  the  U.S.  aver-­‐ age  ($212)  and  35  percent  less  the  South   Atlantic  average  ($129)  (see  FIGURE 4.4).  

 

 

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FIGURE 4.5 Foundation  assets  per  $1,000  of  Gross  State  Product,     Virginia  vs.  the  nation  and  the  South  Atlantic,  2008    

 $39.60     E X P E N D I T U R E S   P E R   $ 1 0 0 0   G S P  

  o  Similarly,  as  reflected  in   FIGURE 4.5,  Virginia     foundation  assets  per  $1,000  of  Gross  State     Product  were  $13.60,  which  is  just  a  third  of     the  U.S.  average  ($39.60)  and  roughly  half     of  the  South  Atlantic  average  ($25.70).     o  Also,  pointing  to  challenges  facing  the  field,       nearly  16  percent  of  the  state’s  nonprofit     foundations  experienced  revenue  losses— totaling  nearly  $134  million—between     2007  and  2008.  In  fact,  if  not  for  these  los-­‐   es,  the  foundations  field’s  total  revenues     would  be  20  percent  greater  than  the  re-­‐   ported  $629  million.       In  essence,  while  Virginia  nonprofit  foundations     control  sizeable  resources,  the  field  is  much  less       robust  than  its  counterparts  across  the  nation.                                                                  

 $25.70    

 $13.60    

VIRGINIA   VIRGINIA

South  Atlantic  

United  States  

 

Source:  Johns  Hopkins  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Project  based  on  990  data   and  the  Bureau  of  Economic  Analyses,  Regional  Economic  Accounts  

 

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FIGURE 5.1     Growth  of  nonprofit  expenditures,       Virginia  vs.  the  nation,  2000-­‐2010  (in  2010  constant  prices)       VIRGINIA   68%   VIRGINIA   U.S.    nonprofit   50%     U.S.  GDP   17%       Atlantic   South   52%       GA   54%     NC   51%       FL   50%       P E R C E N T   C H A N G E   I N   E X P E D I T U R E S ,   2 0 0 0 -­‐ 2 0 1 0       Johns  Hopkins  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Project  based  on  990  data   Source:       FIGURE 5.2     Growth  in  nonprofit  expenditures,       Virginia  vs.  the  nation,  2000-­‐2010       141.9%     Higher  education   62.8%     Religious,   grantmaking,     95.9%   56.9%     &  civic  associations   70.9%     Social  assistance   37.1%     67.9%     TOTAL   49.7%     65.8%   Hospitals     46.9%     53.9%     Ambulatory  health   55.4%     48.9%   Virginia   Nursing  &  residential  care     22.8%     Professional   &  scientific   38.6%   services   United  States   37.9%     Elementary   &  secondary   37.6%     56.9%     education   Arts,   e ntertainment,   &   31.0%     recreation   28.5%     P E R C E N T   G R O W T H ,   2 0 0 0 -­‐ 2 0 1 0    

CHAPTER V: A GROWING SECTOR

 

FINDING V:   THOUGH SMALLER THAN ITS COUNTERPARTS NATIONALLY, VIRGINIA’S NONPROFIT SECTOR EXPERIENCED PHENOMENAL GROWTH OVER THE PAST 11 YEARS, WITH BOTH ITS EXPENDITURES AND EMPLOYMENT EXPANDING AT A RATE THAT EXCEEDS THE NATIONAL AVERAGE.      

OVERALL GROWTH IN EXPENDITURES.  After  adjusting   for  inflation,  Virginia  nonprofit  expenditures  grew  by  68   percent  between  2000  and  2010.  By  contrast,  U.S.  nonprof-­‐ it  expenditures  grew  by  50  percent  over  this  10-­‐year  pe-­‐ riod,  and  the  U.S.  gross  domestic  product  (GDP)  grew  by   just  17  percent—merely  a  quarter  of  Virginia’s  nonprofit   expenditure  growth.       As  shown  in FIGURE 5.1,  the  state’s  nonprofit  expenditures   also  grew  significantly  faster  than  nonprofit  expenditures  in   all  three  comparison  states  and  the  South  Atlantic  region.      

 

 

 

VARIATIONS IN EXPENDITURE GROWTH BY FIELD.

As  illustrated  in  FIGURE 5.2,  nonprofits  operating  in  all  fields   had  growing  expenditures  between  2000  and  2010.  More-­‐ over,  in  almost  all  fields,  the  growth  in  Virginia’s  nonprofit   expenditures  exceeded  the  national  average.  In  particular,   over  this  ten-­‐year  period:     o   Growth  was  most  rapid  among  Virginia’s  nonprofit  col-­‐ leges  and  universities,  which  boosted  their  expendi-­‐ tures  by  a  striking  142  percent  after  adjusting  for  infla-­‐ tion.   o   Other  types  of  Virginia  nonprofits  reporting  above-­‐

average  growth  in  expenditures  included  religious,   grantmaking,  and  civic  associations  (96  percent)  and   social  assistance  groups  (71  percent).   o   By  contrast,  Virginia  nonprofit  arts  and  recreation  

groups  (31  percent),  elementary  and  secondary   schools  (38  percent),  professional  service  organizations   (39  percent),  and  nursing  homes  (49  percent)  recorded   well  below  average  growth  in  expenditures.  

 

Source:  Johns  Hopkins  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Project  based  on  990  data    

 

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the  strong  growth  in  Virginia  nonprofit  expenditures     was  the  persistent  dynamism  of  the  nonprofit  labor     FIGURE 5.3.  In  particular:     market,  as  shown  in         o   Between  2000  and  2011,  the  nonprofit  workforce     achieved  an  average  annual  growth  rate  of  2.0  per-­‐   cent,  netting  45,792  new  jobs.  By  contrast,  the  for-­‐   profit  workforce  grew  by  a  marginal  .05  percent.       o   Despite  two  recessions,  nonprofit  employment     grew  every  year  but  one  between  2000  and  2011,     while  for-­‐profit  employment  experienced  both  ups     and  downs.     o   Nonprofit  employment  growth  also  outdistanced     the  public  sector’s  employment  growth.                 VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT GROWTH BY REGION.       This  overall  record  of  nonprofit  job  growth  was  also  evi-­‐ dent  in  most  regions.  In  fact,  in  all  regions  but  one,  the     nonprofit  workforce  expanded  between  2000  and  2011.     Moreover,  in  six  of  the  eight  regions  analyzed,  the  non-­‐   profit  sector  grew,  on  average,  faster  than  the  for-­‐profit     FIGURE 5.4,  between   sector.  More  specifically,  as  shown  in     2000  and  2011:         o   Nonprofit  job  growth  was  particularly  robust  in  the     Eastern  region,  where  it  grew  by  an  average  annual     rate  of  6.2  percent.  Eastern  for-­‐profits  grew  even     faster,  with  an  average  annual  growth  rate  of  9.5  per-­‐   cent  over  this  same  period,  reflecting  the  Eastern  re-­‐   gion’s  overall  dynamic  economic  growth.     o   Average  annual  nonprofit  job  growth  not  only  ex-­‐   ceeded  the  state  average  in  the  Central,  Valley,  and     Northern  regions,  but  also  well  surpassed  the  for-­‐   profit  sector’s  annual  average  growth  rates  in  these     areas.       o   While  the  nonprofit  sector  experienced  below  aver-­‐   age  annual  growth  in  the  West  Central,  Hamp ton     Roads,  and  Southwest  regions,  it  outperformed     these  areas’  for-­‐ profit  sector,  which  experienced     net  job  losses  between  2000  and  2011.     o   The  one  region  in  which  nonprofits  lost  jobs  was  the     Southside  region,  with  an  average  annual  growth  rate     of  -­‐1.9  percent.  Suggesting  that  this  area’s  economy     has  been  experiencing  significant  strain,  Southside     for-­‐profits  also  experienced  net  job  losses  over  this       11-­‐year  period.

FIGURE 5.3 Average  annual  change  in  employment  in  Virginia,  by  sector,  2000-­‐2011    

2.0%   PERCENT   CHANGE   IN   EMPLOYMENT,   2000-­‐2011  

  OVERALL EMPLOYMENT GROWTH. Accompanying  

1.3%   1.2%  

0.6%  

0.05%   NONPROFIT   NONPROFIT

Local     Federal   State     Private  for-­‐ government   government   government   profit    

Source:  Johns  Hopkins  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Project  based  on  QCEW  data  

 

FIGURE 5.4 Average  annual  changes  in  Virginia  nonprofit  and  for-­‐profit  em-­‐ ployment,  by  region,  2000-­‐2011  

2.0%  

STATE  TOTAL  

0.0%  

6.2%  

Eastern  

9.5%  

3.6%  

Central  

Valley  

0.4%  

3.5%   -­‐0.5%  

2.3%  

Northern  

West  Central  

1.0%  

1.9%   -­‐0.9%  

1.8%  

Hampton  Roads  

-­‐0.2%  

Nonprofit   Southwest  

Southside  

0.7%   -­‐0.7%  

For-­‐profit  

-­‐1.9%   -­‐1.7%   P E R C E N T   C H A N G E   I N   E M P L O Y M E N T ,   2 0 0 0 -­‐ 2 0 1 1  

 

Source:  Johns  Hopkins  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Project  based  on  QCEW  data  

Virginia's nonprofit sector: SHAPING THE ECONOMIC, CULTURAL, AND SOCIAL LANDSCAPE |  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Bulletin  #41    |  17

 


FIGURE 5.5     Average  annual  percent  change  in  Virginia  nonprofit  employment,     by  selected  field,  2000-­‐2011     TOTAL   2.0%       Ambulatory  health  care   5.7%     Religious,   grantmaking,       2.9%   &  civic  associations     Professional  &  scientific   2.7%     services     Education   2.5%       &  residential  care   Nursing   2.0%     1.1%     Social  assistance     Hospitals   1.1%     Arts,     entertainment,  &   1.0%   recreation     P E R C E N T   C H A N G E   I N   E M P L O Y M E N T ,   2 0 0 0 -­‐ 2 0 1 1       Johns  Hopkins  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Project  based  on  QCEW  data   Source:         FIGURE 5.6   Average  annual  percent  change  in  Virginia  for-­‐ profit  vs.  nonprofit      employment,  in  principal  fields  of  nonprofit  activity,  2000-­‐2011     2.0%     TOTAL   0.0%       1.1%   Social  assistance     8.4%     2.5%     Education   6.4%     1.1%     Hospitals   3.5%       5.7%   Ambulatory   health   care   3.4%       2.0%   Nursing  &  residential     care   3.0%     2.7%   Professional  &     scientific  services   2.9%     Nonprofit   1.0%   Arts,  e   ntertainment,   &  recreation   1.8%     For-­‐profit    Religious,   2.9%   grantmaking,       &  civic  associations   0.1%     P E R C E N T   C H A N G E   I N   E M P L O Y M E N T ,   2 0 0 0 -­‐ 2 0 1 1     Source:     Johns  Hopkins  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Project  based  on  QCEW  data    

 

 

VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT GROWTH BY FIELD.   This  overall  record  of  significant  nonprofit  job  growth   was  also  evident  in  all  fields,  although  some  fields  expe-­‐ rienced  more  dynamic  growth  than  others.  As  shown  in   FIGURE 5.5,  between  2000  and  2011:     o   Nonprofit  ambulatory  health  organizations  expe-­‐ rienced  the  most  impressive  employment  growth,   adding  8,547  employees  over  this  11-­‐year  period— an  annual  average  growth  rate  of  5.7  percent.     o   Other  fields  that  experienced  well-­‐above  average  

nonprofit  job  growth  include  religious,  grantmaking,   and  civic  associations  (2.9  percent);  professional  and   scientific  services  (2.7  percent);  and  education  (2.5   percent).   o   While  the  hospital  field  experienced  a  below-­‐

average  rate  of  job  growth,  private  nonprofit  hospit-­‐ als  still  netted  over  8,550  new  jobs  between  2000   and  2011.        

GROWING FOR-PROFIT COMPETITION AND LOSS OF NONPROFIT MARKET SHARE. Although  nonprofit  em-­‐ ployment  increased  in  most  fields,  another  important   trend  was  simultaneously  at  work—for-­‐profit  employ-­‐ ment  in  these  fields  was  also  increasing,  and  in  most   cases,  much  faster  than  nonprofit  employment.  As   shown  in FIGURE 5.6,  between  2000  and  2011:     o   For-­‐profit  employment  in  the  social  assistance  field   achieved  an  average  annual  growth  rate  of  8.4  per-­‐ cent,  which  was  nearly  8  times  the  nonprofit  sector’s   annual  average  growth  rate  of  1.1  percent.   o   Similarly,  in  most  of  the  other  principal  fields  of  

nonprofit  activity—education,  hospitals,  nursing   homes,  and  arts  and  recreation—for-­‐profit  employ-­‐ ment  experienced  more  robust  growth  than  non-­‐ profit  employment.   o   There  were  just  two  exceptions  to  this  trend:  the  av-­‐

erage  annual  growth  rate  of  nonprofit  employment   was  nearly  30  times  the  annual  rate  of  for-­‐profit   employment  in  the  religious,  grantmaking,  and  civic   association  field  (2.9  percent  vs.  .1  percent)    and   roughly  double  the  average  annual  rate  of  for-­‐profit   employment  in  the  ambulatory  health  field  (5.7  per-­‐ cent  vs.  3.4  percent,  respectively).  

 

 

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o    Thus,  despite  the  continued  growth  of  nonprofit  employment,  nonprofits  actually  lost  mar-­‐

79.0%  

78.0%  

12.7%  

10.3%  

4.4%  

4.5%  

14.8%  

16.1%  

35.1%  

37.6%  

75.4%  

79.9%  

76.8%  

91.1%  

30.3%  

48.4%  

8.2%  

6.7%  

P E R C E N T   O F   T O T A L   E M P L O Y M E N T  

 ket  share  in  key  fields.  Most  notably,  as  shown  in FIGURE 5.7,  between  2000  and  2011  the    nonprofit  share  of  total  employment  decreased  from:       x   48  to  30  percent  in  social  assistance     x   91  to  77  percent  among  universities     x   80  to  75  percent  among  hospitals     x   38  to  35  percent  among  nursing  homes         o  Interestingly,  though,  because  for-­‐profits  operating  in  fields  outside  of  the  service  sector    fared  relatively  poorly  (e.g.,  for-­‐profits  lost  nearly  132,000  manufacturing  jobs  between  2000    and  2011),  the  nonprofit  share  of  private  sector  jobs  actually  increased  from  6.7  percent  to    8.2  percent  over  this  11-­‐year  period.         These  developments  suggest  an  increasingly  competitive  environment  for  Virginia’s  nonprofit   organizations.  They  also  underline  the  challenges  nonprofits  face  in  generating  capital  for  expan-­‐   sion  in  times  of  rapid  growth,  a  factor  that  often  makes  it  hard  for  nonprofits  to  compete  on  a     level  playing  field  with  for-­‐profit  entities.  Another  key  explanation  for  this  phenomenon  may  be     the  preference  on  the  part  of  state  and  local  governments—which  have  increasingly  been  out-­‐   sourcing  traditional  government  functions  to  private  entities,  particularly  in  the  area  of  social     ers.11   assistance—to  work  with  for-­‐profit  provid             FIGURE   5.7 Nonprofit  employment  as  a  percent  of  total  private  employment  in  Virginia,  by  field,  2000  vs.  2011           2000   2011                             TOTAL   Professional   Elementary   Arts,   Social     Higher     Hospitals   Nursing  &   &  secondary   assistance   education   residential   entertainment,   &  scientific     education   services   &  recreation   care       Johns  Hopkins  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Project  based  on  QCEW  data   Source:        

Ambulatory     health  care  

 

 

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NONPROFIT EMPLOYMENT GROWTH DURING THE RECENT ECONOMIC DOWNTURN. As  noted   above,  Virginia  nonprofit  employment  grew  over  the  past  decade,  achieving  an  average  annual  growth   rate  of  2.0  percent.  In  light  of  the  deep  national  recession  that  afflicted  the  nation  between  2007  and   2009,  it  is  also  critical  to  analyze  how  nonprofit  employment  fared  over  the  past  four  years.     Focusing  the  analysis  on  the  recessionary  period  and  beyond,  it  becomes  clear  than  Virginia’s  nonprofit   sector  has  been  under  considerable  strain  in  recent  years.  As  shown  in  FIGURE 5.8:     o  Somewhat  surprisingly,  the  data  reveal  that  nonprofit  employment  actually  grew  by  3.3  percent   during  the  first  year  of  the  recession,  and  1.4  percent  during  the  second  year  of  the  recession,  for   an  average  annual  increase  of  2.4  percent.  By  contrast,  Virginia’s  for-­‐profit  sector  lost  nearly   137,500  jobs  over  this  two-­‐year  period.   o  Following  the  recession,  nonprofit  employment  experienced  no  growth  between  2009  and  2010,   and  just  marginal  growth  (0.6  percent)  between  2010  and  2011,  yielding  an  average  annual  in-­‐ crease  of  0.3  percent.  While  for-­‐profits  continued  to  lose  jobs  between  2009  and  2010,  they  re-­‐ bounded  between  2010  and  2011,  growing  nearly  twice  as  fast  as  nonprofits  (1.1  percent  vs.  0.6   percent).     These  trends  suggest  that  it  took  longer  for  the  national  recession  to  take  a  toll  on  the  state’s  nonprof-­‐ its.  This  is  likely  due,  in  part,  to  the  national  2009  American  Recovery  and  Reinvestment  Act,  which  di-­‐ rected  new  revenues  to  nonprofits  in  Virginia  and  other  states,  and  thus  shielded  nonprofits  and  those   they  serve  from  the  full  impact  of  the  recession.  However,  Virginia  for-­‐profits  seem  to  be  on  a  quicker   path  to  recovery  than  nonprofit  establishments.  

FIGURE 5.8   Annual  average  changes  in  nonprofit  and  for-­‐profit  employment  in  Virginia,  by  time  period  and  year,  2007-­‐2011    

Recessionary   Post-­‐recessionary   period   period  

By  year,  2007-­‐2011  

2007-­‐2008   A N N U A L   C H A N G E   I N   E M P L O Y M E N T  

                                                                                                   

2008-­‐2009  

2009-­‐2010  

2010-­‐2011  

2007-­‐2009  

2009-­‐2011  

3.3%   2.4%   1.4%   0.6%  

1.1%   0.3%   0.3%  

0.0%   -­‐0.5%  

-­‐0.7%  

Nonprofit  

-­‐2.7%   For-­‐profit  

-­‐4.7%    

Source:  Johns  Hopkins  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Project  based  on  QCEW  data  

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TRENDS BY FIELD.  An  analysis  of  the  data  over  this  narrower  time  frame  also  reveals  that  

  nonprofit  job  growth  was  not  restricted  to  a  few  fields,  but  rather,  was  evident  in  most  principal     fields  of  nonprofit  activity  during  both  the  recessionary  and  recovery  periods.           During  the  2007–2009  recessionary  period,  nonprofits  operating  in  eight  of  the  nine  fields  ana-­‐   FIGURE 5.9:   lyzed  experienced  job  growth.  In  particular,  as  illustrated  in       o     Nonprofit  ambulatory  health  organizations  experienced  the  most  significant  growth,  with     a  9.6  percent  annual  average  increase  in  employment  over  this  two-­‐year  period.     o   Other  fields  that  experienced  above  average  growth  in  nonprofit  employment  during  the     recessionary  period  included  professional  and  scientific  services  (4.4  percent)  and  reli-­‐   gious,  grantmaking  and  civic  associations  (2.7  percent).     o     While  elementary  and  secondary  schools,  social  assistance  groups,  hospitals,  higher  edu-­‐   cation  institutions,  and  nursing  and  residential  care  facilities  all  achieved  average  annual     growth  rates  that  were  below  the  state  average,  they  still  added  workers  during  this  pe-­‐   riod  of  great  economic  strain.   o     The  only  field  that  lost  workers  during  the  recessionary  period  was  arts,  entertainment,  

3.2%  

9.6%  

0.5%  

2.5%  

2.7%  

2.1%  

2.0%  

1.5%  

4.4%  

4.6%  

9.4%  

9.5%  

13.1%  

0.7%  

4.1%  

0.0%  

-­‐0.8%  

-­‐2.7%  

0.7%  

2.4%  

A N N U A L   C H A N G E   I N   E M P L O Y M E N T ,   2 0 0 7 -­‐ 2 0 0 9  

  and  recreation.  Not  surprisingly,  this  field  received  less  federal  assistance  through  the     American  Recovery  and  Reinvestment  Act  than  nonprofit  human  service  organizations.12               FIGURE 5.9   Average  annual  changes  in  nonprofit  and  for-­‐ profit  employment  in  Virginia,  by  field,  2007-­‐2009  recessionary  period         Nonprofit       For-­‐profit                         Professional     Ambulatory     Religious,     Social   Hospitals   Higher     Nursing  &     Elementary     TOTAL   Arts,     health   education   residential     grantmaking,     &  scientific     entertainment,     &  secondary     assistance     services   &  civic     care   education   &  recreation     associations      Source:  Johns  Hopkins  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Project  based  on  QCEW  data          

 

Virginia's nonprofit sector: SHAPING THE ECONOMIC, CULTURAL, AND SOCIAL LANDSCAPE |  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Bulletin  #41    |  21


3.1%  

-­‐4.2%  

2.8%  

1.8%  

1.5%  

1.7%  

2.9%  

9.0%  

7.9%  

-­‐0.8%  

-­‐0.1%  

0.2%  

1.1%  

3.4%  

1.3%  

-­‐0.4%  

-­‐1.6%  

0.3%  

0.0%  

0.3%  

A N N U A L   C H A N G E   I N   E M P L O Y M E N T ,   2 0 0 9 -­‐ 2 0 1 1  

Similarly,  during  the  2009–2011  post-­‐recessionary  period,  the  majority  of  fields  analyzed     continued  adding  jobs.  Thus,  as  shown  in  FIGURE 5.10:         o   Ambulatory  health  organizations  experienced  the  most  significant  growth,  with  a  2.9     percent  annual  average  increase  in  employment  over  this  two-­‐year  period.       o   Other  fields  experiencing  above  average  growth  during  this  period  include  elemen-­‐   tary  and  secondary  education  (2.8  percent),  higher  education  (1.8  percent),  social     assistance  (1.5  percent),  and  professional  and  scientific  services  (1.1  percent).       o   By  contrast,  nonprofits  operating  in  the  arts,  entertainment,  and  recreation,  nursing     and  residential  care,  and  hospital  fields  all  lost  workers  over  this  two-­‐year  period.         It  is  also  important  to  note  that  in  the  majority  of  nonprofit  fields,  the  average  annual  rate     of  employment  growth  was  slower  in  the  post-­‐recessionary  period  than  in  the  recessionary     period,  which  could  reflect  the  exhaustion  of  the  additional  resources  pumped  into  the     sector  through  the  American  Recovery  and  Reinvestment  Act.  Thus,  for  example:           o   Between  2009  and  2011,  the  average  annual  growth  rate  among  nonprofit  profes-­‐   sional  service  organizations  was  just  a  quarter  of  its  2007-­‐09  level  (1.1  percent  vs.     4.4  percent,  respectively),  and  the  average  annual  growth  rate  in  the  ambulatory     health  field  was  just  a  third  of  its  2007-­‐09  level  (2.9  percent  vs.  9.6  percent).     o   By  contrast,  nonprofits  operating  in  the  social  assistance,  elementary  and  secondary     education,  and  arts,  entertainment,  and  recreation  fields  fared  better  between  2009     and  2011  than  they  did  during  the  recessionary  years.         FIGURE 5.10   Average  annual  changes  in  nonprofit  and  for-­‐profit  employment  in  Virginia,  by  field,  2009-­‐2011  post-­‐recessionary  period       Nonprofit         For-­‐profit                       Social   Higher     Elementary     Ambulatory     Religious,     Professional     Arts,     TOTAL   Hospitals   Nursing  &       health   education   &  secondary     residential     entertainment,     grantmaking,     &  scientific     assistance   education   services   &  civic     &  recreation   care     associations       Source:  Johns  Hopkins  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Project  based  on  QCEW  data            

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FINDING VI:   IN FIELDS IN WHICH NONPROFITS AND FOR-PROFITS ARE     INVOLVED, NONPROFIT AVERAGE WEEKLY WAGES BOTH   OFTEN EXCEED FOR-PROFIT AVERAGE WEEKLY WAGES.           OVERALL WAGE LEVELS. Overall,  the  average  weekly  wages  of     nonprofit  workers  are  lower  than  those  of  for-­‐profit  workers.  More     FIGURE 6.1  shows,  as  of  the  second  quarter  of  2011:   specifically,  as       o     The  average  nonprofit  worker  earned  $904  per  week.     o     By  comparison,  the  average  for-­‐profit  worker  made  $966  per     week,  about  6  percent  more  than  the  nonprofit  average.   o     At  the  same  time,  the  data  reveal  that  Virginia  nonprofit  work-­‐   ers  are  making  more  than  their  government  counterparts.     Thus,  the  average  weekly  wages  of  nonprofit  workers  are  5  per-­‐   cent  above  those  of  state  government  workers  and  a  striking  20     percent  above  those  of  local  government  workers.         Moreover,  two  interesting  trends  emerge  when  comparing  data     from  2011  to  data  from  2005:         o     The  gap  between  the  average  nonprofit  and  for-­‐profit  weekly     wages  is  narrowing.  In  particular,  as  of  the  second  quarter  of   2005,  the  average  for-­‐profit  weekly  wage  was  $813,  which  was     11  percent  more  than  the  average  nonprofit  workers’  $724     weekly  earnings.     o     Nonprofit  wages  are  increasing  at  a  faster  rate  than  other  sec-­‐   tors.  Thus,  between  2005  and  2011,  the  average  nonprofit     weekly  wage  increased  by  25  percent.  By  contrast,  for-­‐profit     wages  increased  by  19  percent,  state  government  wages  by  16     percent,  and  local  government  wages  by  just  10  percent  over     this  same  period.                    

CHAPTER VI: NONPROFIT WAGES

FIGURE 6.1 Nonprofit,  for-­‐profit,  and  government  average     weekly  wages,  Virginia,  2011    

 $966     A V E R A G E   W E E K L Y   W A G E S   I N   2 0 1 1  

 $904    

 $863      $753    

For-­‐profit  

Nonprofit   NONPROFIT

State     government  

Local     government  

Source:  Johns  Hopkins  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Project  based  on  QCEW  data  

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FIGURE 6.2     Comparative  average  weekly  wages  in  selected  service  fields,       nonprofits  vs.  for-­‐profits,  Virginia,  2011        $904     OVERALL      $966          $1,771     Professional  &     scientific  services    $1,795          $1,168     Ambulatory  health     care    $1,073          $960     Hospitals      $1,049          $860       Higher  education    $839         Religious,    $819     grantmaking,       civic  associations    $1,171     &      $641       Elementary  &   secondary  education      $632        $554       &  residential   Nursing   Nonprofit   care    $514          $522     Arts,     entertainment,  &   recreation   For-­‐profit    $440          $503       Social  assistance    $412         A V E R A G E   W E E K L Y   W A G E S   I N   2 0 1 1       Source:  Johns  Hopkins  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Project  based  on  QCEW  data                                

 

VARIATIONS AMONG FIELDS.  These  averages,   however,  obscure  some  significant  variations  in   the  average  wages  of  nonprofit  workers  in  differ-­‐ ent  fields.  Thus,  as  shown  in  FIGURE 6.2:     o   Average  nonprofit  weekly  wages  range  from   a  low  of  $503  in  the  social  assistance  field  to   a  high  of  $1,771  in  the  professional  and   scientific  services  field.     o   Other  fields  in  which  nonprofit  average  

weekly  wages  are  especially  low  include  arts   and  recreation,  nursing  and  residential  care,   and  elementary  and  secondary  education.        

NONPROFIT WAGES EXCEED FOR-PROFIT WAGES IN COMMON FIELDS.  While  overall   nonprofit  weekly  wages  remain  lower  than  over-­‐ all  for-­‐profit  weekly  wages,  a  different  picture   emerges  when  attention  focuses  on  just  the   fields  in  which  nonprofits  and  for-­‐profits  are  both   actively  involved:    in  these  fields,  nonprofit  wage   levels  often  exceed  for-­‐profit  ones.  This  suggests   that  the  real  reason  overall  nonprofit  weekly   wages  trail  for-­‐profits  ones  is  not  that  nonprofits   pay  lower  wages  but  rather  that  nonprofits  are   concentrated  in  low-­‐wage  fields.  In  fact,  as  Figure   6.2  illustrates,  within  those  fields  nonprofits  of-­‐ ten  pay  better  wages  than  their  for-­‐profit  coun-­‐ terparts.  Thus,  for  example:     o   In  the  social  assistance  field,  nonprofit  work-­‐ ers  earn  a  striking  22  percent  more,  on  aver-­‐ age,  than  their  for-­‐profit  counterparts.   o   Nonprofit  arts,  entertainment,  and  

recreation  workers  earn  19  percent  more   than  their  counterparts  in  for-­‐profit  facilities.   o   Similarly,  in  the  ambulatory  health  services  

field,  nonprofit  salaries  average  9  percent   more  than  for-­‐profit  ones.  

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conclusion The  data  presented  in  this  report  reaffirm  a  key  conclusion  from  our  2008  analysis—Virginia’s  nonprofit  sec-­‐ tor  is  a  powerful  economic  engine.  As  highlighted  in  this  report,  Virginia’s  nonprofits  now  engage  nearly   365,200  workers  and  have  revenues  in  excess  of  $39.2  billion.  On  top  of  that,  this  recent  analysis  demon-­‐ strates  that  Virginian  nonprofits  are  very  resilient  employers:    while  the  for-­‐profit  sector  experienced  signifi-­‐ cant  job  losses  during  the  recent  economic  downturn,  nonprofits  continued  to  create  new  jobs.     However,  this  report  also  underscores  another  important  finding  that  emerged  from  the  earlier  analysis— Virginia’s  nonprofit  sector  has  even  greater  potential.  Virginia’s  nonprofit  organizations  are  not  only  behind   the  nation  along  several  key  dimensions,  but  also  have  been  losing  ground  to  for-­‐profits  in  the  state,  most   notably  in  recent  years.  The  result  has  been  a  steady  loss  of  nonprofit  market  share  even  as  the  overall  scale   of  nonprofit  employment  has  increased.       Lastly,  it  is  important  to  recognize  that  Virginia’s  nonprofit  sector  is  a  bifurcated  one.  As  stressed  in  both  the   2008  and  recent  reports,  there  are  significant  differences  between  the  scope  and  scale  of  nonprofit  activity   in  the  Northern  Region  and  in  the  balance  of  the  state.  Thus,  without  the  substantial  economic  contributions   of  Northern  Virginia’s  nonprofits,  the  state’s  nonprofit  sector  would  likely  fall  even  further  behind  its  coun-­‐ terparts  across  the  nation.     In  our  2008  report,  we  concluded  that  strengthening  the  capacity  of  the  state’s  nonprofit  sector  should  be  an   urgent  state  priority  in  light  of  the  challenges  facing  Virginian  nonprofits  and  suggested  four  tangible  steps  to   do  so.  This  conclusion  applies  with  even  greater  vigor  today.  As  highlighted  above,  Virginia’s  nonprofits  are   not  only  experiencing  many  of  the  same  challenges  they  faced  in  2008,  but  are  also  confronting  new  ones  as   a  result  of  the  recent  financial  crisis  and  growing  competition  from  for-­‐profit  providers.  As  such,  it  is  more   important  than  ever  to  accomplish  the  following:      

1. IMPROVE THE SECTOR’S VISIBILITY AND CREDIBILITY.   A  first  step  toward  strengthening  the  Virginia  nonprofit  sector  is  to  improve  the  sector’s  visibility  and  credibil-­‐ ity.  Too  often,  what  is  not  counted  is  assumed  not  to  count,  and  Virginia  nonprofits  have  not  enjoyed  the   visibility  they  deserve  in  the  media,  in  policy  councils,  within  the  business  community,  or  in  academic  circles.     Hopefully,  this  report  will  help  boost  awareness  of  nonprofit  organizations  and  help  them  attract  the  atten-­‐ tion  they  deserve.  But  this  will  only  occur  if  the  findings  are  actively  disseminated  and  if  regular  updates  are   carried  out.  Since  our  last  report,  there  has  been  a  boom  in  the  use  of  social  media,  which  now  makes  dis-­‐ semination  much  easier  and  cost-­‐effective.  Nonprofit  stakeholders  need  to  think  creatively  about  how  they   can  use  these  technologies  to  their  advantage.       On  top  of  the  quantitative  data  featured  here,  Virginia’s  nonprofits  also  need  to  consider  how  they  can  better   highlight  and  articulate  their  "value  proposition,"  i.e.,  the  specific  qualities  that  make  nonprofit  organizations   unique  and  distinguish  them  from  other  sectors.  Although  recent  research  conducted  by  our  Center  has  af-­‐ firmed  that  there  are  seven  attributes  (caring,  effective,  empowering,  enriching,  productive,  reliable,  and   responsive)  that  are  at  the  core  of  the  nonprofit  sector’s  special  identity,  it  has  also  demonstrated  that  many   key  players  including  government  officials,  the  general  public,  and  the  media  do  not  understand  the  nonprof-­‐ it  sector’s  unique  qualities.  As  such,  sector  stakeholders  also  need  to  devote  time  and  energy  to  raising   awareness  about  the  sector’s  value  proposition.  Again,  new  technologies  such  as  social  media  could  play  an   important  role  in  education  and  dissemination  campaigns.     Virginia's nonprofit sector: SHAPING THE ECONOMIC, CULTURAL, AND SOCIAL LANDSCAPE |  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Bulletin  #41    |  25


2. BOOST GIVING AND THE STATE’S FOUNDATION FIELD.   A  second  important  step  toward  strengthening  Virginia’s  nonprofit  sector  will  require  boosting  the  sector’s   sources  of  support.  As  this  report  and  the  previous  one  have  shown,  the  overall  scale  of  the  nonprofit  sector   in  Virginia  is  not  yet  on  a  par  with  that  of  the  nation  at  large.  One  reason  for  this  appears  to  be  that  the   state’s  foundation  field  commands  significantly  less  resources  than  its  counterparts  both  nationwide  and  in   the  South  Atlantic  region.  A  concerted  effort  to  promote  the  creation  of  endowed  foundations  and  boost  the   resources  of  the  state’s  very  promising  community  foundations  would  therefore  seem  in  order.       3. STRENGTHEN COOPERATION AND COLLABORATION WITH GOVERNMENT.   Important  as  it  is,  increased  giving  cannot  by  itself  bring  Virginia  nonprofits  to  the  level  of  nonprofits  else-­‐ where  in  terms  of  the  scale  of  their  operations.  For  nonprofit  expenditures  per  $1,000  of  gross  state  product   in  Virginia  to  reach  parity  with  national  averages,  $4.3  billion  of  additional  revenue  would  be  needed.  To  fill   that  gap,  charitable  giving  in  Virginia  would  need  to  be  increased  by  about  50  percent,  an  unlikely  proposi-­‐ tion  since  philanthropic  contributions  in  Virginia  are  already  above  the  national  level.     What  this  suggests  is  the  need  to  strengthen  the  partnership  between  nonprofit  organizations  and  govern-­‐ ment  in  Virginia.  The  single  biggest  determinant  of  the  scale  of  nonprofit  activity  around  the  country  is  the   extent  to  which  government  is  supportive  of  it.  That  Virginia  nonprofits  appear  to  be  lagging  behind  national   averages  is  likely  due  to  the  relatively  limited  support  nonprofits  receive  from  the  public  sector  in  this  state.   Closing  the  gap  between  Virginia  nonprofits  and  their  counterparts  in  other  parts  of  the  country  will  there-­‐ fore  depend  heavily  on  the  willingness  of  state  government  to  lend  a  bigger  helping  hand.     Clearly,  the  recent  economic  downturn  will  make  carrying  out  this  recommendation  more  difficult  than  in   the  past.  This  underscores  the  importance  of  mounting  a  serious  campaign  to  educate  government  officials   as  well  as  the  public  and  other  stakeholders  about  the  sector’s  value  proposition  (as  described  above).  Until   key  players  understand  the  economic  contributions  of  the  sector,  its  significant  job  creation  potential,  and  its   special  qualities  and  attributes,  they  will  have  little  incentive  to  devote  additional  resources  to  nonprofits.      

4. BUILD NONPROFIT CAPACITY.   Finally,  given  the  enormous  stake  that  Virginia  has  in  the  health  and  viability  of  its  nonprofit  sector  and  in  the   effectiveness  and  efficiency  with  which  it  carries  out  its  functions,  it  is  critical  to  boost  the  capacity  of  the   state’s  nonprofits,  particularly  in  the  regions  not  close  to  Washington,  D.C.  One  important  tool  to  achieve  this   is  to  increase  the  resources  available  to  the  state’s  nonprofits  through  general  operating-­‐support  grants.  Re-­‐ cruiting  nonprofit  managers,  equipping  them  to  remain  on  the  cutting-­‐edge  of  knowledge  and  experience,   preparing  them  for  the  difficult  management  challenges  they  will  face,  and  improving  the  flow  of  practice-­‐ relevant  knowledge  to  them  also  become  urgent  components  of  any  meaningful  program  of  sector  streng-­‐ thening  and  improvement.  Moreover,  it  is  critical  to  address  the  significantly  unequal  playing  field  on  which   nonprofits  are  forced  to  compete  in  many  fields  due  to  their  lack  of  access  to  equity  funding,  the  limits  on   their  ability  to  lobby  for  policy  features  that  protect  the  nonprofit  share  of  government  contract  business,   and  their  generally  more  favorable  benefit  packages  that  allow  competitors  to  under-­‐cut  their  costs.     In  our  2008  report,  we  urged  state  leaders  to  take  action  to  strengthen  Virginia’s  nonprofit  sector.  It  is  un-­‐ clear  that  this  message  penetrated—in  fact,  in  many  respects,  Virginian  nonprofits  are  worse  off  than  they   were  five  years  ago.    Virginia’s  nonprofit  sector  has  many  strengths.  It  is  now  more  critical  than  ever  for  Vir-­‐ ginians  to  build  on  these  strengths  to  help  ensure  the  state’s  nonprofits  can  be  as  strong  and  as  effective  as   possible  into  the  future.    

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OVERVIEW     The  data  for  this  study  come  primarily  from  four  sources.  The     first  is  the  aggregate  data  set  of  organizations  exempt  from     income  tax  under  section  501c(3)  produced  by  the  Johns     Hopkins  Center  for  Civil  Society  Studies  from  the  Quarterly     Census  of  Employment  and  Wages,  which  is  administered  by     state  Labor  Market  Information  agencies  and  the  Bureau  of     Labor  Statistics.  The  second  source  is  the  database  of  organi-­‐   zations  exempt  from  income  tax  under  section  501c(3)  pro-­‐   duced  by  the  National  Center  for  Charitable  Statistics  (NCCS)     at  the  Urban  Institute  from  the  tax  reports  filed  by  tax-­‐ exempt     organizations  (IRS  Form  990)   to  the  Internal  Revenue  Service.     The  third  source  is  comprised  of  private  foundation  files  pro-­‐ duced  by  NCCS  from  tax  returns  (IRS  Form  990-­‐ PF),  and  Form     1023  filed  with  the  IRS,  available  online  for  public  use.  The     fourth  source  is  the  2011  September  Supplement  to  the  Cur-­‐   rent  Population  Survey,  administered  by  the  Bureau  of  Labor     Statistics,  and  available  online  for  public  use.  In  addition  to     these  four  main  data  sources,  we  used  supplementary  data     from  the  Bureau  of  Economic  Analyses  (Gross  State  Product)     and  Individual  Income  and  Tax  Data  tables  produced  by  the     Internal  Revenue  Service  and  available  online  for  public  use.         The  report  also  relies  on  the  regional  breakdowns  detailed  in     TABLE A.1.                                          

appendix a: methodological note TABLE A.1 Regional  breakdown    

REGION  

COUNTIES  

CENTRAL  

Albemarle;  Amelia;  Buckingham;     Caroline;  Charles  City;  Chesterfield;   Culpeper;  Cumberland;  Dinwiddie;   Fauquier;  Fluvanna;  Goochland;   Greene;  Hanover;  Henrico;  King  and   Queen;  King  William;  Louisa;  Madi-­‐ son;  Nelson;  New  Kent;  Orange;   Powhatan;  Prince  George;     Rappahannock;  Sussex  

EASTERN  

Accomack;  Essex;  King  George;     Lancaster;  Middlesex;  Northampton;   Northumberland;  Richmond;   Westmoreland  

NORTHERN  

Arlington;  Clarke;  Fairfax;  Loudoun;   Prince  William;  Spotsylvania;     Stafford;  Warren  

SOUTHSIDE  

Brunswick;  Charlotte;  Greensville;   Halifax;  Henry;  Lunenburg;     Mecklenburg;  Nottoway;  Patrick;   Pittsylvania;  Prince  Edward;     Southampton  

SOUTHWEST  

Bland;  Buchanan;  Carroll;     Dickenson;  Floyd;  Grayson;  Lee;   Russell;  Scott;  Smyth;  Tazewell;   Washington;  Wise;  Wythe  

HAMPTON  ROADS  

Gloucester;  Isle  of  Wight;     James  City;  York;  Mathews;  Surry;   York  

VALLEY  

Alleghany;  Augusta;  Bath;  Frederick;   Highland;  Page;  Rockbridge;     Rockingham;  Shenandoah  

WEST  CENTRAL  

Amherst;  Appomattox;  Bedford;   Botetourt;  Campbell;  Craig;  Franklin;   Giles;  Montgomery;  Pulaski;     Roanoke  

   

 

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1. QUARTERLY CENSUS OF EMPLOYMENT AND WAGES (QCEW)    

The  Quarterly  Census  of  Employment  and  Wages  (QCEW)  is  an  administrative  data  set  collected  by  states  as  a  part  of  the     federal  Unemployment  Insurance  (UI)  program.  QCEW  is  managed  by  the  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics,  which  made  it  available     to  the  Johns  Hopkins  University  (JHU)  research  team  under  a  special  research  agreement.  Since  access  to  individual  state  da-­‐   ta  is  regulated  by  state  laws,  JHU  obtained  access  to  micro-­‐data  from  43  states,  including  Virginia,  and  the  District  of  Colum-­‐   bia.           QCEW  draws  on  the  quarterly  surveys  of  workplaces  that  state  employment  security  offices  have  conducted  since  the  1930s     and  accounts  for  approximately  98  percent  of  all  wage  and  salary  civilian  employment  nationally  (the  program  does  not  cover     self-­‐employed  and  family  workers).  Under  federal  law,  all  nonprofit  places  of  employment  with  four  or  more  employees  are     required  to  participate  in  the  unemployment  insurance  system.  At  their  discretion,  states  can  extend  this  requirement  to     nonprofit  places  of  employment  with  one  or  more  employees.  However,  Virginia  has  not  extended  the  coverage  beyond  the     federal  mandate.           The  principal  exclusions  from  the  QCEW  data  set  are  employees  of  religious  organizations,  railroad  workers,  small-­‐scale  agri-­‐   culture  workers,  domestic  service  workers,  crew  members  on  small  vessels,  state  and  local  government  elected  officials,  and     insurance  and  real  estate  agents  who  receive  payment  solely  by  commission.  In  terms  of  nonprofit  employment,  the  exclu-­‐   sion  of  religious  organizations  as  well  as  entities  with  less  than  four  employees  is  the  most  significant;  however,  religious  or-­‐   ganizations  may  elect  to  be  covered  by  the  unemployment  insurance  program  and  those  that  do  are  covered  in  the  data.  At     this  time  the  exact  number  of  employees  in  tax-­‐exempt  establishments  not  covered  by  QCEW  is  not  known,  but  we  estimate     it  to  be  no  more  than  3  percent  of  total  employment  in  the  nonprofit  sector  in  Virginia.13           While  nonprofit  places  of  employment  have  long  been  covered  by  the  QCEW  surveys,  the  data  generated  by  these  surveys     have  never  broken  out  the  nonprofit  employment  separate  from  the  for-­‐profit  employment.  As  a  consequence,  the  nonprofit     sector  has  essentially  been  buried  in  the  data.  The  JHU  Center  for  Civil  Society  Studies  has  developed  a  methodology  of  iden-­‐   tifying  nonprofit  employers  in  the  QCEW  micro-­‐data  by  record  matching  with  the  publicly  available  register  of  tax  exempt     entities  maintained  by  the  Internal  Revenue  Service  (IRS).  The  nonprofit  micro-­‐data  were  subsequently  aggregated  by  state,     county,  and  fields  of  activities  to  meet  the  BLS  disclosure  rules,  mandated  by  law  to  protect  the  confidentiality  of  company-­‐   specific  information.  For  this  project,  the  disclosure  rule  was  set  at  less  than  10  entities  in  the  aggregate  nonprofit  subset,  or     the  nonprofit  subset  representing  more  than  75  percent  of  total  employment  in  a  given  class.  These  disclosure  limits  had  no     effect  on  state-­‐level  aggregates  or  two-­‐digit  NAICS  industries  at  the  state  level,  however  some  lower  level  aggregates,  such  as     smaller  counties,  or  three  or  four  digit  NAICS  levels  in  smaller  states  were  suppressed.  The  nonprofit  aggregates  were     matched  with  aggregate  economy-­‐wide  employment  data  published  online  by  the  BLS.           The  result  is  the  most  accurate  and  up-­‐to-­‐date  picture  of  U.S.  nonprofit  employment  yet  available,  and  a  pathway  to  generat-­‐   ing  such  data  on  a  regular  basis  into  the  future.  This  is  so  because  the  QCEW  data  have  a  number  of  critical  advantages  over     other  data  sources  as  a  window  into  nonprofit  employment  trends.  In  particular,  these  data:         x   Are  collected  every  quarter;     x   Are  available  within  six  to  eight  months  of  their  collection,  unlike  Economic  Census  data,  which  typically  re-­‐   quire  two  to  three  years  to  process;       x   Are  closely  monitored  and  verified  for  accuracy  by  the  Labor  Market  Information  offices  of  state  Employ-­‐   ment  Security  agencies  and  the  federal  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics;     x   Are  collected  at  the  establishment  level  rather  than  the  organization  level,  which  is  important  to  avoid  dis-­‐   tortions  otherwise  caused  by  the  existence  of  multipurpose  and  multi-­‐location  organizations;     x   Cover  employment  and  wages,  which  is  especially  relevant  for  gauging  the  operations  of  labor-­‐intensive     entities  such  as  nonprofits;       x   Are  comprehensive,  covering  about  98  percent  of  all  nonprofit  employment;  and     x   Cover  for-­‐profit  and  government  places  of  employment  in  the  same  data  system,  which  facilitates  systemat-­‐   ic  comparisons  among  the  sectors,  a  matter  of  increasing  importance.   28    |  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Bulletin  #41    |  Virginia's nonprofit sector: SHAPING THE ECONOMIC, CULTURAL, AND SOCIAL LANDSCAPE  


For  the  purpose  of  this  report,  we  focus  on  the  “charitable”  portion  of  the  nonprofit  sector  because  this  is  the  portion     that  most  people  have  in  mind  when  they  think  about  the  nonprofit  sector.  This  includes  all  organizations  registered  with     the  U.S.  Internal  Revenue  Service  under  Section  501(c)(3)   of  the  Internal  Revenue  Code,  which  embraces  private  not-­‐for-­‐   profit  hospitals,  clinics,  colleges,  universities,  elementary  schools,  social  service  agencies,  day  care  centers,  orchestras,     museums,  theaters,  environmental  organizations,  homeless  shelters,  soup  kitchens  and  many  more.       2.     IRS FORM 990 DATA   The  IRS  Form  990  database  is  the  main  source  of  financial  variables  for  public  charities  that  filed  Form  990  with  the  Inter-­‐   nal  Revenue  Service  (IRS).  The  990  database  includes  10,837  nonprofit  organizations  located  in  Virginia  in  2010.           The  Form  990  database  uses  FIPS  county  codes  to  designate  the  geographical  location  of  each  organization,  which  allows     breaking  down  the  data  into  counties  and  regions.  However,  the  Form  990  database  uses  the  National  Taxonomy  of  Ex-­‐   empt  Entities  (NTEE),  a  hierarchical  classification  system  that  categorizes  organizations  according  to  their  stated  organiza-­‐   tional  purpose.  This  creates  a  problem  in  matching  the  Form  990  data  with  the  QCEW,  which  uses  the  North  American     Industrial  Classification  System  (NAICS).  Since  NAICS  allows  comparisons  of  nonprofit  entities  to  their  for-­‐profit  counter-­‐   parts  within  narrowly  defined  fields  of  activity,  which  NTEE  cannot  do,  we  mapped  the  NTEE  codes  to  NAICS  codes,  using     the  conversion  tables  produced  by  the  National  Center  for  Charitable  Statistics.           Another  limitation  of  the  Form  990  data  is  that  revenues  are  reported  by  the  transaction  types  (grants  and  donations  vs.     program  service  revenues)  rather  than  by  the  sources  of  those  revenues.  Although  the  IRS  Form  990  provides  an  oppor-­‐   tunity  for  itemizing  revenues  by  source,  this  is  seldom  done  by  the  filers.  As  a  result,  funding  received  from  government     (in  the  form  of  grants  or  payments  for  services)  are  lumped  together  with  those  received  from  the  households  and  the     private  sector.         Finally,  the  Form  990  database  contains  apparent  data  errors  that  sometimes  produce  out-­‐of-­‐range  values  (for  example,     small  organizations  reporting  billions  of  dollars  in  employee  compensation  or  revenues).  To  minimize  the  impact  of  these     errors,  we  top-­‐coded  outliers  to  the  values  consistent  with  other  financial  data  reported  by  a  given  organization  (for  ex-­‐   ample,  out-­‐of-­‐range  compensation  of  employees  equals  total  revenues).         We  obtained  the  following  financial  variables  for  tax-­‐exempt  organizations  from  the  Form  990  database:    total  expenses,     compensations  of  employees  (calculated  by  adding  compensation  of  top  officers  and  that  of  other  employees),  contribu-­‐   tions  (from  government  and  households),  program  service  revenues,  total  revenues,  assets  and  liabilities  at  the  beginning     of  the  fiscal  year,  and  assets  and  liabilities  at  the  end  of  the  fiscal  year.  For  longitudinal  comparisons,  all  financial  variables     were  converted  to  constant  2010  dollars  using  the  chain-­‐type  price  index  for  personal  consumption  expenditures  in  the     service  sector,  2000-­‐2010,  available  online  from  the  Bureau  of  Economic  Analyses  (www.bea.gov)  Table  2.3.4.             3.   IRS FORM 990-PF AND IRS FORM 1023     The  data  on  foundations  were  obtained  from  files  produced  by  the  National  Center  for  Charitable  Statistics  (NCCS),  de-­‐   rived  from  the  Internal  Revenue  Service  (IRS)   Exempt  Organizations  Business  Master  File,  and  the  IRS  Return  Transaction     Files.  The  Business  Master  File  contains  mostly  data  from  IRS  Forms  1023  and  1024.  The  IRS  Return  Transaction  Files  con-­‐   tain  data  from  Forms  990,  Form  990-­‐ EZ,  and  Form  990-­‐PF.  IRS  Return  Transaction  Files  form  the  basis  for  the  NCCS  “Core     Files”.  For  further  details  on  NCCS  methodology,  refer  to  the  National  Center  for  Charitable  Statistics  Guide  to  Using  NCCS     Data  available  at  nccsdataweb.urban.org/kbfiles/468/NCCS-­‐ data-­‐guide-­‐2006c.pdf.         We  collected  the  following  variables  for  private  foundations:  number  of  organizations,  total  revenue,  contribu-­‐   tions/gifts/grants  paid,  operating  and  other  expenses,  total  assets,  and  net  assets.  For  longitudinal  comparisons,  financial     variables  were  converted  to  constant  2000  dollars  using  chain-­‐ type  price  indexes  for  personal  consumption  expenditures     in  the  service  sector,  available  online  from  the  Bureau  of  Economic  Analyses  (www.bea.gov)  Table  2.3.4.         Virginia's nonprofit sector: SHAPING THE ECONOMIC, CULTURAL, AND SOCIAL LANDSCAPE |  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Bulletin  #41    |  29


4.    CURRENT POPULATION SURVEY—SEPTEMBER SUPPLEMENT  

The  data  on  volunteering  were  collected  through  a  September  supplement  to  the  Current  Population  Survey  (CPS).  The  CPS     is  a  monthly  survey  of  about  60,000  households  conducted  by  the  U.S.  Census  Bureau  for  the  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics.  It     focuses  on  obtaining  information  on  employment  and  unemployment  among  the  nation’s  civilian  noninstitutional  popula-­‐   tion  age  16  and  over.  The  purpose  of  this  supplement  to  the  CPS  was  to  obtain  information  on  the  incidence  of  volunteering     and  the  characteristics  of  volunteers  in  the  United  States.  For  further  details  on  CPS  methodology  see  Bureau  of  Labor  Statis-­‐   tics,  Volunteering  in  the  United  States,  2010  Technical  Note,  available  at  bls.gov/news.release/volun.tn.htm.         We  obtained  the  total  number  of  persons  who  volunteered  in  the  U.S.,  as  well  as  the  number  of  volunteer  hours,  which  al-­‐   lowed  us  to  estimate  volunteering  rates  and  the  full-­‐time  equivalent  (FTE)  of  volunteer  input.14                                                                                           30    |  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Bulletin  #41    |  Virginia's nonprofit sector: SHAPING THE ECONOMIC, CULTURAL, AND SOCIAL LANDSCAPE  


OVERVIEW     o   The  Central  Region  encompasses  Richmond,  which  is     one  of  the  state’s  largest  cities.       o   The  region  accounts  for  21  percent  of  the  state’s  non-­‐   profit  organizations.  In  2010,   major  nonprofits  based     in  the  region  included  several  health-­‐ focused  organiza-­‐   tions—St.  Mary’s  Hospital  of  Richmond,  University  of     Virginia  Physicians  Group,  Bon  Secours  Memorial  Re-­‐   gional  Medical  Center,  and  Martha  Jefferson  Hospit-­‐   al—as  well  as  the  civic  group,  Childfund  International     TABLE B1.1).   USA  (           REGIONAL  SNAPSHOT:  NONPROFIT  EMPLOYMENT     o   With  41,073  nonprofit  employees,  the  region  accounted  for  17.5     percent  of  Virginia’s  nonprofit  employment  in  2011,  which  is  noti-­‐   ceably  below  the  region’s  share  of  the  state’s  total  population  (17.5     percent  vs.  20.5  percent,  respectively)  (TABLE B1.2).       o   Similarly,  nonprofit  employment  in  the  Central  Region  accounted  for  just  5.8  percent     of  the  region’s  total  employment,  which  is  less  than  the  state  average  of  6.6  percent.     o   Between  2000  and  2011,  Central  Region  nonprofits  achieved  an  annual  average  growth  rate  of  3.6  percent.  This  is  not  only  well       above  the  state  average  of  2.0  percent,    but  also  9  times  the  annual  average  rate  of  the  region’s  for-­‐profit  sector  (.4  percent).               REGIONAL  SNAPSHOT:  NONPROFIT  FINANCES     o   Central  Region  nonprofits  generated  over  $5.4  billion  in  revenues  (13.9  percent  of  the  state’s  total  nonprofit  revenues)  and     held  nearly  $17.0  billion  in  assets  (21.8  percent  of  the  state’s  total  nonprofit  assets)  in  2010   (TABLE B1.3).       o   Over  a  third  (34  percent)  of  these  revenues  were  generated  by  the  Central  Region’s  hospitals.    Religious,  grantmaking  and  civic     associations  (22  percent)  and  ambulatory  health  organizations  (17  percent)  also  played  a  key  role  in  the  region’s  economy.     o   Well  over  half  (57  percent)  of  these  assets  were  held  by  just  one  field—religious,  grantmaking  and  civic  associations  ( TABLE B1.4).       o   Central  nonprofits  expended  nearly  $5.8  billion  (15.2  percent  of  the  state’s  total  nonprofit  expenditures)  in  2010.    This  trans-­‐   lates  into  $3,510  of  expenditures  per  capita,  which  falls  26  percent  below  the  state  average  of  $4,725.         *  Given  the  inherent  problems  with  the  IRS  Form  990  data  source,   the  financial  data  presented  in  this  section  should  be  interpreted  with  caution.  The   Form    990  filings  are  organized  according  to  the  year  in  which  they  are  received,  not  by  the  year  covered.  This  is  because  organizations  have  different   fiscal  y   ears  and  also  because  many  file  late  or  have  extensions.  As  a  consequence,  while  most  organizations  included  in  the  electronic  2010  990  file  have   fiscal  y   ears  that  end  in  2010,  the  file  also  contains  records  for  organizations  with  fiscal  years  that  end  in  2008  and  2009.     Another  potential  problem  arises  from  reporting  on  the  organization   rather  than  establishment  level.  As  a  consequence,  all  resources  of  multi-­‐

appendix B: REGIONAL DETAILS

B1: CENTRAL REGION*  

 

establishment  organizations  are  reported  for  the  geographical  region  where  the  headquarters  is  located.   Virginia's nonprofit sector: SHAPING THE ECONOMIC, CULTURAL, AND SOCIAL LANDSCAPE |  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Bulletin  #41    |  31


B1.1:    Largest  nonprofit  organizations,  by  total  revenue  Central  Region,  2010*   TABLE   NAME   CITY   FIELD     Hospitals   St.  Mary's  Hospital  of  Richmond  Inc.   Richmond     Ambulatory  health   University  of  Virginia  Physicians  Group**   Charlottesville     Hospitals   Bon  Secours  Memorial  Regional  Medical  Center  Inc.   Richmond     Hospitals   Martha  Jefferson  Hospital   Charlottesville     Civic  associations   Childfund  International  USA   Richmond     *  Based  on  industry  classification  code  in  the  IRS  990  file.     **This  organization  is  affiliated  with  the  University  of  Virginia.             B1.2: Nonprofit  employment  in  Central  Virginia,  in  comparison  to  private  employment,  2010   TABLE   NONPROFIT     EMPLOYMENT     NONPROFIT   FINANCE  AND     AS  A  SHARE  OF     EMPLOYMENT   INSURANCE      TOTAL     TOTAL     REGION   501(c)(3)  †   EMPLOYMENT   EMPLOYMENT      EMPLOYMENT     UNITED  STATES  TOTAL   10,681,388   5,520,828   127,820,442   8.4%     VIRGINIA  TOTAL                        235,113                                              122,917     3,567,444     6.6%     CENTRAL  REGION  TOTAL                              41,073                                                    34,448     705,216     5.8%     Albemarle   3,454     917     33,542     10.3%     Amelia   200     38     1,853     10.8%     Buckingham   200     39     1,809     11.0%     Caroline   200     55     5,324     3.8%     Charles  City   200     –   1,098     18.2%     Charlottesville  (city)   3,397     880     34,405     9.9%     Chesterfield   2,864     5,010     113,205     2.5%     Colonial  Heights  (city)   200     239     10,480     1.9%     Culpeper   1,231     257     14,523     8.5%     Cumberland   200     8     1,259     15.9%     Dinwiddie   200     97     6,378     3.1%     Fauquier   1,647     505     20,650     8.0%     Fluvanna   200     55     2,971     6.7%     Goochland   200     –   10,984     1.8%     Greene   200     46     3,509     5.7%     Hanover   3,097     718     44,540     7.0%     Henrico   9,861     17,092     172,193     5.7%     Hopewell  (city)   200     158     7,802     2.6%     King  and  Queen   200     7     896     22.3%     King  William   200     104     3,308     6.0%     Louisa   200     100     8,163     2.4%     Madison   200     32     2,446     8.2%     Nelson   140     56     3,422     4.1%     New  Kent   200     47     3,740     5.3%     Orange   229     221     8,247     2.8%     Petersburg  (city)   335     283     14,187     2.4%     Powhatan   200     463     6,451     3.1%     Prince  George   90     113     13,759     0.7%     Rappahannock   200     27     1,331     15.0%     Richmond  (city)   10,933     6,846     149,244     7.3%     Sussex   200     34     3,497     5.7%    

 TOTAL  REVENUE     $608,747,034     $309,500,733     $296,325,732     $233,558,064     $215,772,220    

 

NONPROFIT     EMPLOYMENT  AS  A   SHARE  OF  TOTAL   STATE  NONPROFIT   EMPLOYMENT   n/a   100.0%   17.5%   1.5%   0.1%   0.1%   0.1%   0.1%   1.4%   1.2%   0.1%   0.5%   0.1%   0.1%   0.7%   0.1%   0.1%   0.1%   1.3%   4.2%   0.1%   0.1%   0.1%   0.1%   0.1%   0.1%   0.1%   0.1%   0.1%   0.1%   0.0%   0.1%   4.7%   0.1%  

 

†  Italics  indicate  estimated  values  for  data  missing  due  to  disclosure  rules.   –  Data  unavailable  because  of  federal  restrictions  on  the  disclosure  of  data  that  can  identify  individual  employers.  

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B1.3:  Nonprofit  finances  in  Central  Virginia  vs.  Virginia  and  the  nation,  2010   TABLE       NUMBER  OF   EXPENDITURES     REGION   ENTITIES   TOTAL  REVENUES   EXPENDITURES   PER  CAPITA   ASSETS     UNITED  STATES  TOTAL   367,146   $1,561,327,700,780   $1,501,952,938,289   $4,856   $2,809,461,093,514     VIRGINIA  TOTAL   10,835   $39,225,748,030   $37,916,644,743   $4,725   $77,975,764,822     CENTRAL  REGION  TOTAL   2,316   $5,443,715,214   $5,777,021,476   $3,510   $16,999,978,275     Albemarle   100   $327,697,543   $313,074,290   $3,157   $857,042,603     Amelia   5   $1,638,733   $1,661,987   $130   $2,477,297     Buckingham   12   $29,640,576   $27,484,485   $1,605   $28,834,177     Caroline   16   $4,457,848   $3,743,521   $131   $12,617,924     Charles  City   5   $1,001,256   $850,633   $117   $4,650,093     Charlottesville  (city)   257   $975,171,187   $1,427,346,535   $32,768   $7,370,839,730     Chesterfield   275   $220,230,493   $212,656,505   $671   $302,765,397     Colonial  Heights  (city   20   $4,211,918   $3,922,582   $226   $4,855,901     Culpeper   80   $176,308,920   $178,697,005   $3,815   $405,493,831     Cumberland   5   $335,326   $346,435   $34   $1,461,159     Dinwiddie   4   $633,869   $268,648   $10   $3,648,943     Fauquier   107   $208,645,439   $201,361,758   $3,080   $427,121,107     Fluvanna   21   $6,267,950   $5,173,274   $201   $11,167,191     Goochland   26   $12,872,436   $12,103,168   $556   $19,275,717     Greene   16   $11,915,469   $12,002,985   $650   $26,727,908     Hanover   130   $222,320,985   $224,047,787   $2,241   $662,223,708     Henrico   497   $2,004,273,224   $1,913,924,820   $6,226   $3,043,597,098     Hopewell  (city)   13   $4,229,633   $4,552,609   $201   $39,296,514     King  and  Queen   9   $772,492   $790,073   $113   $2,609,018     King  William   12   $3,712,715   $3,727,869   $233   $4,380,297     Louisa   30   $4,920,688   $5,188,779   $156   $21,434,989     Madison   21   $37,286,247   $36,969,641   $2,780   $327,166,960     Nelson   37   $17,140,855   $16,632,641   $1,108   $37,426,222     New  Kent   11   $3,551,937   $3,552,845   $191   $4,621,013     Orange   44   $18,912,162   $18,700,744   $557   $93,276,661     Petersburg  (city)   57   $33,390,515   $42,461,574   $1,304   $194,415,607     Powhatan   20   $1,742,647   $1,762,015   $63   $4,536,236     Prince  George   11   $1,356,112   $1,568,205   $44   $3,717,547     Rappahannock   22   $5,470,560   $5,322,510   $709   $7,670,962     Richmond  (city)   440   $1,096,383,476   $1,089,572,899   $5,337   $3,063,349,598     Sussex   13   $7,222,003   $7,552,654   $626   $11,276,867                                 Virginia's nonprofit sector: SHAPING THE ECONOMIC, CULTURAL, AND SOCIAL LANDSCAPE |  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Bulletin  #41    |  33


B1.4: Nonprofit  finances  in  Central  Virginia  by  field,  2010   TABLE         NUMBER       FIELD   OF  ENTITIES   TOTAL  REVENUES     UNITED  STATES  TOTAL   367,146   $1,561,327,700,780     VIRGINIA  TOTAL   10,835   $39,225,748,030     CENTRAL  REGION  TOTAL   2316   $5,443,715,214     Hospitals   17   $1,865,789,677     Civic  associations   1,056   $1,198,535,626     Ambulatory  health   127   $902,568,931     Social  assistance   316   $397,834,781     Nursing  homes   69   $353,356,218     Elementary  and  secondary  schools   76   $207,962,261       Arts  and  recreation   337   $174,598,045     Universities   8   $154,314,720                                                                          

 

SHARE  OF     TOTAL     REGIONAL   REVENUE   ASSETS   100.0%   $2,809,461,093,514   100.0%   $77,975,764,822   100.0%   $16,999,978,275   34.3%   $1,975,961,631   22.0%   $9,743,946,091   16.6%   $752,095,508   7.3%   $575,400,969   6.5%   $1,465,586,870   3.8%   $768,449,035   3.2%   $857,454,534   2.8%   $419,394,067  

 

SHARE  OF     TOTAL     REGIONAL     ASSETS   100.0%   100.0%   100.0%   11.6%   57.3%   4.4%   3.4%   8.6%   4.5%   5.0%   2.5%  

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B2: EASTERN REGION  

          OVERVIEW     o   As  a  predominately  rural  area,  the  Eastern     Region  does  not  include  any  of  the  state’s     largest  urban  centers.       o   The  region  accounts  for  just  two  percent  of     the  state’s  nonprofit  organizations.  In  2010,     the  largest  nonprofits  in  the  region  included     four  health-­‐ focused  organizations—  Chesapeake  Hospital,  Rappahannock  West-­‐   minster  Canterbury,  Eastern  Shore  Rural     Health  System,  and  Shore  Life  Care—and  the     TABLE B2.1).   social  service  provider,  Bay  Aging  (           REGIONAL  SNAPSHOT:  NONPROFIT  EMPLOYMENT     o   With  3,639  nonprofit  employees,  the  region  accounted  for  just  1.5  percent  of  Virginia’s  non-­‐   profit  employment  in  2011.  This  is  marginally  below  the  region’s  share  of  the  state  popula-­‐     tion  (1.5  percent  vs.  1.8  percent,  respectively)  (TABLE B2.2).       o   However,  nonprofit  employment  in  the  Eastern  Region  accounted  for  7.5  percent  of  the  re-­‐   gion’s  total  employment,  ranking  it  above  the  state  average  of  6.6  percent.       o   Between  2000  and  2011,  nonprofit  employment  grew  faster  in  the  Eastern  Region  than  in     any  other  region  of  the  state.    Although  Eastern  nonprofits’  average  annual  rate  of  employ-­‐   ment  growth  was  more  than  three  times  the  state  average  (6.2   vs.  2.0  percent,  respective-­‐   ly),  it  dwarfed  the  region’s  for-­‐ profit  annual  average  growth  rate  of  9.5  percent.             REGIONAL  SNAPSHOT:  NONPROFIT  FINANCES     o   Eastern  Region  nonprofits  generated  nearly  $158.9  million  in  revenues  (less  than  one  per-­‐   cent  of  the  state’s  total  nonprofit  revenues)  and  held  over  $342.3  million  in  assets  (less  than     one  percent  of  the  state’s  total  nonprofit  assets)  in  2010  (TABLE B2.3).       o   Roughly  a  fourth  (24  percent)  of  these  revenues  were  generated  by  the  region’s  hospitals.     Other  fields  generating  a  significant  portion  of  the  region’s  total  revenues  include  nursing     and  residential  care  (19  percent),  social  assistance  (19  percent),  and  ambulatory  health  (16     percent).     o   The  bulk  of  the  region’s  assets,  however,  were  held  by  its  religious,  grantmaking,  and  civic     associations  (24  percent).    Other  fields  holding  substantial  shares  of  the  region’s  total  assets     include  social  assistance  (17  percent);  arts,  entertainment  and  recreation  (16  percent);  and     nursing  and  residential  care  (15  percent)  (TABLE B2.4).       o   Eastern  nonprofits  expended  nearly  $150.6  million  (less  than  one  percent  of  the  state’s  total     nonprofit  expenditures)  in  2010.  This  translates  into  $1,061  of  expenditures  per  capita,     which  falls  78  percent  below  the  state  average.            

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B2.1:    Largest  nonprofit  organizations,  by  total  revenue,  Eastern  Region,  2010*   TABLE     NAME   CITY   FIELD    TOTAL  REVENUE       Hospitals   $36,175,303     Chesapeake  Hospital  Corporation   Kilmarnock     Nursing  homes   $14,546,232     Rappahannock  Westminster  Canterbury  Inc.   Irvington     Social  assistance   $13,716,413     Bay  Aging   Urbanna     Ambulatory  health   $13,609,260     Eastern  Shore  Rural  Health  System  Inc.   Nassawadox     Nursing  homes   $8,094,663     Shore  Life  Care  Inc.   Parksley       *  Based  on  industry  classification  code  in  the  IRS  990  file.                   B2.2: Nonprofit  employment  in  Eastern  Virginia,  in  comparison  to  private  employment,  2010   TABLE     NONPROFIT       NONPROFIT     EMPLOYMENT  AS  A   NONPROFIT   FINANCE  AND   EMPLOYMENT  AS   SHARE  OF  TOTAL     EMPLOYMENT   INSURANCE    TOTAL     A  SHARE  OF  TOTAL     STATE  NONPROFIT     REGION   501(c)(3)  †   EMPLOYMENT   EMPLOYMENT     EMPLOYMENT   EMPLOYMENT     UNITED  STATES  TOTAL   10,681,388   5,520,828   127,820,442   8.4%       VIRGINIA  TOTAL   235,113     122,917     3,567,444     6.6%     100.0%     EASTERN  REGION  TOTAL   3,639     1,129     48,312     7.5%   1.5%     Accomack   838     177     12,825     6.5%   0.4%     Essex   200     178     3,904     5.1%   0.1%     King  George   200     127     9,198     2.2%   0.1%     Lancaster   823     246     4,618     17.8%   0.4%     Middlesex   200     67     3,202     6.2%   0.1%     Northampton   809     82     5,160     15.7%   0.3%     Northumberland   200     74     2,496     8.0%   0.1%     Richmond   215     67     3,323     6.5%   0.1%       Westmoreland   155     111     3,586     4.3%   0.1%     †  Italics  indicate  estimated  values  for  data  missing  due  to  disclosure  rules.                                              

 

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B2.3:    Nonprofit  finances  in  Eastern  Virginia  vs.  Virginia  and  the  nation,  2010   TABLE   NUMBER     EXPENDITURES       REGION   OF  ENTITIES   TOTAL  REVENUES   EXPENDITURES   PER  CAPITA   ASSETS     367,146   $1,561,327,700,780   $1,501,952,938,289   $4,856   $2,809,461,093,514   UNITED  STATES  TOTAL       VIRGINIA  TOTAL   10,835   $39,225,748,030   $37,916,644,743   $4,725   $77,975,764,822     EASTERN  REGION  TOTAL   227   $158,876,417   $150,566,473   $1,061   $342,330,855     Accomack   35   $22,128,555   $20,557,781   $619   $38,709,467     Essex   15   $4,498,593   $4,507,152   $403   $10,700,567     King  George   14   $2,870,792   $2,479,163   $105   $3,246,482     Lancaster   49   $70,248,553   $67,328,200   $5,915   $124,798,706     Middlesex   32   $19,243,811   $16,834,003   $1,534   $54,236,786     Northampton   31   $26,973,174   $25,258,643   $2,038   $46,183,058     Northumberland   17   $2,023,284   $1,704,090   $138   $9,247,610     Richmond   13   $3,671,365   $3,821,033   $412   $10,541,288       Westmoreland   21   $7,218,290   $8,076,408   $463   $44,666,891                   TABLE   B2.4:    Nonprofit  finances  in  Eastern  Virginia  by  field,  2010         REVENUE  AS   ASSETS     A  SHARE  OF   SHARE  OF     TOTAL     TOTAL       NUMBER  OF   REGIONAL   REGIONAL     FIELD   ENTITIES   TOTAL  REVENUES   REVENUE   ASSETS   ASSETS     UNITED  STATES  TOTAL   367,146   $1,561,327,700,780   100.0%   $2,809,461,093,514   100.0%     VIRGINIA  TOTAL   10,835   $39,225,748,030   100.0%   $77,975,764,822   100.0%     EASTERN  REGION  TOTAL   227   $158,876,417   100.0%   $342,330,855   100.0%     Hospitals   3   $37,784,355   23.8%   $33,683,506   9.8%     Nursing  homes   12   $30,628,894   19.3%   $50,354,797   14.7%     Social  assistance   50   $29,604,607   18.6%   $58,641,388   17.1%       Ambulatory  health   18   $24,823,533   15.6%   $28,024,470   8.2%     Civic  associations   79   $16,828,284   10.6%   $81,407,883   23.8%     Arts  and  recreation   30   $6,238,576   3.9%   $54,461,516   15.9%     Elementary  and  secondary  schools   8   $5,711,722   3.6%   $4,727,777   1.4%     Other   27   $7,256,446   4.6%   $31,029,518   9.1%                             Virginia's nonprofit sector: SHAPING THE ECONOMIC, CULTURAL, AND SOCIAL LANDSCAPE |  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Bulletin  #41    |  37


B3: NORTHERN REGION  

          OVERVIEW     o   The  Northern  Region  encompasses  two  of     Virginia’s  largest  urbanized  areas—   Arlington  and  Alexandria.       o   With  39  percent  of  the  state’s  nonprofit     organization,  this  region  is  home  to  the     largest  number  of  nonprofits  in  Virginia.  In     2010,  major  nonprofits  based  in  the  region     included  Inova  Health  Care  Services,     George  Washington  University,  Nature     Conservatory,  International  Relief  and  De-­‐   velopment,  and  Mary  Washington  Health-­‐   care  (TABLE B3.1).             REGIONAL  SNAPSHOT:  NONPROFIT  EMPLOYMENT     o   With  77,416  nonprofit  employees,  the  region  accounted  for  a  third  of  Vir-­‐   ginia’s  nonprofit  employment  in  2011,  which  is  roughly  equivalent  to  the     region’s  share  of  the  state’s  total  population  (32.9  percent  vs.  32.5  per-­‐   TABLE B3.2).   cent)  (     o   However,  nonprofit  employment  in  the  Northern  Region  accounted  for  6.2  

  percent  of  the  region’s  total  employment,  which  is  marginally  below  the     state  average  of  6.6  percent.       o   Between   2000  and  2011,  Northern  Region  nonprofits  achieved  an  average       annual  growth  rate  of  2.3  percent.  While  this  is  roughly  equivalent  to  the     state  average  (2.0  percent),  it  is  more  than  double  the  region’s  1.0  percent       annual  average  growth  in  for-­‐profit  employment.         REGIONAL  SNAPSHOT:  NONPROFIT  FINANCES     o   Northern  Region  nonprofits  generated  nearly  $17.1  billion  in  revenues  (43.6  percent  of  the     state’s  total  nonprofit  revenues,  which  is  the  largest  share  by  far  among  all  8  Virginian  regions)     and  held  nearly  $31.9  billion  in  assets  (40.9  percent  of  the  state’s  total  nonprofit  assets,  which     TABLE B3.3).   again  is  the  largest  share  by  far  among  these  Virginian  regions)  in  2010  (   o   Well  over  a  third  (37  percent)  of  these  revenues  were  generated  by  the  Northern  Region’s  reli-­‐   gious,  grantmaking,  and  civic  associations.  Hospitals  also  played  a  key  role  in  the  region’s     economy  by  generating  a  fifth  (20  percent)  of  its  total  revenues.       o   The  bulk  (50  percent)  of  the  region’s  assets  were  also  held  by  its  religious,  grantmaking,  and     civic  associations  (34  percent)  and  hospitals  (16  percent)  ( TABLE B3.4).     o   Northern  nonprofits  expended  nearly  $16.3  billion  (42.9  percent  of  the  state’s  total  nonprofit     expenditures)  in  2010.    This  translates  into  $6,318  of   expenditures  per  capita,  which  is  34  per-­‐   cent  more  than  the  state  average  and  the  highest  expenditures  per  capita  among  all  8  of  Vir-­‐   ginia’s  regions.          

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B3.1:    Largest  nonprofit  organizations,  by  total  revenue,  Northern  Region,  2010*   TABLE     NAME   CITY   FIELD    TOTAL  REVENUE       Hospitals   $1,616,301,116     Inova  Health  Care  Services   Falls  Church     Education   $1,129,759,352     George  Washington  University   Ashburn     N/A   $925,817,441     Nature  Conservancy   Arlington     Civic  associations   $706,082,523     International  Relief  And  Development  Inc.   Arlington     Mary  Washington  Healthcare   Fredericksburg   Hospitals   $665,793,905         *  Based  on  industry  classification  code  in  the  IRS  990  file.                 TABLE   B3.2: Nonprofit  employment  in  Northern  Virginia,  in  comparison  to  private  employment,  2010     NONPROFIT       NONPROFIT     EMPLOYMENT  AS  A     NONPROFIT   FINANCE  AND   EMPLOYMENT  AS   SHARE  OF  TOTAL     EMPLOYMENT   INSURANCE      TOTAL     A  SHARE  OF  TOTAL     STATE  NONPROFIT     REGION   501(c)(3)  †   EMPLOYMENT   EMPLOYMENT     EMPLOYMENT   EMPLOYMENT     UNITED  STATES  TOTAL   10,681,388   5,520,828   127,820,442   8.4%       VIRGINIA  TOTAL   235,113     122,917     3,567,444     6.6%   100.0%     NORTHERN  REGION  TOTAL   77,416     38,140     1,249,691     6.2%   32.9%     Arlington   12,527     3,428     168,239     7.4%   5.3%       Alexandria  (city)   10,202     2,800     94,204     10.8%   4.3%     Clarke   338     100     3,819     8.8%   0.1%     Fairfax   33,682     23,083     578,086     5.8%   14.3%     Fairfax  (city)   1,136     791     19,423     5.8%   0.5%     Falls  Church  (city)   977     199     11,880     8.2%   0.4%     Fredericksburg  (city)   4,238     663     24,881     17.0%   1.8%     Loudoun   4,989     2,693     136,864     3.6%   2.1%     Manassas  (city)   1,948     418     24,138     8.1%   0.8%     Manassas  Park  (city)   200     13     2,252     8.9%   0.1%       Prince  William   3,652     1,681     107,404     3.4%   1.6%     Spotsylvania   994     464     29,869     3.3%   0.4%     Stafford   1,260     1,559     37,074     3.4%   0.5%     Warren   1,273     247     11,556     11.0%   0.5%       †Italics  indicate  estimated  values  for  data  missing  due  to  disclosure  rules                                

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B3.3:    Nonprofit  finances  in  Northern  Virginia  vs.  Virginia  and  the  nation,  2010   TABLE   NUMBER     EXPENDITURES       REGION   OF  ENTITIES   TOTAL  REVENUES   EXPENDITURES   PER  CAPITA   ASSETS     367,146   $1,561,327,700,780   $1,501,952,938,289   $4,856   $2,809,461,093,514   UNITED  STATES  TOTAL       VIRGINIA  TOTAL   10,835   $39,225,748,030   $37,916,644,743   $4,725   $77,975,764,822     NORTHERN  REGION  TOTAL   4,260   $17,087,920,902   $16,265,017,556   $6,318   $31,875,292,825     Alexandria  (city)   691   $3,115,948,668   $3,035,784,105   $21,547   $4,399,062,703     Arlington   610   $5,199,286,441   $4,887,636,694   $23,353   $10,622,017,783     Clarke   34   $213,980,024   $212,650,756   $15,112   $92,948,377     Fairfax   1,658   $5,179,125,864   $4,774,252,068   $4,396   $10,203,161,551     Fairfax  (city)   147   $203,996,188   $186,517,310   $8,244 �� $553,928,265     Falls  Church  (city)   69   $58,459,222   $56,902,826   $4,554   $108,386,350     Fredericksburg  (city)   94   $832,239,857   $806,807,726   $33,023   $1,115,772,505     Loudoun   412   $1,549,248,205   $1,573,375,050   $4,990   $3,817,168,633       Manassas  (city)   81   $168,567,322   $157,910,314   $4,128   $207,523,476     Manassas  Park  (city)   3   $662,871   $656,907   $46   $656,704     Prince  William   242   $354,274,816   $360,449,651   $887   $457,804,687     Spotsylvania   70   $46,787,151   $46,494,215   $378   $70,742,527     Stafford   85   $30,858,897   $30,618,600   $236   $43,524,465     Warren   64   $134,485,376   $134,961,334   $3,594   $182,594,799                     TABLE   B3.4:  Nonprofit  finances  in  Northern  Virginia  by  field,  2010         REVENUE  AS   ASSETS     A  SHARE  OF   SHARE  OF     TOTAL     TOTAL       NUMBER  OF   REGIONAL   REGIONAL     FIELD   ENTITIES   TOTAL  REVENUES   REVENUE   ASSETS   ASSETS     UNITED  STATES  TOTAL   367,146   $1,561,327,700,780   100.0%   $2,809,461,093,514   100.0%     VIRGINIA  TOTAL   10,835   $39,225,748,030   100.0%   $77,975,764,822   100.0%     NORTHERN  REGION  TOTAL   4,260   $17,087,920,902   100.0%   $31,875,292,825   100.0%     Civic  associations   2,163   $6,261,337,564   36.6%   $10,703,765,573   33.6%     Hospitals   20   $3,381,453,066   19.8%   $4,977,529,431   15.6%     Universities   19   $1,251,625,388   7.3%   $3,158,757,901   9.9%       Social  assistance   556   $1,155,174,695   6.8%   $1,545,128,125   4.8%     Elementary  and  secondary  schools   114   $383,003,573   2.2%   $1,057,728,591   3.3%     Nursing  homes   114   $368,620,086   2.2%   $909,902,157   2.9%     Arts  and  recreation   558   $349,783,280   2.0%   $619,940,013   1.9%     Ambulatory  health   101   $155,648,173   0.9%   $144,572,874   0.5%     Other   615   $3,781,275,077   22.1%   $8,757,968,160   27.5%               40    |  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Bulletin  #41    |  Virginia's nonprofit sector: SHAPING THE ECONOMIC, CULTURAL, AND SOCIAL LANDSCAPE  


B4: SOUTHSIDE REGION  

                                                                OVERVIEW     o   The  Southside  Region  encompasses  three  of  Virginia’s  smaller  cities—Danville,  Emporia,  and  Martinsville.     o     The  region  accounts  for  just  four  percent  of  the  state’s  nonprofit  organizations.  In  2010,  major  nonprofits     based  in  the  region  included  three  hospitals—Community  Memorial  Healthcenter,  Halifax  Regional  Hos-­‐   pital,  and  Southside  Community  Hospital—and  two  schools,  Hampden-­‐Sydney  College  and  Averett  Uni-­‐   versity  (TABLE B4.1).             REGIONAL  SNAPSHOT:  NONPROFIT  EMPLOYMENT   o     With  7,131  nonprofit  employees,  the  region  accounted  for  just  3.0  percent  of  Virginia’s  nonprofit  em-­‐   ployment  in  2011.  This  proportion  is  below  the  region’s  share  of  the  state’s  total  population  (3.0  percent     vs.  4.7  percent)  (TABLE B4.2).     o     Similarly,  nonprofit  employment  in  the  Southside  Region  accounted  for  5.8  percent  of  the  region’s  total     employment,  which  is  slightly  below  the  state  average  of  6.6  percent.     Between  2000  and  2011,  the  Southside  Region  suffered  the  most  significant  nonprofit  and  for-­‐profit  job   o     losses  in  the  state  (with  annual  average  growth  rates  of  -­‐1.9  percent  and  -­‐1.7  percent,  respectively).             REGIONAL  SNAPSHOT:  NONPROFIT  FINANCES     o   Southside  Region  nonprofits  generated  nearly  $669.2  million  in  revenues  (1.7  percent  of  the  state’s  total     nonprofit  revenues)  and  held  over  $1.3  billion  in  assets  (1.7  percent  of  the  state’s  total  nonprofit  assets)     in  2010  (TABLE B4.3).     o     Over  a  third  (35  percent)  of  these  revenues  were  generated  by  hospitals.    Colleges  and  universities  also     played  a  key  role  in  the  region’s  economy  by  generating  nearly  a  fifth  (19  percent)  of  its  total  revenues.     o   Nearly  three-­‐fourths  (72  percent)  of  the  region’s  assets  were  held  by  three  fields—religious,  grantmaking,     and  civic  associations  (27  percent);  colleges  and  universities  (27  percent);  and  hospitals  (18  percent)       (TABLE B4.4).     o     Southside  nonprofits  expended  over  $642.1  million  (1.7  percent  of  the  state’s  total  nonprofit  expendi-­‐   tures)  in  2010.  This  translates  into  $1,687  of  expenditures  per  capita,  which  falls  64  percent  below  the     state  average.        

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B4.1:  Largest  nonprofit  organizations,  by  total  revenue,  Southside  Region,  2010*   TABLE     NAME   CITY   FIELD     Community  Memorial  Healthcenter   South  Hill   Hospitals     Halifax  Regional  Hospital  Inc.   South  Boston   Hospitals     Southside  Community  Hospital  Inc.   Farmville   Hospitals     Hampden-­‐Sydney  College   Hampden  Sydney   Education     Averett  University   Danville   Education       *  Based  on  industry  classification  code  in  the  IRS  990  file.                   B4.2: Nonprofit  employment  in  Southside  Virginia,  in  comparison  to  private  employment,  2010   TABLE       NONPROFIT       NONPROFIT   FINANCE  AND   EMPLOYMENT  AS  A     EMPLOYMENT   INSURANCE      TOTAL     SHARE  OF  TOTAL     REGION   501(c)(3)†   EMPLOYMENT   EMPLOYMENT     EMPLOYMENT       UNITED  STATES  TOTAL   10,681,388   5,520,828   127,820,442   8.4%     VIRGINIA  TOTAL   235,113     122,917     3,567,444     6.6%     SOUTHSIDE  REGION  TOTAL   7,131     2,445     123,625     5.8%     Brunswick   401     63     4,059     9.9%     Charlotte   200     34     2,013     9.9%     Danville  (city)   805     689     26,495     3.0%     Emporia  (city)   200     82     3,815     5.2%     Greensville   200     11     3,301     6.1%     Halifax   1,079     200     12,011     9.0%     Henry   200     306     12,789     1.6%       Lunenburg   189     24     2,470     7.7%     Martinsville  (city)   329     243     11,192     2.9%     Mecklenburg   1,192     275     12,149     9.8%     Nottoway   200     125     5,351     3.7%     Patrick   47     52     4,092     1.1%     Pittsylvania   512     121     11,505     4.5%       Prince  Edward   1,379     181     8,794     15.7%     Southampton   200     39     3,588     5.6%     *Italics  indicate  estimated  values  for  data  missing  due  to  disclosure  rules                            

 TOTAL  REVENUE     $88,329,797     $81,329,314     $63,615,318     $63,563,487     $33,090,136    

 

NONPROFIT     EMPLOYMENT  AS  A   SHARE  OF  TOTAL   STATE  NONPROFIT   EMPLOYMENT     100.0%   3.0%   0.2%   0.1%   0.3%   0.1%   0.1%   0.5%   0.1%   0.1%  

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0.1%   0.5%   0.1%   0.0%   0.2%   0.6%   0.1%  


TABLE B4.3:  Nonprofit  finances  in  Southside  Virginia  vs.  Virginia  and  the  nation,  2010     NUMBER     EXPENDITURES       REGION   OF  ENTITIES   TOTAL  REVENUES   EXPENDITURES   PER  CAPITA   ASSETS     367,146   $1,561,327,700,780   $1,501,952,938,289   $4,856   $2,809,461,093,514   UNITED  STATES  TOTAL       VIRGINIA  TOTAL   10,835   $39,225,748,030   $37,916,644,743   $4,725   $77,975,764,822     SOUTHSIDE  REGION  TOTAL   407   $669,181,001   $642,131,328   $1,687   $1,319,083,288     Brunswick   18   $28,764,337   $26,514,465   $1,520   $32,875,051     Charlotte   10   $889,105   $799,194   $64   $2,833,111     Danville  (city)   83   $122,345,423   $108,756,482   $2,536   $185,809,992     –   –   –   –   –   Emporia  (city)     Greensville   18   $10,355,347   $10,572,797   $864   $11,674,342     Halifax   42   $122,326,511   $115,442,213   $3,188   $176,969,089     Henry   20   $6,130,467   $5,510,542   $102   $5,040,147     Lunenburg   7   $7,204,095   $6,365,188   $493   $6,457,525       Martinsville  (city)   52   $41,708,877   $41,483,652       $221,160,781     Mecklenburg   48   $105,114,477   $100,133,051   $3,061   $95,043,344     Nottoway   14   $9,323,444   $6,557,599   $414   $13,284,357     Patrick   22   $2,468,337   $2,252,246   $122   $5,625,484     Pittsylvania   34   $40,176,850   $36,874,527   $581   $125,004,444     Prince  Edward   30   $166,625,181   $175,121,041   $7,486   $428,039,383       Southampton   9   $5,748,550   $5,748,331   $309   $9,266,238                   TABLE   B4.4:  Nonprofit  finances  in  Southside  Virginia  by  field,  2010         REVENUE  AS   ASSETS     A  SHARE  OF   SHARE  OF     TOTAL     TOTAL       NUMBER  OF   REGIONAL   REGIONAL     FIELD   ENTITIES   TOTAL  REVENUES   REVENUE   ASSETS   ASSETS     UNITED  STATES  TOTAL   367,146   $1,561,327,700,780   100.0%   $2,809,461,093,514   100.0%     VIRGINIA  TOTAL   10,835   $39,225,748,030   100.0%   $77,975,764,822   100.0%     SOUTHSIDE  REGION  TOTAL   407   $669,181,001   100.0%   $1,319,083,288   100.0%     Hospitals   9   $234,716,176   35.1%   $233,684,100   17.7%     Universities   5   $129,586,870   19.4%   $351,802,234   26.7%       Civic  associations   130   $86,014,278   12.9%   $360,250,154   27.3%     Social  assistance   127   $76,928,235   11.5%   $85,194,241   6.5%     Nursing  homes   10   $49,212,993   7.4%   $48,504,175   3.7%     Ambulatory  health   38   $40,092,681   6.0%   $61,716,635   4.7%     Elementary  and  secondary  schools   11   $38,767,123   5.8%   $131,638,371   10.0%     Arts  and  recreation   48   $5,919,443   0.9%   $26,352,016   2.0%     Other   29   $7,943,202   1.2%   $19,941,362   1.5%             Virginia's nonprofit sector: SHAPING THE ECONOMIC, CULTURAL, AND SOCIAL LANDSCAPE |  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Bulletin  #41    |  43


B5: SOUTHWEST REGION  

                                                                  OVERVIEW     o   The  Southwest  Region  encompasses  three  of  Virginia’s  smaller  cities—Bristol,  Galax,  and  Norton.         o   The  region  accounts  for  just  four  percent  of  the  state’s  nonprofit  organizations.  In  2010,  the  largest  non-­‐   profits  based  in  the  region  included  Kingsway  Charities,  Johnston  Memorial  Hospital,  Smyth  County     TABLE B5.1).   Community  Hospital,  Twin  County  Regional  Healthcare,  and  Emory  &  Henry  College  (           REGIONAL  SNAPSHOT:  NONPROFIT  EMPLOYMENT     o   With  8,290  nonprofit  employees,  the  region  accounted  for  3.5  percent  of  Virginia’s  nonprofit  employ-­‐   ment  in  2011.  This  proportion  is  noticeably  below  the  region’s  share  of  the  state’s  total  population  (3.5     percent  vs.  5.1  percent)  ( TABLE B5.2).     o   Moreover,  nonprofit  employment  in  the  Southwest  Region  accounted  for  6.0  percent  of  the  region’s  to-­‐   tal  employment,  which  is  slightly  below  the  state  average  of  6.6  percent.       o   Between   2000  and  2011,  Southwest  nonprofits  achieved  an  annual  average  growth  rate  of  0.7  percent.       While  this  falls  well  below  the  state  average  of  2.0  percent,  Southwest  nonprofits  still  outperformed  the     region’s  for-­‐ profits  (0.7  percent  vs.  -­‐0.7  percent,  respectively),  which  suffered  net  jobs  loses  over  this  11-­‐  year  period.         REGIONAL  SNAPSHOT:  NONPROFIT  FINANCES     o   Southwest  Region  nonprofits  generated  nearly  $784.5  million  in  revenues  (2.0  percent  of  the  state’s     total  nonprofit  revenues)  and  held  nearly  $1.2  billion  in  assets  (1.5  percent  of  the  state’s  total  nonprofit     TABLE B5.3).   assets)  in  2010  (     o   A  third  of  these  revenues  were  generated  by  hospitals.     o   Similarly,  the  bulk  (40  percent)  of  the  region’s  total  assets  were  held  by  hospitals.    Other  fields  holding     substantial  shares  of  the  region’s  total  assets  include  religious,  grantmaking,  and  civic  associations  (20     percent)  and  colleges  and  universities  (20  percent)  ( TABLE B5.4).       o   These  organizations  expended  nearly  $749.3  million  (2.0  percent  of  the  state’s  total  nonprofit  expendi-­‐   tures)  in  2010.    This  translates  into  $1,797  of  expenditures  per  capita,  which  falls  62  percent  below  the     state  average.        

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B5.1:    Largest  nonprofit  organizations,  by  total  revenue,  Southwest  Region,  2010   TABLE     NAME   CITY   FIELD    TOTAL  REVENUE       Kingsway  Charities  Inc.   Bristol   N/A   $189,640,268       Johnston  Memorial  Hospital  Inc.   Abingdon   Hospitals   $112,345,794       Smyth  County  Community  Hospital   Marion   Hospitals   $51,158,601       Twin  County  Regional  Healthcare  Inc.   Galax   Hospitals   $49,163,225       Emory  &  Henry  College   Emory   Education   $39,601,969         *  Based  on  industry  classification  code  in  the  IRS  990  file.                   B5.2: Nonprofit  employment  in  Southwest  Virginia,  in  comparison  to  private  employment,  2010   TABLE     NONPROFIT       NONPROFIT     EMPLOYMENT  AS  A     NONPROFIT   FINANCE  AND   EMPLOYMENT  AS  A   SHARE  OF  TOTAL     EMPLOYMENT   INSURANCE      TOTAL     SHARE  OF  TOTAL     STATE  NONPROFIT     REGION   501(c)(3)  †   EMPLOYMENT   EMPLOYMENT     EMPLOYMENT   EMPLOYMENT     UNITED  STATES  TOTAL   10,681,388   5,520,828   127,820,442   8.4%       VIRGINIA  TOTAL   235,113     122,917     3,567,444     6.6%   100.0%     SOUTHWEST  REGION  TOTAL   8,290     2,910     138,163     6.0%   3.5%     Bland   200     –     1,291     15.5%   0.1%     Bristol  (city)   404     294     11,790     3.4%   0.2%     Buchanan   491     170     8,194     6.0%   0.2%     Carroll   200     73     6,037     3.3%   0.1%     Dickenson   76     –   3,722     2.0%   0.0%     Floyd   200     109     2,247     8.9%   0.1%     Galax  (city)   770     123     6,235     12.3%   0.3%       Grayson   200     105     2,305     8.7%   0.1%   Lee     440     124     5,292     8.3%   0.2%     Norton  (city)   840     66     4,148     20.2%   0.4%     Russell   529     250     6,789     7.8%   0.2%     Scott   184     88     4,849     3.8%   0.1%     Smyth   596     174     11,618     5.1%   0.3%       Tazewell   562     410     16,483     3.4%   0.2%     Washington   1,696     417     19,708     8.6%   0.7%     Wise   767     267     15,911     4.8%   0.3%     Wythe   136     238     11,542     1.2%   0.1%     †Italics  indicate  estimated  values  for  data  missing  due  to  disclosure  rules     –  Data  unavailable  because  of  federal  restrictions  on  the  disclosure  of  data  that  can  identify  individual  employers                        

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B5.3:  Nonprofit  finances  in  Southwest  Virginia  vs.  Virginia  and  the  nation,  2010   TABLE     NUMBER     EXPENDITURES       REGION   OF  ENTITIES   TOTAL  REVENUES   EXPENDITURES   PER  CAPITA   ASSETS     367,146   $1,561,327,700,780   $1,501,952,938,289   $4,856   $2,809,461,093,514   UNITED  STATES  TOTAL     VIRGINIA  TOTAL   10,835   $39,225,748,030   $37,916,644,743   $4,725   $77,975,764,822     SOUTHWEST  REGION  TOTAL   420   $784,475,244   $749,271,100   $1,797   $1,199,111,947     Bland   6   $4,781,475   $5,009,009   $734   $5,727,546     Bristol  (city)   29   $213,893,638   $207,907,446   $11,664   $64,647,010     Buchanan   25   $63,910,376   $46,654,617   $1,943   $128,641,818     Carroll   18   $7,797,719   $7,900,077   $263   $13,338,482       Dickenson   9   $9,120,512   $8,402,478   $528   $5,771,969     Floyd   17   $3,141,500   $2,899,122   $189   $4,556,240     Galax  (city)   23   $61,429,844   $65,432,450   $9,243   $35,093,915     Grayson   12   $1,635,644   $1,367,632   $88   $6,697,224     Lee   9   $12,914,010   $13,189,133   $517   $9,568,360     Norton  (city)   9   $7,006,793   $6,659,730   $1,672   $4,150,765     Russell   15   $4,787,885   $5,163,018   $179   $4,919,156     Scott   26   $14,808,415   $12,774,031   $551   $12,933,826     Smyth   35   $73,898,340   $76,325,114   $2,371   $127,530,545     Tazewell   42   $39,996,833   $36,087,421   $801   $81,595,673     Washington   79   $235,636,567   $222,836,054   $4,059   $576,663,180       Wise   35   $18,791,394   $19,657,952   $474   $46,494,329     Wythe   31   $10,924,299   $11,005,816   $377   $70,781,909               B5.4:  Nonprofit  finances  in  Southwest  Virginia  by  field,  2010   TABLE         REVENUE  AS   ASSETS     A  SHARE  OF   SHARE  OF   TOTAL     TOTAL       NUMBER  OF   REGIONAL   REGIONAL     FIELD   ENTITIES   TOTAL  REVENUES   REVENUE   ASSETS   ASSETS     UNITED  STATES  TOTAL   367,146   $1,561,327,700,780   100.0%   $2,809,461,093,514   100.0%       VIRGINIA  TOTAL   10,835   $39,225,748,030   100.0%   $77,975,764,822   100.0%     SOUTHWEST  REGION  TOTAL   420   $784,475,244   100.0%   $1,199,111,947   100.0%     Hospitals   8   $257,685,852   32.8%   $484,736,093   40.4%     Universities   6   $88,966,762   11.3%   $235,974,761   19.7%     Civic  associations   155   $87,471,090   11.2%   $238,995,307   19.9%     Ambulatory  health   52   $66,201,484   8.4%   $67,220,501   5.6%     Social  assistance   89   $46,578,904   5.9%   $47,487,695   4.0%     Arts  and  recreation   49   $13,296,169   1.7%   $20,626,740   1.7%       Elementary  and  secondary  schools   8   $11,221,915   1.4%   $31,755,564   2.6%     Nursing  homes   8   $5,593,728   0.7%   $8,692,619   0.7%     Other   45   $207,459,340   26.4%   $63,622,667   5.3%           46    |  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Bulletin  #41    |  Virginia's nonprofit sector: SHAPING THE ECONOMIC, CULTURAL, AND SOCIAL LANDSCAPE  


B6: HAMPTON ROADS  

          OVERVIEW     o   The  Hampton  Roads  Region  encompasses  six     of  Virginia’s  ten  largest  cities—Virginia     Beach,  Norfolk,  Chesapeake,  Newport  News,     Hampton,  and  Portsmouth.       o   The  region  also  accounts  for  15  percent  of     the  state’s  nonprofit  organizations.  In  2010,     major  nonprofits  based  in  the  region  in-­‐   cluded  Sentara  Hospitals,  Optima  Health     Plan,  Operation  Blessing  International  Relief     &  Development  Corp,  Riverside  Healthcare     Association,  and  Children’s  Hospital  of  the     TABLE B6.1).   Kings  Daughters  (           REGIONAL  SNAPSHOT:  NONPROFIT  EMPLOYMENT     o   With  54,313  nonprofit  employees,  the  region  accounted  for     23.1  percent  of  Virginia’s  nonprofit  employment  in  2011.  This     proportion  is  above  the  region’s  share  of  the  state’s  total  popu-­‐   lation  (23.1  percent  vs.  20.6  percent)  (TABLE B6.2).       o   Moreover,  nonprofit  employment  in  the  Hampton  Roads  Re-­‐     gion  accounted  for  7.8  percent  of  the  region’s  total  employ-­‐   ment,  ranking  it  above  the  state  average  of  6.6  percent.       o   Between  2000  and  2011,  Hampton  Roads  nonprofits  achieved  an  annual  average     growth  rate  of  1.8  percent.    While  this  is  roughly  equivalent  to  the  statewide  aver-­‐   age  of  2.0  percent,  Hampton  Roads  nonprofits  well  outperformed  the  region’s  for-­‐   profits  (1.8  percent  vs.  -­‐ 0.2  percent,  respectively),  which  suffered  net  jobs  loses     over  this  11-­‐ year  period.         REGIONAL  SNAPSHOT:  NONPROFIT  FINANCES     o   Hampton  Roads  Region  nonprofits  generated  nearly  $8.5  billion  in  revenues  (21.6     percent  of  the  state’s  total  nonprofit  revenues)  and  held  nearly  $12.8  billion  in  as-­‐   sets  (16.4  percent  of  the  state’s  total  nonprofit  assets)  in  2010   (TABLE B6.3).       o   The  bulk  of  these  revenues  were  generated  by  hospitals  (45  percent).     o   Similarly,  the  bulk  (35  percent)  of  the  region’s  total  assets  were  held  by  hospitals.       Other  fields  holding  substantial  shares  of  the  region’s  total  assets  include  religious,     grantmaking,  and  civic  associations  (19  percent)  and  arts,  entertainment  and     TABLE B6.4).   recreation  (16  percent)  (     o   These  organizations  expended  roughly  $8.2  billion  (21.6  percent  of  the  state’s  total     nonprofit  expenditures)  in  2010.  This  translates  into  $4,925  of  expenditures  per  ca-­‐   pita,  which  is  4  percent  higher  that  the  state  average.            

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B6.1:    Largest  nonprofit  organizations,  by  total  revenue,  Hampton  Roads,  2010*   TABLE     NAME   CITY   FIELD    TOTAL  REVENUE       Sentara  Hospitals   Norfolk   Hospitals   $1,781,099,735       Optima  Health  Plan   Norfolk   Finance  and  insurance   $1,096,722,022       Operation  Blessing  International  Relief  &  Development  Corp.   Virginia  Beach   Civic  associations   $473,062,348       Riverside  Healthcare  Association  Inc.   Newport  News   Hospitals   $433,397,260       Children's  Hospital  of  the  Kings  Daughters  Inc.   Norfolk   Hospitals   $285,514,256         *  Based  on  industry  classification  code  in  the  IRS  990  file.                     TABLE   B6.2: Nonprofit  employment  in  Hampton  Roads,  in  comparison  to  private  employment,  2010     NONPROFIT       NONPROFIT     EMPLOYMENT  AS  A     NONPROFIT   FINANCE  AND   EMPLOYMENT  AS  A   SHARE  OF  TOTAL     EMPLOYMENT   INSURANCE      TOTAL     SHARE  OF  TOTAL     STATE  NONPROFIT     REGION   501(c)(3)†   EMPLOYMENT   EMPLOYMENT     EMPLOYMENT   EMPLOYMENT     UNITED  STATES  TOTAL   10,681,388   5,520,828   127,820,442   8.4%       VIRGINIA  TOTAL   235,113     122,917     3,567,444     6.6%   100.0%       HAMPTON  ROADS  TOTAL   54,313     20,799     697,689     7.8%   23.1%     Chesapeake  (city)   2,849     2,616     94,239     3.0%   1.2%     Franklin  (city)   200     167     4,063     4.9%   0.1%     Gloucester   835     244     9,400     8.9%   0.4%     Hampton  (city)   4,668     797     54,712     8.5%   2.0%     Isle  of  Wight   395     215     9,662     4.1%   0.2%     James  City   1,183     434     26,530     4.5%   0.5%     Mathews   200     28     1,143     17.5%   0.1%     Newport  News  (city)   7,628     1,593     95,847     8.0%   3.2%     Norfolk  (city)   17,893     5,494     137,746     13.0%   7.6%       Poquoson  (city)   –   –     –     –   –     Portsmouth  (city)   3,273     544     43,071     7.6%   1.4%     Suffolk  (city)   1,907     365     24,651     7.7%   0.8%     Surry   200     13     2,409     8.3%   0.1%     Virginia  Beach  (city)   10,113     7,822     162,690     6.2%   4.3%     Williamsburg  (city)   2,469     209     10,166     24.3%   1.1%       York   501     258     21,360     2.3%   0.2%     †  Italics  indicate  estimated  values  for  data  missing  due  to  disclosure  rules       –  Data  unavailable  because  of  federal  restrictions  on  the  disclosure  of  data  that  can  identify  individual  employers                      

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B6.3:    Nonprofit  finances  in  Hampton  Roads  vs.  Virginia  and  the  nation,  2010   TABLE     NUMBER     EXPENDITURES       REGION   OF  ENTITIES   TOTAL  REVENUES   EXPENDITURES   PER  CAPITA   ASSETS     367,146   $1,561,327,700,780   $1,501,952,938,289   $4,856   $2,809,461,093,514   UNITED  STATES  TOTAL     VIRGINIA  TOTAL   10,835   $39,225,748,030   $37,916,644,743   $4,725   $77,975,764,822     HAMPTON  ROADS  TOTAL   1,575   $8,487,546,741   $8,172,157,120   $4,925   $12,778,028,514     Chesapeake  (city)   163   $55,980,864   $56,859,520   $255   $137,503,439     Franklin  (city)   18   $12,607,197   $11,268,615   $1,306   $24,589,008     Gloucester   37   $17,507,245   $16,480,992   $446   $32,083,367     Hampton  (city)   99   $164,403,087   $154,123,211   $1,122   $168,931,478       Isle  of  Wight   37   $7,950,271   $7,260,393   $206   $15,634,726     James  City   108   $114,390,241   $113,411,374   $1,684   $246,516,134     Mathews   19   $4,376,238   $3,133,856   $349   $6,459,743     Newport  News  (city)   145   $1,108,016,553   $1,118,803,979   $6,194   $1,591,776,722     Norfolk  (city)   312   $5,385,233,129   $5,072,711,679   $20,883   $6,402,009,232     Poquoson  (city)   10   $971,955   $556,058   $46   $1,520,824     Portsmouth  (city)   74   $44,033,931   $42,221,169   $442   $82,015,716     Suffolk  (city)   52   $40,900,692   $35,801,598   $422   $87,476,625       Surry   6   $762,006   $717,715   $102   $893,626     Virginia  Beach  (city)   402   $1,368,304,804   $1,352,787,562   $3,081   $1,823,118,691     Williamsburg  (city)   44   $156,743,038   $180,839,904   $12,794   $2,145,837,002     York   49   $5,365,490   $5,179,495   $79   $11,662,181               TABLE   B6.4:    Nonprofit  finances  in  Hampton  Roads  by  field,  2010         REVENUE  AS   ASSETS     A  SHARE  OF   SHARE  OF     TOTAL     TOTAL       NUMBER   REGIONAL   REGIONAL     FIELD   OF  ENTITIES   TOTAL  REVENUES   REVENUE   ASSETS   ASSETS     UNITED  STATES  TOTAL   367,146   $1,561,327,700,780   100.0%   $2,809,461,093,514   100.0%     VIRGINIA  TOTAL   10,835   $39,225,748,030   100.0%   $77,975,764,822   100.0%     HAMPTON  ROADS  TOTAL   1,575   $8,487,546,741   100.0%   $12,778,028,514   100.0%     Hospitals   19   $3,782,637,247   44.6%   $4,527,451,023   35.4%     Civic  associations   728   $920,080,794   10.8%   $2,435,811,740   19.1%       Ambulatory  health   69   $779,406,885   9.2%   $401,134,978   3.1%     Social  assistance   226   $351,555,587   4.1%   $396,962,568   3.1%     Nursing  homes   53   $325,833,694   3.8%   $755,569,403   5.9%     Universities   10   $288,872,821   3.4%   $1,218,291,216   9.5%     Arts  and  recreation   284   $243,646,039   2.9%   $1,999,556,067   15.6%     Elementary  and  secondary  schools   35   $101,914,771   1.2%   $218,932,079   1.7%     Other   151   $1,693,598,903   20.0%   $824,319,440   6.5%             Virginia's nonprofit sector: SHAPING THE ECONOMIC, CULTURAL, AND SOCIAL LANDSCAPE |  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Bulletin  #41    |  49


B7: VALLEY REGION  

          OVERVIEW     o     The  Valley  Region  encompasses  several  of  Virginia’s  smaller  cities—   Buena  Vista,  Covington,  Harrisonburg,  Lexington,  Staunton,  Waynes-­‐   boro,  and  Winchester.     The  region  accounts  for  six  percent  of  the  state’s  nonprofit   o  

  organizations.  In  2010,  major  nonprofits  based  in  the  region     included  several  hospitals—Valley  Health  System,  Rocking-­‐   ham  Memorial  Hospital,  and  Augusta  Health  Care—as  well     as  Washington  &  Lee  University  and  the  professional  associ-­‐   ation,  the  Academy  of  Managed  Care  Pharmacy  (TABLE B7.1).             REGIONAL  SNAPSHOT:  NONPROFIT  EMPLOYMENT     o   With  17,024  nonprofit  employees,  the  region  accounted  for     7.2  percent  of  Virginia’s  nonprofit  employment  in  2011.  This     proportion  is  well  above  the  region’s  share  of  the  state’s  to-­‐   tal  population  (7.2  percent  vs.  6.0  percent)  (TABLE B7.2).     o     Similarly,  nonprofit  employment  in  the  Valley  Region  ac-­‐   counted  for  9.0  percent  of  the  region’s  total  employment,     which  is  well  above  the  state  average  of  6.6  percent.     o   Between  2000  and  2011,  Valley  Region  nonprofits     achieved  an  annual  average  growth  rate  of  3.5  per-­‐   cent,  exceeding  the  state  average  of  2.0  percent.       Valley  Region  nonprofits  also  well  outperformed     the  region’s  for-­‐profits  (3.5  percent  vs.  -­‐0.5  percent,     respectively),  which  suffered  net  jobs  loses  over     this  11-­‐year  period.           REGIONAL  SNAPSHOT:  NONPROFIT  FINANCES       o     Valley  Region  nonprofits  generated  nearly  $2.7  billion  in  revenues  (6.8  percent  of     the  state’s  total  nonprofit  revenues)  and  held  $6.6  billion  in  assets  (8.5  percent  of     the  state’s  total  nonprofit  assets)  in  2010  (TABLE B7.3).     o   Nearly  two-­‐thirds  (64  percent)  of  the  region’s  total  revenues  were  generated  by     hospitals.  Nonprofit  higher  education  institutions  also  played  a  key  economic  role,     generating  15  percent  of  the  total.     o     Similarly,  the  bulk  (44  percent)  of  the  region’s  total  assets  were  held  by  hospitals.       Other  fields  holding  substantial  shares  of  the  region’s  total  assets  include  colleges     and  universities  (28  percent)  and  religious,  grantmaking,  and  civic  associations  (14     percent)  (TABLE B7.4).     o   Valley  nonprofits  expended  over  $2.5  billion  (6.6  percent  of  the  state’s  total  non-­‐   profit  expenditures)  in  2010.  This  translates  into  $5,234  of  expenditures  per  capita,     which  is  11  percent  more  than  the  state  average.          

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B7.1:    Largest  nonprofit  organizations,  by  total  revenue,  Valley  Region,  2010*   TABLE     NAME   CITY   FIELD    TOTAL  REVENUE       Hospitals   $344,832,235     Valley  Health  System   Winchester     Hospitals   $318,201,738     Rockingham  Memorial  Hospital   Harrisonburg     Hospitals   $273,488,403     Augusta  Health  Care  Inc.   Fishersville     Education   $163,310,948     Washington  &  Lee  University   Lexington     Education   $87,742,813     Academy  of  Managed  Care  Pharmacy   Winchester       *  Based  on  industry  classification  code  in  the  IRS  990  file.                     TABLE   B7.2: Nonprofit  employment  in  Valley  Virginia,  in  comparison  to  private  employment,  2010     NONPROFIT       NONPROFIT     EMPLOYMENT  AS  A     NONPROFIT   FINANCE  AND   EMPLOYMENT  AS  A   SHARE  OF  TOTAL     EMPLOYMENT   INSURANCE      TOTAL     SHARE  OF  TOTAL     STATE  NONPROFIT     REGION   501(c)(3)†   EMPLOYMENT   EMPLOYMENT     EMPLOYMENT   EMPLOYMENT     UNITED  STATES  TOTAL   10,681,388   5,520,828   127,820,442   8.4%       VIRGINIA  TOTAL   235,113     122,917     3,567,444     6.6%   100.0%       VALLEY  REGION  TOTAL   17,024     4,071     188,508     9.0%   7.2%     Alleghany   200     37     4,205     4.7%   0.1%     Augusta   200     302     24,902     0.8%   0.1%     Bath   200     11     2,169     9.2%   0.1%     Buena  Vista  (city)   200     34     2,162     9.2%   0.1%     Covington  (city)   200     105     3,737     5.3%   0.1%     Frederick   642     757     24,369     2.6%   0.3%     Harrisonburg  (city)   3,632     835     25,377     14.3%   1.5%     Highland   200     –     502     39.8%   0.1%     Lexington  (city)   1,770     131     3,733     47.4%   0.8%       Page   246     95     5,580     4.4%   0.1%     Rockbridge   183     76     5,030     3.6%   0.1%     Rockingham   2,011     232     27,791     7.2%   0.9%     Shenandoah   452     299     13,392     3.4%   0.2%     Staunton  (city)   803     300     11,173     7.2%   0.3%     Waynesboro  (city)   375     247     9,209     4.1%   0.2%       Winchester  (city)   5,712     610     25,178     22.7%   2.4%     †  Italics  indicate  estimated  values  for  data  missing  due  to  disclosure  rules       –  Data  unavailable  because  of  federal  restrictions  on  the  disclosure  of  data  that  can  identify  individual  employers                      

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B7.3:  Nonprofit  finances  in  Valley  Virginia  vs.  Virginia  and  the  nation,  2010   TABLE     NUMBER     EXPENDITURES       REGION   OF  ENTITIES   TOTAL  REVENUES   EXPENDITURES   PER  CAPITA   ASSETS     367,146   $1,561,327,700,780   $1,501,952,938,289   $4,856   $2,809,461,093,514   UNITED  STATES  TOTAL     VIRGINIA  TOTAL   10,835   $39,225,748,030   $37,916,644,743   $4,725   $77,975,764,822     VALLEY  REGION  TOTAL   693   $2,658,680,919   $2,512,388,919   $5,234   $6,600,652,331     Alleghany   13   $2,729,179   $2,330,723   $144   $13,947,061     Augusta   62   $331,570,026   $293,852,085   $3,990   $422,276,989     Bath   15   $16,741,181   $14,338,889   $3,035   $31,033,499     Buena  Vista  (city)   6   $18,172,973   $18,006,884   $2,712   $27,754,710       Covington  (city)   17   $6,782,529   $5,905,290   $988   $16,580,861     Frederick   45   $33,840,293   $31,285,185   $398   $137,227,892     Harrisonburg  (city)   114   $515,492,172   $512,638,933   $10,452   $1,297,052,306     Highland   12   $2,831,977   $3,018,949   $1,306   $4,585,842     Lexington  (city)   55   $227,321,219   $219,173,059   $31,000   $1,860,665,906     Page   24   $8,686,544   $8,304,912   $345   $29,136,469     Rockbridge   8   $3,537,854   $3,377,881   $152   $8,219,470     Rockingham   65   $108,371,489   $101,060,629   $1,323   $260,407,207       Shenandoah   63   $20,921,432   $20,236,317   $481   $74,260,161     Staunton  (city)   60   $62,087,015   $64,331,185   $2,705   $109,793,990     Waynesboro  (city)   45   $18,883,396   $18,647,827   $885   $42,471,821     Winchester  (city)   89   $1,280,711,640   $1,195,880,171   $45,549   $2,265,238,147               TABLE   B7.4:    Nonprofit  finances  in  Valley  Virginia  by  field,  2010         REVENUE  AS   ASSETS     A  SHARE  OF   SHARE  OF     TOTAL     TOTAL       NUMBER  OF   REGIONAL   REGIONAL     FIELD   ENTITIES   TOTAL  REVENUES   REVENUE   ASSETS   ASSETS     UNITED  STATES  TOTAL   367,146   $1,561,327,700,780   100.0%   $2,809,461,093,514   100.0%     VIRGINIA  TOTAL   10,835   $39,225,748,030   100.0%   $77,975,764,822   100.0%     VALLEY  REGION  TOTAL   693   $2,658,680,919   100.0%   $6,600,652,331   100.0%     Hospitals   11   $1,696,581,432   63.8%   $2,906,138,226   44.0%       Universities   8   $408,237,367   15.4%   $1,850,624,520   28.0%     Nursing  homes   19   $174,573,505   6.6%   $454,735,687   6.9%     Civic  associations   253   $123,337,128   4.6%   $925,629,179   14.0%     Social  assistance   157   $94,730,143   3.6%   $154,266,828   2.3%     Ambulatory  health   38   $47,511,781   1.8%   $58,200,531   0.9%     Elementary  and  secondary  schools   17   $23,225,530   0.9%   $46,434,369   0.7%     Arts  and  recreation   92   $22,570,229   0.8%   $81,372,428   1.2%     Other   98   $67,913,804   2.6%   $123,250,563   1.9%             52    |  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Bulletin  #41    |  Virginia's nonprofit sector: SHAPING THE ECONOMIC, CULTURAL, AND SOCIAL LANDSCAPE  


B8: WEST CENTRAL REGION             OVERVIEW     o     The  West  Central  Region  encompasses     Roanoke,  one  of  Virginia’s  largest  cities.   o     The  region  accounts  for  nine  

  percent  of  the  state’s  non-­‐   profit  organizations.  In  2010,     major  nonprofits  based  in     the  region  include  Carilion     Medical  Center,  Centra     Health,  Liberty  University,     World  Help,  and  Virginia     Tech  Foundation  (TABLE   B8.1).             REGIONAL  SNAPSHOT:       NONPROFIT  EMPLOYMENT     o   With  26,027  nonprofit  employees,     the  region  accounted  for  11.1  per-­‐     cent  of  Virginia’s  nonprofit  employ-­‐   ment  in  2011,  which  is  markedly       above  the  region’s  share  of  the  state’s  total  population     (11.1  percent  vs.  9.0  percent)  (TABLE B8.2).     o     Similarly,  nonprofit  employment  in  the  West  Central  Region  accounted  for  9.1  percent  of     the  region’s  total  employment,  which  is  well  above  the  state  average  of  6.6  percent.     o   Between  2000  and  2011,  West  Central  nonprofits  achieved  an  annual  average  growth  rate     of  1.9  percent.    While  this  is  roughly  equivalent  to  the  statewide  average  of  2.0  percent,     West  Central  nonprofits  well  outperformed  the  region’s  for-­‐profits  (1.9  percent  vs.  -­‐0.9     percent,  respectively),  which  suffered  net  jobs  loses  over  this  11-­‐year  period.           REGIONAL  SNAPSHOT:  NONPROFIT  FINANCES   o     West  Central  Region  nonprofits  generated  over  $3.9  billion  in  revenues  (10.0  percent  of     the  state’s  total  nonprofit  revenues)  and  held  nearly  $6.9  billion  in  assets  (8.8  percent  of     the  state’s  total  nonprofit  assets)  in  2010  (TABLE B8.3).     o   Nearly  half  (49  percent)  of  the  region’s  total  revenues  were  generated  by  hospitals.  Non-­‐   profit  higher  education  institutions  and  religious,  grantmaking,  and  civic  associations  also     played  a  significant  economic  role,  generating  22  and  13  percents,  respectively,  of  the  to-­‐   tal.     o     The  vast  majority  (82  percent)  of  the  region’s  total  assets  were  also  held  by  these  three     fields,  i.e.,  hospitals  (35  percent),  religious,  grantmaking  and  civic  associations  (24  per-­‐   cent),  and  higher  education  (23  percent)  (TABLE B8.4).     o   West  Central  nonprofits  expended  over  $3.6  billion  (9.6  percent  of  the  state’s  total  non-­‐   profit  expenditures)  in  2010.    This  translates  into  $5,034  of  expenditures  per  capita,     which  is  7  percent  more  than  the  state  average.      

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B8.1:    Largest  nonprofit  organizations,  by  total  revenue,  West  Central  Region,  2010*   TABLE     NAME   CITY   FIELD    TOTAL  REVENUE       Carilion  Medical  Center   Roanoke   Hospitals   $859,175,661       Centra  Health  Inc.   Lynchburg   Hospitals   $591,464,163       Liberty  University  Inc.   Lynchburg   Education   $518,575,106       World  Help   Forest   Civic  association   $125,085,525       Virginia  Tech  Foundation   Blacksburg   Civic  association   $120,119,321       *  Based  on  industry   classification  code  in  the  IRS  990  file.                       B8.2: Nonprofit  employment  in  West  Central  Virginia,  in  comparison  to  private  employment,  2010   TABLE     NONPROFIT       NONPROFIT     EMPLOYMENT  AS  A     NONPROFIT   FINANCE  AND   EMPLOYMENT  AS  A   SHARE  OF  TOTAL     EMPLOYMENT   INSURANCE      TOTAL     SHARE  OF  TOTAL     STATE  NONPROFIT   REGION   501(c)(3)†   EMPLOYMENT   EMPLOYMENT     EMPLOYMENT   EMPLOYMENT       UNITED  STATES  TOTAL   10,681,388   5,520,828   127,820,442   8.4%       VIRGINIA  TOTAL   235,113     122,917     3,567,444     6.6%   100.0%     WEST  CENTRAL  REGION  TOTAL   26,027     10,099     286,063     9.1%   11.1%     Amherst   651     133     6,256     10.4%   0.3%     Appomattox   200     47     3,178     6.3%   0.1%     Bedford   330     297     15,229     2.2%   0.1%     Bedford  (city)   145     123     3,248     4.5%   0.1%     Botetourt   200     128     9,118     2.2%   0.1%     Campbell   286     378     15,638     1.8%   0.1%     Craig   200     32     657     30.4%   0.1%       Franklin   915     253     12,970     7.1%   0.4%     Giles   408     80     4,820     8.5%   0.2%     Lynchburg  (city)   7,653     2,304     50,238     15.2%   3.3%     Montgomery   2,198     545     26,928     8.2%   0.9%     Pulaski   117     151     12,123     1.0%   0.0%     Radford  (city)   200     148     3,927     5.1%   0.1%     Roanoke   2,135     2,147     34,104     6.3%   0.9%       Roanoke  (city)   9,488     2,821     65,283     14.5%   4.0%     Salem  (city)   902     514     22,346     4.0%   0.4%     †  Italics  indicate  estimated  values  for  data  missing  due  to  disclosure  rules                          

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B8.3:    Nonprofit  finances  in  West  Central  Virginia  vs.  Virginia  and  the  nation,  2010   TABLE     NUMBER     EXPENDITURES       REGION   OF  ENTITIES   TOTAL  REVENUES   EXPENDITURES   PER  CAPITA   ASSETS     367,146   $1,561,327,700,780   $1,501,952,938,289   $4,856   $2,809,461,093,514   UNITED  STATES  TOTAL     VIRGINIA  TOTAL   10,835   $39,225,748,030   $37,916,644,743   $4,725   $77,975,764,822     WEST  CENTRAL  REGION  TOTAL   937   $3,935,351,592   $3,648,090,771   $5,034   $6,861,286,787     Amherst   23   $45,835,107   $49,505,563   $1,530   $184,956,696     Appomattox   13   $2,545,625   $2,283,640   $152   $5,651,021     Bedford   88   $171,834,846   $163,620,690   $2,380   $88,375,308     Bedford  (city)   -­‐   -­‐   -­‐   -­‐   -­‐       Botetourt   30   $4,246,977   $4,713,072   $142   $13,250,639     Campbell   39   $52,403,684   $51,109,259   $931   $69,518,009     Craig   5   $633,185   $531,951   $102   $885,633     Franklin   53   $58,903,166   $56,401,493   $1,003   $131,259,091     Giles   18   $10,181,014   $9,997,117   $578   $10,674,512     Lynchburg  (city)   163   $1,357,336,503   $1,170,788,941   $15,463   $2,036,672,352     Montgomery   129   $261,747,510   $222,343,075   $2,353   $1,348,530,940     Pulaski   22   $6,661,711   $5,547,485   $159   $16,665,836       Radford  (city)   22   $12,651,720   $14,360,947   $873   $65,042,113     Roanoke   108   $239,742,797   $222,137,228   $2,406   $430,008,909     Roanoke  (city)   181   $1,531,676,927   $1,496,800,336   $15,454   $2,107,940,287     Salem  (city)   43   $178,950,820   $177,949,974   $7,156   $351,855,441       ��       TABLE   B8.4:    Nonprofit  finances  in  West  Central  Virginia  by  field,  2010         REVENUE  AS   ASSETS     A  SHARE  OF   SHARE  OF     TOTAL     TOTAL       NUMBER  OF   REGIONAL   REGIONAL     FIELD   ENTITIES   TOTAL  REVENUES   REVENUE   ASSETS   ASSETS     UNITED  STATES  TOTAL   367,146   $1,561,327,700,780   100.0%   $2,809,461,093,514   100.0%     VIRGINIA  TOTAL   10,835   $39,225,748,030   100.0%   $77,975,764,822   100.0%     WEST  CENTRAL  REGION  TOTAL   937   $3,935,351,592   100.0%   $6,861,286,787   100.0%     Hospitals   12   $1,912,542,992   48.6%   $2,380,827,797   34.7%       Universities   11   $862,090,044   21.9%   $1,636,006,998   23.8%     Civic  associations   396   $498,082,469   12.7%   $1,597,513,631   23.3%     Social  assistance   175   $262,349,166   6.7%   $371,197,981   5.4%     Nursing  homes   45   $211,945,217   5.4%   $463,535,211   6.8%     Arts  and  recreation   109   $41,851,786   1.1%   $147,928,806   2.2%     Ambulatory  health   55   $32,065,843   0.8%   $45,357,376   0.7%     Elementary  and  secondary  schools   23   $28,039,413   0.7%   $64,461,172   0.9%     Other   111   $86,384,662   2.2%   $154,457,815   2.3%             Virginia's nonprofit sector: SHAPING THE ECONOMIC, CULTURAL, AND SOCIAL LANDSCAPE |  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Bulletin  #41    |  55


B9: COMMUNITY FOUNDATION  

          OVERVIEW     o   The  Community  Foundation  Serving  Rich-­‐   mond  and  Central  Virginia  Service  Area  en-­‐   compasses  Richmond,  one  of  Virginia’s  largest     cities.       o   The  service  area  accounts  for  14  percent  of     the  state’s  nonprofit  organizations.  In  2010,     major  nonprofits  based  in  the  region  included     several  health-­‐ focused  organizations—St.     Mary’s  Hospital  of  Richmond,  Bon  Secours     Memorial  Regional  Medical  Center,  MCV  As-­‐   sociated  Physicians,  and  Bon  Secours  St.  Fran-­‐   cis  Medical  Center—and  the  civic  group,     TABLE B9.1).   Childfund  International  USA  (           REGIONAL  SNAPSHOT:  NONPROFIT  EMPLOYMENT     o   With  27,889  nonprofit  employees,  the  service  area  accounted  for     11.9  percent  of  Virginia’s  nonprofit  employment  in  2010,   which  is       slightly  below  the  area’s  share  of  the  state’s  total  population  (11.9       B9.2).   percent  vs.  13.1  percent)  (TABLE   o   Similarly,  nonprofit  employment  in  The  Community  Foundation  Serving  Richmond  and  Central  Virginia  Ser-­‐   vice  Area  accounted  for  5.3  percent  of  the  area’s  total  employment,  ranking  it  below  the  state  average  of  6.6     percent.       o   Between  2000  and  2011,  nonprofits  in  this  area  achieved  an  annual  average  growth  rate  of  3.0  percent,  ex-­‐   ceeding  the  state  average  of  2.0.    Area  nonprofits  also  well  outperformed  the  region’s  for-­‐ profits  (3.0  percent     0.2  percent,  respectively),  which  suffered  net  jobs  loses  over  this  11-­‐year  period.   vs.  -­‐           REGIONAL  SNAPSHOT:  NONPROFIT  FINANCES     o   The  Community  Foundation  Serving  Richmond  and  Central  Virginia  Service  Area  nonprofits  generated  nearly     $3.6  billion  in  revenues  (9.2  percent  of  the  state’s  total  nonprofit  revenues)  and  held  over  $7.3  billion  in  assets     (9.4  percent  of  the  state’s  total  nonprofit  assets)  in  2010  (TABLE B9.3).       o   The  bulk  (40  percent)  of  the  service  area’s  total  revenues  were  generated  by  hospitals.  Nonprofit  religious,     grantmaking,  and  civic  associations  and  ambulatory  health  organizations  also  played  a  significant  economic     role,  generating  18  and  15  percents,  respectively,  of  the  total.     o   By  contrast,  the  bulk  (41  percent)  of  the  service  area’s  assets  were  held  by  religious,  grantmaking,  and  civic  as-­‐   sociations.  Other  fields  holding  considerable  shares  include  hospitals  (16  percent)  and  nursing  and  residential     care  (13  percent)  (TABLE B9.4).       o   The  service  area’s  nonprofits  expended  $3.5  billion  (9.2  percent  of  the  state’s  total  nonprofit  expenditures)  in     2010.  This  translates  into  $3,334  of   expenditures  per  capita,  which  falls  29  percent  behind  the  state  average.            

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B9.1:    Largest  nonprofit  organizations,  by  total  revenue,  Community  Foundation  Service  Area,  2010*   TABLE     NAME   CITY   FIELD    TOTAL  REVENUE       Hospitals   $608,747,034     St.  Mary's  Hospital  of  Richmond  Inc.   Richmond     Hospitals   $296,325,732     Bon  Secours  Memorial  Regional  Medical  Center  Inc.   Richmond     Civic  associations   $215,772,220     Childfund  International  USA   Richmond     Ambulatory  health   $208,751,097     MCV  Associated  Physicians   Richmond     Hospitals   $196,841,021     Bon  Secours  St.  Francis  Medical  Center  Inc.   Richmond       *  Based  on  industry  classification  code  in  the  IRS  990  file.                       B9.2: Nonprofit  employment  in  Community  Foundation  Service  Area,  in  comparison  to  private  employment,  2010   TABLE     NONPROFIT       NONPROFIT     EMPLOYMENT  AS  A     NONPROFIT   FINANCE  AND   EMPLOYMENT  AS  A   SHARE  OF  TOTAL     EMPLOYMENT   INSURANCE      TOTAL     SHARE  OF  TOTAL     STATE  NONPROFIT     REGION   501(c)(3)†   EMPLOYMENT   EMPLOYMENT     EMPLOYMENT   EMPLOYMENT     UNITED  STATES  TOTAL   10,681,388   5,520,828   127,820,442   8.4%       VIRGINIA  TOTAL   235,113     122,917     3,567,444     6.6%   100.0%     COMMUNITY  FOUNDATION   27,889     30,810     529,086     5.3%   11.9%     SERVICE  AREA  TOTAL     Chesterfield   2,864     5,010     113,205     2.5%   1.2%     Colonial  Heights  (city)   200     239     10,480     1.9%   0.1%     Goochland   200     –     10,984     1.8%   0.1%     Hanover   3,097     718     44,540     7.0%   1.3%     Henrico   9,861     17,092     172,193     5.7%   4.2%     Hopewell    (city)   200     158     7,802     2.6%   0.1%     Petersburg    (city)   335     283     14,187     2.4%   0.1%       Powhatan   200     463     6,451     3.1%   0.1%     Richmond    (city)   10,933     6,846     149,244     7.3%   4.7%     †  Italics  indicate  estimated  values  for  data  missing  due  to  disclosure  rules     –  Data  unavailable  because  of  federal  restrictions  on  the  disclosure  of  data  that  can  identify  individual  employers                                      

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B9.3:    Nonprofit  finances  in  the  Community  Foundation  Service  Area  vs.  Virginia  and  the  nation,  2010   TABLE     NUMBER     EXPENDITURES       REGION   OF  ENTITIES   TOTAL  REVENUES   EXPENDITURES   PER  CAPITA   ASSETS     367,146   $1,561,327,700,780   $1,501,952,938,289   $4,856   $2,809,461,093,514   UNITED  STATES  TOTAL     VIRGINIA  TOTAL   10,835   $39,225,748,030   $37,916,644,743   $4,725   $77,975,764,822     CF  SERVICE  AREA  TOTAL   1,478   $3,599,655,327   $3,505,003,959   $3,334   $7,334,315,776     Chesterfield   275   $220,230,493   $212,656,505   $671   $302,765,397     Colonial  Heights  (city)   20   $4,211,918   $3,922,582   $226   $4,855,901     Goochland   26   $12,872,436   $12,103,168   $556   $19,275,717     Hanover   130   $222,320,985   $224,047,787   $2,241   $662,223,708     Henrico   497   $2,004,273,224   $1,913,924,820   $6,226   $3,043,597,098       Hopewell    (city)   13   $4,229,633   $4,552,609   $201   $39,296,514     Petersburg    (city)   57   $33,390,515   $42,461,574   $1,304   $194,415,607     Powhatan   20   $1,742,647   $1,762,015   $63   $4,536,236     Richmond    (city)   440   $1,096,383,476   $1,089,572,899   $5,337   $3,063,349,598                         TABLE   B9.4:    Nonprofit  finances  in  the  Community  Foundation  Service  Area  by  field,  2010         REVENUE  AS   ASSETS     A  SHARE  OF   SHARE  OF     TOTAL     TOTAL       NUMBER  OF   REGIONAL   REGIONAL     FIELD   ENTITIES   TOTAL  REVENUES   REVENUE   ASSETS   ASSETS     UNITED  STATES  TOTAL   367,146   $1,561,327,700,780   100.0%   $2,809,461,093,514   100.0%     VIRGINIA  TOTAL   10,835   $39,225,748,030   100.0%   $77,975,764,822   100.0%     CF  SERVICE  AREA  TOTAL   1,478   $3,599,655,327   100.0%   $7,334,315,776   100.0%     Hospitals   13   $1,432,439,515   39.8%   $1,179,960,428   16.1%     Civic  associations   715   $656,024,389   18.2%   $2,999,020,902   40.9%     Ambulatory  health   78   $541,840,384   15.1%   $454,072,664   6.2%       Social  assistance   182   $321,215,317   8.9%   $390,353,898   5.3%     Nursing  homes   42   $218,349,396   6.1%   $984,031,971   13.4%     Arts  and  recreation   211   $115,041,957   3.2%   $530,300,825   7.2%     Universities   6   $102,012,349   2.8%   $306,467,277   4.2%     Elementary  and  secondary  schools   38   $81,717,350   2.3%   $193,908,711   2.6%     Other   193   $131,014,670   3.6%   $296,199,100   4.0%                       58    |  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Bulletin  #41    |  Virginia's nonprofit sector: SHAPING THE ECONOMIC, CULTURAL, AND SOCIAL LANDSCAPE  


B10: DANVILLE REGIONAL SERVICE AREA             OVERVIEW     o     The  Danville  Regional  Service  Area  encompasses  Virginia’s  Pittsylvania     County  and  the  City  of  Danville,  as  well  as  Caswell  County,  which  is  lo-­‐   cated  in  North  Carolina.   o     In  2010,  major  nonprofits  based  in  the  region  included  Averett  Univer-­‐

  sity,  Roman  Eagle  Memorial  Home,  Danville  Pittsylvania  Community     Services,  Gods  Pit  Crew,  and  Hargrave  Military  Academy  (TABLE 10.1).             REGIONAL  SNAPSHOT:  NONPROFIT  EMPLOYMENT     o   As  of  2011,  1,448  nonprofit  employees  worked  in  the  Danville     Regional  Service  Area,  accounting  for  3.5  percent  of  the  area’s  to-­‐   tal  employment  (TABLE B10.2).     o     Between  2000  and  2011,  Danville  nonprofits  suffered  significant  em-­‐   ployment  losses,  with  employment  decreasing  by  an  average  annual   15   rate  of  -­‐6.1  percent.  While  for-­‐profits  in  the  area  also  shed  jobs  over     this  11-­‐year  period,  they  did  so  at  a  much  slower  rate  (-­‐6.1  percent  vs.     -­‐1.8  percent).             REGIONAL  SNAPSHOT:  NONPROFIT  FINANCES     o   Danville  Regional  Service  Area  nonprofits  generated  nearly  $167.4  million     in  revenues  and  held  nearly  $316.2  million  in  assets  in  2010  (TABLE B10.3).     o     The  vast  majority  (90  percent)  of  the  service  area’s  total  revenues  were  generated  by  five  major  fields—   religious,  grantmaking,  and  civic  associations  (22  percent),  colleges  and  universities  (20  percent),  social  as-­‐   sistance  (17  percent),  nursing  and  residential  care  (16  percent),  and  elementary  and  secondary  schools  (15     percent).     o   By  contrast,  the  bulk  (33  percent)  of  the  service  area’s  assets  were  held  by  elementary  and  secondary     schools.  Other  fields  holding  considerable  shares  include  religious,  grantmaking,  and  civic  associations  (21     percent),  and  colleges  and  universities  (14  percent)  (TABLE B10.4).     o     The  service  area’s  nonprofits  expended  nearly  $149.7  million  in  2010.  This  translates  into  $1,109  of  ex-­‐   penditures  per  capita.                            

 

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B10.1:    Largest  nonprofit  organizations,  by  total  revenue,  Danville  Regional  Service  Area,  2010*   TABLE     NAME   CITY   FIELD    TOTAL  REVENUE       Carilion  Medical  Center   Roanoke   Hospitals   $859,175,661       Centra  Health  Inc.   Lynchburg   Hospitals   $591,464,163       Liberty  University  Inc.   Lynchburg   Education   $518,575,106       Carilion  Services  Inc.   Roanoke   Hospitals   $186,007,289       Carilion  New  River  Valley  Medical  Center   Roanoke   Hospitals   $136,056,083         *  Based  on  industry  classification  code  in  the  IRS  990  file.                           B10.2: Nonprofit  employment  in  Danville  Regional  Service  Area,  in  comparison  to  private  employment,  2010   TABLE     NONPROFIT       NONPROFIT     EMPLOYMENT  AS  A     NONPROFIT   FINANCE  AND   EMPLOYMENT  AS  A   SHARE  OF  TOTAL     EMPLOYMENT   INSURANCE  EM-­‐  TOTAL     SHARE  OF  TOTAL     STATE  NONPROFIT     REGION   501(c)(3)   PLOYMENT   EMPLOYMENT     EMPLOYMENT   EMPLOYMENT     UNITED  STATES  TOTAL   10,681,388   5,520,828   127,820,442   8.4%       VIRGINIA  TOTAL   235,113     122,917     3,567,444     6.6%   100.0%     DANVILLE  REGIONAL  SERVICE   1,448     810     41,232     3.5%   0.6%     AREA  TOTAL     Caswell,  NC   805     689     26,495     3.0%   0.3%     Danville  (city)   512     121     11,505     4.5%   0.2%     Pittsylvania   131     –     3,232     4.1%   0.1%     –  Data  unavailable  because  of  federal  restrictions  on  the  disclosure  of  data  that  can  identify  individual  employers                                                    

 

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B10.3:  Nonprofit  finances  in  the  Danville  Regional  Service  Area  vs.  Virginia  and  the  nation,  2010   TABLE     NUMBER     EXPENDITURES       REGION   OF  ENTITIES   TOTAL  REVENUES   EXPENDITURES   PER  CAPITA   ASSETS     367,146   $1,561,327,700,780   $1,501,952,938,289   $4,856   $2,809,461,093,514   UNITED  STATES  TOTAL     VIRGINIA  TOTAL   10,835   $39,225,748,030   $37,916,644,743   $4,725   $77,975,764,822     DANVILLE  REGIONAL     126   $167,364,280   $149,669,092   $1,109   $316,155,500   SERVICE  AREA  TOTAL     Caswell,  NC   9   $4,842,007   $4,038,083   $141   $5,341,064     Danville  (city)   83   $122,345,423   $108,756,482   $2,536   $185,809,992       Pittsylvania   34   $40,176,850   $36,874,527   $581   $125,004,444                         B10.4:  Nonprofit  finances  in  the  Danville  Regional  Service  Area  by  field,  2010   TABLE         REVENUE  AS   ASSETS   A  SHARE  OF   SHARE  OF     TOTAL     TOTAL       NUMBER  OF   REGIONAL   REGIONAL     FIELD   ENTITIES   TOTAL  REVENUES   REVENUE   ASSETS   ASSETS     UNITED  STATES  TOTAL   367,146   $1,561,327,700,780   100.0%   $2,809,461,093,514   100.0%       VIRGINIA  TOTAL   10,835   $39,225,748,030   100.0%   $77,975,764,822   100.0%     DANVILLE  REGIONAL  SERVICE   126   $167,364,280   100.0%   $316,155,500   100.0%     AREA  TOTAL     Civic  associations   42   $37,378,904   22.3%   $67,518,890   21.4%     Universities   1   $33,090,136   19.8%   $45,493,820   14.4%     Social  assistance   31   $28,845,522   17.2%   $30,543,306   9.7%     Nursing  homes   5   $26,749,345   16.0%   $26,561,838   8.4%     Elementary  and  secondary  schools   6   $24,790,233   14.8%   $105,262,567   33.3%     Ambulatory  health   9   $12,042,933   7.2%   $19,659,560   6.2%     Arts  and  recreation   19   $1,702,156   1.0%   $6,034,300   1.9%     Hospitals   3   $710,787   0.4%   $7,235,480   2.3%     Other   10   $2,054,264   1.2%   $7,845,739   2.5%                                 Virginia's nonprofit sector: SHAPING THE ECONOMIC, CULTURAL, AND SOCIAL LANDSCAPE |  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Bulletin  #41    |  61


B11: LOUDOUN SERVICE AREA             OVERVIEW     o     This  area  encompasses  Loudoun  County  and  the  town  of     Leesburg.  

  The  service  area  accounts  for  nearly  4  percent  of  the  state’s   o  

  nonprofit  organizations.  In  2010,  major  nonprofits  based  in     the  region  included  George  Washington  University,  Prison     Fellowship  Ministries,  Air  Force  Retired  Officers  Communi-­‐   ty,  Educap,  and  Patrick  Henry  College  (TABLE 11.1).             REGIONAL  SNAPSHOT:  NONPROFIT  EMPLOYMENT     o   With  4,989  nonprofit  employees,  the  service  area  ac-­‐   counted  for  2.1  percent  of  Virginia’s  nonprofit  employment     in  2011,  which  is  about  half  the  area’s  share  of  the  state’s     total  population  (2.1  percent  vs.  4.0  percent)  (TABLE B11.2).     o     Similarly,  nonprofit  employment  in  Loudoun  Service  Area  accounted  for  just  3.6  percent     of  the  area’s  total  employment,  ranking  it  below  the  state  average  of  6.6  percent.     o   However,  Loudoun  nonprofits  achieved  an  average  annual  growth  rate  of  6.6  percent     between  2000  and  2011.  This  is  above  the  annual  average  rate  of  the  region’s  for-­‐profit     sector  (4  percent)  and  more  than  three  times  the  statewide  average  of  2.0  percent.             REGIONAL  SNAPSHOT:  NONPROFIT  FINANCES     o   Loudoun  Area  nonprofits  generated  over  $1.5  billion  in  revenues  (3.9  percent  of  the  state’s  total  nonprofit  reve-­‐   nues)  and  held  over  $3.8  billion  in  assets  (4.9  percent  of  the  state’s  total  nonprofit  assets)  in  2010  (TABLE B11.3).       Nearly  three-­‐fourths  (74  percent)  of  the  area’s  total  revenues  were  generated  by  its  colleges  and  universities.   o     o   Similarly,  the  vast  majority  (77  percent)  of  the  area’s  assets  were  held  by  colleges  and  universities  (TABLE B11.4).       The  service  area’s  nonprofits  expended  nearly  $1.6  billion  (4.1  percent  of  the  state’s  total  nonprofit  ex-­‐ o     penditures)  in  2010.  This  translates  into  $4,990  of  expenditures  per  capita,  which  is  6  percent  higher  than     the  state  average.                                 62    |  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Bulletin  #41    |  Virginia's nonprofit sector: SHAPING THE ECONOMIC, CULTURAL, AND SOCIAL LANDSCAPE  

 


B11.1:    Largest  nonprofit  organizations,  by  total  revenue,  Loudoun  Service  Area,  2010*   TABLE     NAME   CITY   FIELD    TOTAL  REVENUE       George  Washington  University   Ashburn   Education   $1,129,759,352       Prison  Fellowship  Ministries   Lansdowne   Professional  services   $45,131,032       Air  Force  Retired  Officers  Community-­‐Washington  DC   Sterling   Nursing  homes   $27,031,727       Educap  Inc.   Sterling   Finance  &  insurance   $20,745,777       Patrick  Henry  College   Purcellville   Education   $16,863,973       *  Based  on  industry  classification  code  in  the  IRS  990  file.         TABLE   B11.2: Nonprofit  employment  in  Loudoun  Service  Area,  in  comparison  to  private  employment,  2010     NONPROFIT       NONPROFIT     EMPLOYMENT  AS  A     NONPROFIT   FINANCE  AND   EMPLOYMENT  AS  A   SHARE  OF  TOTAL     EMPLOYMENT   INSURANCE  EM-­‐  TOTAL     SHARE  OF  TOTAL     STATE  NONPROFIT     REGION   501(c)(3)*   PLOYMENT   EMPLOYMENT     EMPLOYMENT   EMPLOYMENT     UNITED  STATES  TOTAL   10,681,388   5,520,828   127,820,442   8.4%       VIRGINIA  TOTAL   235,113     122,917     3,567,444     6.6%   100.0%     LOUDOUN  SERVICE  AREA  TOTAL   4,989   2,693   136,864   3.6%   2.1%     Loudoun   4,989   2,693   136,864   3.6%   2.1%             TABLE   B11.3:  Nonprofit  finances  in  the  Loudoun  Service  Area  vs.  Virginia  and  the  nation,  2010     NUMBER     EXPENDITURES       REGION   OF  ENTITIES   TOTAL  REVENUES   EXPENDITURES   PER  CAPITA   ASSETS     367,146   $1,561,327,700,780   $1,501,952,938,289   $4,856   $2,809,461,093,514   UNITED  STATES  TOTAL     VIRGINIA  TOTAL   10,835   $39,225,748,030   $37,916,644,743   $4,725   $77,975,764,822     LOUDOUN  SERVICE  AREA  TOTAL   412   $1,549,248,205   $1,573,375,050   $4,990   $3,817,168,633     Loudoun   412   $1,549,248,205   $1,573,375,050   $4,990   $3,817,168,633           B11.4:    Nonprofit  finances  in  the  Loudoun  Service  Area  by  field,  2010   TABLE       SHARE  OF   SHARE  OF     TOTAL     TOTAL       NUMBER  OF   REGIONAL   REGIONAL     FIELD   ENTITIES   TOTAL  REVENUES   REVENUE   ASSETS   ASSETS     UNITED  STATES  TOTAL   367,146   $1,561,327,700,780   100.0%   $2,809,461,093,514   100.0%     VIRGINIA  TOTAL   10,835   $39,225,748,030   100.0%   $77,975,764,822   100.0%       LOUDOUN  SERVICE  AREA  TOTAL   412   $1,549,248,205   100.0%   $3,817,168,633   100.0%     Universities   4   $1,148,240,662   74.1%   $2,953,521,388   77.4%     Civic  associations   211   $146,338,302   9.4%   $164,329,350   4.3%     Arts  and  recreation   82   $33,229,526   2.1%   $30,858,968   0.8%     Social  assistance   44   $32,750,587   2.1%   $58,637,394   1.5%     Elementary  and  secondary  schools   13   $31,629,671   2.0%   $135,169,650   3.5%     Nursing  homes   1   $27,031,727   1.7%   $75,654,142   2.0%     Ambulatory  health   10   $8,265,560   0.5%   $12,169,805   0.3%     Hospitals   1   $5,185,626   0.3%   $4,334,406   0.1%       Other   46   $116,576,544   7.5%   $382,493,530   10.0%      

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DISTRIBUTION OF NONPROFIT FINANCES IN VIRGINIA, BY INDUSTRY, 2010       NAICS     TYPE  OF     #  OF   CODE*     INDUSTRY   ORGANIZATIONS   ENTITIES   TOTAL  REVENUE   EXPENSES   TOTAL  ASSETS     541   Professional   Legal  services;  accounting  and  tax  services;  archi-­‐ 487     $1,529.8  million      $1,474.0  million      $1,653.4  million        &  scientific     tectural  and  engineering  services;  specialized   design  services;  computer  services;  management,     services   scientific  and  technical  consulting  services;  and     research  and  development  services     6111     Elementary     Elementary  &  secondary  schools   292      $799.8  thousand      $788.7  thousand      $2,324.1  million       &  secondary     schools   6113     Colleges  &     Colleges,  universities,  professional  schools,  and   67      $3,183.7  million      $3,041.7  million      $  8,870.9  million       universities   technical  and  trade  schools     Ambulatory   Outpatient  care  centers,  family  planning  centers,   621   498      $2,048.3  million      $2,071.2  million      $1,558.3  million       health  care     medical  laboratories,  and  home  health  care  ser-­‐ vices     services     Hospitals   622   General  medical  and  surgical  hospitals,  psychiatric   99     $13,169.2  million     $12,478.5  million     $17,520.0  million       and  substance  abuse  hospitals,  specialty  hospitals       Nursing  &     623   Nursing  care  facilities;  residential  mental  retarda-­‐ 330      $1,519.8  million      $1,458.1  million      $4,156.9  million       residential     tion,  mental  health,  and  substance  abuse  facili-­‐   care   ties;  and  elderly  community  care  facilities       Social     624   Individual  and  family  services,  youth  services,   1,697     $2,414.8  million     $2,275.1  million      $3,234.4  million       assistance   elderly  and  disabled  services,  community  food     services,  community  housing  services,  emergency   and  relief  services,  vocational  rehabilitation  ser-­‐   vices,  and  child  day  care       services     71   Performing  arts,  spectator  sports,  museums,  his-­‐ 1,508      $858.0  thousand      $  777.6  thousand      $3,807.7  million       Arts,     entertain-­‐ torical   s ites,   a musement   a nd   r ecreation   f acilities,     and  similar  institutions     ment,  &   recreation     813   Grantmaking  foundations,  charitable  trusts,  fun-­‐ 4,960     $9,191.7  million     $9,420.3  million     $26,087.3  million       Religious,   grantmaking,   draising  for  social  welfare  activities,  religious  or-­‐   and  civic     ganizations,  and  civic  associations     associations       Credit  intermediation,  visitors  bureaus,  waste   1,229     $4,510.8  million       $4,131.5  million     $8,762.8  million       All  other   management  and  remediation  services,  and  oth-­‐   ers       $37,916.8  million   $77,975.9  million   VIRGINIA  TOTAL   10,837   $39,225.9  million       *NAICS  codes  are  based  on  the  North  American  Industry  Classification  System  (U.S.  Office  of  Management  and  Budget,  2002).            

appendix C:

 

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DISTRIBUTION OF NONPROFIT EMPLOYMENT IN VIRGINIA, BY           NAICS     TYPE  OF     NONPROFIT  EMPLOYMENT   CODE*   INDUSTRY   ORGANIZATIONS   501(c)(3)     541     Professional   Legal  services;  accounting  and  tax  services;  arc-­‐ 17,279    &  scientific     hitectural  and  engineering  services;  specialized     design  services;  computer  services;  manage-­‐   services   ment,  scientific  and  technical  consulting  servic-­‐   es;  and  research  and  development  services     6111     Elementary     Elementary  &  secondary  schools   13,797   &  secondary     schools     6113     Colleges  &     Colleges,  universities,  professional  schools,  and   16,866   technical  and  trade  schools     universities   621     Ambulatory   Outpatient  care  centers,  family  planning  centers,   18,830     health  care     medical  laboratories,  and  home  health  care   services     services     622   Hospitals   General  medical  and  surgical  hospitals,  psychia-­‐ 75,032     tric  and  substance  abuse  hospitals,  specialty     hospitals     623   Nursing  &     Nursing  care  facilities;  residential  mental  retar-­‐ 24,293     residential     dation,  mental  health,  and  substance  abuse     care   facilities;  and  elderly  community  care  facilities     624   Individual  and  family  services,  youth  services,   19,401     Social     assistance   elderly  and  disabled  services,  community  food     services,  community  housing  services,  emergen-­‐   cy  and  relief  services,  vocational  rehabilitation     services,  and  child  day  care  services     71   Arts,     Performing  arts,  spectator  sports,  museums,   7,269     entertainment,   historical  sites,  amusement  and  recreation  facili-­‐   &  recreation   ties,  and  similar  institutions     813   Religious,   Grantmaking  foundations,  charitable  trusts,   23,544     grantmaking,   fundraising  for  social  welfare  activities,  religious     and  civic     organizations,  and  civic  associations     associations       All  other   Credit  intermediation,  visitors  bureaus,  waste   18,802     management  and  remediation  services,  and     others       VIRGINIA  TOTAL   235,113       *NAICS  c  odes  are  based  on  the  North  American  Industry  Classification  System  (U.S.  Office  of  Management  and  Budget,  2002).          

appendix d:

INDUSTRY, 2011

NONPROFIT  EMPLOYMENT  AS  A   SHARE  OF  TOTAL  501(c)(3)  

7%  

6%  

7%   8%  

32%  

10%  

8%  

3%  

10%  

8%  

100%  

 

Virginia's nonprofit sector: SHAPING THE ECONOMIC, CULTURAL, AND SOCIAL LANDSCAPE |  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Bulletin  #41    |  65


1  See  Virginia’s  Nonprofit  Sector—An  Economic  Force.  [ccss.jhu.edu/wp-­‐content/uploads/downloads/2011/09/NED_Bulletin32_VA_2008.pdf]    2    For  more  details  on  Virginia  population  trends,  see  Qian  Cai’s  “A  Decade  of  Change  in  Virginia’s  Population,”  The  Virginia  NEWS  LETTER,  June  2011.   [coopercenter.org/sites/default/files/publications/Virginia%20News%20Letter%202011%20Vol.%2087%20No%204.pdf]    3    See  the  U.S.  Census  Bureau’s  QuickFacts,  Virginia.  Retrieved  August  1,  2012.  [quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/51000.html]   4    For  more  details  on  poverty  in  Virginia,  see  the  state  government’s ��Virginia  Performs  website.     [vaperforms.virginia.gov/indicators/economy/poverty.php]   5    For  more  details  on  health  coverage  in  Virginia,  see  the  Virginia  Health  Care  Foundation’s  Profile  of  the  Uninsured,  March  2012.  [vhcf.org/data/profile-­‐ of-­‐the-­‐uninsured]     6    For  more  details  on  unemployment  trends  in  the  state  see  The  Commonwealth  Institutes’  Unemployed,  Underutilized,  Undone,  November  2011.   [thecommonwealthinstitute.org/2011/11/10/unemployed-­‐underutilized-­‐undone]     7    See  the  Center  on  Budget  and  Policy  Priorities’  States  Continue  to  Feel  Recession’s  Impact,  June  27,  2012.  [cbpp.org/files/2-­‐8-­‐08sfp.pdf]    8  U.S.  tax  law  actually  delineates  no  fewer  than  twenty-­‐seven  separate  sections  under  which  organizations  can  claim  exemption  from  federal  income     taxes  as  nonprofit  organizations.  These  categories  include  social  welfare  organizations,  business  leagues,  and  credit  unions,  to  name  just  a  few.     Types  of  tax-­‐exempt  organizations  under  U.S.  law       Corporations  organized  under  an  act  of  Congress   501(c)(15)   Mutual  insurance  companies     501(c)(1)   501(c)(2)   Title-­‐ h olding   c ompanies   501(c)(16)   Corporations  to  finance  crop  operation     501(c)(3)   Religious,   c haritable,   e ducational,   e tc.   501(c)(17)   Supplement  unemployment  benefit  trusts     501(c)(4)   Social  welfare   501(c)(18)   Employee-­‐funded  pension  trusts     501(c)(5)   Labor,  agriculture  organization   501(c)(19)   War  veterans’  organizations     501(c)(6)   Business  leagues   501(c)(20)   Legal  services  organizations     501(c)(7)   Social  and  recreational  clubs   501(c)(21)   Black  lung  trusts     501(c)(8)   Fraternal  beneficiary  societies   501(c)(25)   Holding  companies  for  pensions     501(c)(9)   Voluntary  employees’  beneficiary  societies   501(d)   Religious  and  apostolic  organizations   501(e)   Cooperative  hospital  service  organizations     501(c)(10)   Domestic  fraternal  beneficiary  societies   501(f)   Cooperative  service  orgs  of  operating  educational  organizations     501(c)(11)   Teachers’  retirement  fund   501(c)(12)   Benevolent   l ife   i nsurance   a ssociations   521   Farmers’   cooperatives     501(c)(13)   Cemetery  companies   527   Political  organizations     501(c)(14)   Credit  unions             Source:    Internal  Revenue  Service,  1995            9  For  example:   o   The  Internal  Revenue  Service’s  Exempt  Organization  Master  File  puts  the  number  of  501(c)(3)  organizations  in  Virginia  as  of  2012  at  40,644.  But  this     listing  is  rarely  purged  and  may  include  many  defunct  organizations.       o   A  more  precise  picture  includes  only  the  organizations  that  have  actually  filed  the  Form  990  that  the  Internal  Revenue  Service  requires  of  all  non-­‐ religious  nonprofit  organizations  with  at  least  $25,000  in  expenditures,  and  the  Form  990-­‐PF  that  the  IRS  requires  of  all  private  foundations.  These  list-­‐   ings  record  12,679  Virginia  nonprofit  501(c)(3)  organizations  as  of  2010,  of  which  1,842  are  private  foundations.     o   Yet  a  third  picture  of  the  scope  of  the  nonprofit  universe  in  Virginia  is  available  from  the  employment  data  compiled  by  the  Virginia  Employment     Commission  in  cooperation  with  the  federal  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics  (the  QCEW  data  set).  This  body  of  data,  which  covers  all  nonprofits  with  at  least     4  employees,  identifies  just  5,294  nonprofit  501(c)(3)  organizations  in  Virginia.         Number  of  nonpro ĮƚƐŝŶsŝƌŐŝŶŝĂ͕ďLJƐŽƵƌĐĞ     EOMF  (2012)   40,644  organizations     IRS  990  flyers  (2010)   12,679  organizations     QCEW  (2011)   5,294  organizations     Sources:    EOMF  –  Internal  Revenue  Service,  Exempt  Organization  Master  File;  990  –  National  Center  for  Charitable  Statis-­‐   tics,  based  on  IRS  Form  990  data;  QCEW  –  Covered  Wage  and  Employment  Program,  U.S.  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics,  tabu-­‐  

notes

lations  provided  in  cooperation  with  the  Johns  Hopkins  Nonpro

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10  

This  volunteer  figure  is  slightly  lower  than  the  figure  reported  in  our  previous  report  based  on  2005  data  (130,073  vs.  139,000)  because  the  average  

  number  of  hours  volunteered  dropped  from  41.7  to  36.6  hours  over  this  six-­‐year  period.  Interestingly,  the  total  number  of  volunteers  was  actually     greater  in  2011  than  in  2005  (1,783,482  vs.  1,729,247).    11  There  are  numerous  reasons  why  governments  might  prefer  for-­‐profit  providers,  including  the  strong  political  connections  between  government  offi-­‐   cials  and  for-­‐profit  leaders  reinforced  through  campaign  contributions,  the  higher  wage  rates  paid  by  nonprofits  in  some  fields,  and  nonprofits’  unwil-­‐ lingness  to  cut  corners  (for  example,  by  “cherry-­‐picking”  clients),  which  results  in  higher  overall  service  costs.  

12    

While  billions  of  recovery  fund  dollars  were  directed  to  human  service  fields,  arts  and  culture  organizations  received  just  $50  million.  For  further  de-­‐ tails  on  the  availability  of  stimulus  funds  by  field,  see  the  National  Council  of  Nonprofits'  Economic  Stimulus  &  Recovery  Special  Report,  Number  1   (2009).  [councilofnonprofits.org/sites/default/files/Special%20Report%201%20-­‐%20Overview%20%28Feb%2023%20FINAL%29.pdf]  

13  

This  estimation  is  based  on  the  comparison  of  total  wages  of  the  tax  exempt  entities  identified  in  QCEW  ($11,048  million  in  2010)  and  total  compensa-­‐ tion  of  employees  reported  by  the  IRS  Form  990  filers  ($11,425  million).  The  difference  between  these  two  figures,  $377  million  (3%  of    wages  re-­‐ ported  in  Form  990),  can  be  interpreted  as  a  rough  estimate  of  the  maximum  under-­‐reporting  of  employment  due  to  differences  in  coverage  be-­‐ tween  these  two  data  sources.  In  reality,  that  error  is  likely  to  be  smaller,  because  the  Form  990  definition  of  compensation  is  somewhat  broader   than  that  used  in  QCEW  reports.  

14

 The  volunteering  rate  is  calculated  by  dividing  the  number  of  volunteers  by  the  total  adult  population.  The  number  of  FTE  volunteers  is  calculated  by   dividing  the  total  number  of  volunteer  hours  in  the  population  by  the  average  annual  number  of  hours  worked  in  a  full-­‐time  job  (1,758).  

15

 The  bulk  of  these  jobs  were  lost  in  the  hospital  field  between  2004  and  2006.    This  reduction  in  hospital  employment  had  a  significant  impact  on  the   scale  of  the  nonprofit  sector:  the  nonprofit  share  of  private  employment  in  the  Danville  region  declined  by  more  than  half,  from  8.3  to  4.0  percent,   over  that  2-­‐year  period.  

 

Virginia's nonprofit sector: SHAPING THE ECONOMIC, CULTURAL, AND SOCIAL LANDSCAPE |  Nonprofit  Economic  Data  Bulletin  #41    |  67


The Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies The  Johns  Hopkins  Center  for  Civil  Society  Studies  seeks  to  improve   WKHXQGHUVWDQGLQJDQGWKHHIIHFWLYHIXQFWLRQLQJRIQRWIRUSUR¿W SKLODQWKURSLFRU³FLYLOVRFLHW\´RUJDQL]DWLRQVLQWKH8QLWHG6WDWHV and  throughout  the  world  in  order  to  enhance  the  contribution  these   RUJDQL]DWLRQVFDQPDNHWRGHPRFUDF\DQGWKHTXDOLW\RIKXPDQOLIH7KH &HQWHULVSDUWRIWKH-RKQV+RSNLQV,QVWLWXWHIRU3ROLF\6WXGLHVDQGFDUULHV out  its  work  through  a  combination  of  research,  training,  and  information   sharing  both  domestically  and  internationally.

The Johns Hopkins Nonprofit Ecnomic Data Project 1RQSUR¿WRUJDQL]DWLRQVDUHIDFLQJLQFUHDVHGSUHVVXUHVLQVWDWHVDQG ORFDOLWLHVWKURXJKRXWWKH8QLWHG6WDWHVEXWWKHQRQSUR¿WVHFWRUœVDELOLW\ to  respond  to  these  pressures  has  been  limited  by  a  lack  of  timely   information  about  how  prevailing  economic  realities  are  affecting  the   VHFWRU7KH-RKQV+RSNLQV1RQSUR¿W(FRQRPLF'DWD3URMHFWLVKHOSLQJ WRWDFNOHWKLVSUREOHPE\FKDUWLQJHFRQRPLFWUHQGVLQWKHQRQSUR¿WVHFWRU LQFOXGLQJKRZHPSOR\PHQWZDJHVDQG¿QDQFHVKDYHFKDQJHGRYHUWLPH DQGLQUHODWLRQWRRWKHULQGXVWULHV0RUHRYHUWKHSURMHFWLVDEOHWRDQDO\]H these  data  at  the  national,  regional,  state,  and  local  level,  and  to  focus   on  particular  subsectors,  such  as  nursing  homes,  hospitals,  home  health   centers,  education,  social  services,  and  the  arts.

The Community Foundation Serving Richmond and Central Virginia For  more  than  40  years,  The  Community  Foundation  (TCF)  has   connected  the  generosity  of  donors  with  community  needs  by  making   JUDQWVWRRUJDQL]DWLRQVZRUNLQJWRLPSURYHPHWUR5LFKPRQG:LWKDVVHWV of  over  $748  million,  TCF  has  given  more  than  $600  million  grants  since   1968.  From  after  school  enrichment  for  students  to  assisting  local  art   programs,  from  expanding  affordable  housing  options  to  offering  support   for  those  affected  by  violence,  TCF  continues  to  enhance  our  region.

Virginia Commonwealth Universityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s L. Douglas Wilder School of Government and Public Affairs The  mission  of  the  Wilder  School  is  to  generate  knowledge  and   educate  undergraduate  and  graduate  students  in  the  theoretical  and   methodological  approaches  used  to  improve  public  policy,  as  well  as  to   train  and  provide  consultation  to  community  members.  We  prepare  our   students  for  future  careers  â&#x20AC;&#x201C;  and  community  members  for  excellence  in   leadership  â&#x20AC;&#x201C;  in  public  service,  academic  and  professional  settings.  Our   IDFXOW\FRQWULEXWHWRWKHLUDFDGHPLFÂżHOGVWKURXJKVFKRODUO\UHVHDUFKDQG community  service,  involving  and  engaging  students  to  enhance  their   learning  experiences.


We would like to thank the following funding partners:

Other sponsors include: ACT for Alexandria The Cameron Foundation The Community Foundation of Harrisonburg and Rockingham County The Community Foundation of the Rappahannock River Region Foundation for Roanoke Valley Loudoun County Chamber of Commerce 7KH1RQSURĂ&#x20AC;W5RXQGWDEOHRI*UHDWHU:DVKLQJWRQ Piedmont Community Foundation

Photo credits. Cover: Richmond Ballet, www.richmondballet.com Back: Chesapeake Bay Foundation, www.cbf.org; Danville Science Center, www.dsc.smv.org; Barter Theatre (Abingdon), www.bartertheatre.com; Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, www.history.org


Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies The Johns Hopkins University Institute for Policy Studies 3400 North Charles Street Wyman Building, 5th Floor Baltimore, MD 21218-2688, USA Phone: 410.516.4327 Email: sgeller@jhu.edu Website: www.ccss.jhu.edu

The Community Foundation 7501 Boulders View Drive, Suite 110 Richmond, VA 23225 Phone: 804.330.7400 Fax: 804.330.5992 Email: krussell@tcfrichmond.org Website: www.tcfrichmond.org

Virginia Commonwealth University L. Douglas Wilder School of Government and Public Affairs 921 West Franklin Street, Room 102 P.O. Box 842028 Richmond, VA 23284-2028 Phone: 804.827.2164 Email: nbstutts@vcu.edu Website: www.wilder.vcu.edu


Virginia's Nonprofit Sector: Shaping the Economic, Cultural, and Social Landscape