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HISTORY SUBJECT AREA

HIL 130: The Material World: Interpreting Historical Objects and Environments

Module Handbook 2013-2014 Semester 1

Tuesday 9.00 – 11.00, G229 But please check times & venues for special sessions

Tutor: Timothy Brinded


Module Co-ordinator: Dr Amanda Richardson CONTENTS Validated Module Document .......................................................................................…...3 Introduction and Module Rationale, Attendance Expectations & Late Submission of Assignments..........................................................................................…...5 Re-assessment Details, Plagiarism and Key Transferable Skills........................................6 Module Evaluation 2012-13................................................................................................8 Weekly Programme .....................................................................................................…...11 Advice on Preparing for Seminars.......................................................................................17 Mode of Assessment ....................................................................................................……18 Formative................................................................................................................……18 Summative..............................................................................................................……20 Reading List..................................................................................................................……21 Websites of Interest.............................................................................................................30 Appendices (Assignment Submission Procedure, Extension Request Procedure, Generic Assessment Criteria, Presentation Marking Criteria)....................31-34

TUTOR AVAILABILITY The module leader will be available, outside of the weekly teaching sessions. It will be most convenient if you contact the tutor by email to arrange tutorials. Contact Details Tel. No. 01243 816371 E-mail: T.Brinded@chi.ac.uk Subject Librarian: Wendy Ellison Tel No. 01243 816085 E-mail: W.Ellison@chi.ac.uk 2


VALIDATED MODULE DOCUMENT Module title: Code: Type: Credits: Level: Home: Programme: Tutor responsible: Entry Requirements:

The Material World: Interpreting Historical Objects and Environments

HIL 130 Single; One Semester 15 credits Four History BA (Arts and Humanities) Dr Amanda Richardson None

Aims We all live in, and through, a material world. People gain their habits and their values partly through growing up in particular material environments and in the everyday order found in the spaces within houses. This module introduces such physical evidence as a historical source. It explores the importance of material culture in our understanding of the past, and its role in the expression of social and cultural identities. The module is designed to introduce students to various forms of evidence - normally including documents, maps, buildings, household objects and landscapes - and the particular problems that they pose the historian. It will aid their progression through their degree by complementing other modules (e.g. on death, gender, heritage and nationalism). Learning outcomes On completion of this module, students should be able to demonstrate: 1) an understanding of how material culture relates to social and cultural history; 2) an appreciation of a variety of historical sources and their characteristics; 3) the recognition of the value of facilities offered by the local record office, museums and libraries in developing their knowledge in the field; 4) the ability to undertake successfully relevant research, working both independently and in groups Indicative module content Material culture has played a part in developing the ethics, politics, values and world views of past societies. As such, it has formed an increasingly important aspect of historical studies over the past few decades. After an introduction to the module aims, content, and mode of assessment, the built environment will be introduced as a category of evidence capable of interpretation, and students will be directed to documentary, cartographic and visual records that can be used to supplement the physical remains. The rest of the module will introduce various other forms of material culture which may equally be ‘read’ by historians. Material culture will also be explored with regard to the physical representation of gender identities, and of death and commemoration. A field visit is normally included. Learning strategies Students will experience a range of learning approaches, principally input lectures; practical workshops; fieldwork visits; directed reading, and class discussion. They will work both in groups and independently throughout the module, researching aspects of the physical past. For the formative assessment, they will deliver a group presentation on an aspect of the physical past using a range of sources, primary as well as secondary. For the summative assessment, they will compose an essay chosen from a range of titles based on the topics covered in the module.

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Key skills A number of history-specific and key transferable skills will be achieved throughout the module, namely: C&IT skills, oral and written communication skills, planning skills, subject content skills, textual and source-based skills, evidence skills and independent learning. Mode of assessment Formative: Group presentation (equivalent to 750 words) Summative: Essay of 1750 words

30% 70%

Assessment criteria Formative Students will be assessed on their ability to: • undertake a specified piece of research, working collaboratively in small groups; • demonstrate an understanding of the issues raised; • present their research findings clearly and concisely to their peers. Summative Students will be assessed on their ability to: • synthesise a range of materials related to the module; • critically assess and assimilate detailed evidence and weigh this against broader theoretical arguments in a structured fashion; • illustrate an awareness of the problematic nature of historical enquiry through a structured form of argumentation. • write cogently and fluently Indicative reading (some titles may also be on Ebrary or Google Books) Buchli, V., The Material Culture Reader (Oxford: Berg, 2002) Gilchrist, R., Gender and Archaeology: Contesting the Past (London and New York: Routledge,1999). Hallam, E., & J. Hockey, J., Death, Memory and Material Culture (Oxford: Berg, 2001) Harvey, K., History and Material Culture: A Student’s Guide to Approaching Alternative Sources (London: Routledge, 2009). Hodder, I., ed., The Meanings of Things: Material Culture and Symbolic Expression (London: Unwin Hyman, 1989). Hood, Adrienne D., ‘Material Culture: The Object’ in Barber, Sarah and Peniston-Bird, Corinna M. Eds., History Beyond the Text: A student’s guide to approaching alternative sources, (London & New York: Routledge, 2009), pp.176-198. Little, B. J., Historical Archaeology: Why the Past Matters (Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Pres, 2007) Pearce, S.M., Interpreting Objects and Collections (London, Routledge, 1994) Tarlow, S., ed., Familiar Past: Archaeologies of Late-Historical Britain (London: Routledge, 1998) Journals The Antiquaries Journal, Architectural History, Journal of the British Archaeological Association, Landscape History, The Local Historian, Journal of Material Culture Websites Hirst, K. K., ‘Material Culture’, http://archaeology.about.com/od/mterms/g/material_cultur.htm Material World Blog, http://www.materialworldblog.com/ Online House Detectives http://www.house-detectives.co.uk/ UCL Centre for Museums, Heritage and Material Culture Studies, http://www.mhm.ucl.ac.uk/index.php Waugh, D., ‘Material Culture’, http://chnm.gmu.edu/worldhistorysources/unpacking/objectsmain.htm. 4


INTRODUCTION AND MODULE RATIONALE INTRODUCTION Welcome to the module ‘The Material World: Interpreting Historical Objects and Environments’. ‘Material culture’ is the physical evidence left to us by past societies. Its study is an expanding field of history encompassing everything from ceramics & furniture to buildings, roads, cities, and even the human body. So not surprisingly, some of the recommended reading contains the word ‘archaeology’. Do not be put off by this. Interdisciplinarity is a strength of the field, but it has a long pedigree in the discipline of History, and is a thriving category of historiographical study which recognises that our individual and collective identities are shaped by and through the world we inhabit and construct. MODULE RATIONALE The course aims to introduce you to the physical past by examining architecture, gravestones and cemeteries, war memorials, landscapes, animal bodies and everyday contemporary objects as historical sources. It aids your progression through your degree by complementing other modules (e.g. on death, gender, heritage and nationalism). In addition, the study of material culture opens up a plethora of research avenues and methodologies to the historian, and this will be beneficial in your completion of future assignments. It may even give you that added spark in the Level 6 dissertation! LEARNING STRATEGIES The module’s learning strategies are intended to help you achieve its learning outcomes. It will be taught through lectures, seminars and workshops. You will acquire core subject knowledge through direct forms of tutor-led teaching and through seminars, and will engage with broad theoretical and conceptual issues through groupwork and in the assignments. As well as active participation in seminars, you will be expected to engage in independent research and background reading for the module. You will also make a short group presentation in the formative assignment, and the summative will consist of an essay based on one of the module’s topics. Most information regarding the module will be communicated via Moodle and by email correspondence with the group. But don’t forget also to check regularly the noticeboards in New Hall! ATTENDANCE EXPECTATIONS Student attendance is compulsory at lectures and seminars. Any absence should be appropriately accounted for; i.e. if you miss 2 or more sessions without filling out the appropriate forms, you will be contacted and asked to arrange a meeting with the tutor. If you do not respond, you may be deregistered from the module. This policy is based on an approach to learning which values your active engagement with your peers, lecturing staff and other external/professional experts regarding the module’s subject matter. Your absence matters to us for educational reasons, because absence reduces your opportunity to learn, may compromise your potential achievement and may also compromise the opportunities of others (e.g. regarding group work). Each week there will be an attendance list which you must sign by the end of the session. It is your responsibility to sign this register, and failure to sign in will be treated as non-attendance . For full procedure in case of absence, see Moodle or contact the History administrator, Laura Brown (L.J.Brown@chi.ac.uk). LATE SUBMISSION OF ASSIGNMENTS - SEE ALSO THE ‘NEW REASSESSMENT POLICY’ ON MOODLE. In the absence of extensions (or mitigating circumstances) late assignments submitted after 2pm (to 5pm) on the due day are subject to a penalty of 5% of the grade awarded. Those handed in up to a week late are subject to a 10% penalty. (For example, if a piece of work deserves a mark of 48%, 43% will be recorded if the work is submitted before the end of the day, and 38% - fail - if the work is submitted up to a week late) . So you should always submit work on time, to ensure that it receives its due mark. ( This does not apply to presentations, which must be delivered on the due day.) Any assignment submitted after 2pm one week later than the due date will be classed as a nonsubmission (i.e. a fail) and will NOT be accepted. All cases of non-submitted work are reported to the following Board of Examiners, usually some months later, and the Board will then exercise its discretion to 5


determine the nature of any re-submission. The same procedure applies where students fail to turn up to give presentations. See below for more info on re-assessment. RE-ASSESSMENT Should you fail the course, you may re-sit the following May (for semester one modules) or August (for semester 2 modules), on or by a date allocated by the Examinations Office. Assessment in any resit can only be awarded 40% (pass/fail). Also, if you fail one element of the module (e.g. summative) you are also expected to resubmit the other (e.g. formative). From level 5, should you fail the reassessment this is classed as an irrevocable fail, and you will have to take another module at the same level in the following year, alongside that year’s requisite number of modules. In the case of this module, for the formative you would need to give an individual presentation on the topic outlined below on p.18. For the summative, you would be expected to write an essay on one of the titles listed on p.20, or under an alternative title given by the module tutor. PLAGIARISM (see http://www.york.ac.uk/teaching/history/pjpg/plagiarism.htm for fantastic advice on this). Plagiarism is a very serious offence and you will be penalised strongly for it. In the light of increasing incidences of academic malpractice, the University of Chichester will join other universities and colleges in using electronic plagiarism detection services (including TURNITIN - see below). When a tutor suspects a case of academic malpractice, and this is substantiated by a second member of staff, copies of the written evidence supporting their suspicions are forwarded to an Assessment Enquiry Panel. The student is invited to attend the panel (with a friend or observer present) to provide any further explanation or evidence of how the piece of work was accomplished. The Enquiry Panel then forwards its conclusions in the form of a report to the Chair of the Board of Examiners. Where malpractice is found to have occurred, the Board is at liberty to impose a range of stepped penalties according to the gravity of the offence, any previous occurrences and the year of the student’s degree programme. At worst, a penalty can include termination of the student’s registration on the programme or withholding the award of credit. REMEMBER - The easiest way to avoid all this is to reference the sources of ALL your information, (including on PowerPoint slides) and to resist the urge to cut and paste large sections of text from the internet - unless they are referenced direct quotes! PROCEDURE FOR SUBMISSION TO TURNITIN

Turnitin is a web-based plagiarism-prevention service, which checks assignments for unoriginal content. The results can be used to help students learn how to avoid plagiarism as it provides better and faster feedback to improve their writing or to identify similarities to existing sources. Turnitin encourages best practice in using and referencing other people's written material. Changes for students: •

Submission of written assignments must be uploaded to Turnitin and also submitted as a hard copy.

You must upload your written assignments into the link set up by your lecturer on the module's Moodle page. This must be done before the assignment deadline. If for any reason Moodle or Turnitin are unavailable on the day an assignment is due in, you must upload it into Turnitin as soon as possible thereafter. Details of system downtimes can be found on Portia (the Traffic Light) and on the Help Pages (help.chi.ac.uk).

Once uploaded into Turnitin, an Originality Report will be generated, highlighting unoriginal content. This is useful for you to check that you have referenced everything correctly.

Please note that you are not aiming for a 0% score as Turnitin will recognise all unoriginal text, including quotes, templates and text which you have referenced correctly.

Generation of the Originality Report usually takes between 5 and 10 minutes but can take longer at busy times. 6


If you choose to edit and resubmit an assignment (before the due date), the Originality Report will be available the following day. Your lecturer will only see the most recent submission.

Very importantly, you must still hand in a printed version of your assignment as normal. Failure to do so may result in failing the module.

When you submit to Turnitin, please write the Paper ID (available from your Turnitin receipt) number onto the MAC cover sheet attached to your hard copy assignment.

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KEY TRANSFERABLE SKILLS During the module students should acquire a number of key skills, which may be transferred to other forms of learning and in future employment. These will include the ability to: • develop critical awareness of the subject and apply this to wider issues involved in any type of research.: • apply the knowledge gained in this module within a wider context of critical analysis • work collaboratively during groupwork and co-operate in sharing and allocating workloads • work independently when required • develop both individual and collective responsibility for undertaking a particular course of research and following this through to a logical conclusion • present research findings in a coherent and understandable manner • use IT skills and information from the Internet, and to incorporate this in a way that widens others’ understanding of the topic • synthesise a range of material into a coherent piece of work with a strong degree of academic rigour.

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HIL 130 : The Material World: Interpreting Historical Objects and Environments MODULE EVALUATION 2011-2012

There were 17 responses out of a possible 34 (evaluation forms were unwisely handed out during the final session when attendance was well below its usual level). Generally, the feedback for the module was extremely positive. Selected Student comments on the module’s main strengths: • Looked at different, non-written sources • I really enjoyed looking at the past through objects and in ways I have never done before. I enjoyed all of this module • The main strength was how the module was structured. The use of powerpoints with lectures was very helpful • Looking at material culture instead of a fixed historical period • Interesting and different • Looks at a wide variety of subjects and issues • The archaeological content was a good chance to re-use my A Level • Much of the course was new to me and I enjoyed it very much as a result • Tutor. Very interesting topic • I now have an introspective view of material culture. I do not take it for granted and look for its context • Enthusiasm of lecturer. • I enjoyed this module. The lectures were very interesting 2. Module aims and outcomes: All of the students agreed or strongly agreed that the module’s aims and learning outcomes were clearly communicated, that they had made progress in terms of its learning outcomes and that the module content and assignments had enabled them to gain relevant transferable skills. Student comments: • How to read other forms of information • It has totally increased my knowledge because everything I have learnt in this topic is new. I have really enjoyed this • I knew nothing about material culture before • Case study on cathedral useful to show what was learnt • Furthered my knowledge a lot 3. Module content and assessment: All respondents agreed or strongly agreed that the module’s design & structure were effective and that the tutor offered adequate support and academic guidance, and all except 1 (who was unsure) felt that the tutor had explained the assessment tasks clearly. However, 2 were unsure whether the formative assignment (a group presentation) developed critical/analytical skills and helped towards the summative, and one of these was also uncertain whether feedback included advice useful for improving future assignments. Student comments on the formative assignment and what they learned from it: [see tutors comments below] • How to prepare a presentation • I found it hard doing the presentation because I get so nervous, but the subject was interesting • I found the assignment quite enjoyable and although the presentation was challenging, I did learn from it and gained confidence for future presentations 8


• • • • • • • • • • •

Stressful (but I’m stressed about all assessments) I thought it was a good introduction into research and relevant to the module A new experience. It was good though Too little time to present considering content – considering tutor still mentioned things that should have been included. Unfair advantage to groups who took closer to 20 minutes The formative allowed me to integrate better within groups and increased my confidence in my own perceptions Enjoyable, good practice Working within a group teaches skills in diplomacy and helps to form new friendships Once I got into it, it was quite interesting I enjoyed studying the cathedral and visiting it The fact it was a presentation made it difficult to relate to an essay Didn’t enjoy doing a group presentation. Would rather have done an essay

4. Teaching and learning opportunities: All students agreed or strongly agreed that the module taught new information and ways of thinking, that an effective teaching strategy was used, that the tutor encouraged an open and participatory learning environment and that they were motivated by the learning an detaching approach. In terms of lessons learnt regarding their own preparation for sessions, students commented: Student comments on what they learned regarding preparation for sessions: • Try and read quicker and answer questions to contribute more in sessions • Always do the reading • Be prepared • To make clear notes • Preparation should be done completely before the seminar in order to take all that you can from them • Read! • Do the reading! • Read around the subject. Exchange views beforehand with seminar group • Preparation is key. Lots of reading and notes is vital 5. Learning resources: All students agreed or strongly agreed that all information needed to complete the module was available in the handbook. Nearly all students agreed/strongly agreed that adequate and appropriate learning resources were provided, though 1 was unsure. All but 1 student (who was unsure) agreed/strongly agreed that they made good use of the resources provided on Moodle and two were unsure that they had found the History Guide to Writing and Referencing useful for their assignments. Despite this though, the tutor feels that the majority of students probably didn’t use the aforementioned guide to its full potential. Student comments regarding which type of learning resource they found most useful: • Lectures, Powerpoints • Books • Lectures, books • Books/Eresources • Lectures and handouts on Moodle • I had archaeology books, but these were also aided by the lectures in ways to interpret them • Content on Moodle • Mainly books and lecture notes • Books were the most helpful resource when researching • The lecture, powerpoint and readings were really helpful. However there are not many books available on this subject in the library • Lectures/online readings 9


6. Student commitment to module: 14 students agreed/strongly agreed, that they had done enough pre-module reading, while 2 were unsure and 1 disagreed. All agreed/strongly agreed that they had consulted a sufficient number of sources for the assignments, though 2 students were unsure whether they had prepared thoroughly for the sessions. There were also 2 students unsure whether they had actively participated in them, and 1 who did not agree that they had participated. All agreed or agreed strongly that they made good use of the course handbook and other resources, but 1was unsure that they had studied for the module for an appropriate amount of time weekly. All students agreed/strongly agreed that they found their lecture notes useful, and that they had sought a tutorial if they were struggling. Finally, only 1 student was unsure of their level commitment to the course, and another was unsure about this. Student comments on their strengths and weaknesses, & strategies for improvement: • Start researching earlier • I think I left starting my researching a little late and next time will start researching much sooner • I felt that even when I researched that I was unable to have my voice heard amongst others • Improve note taking – use own words 7. Final Student Comments • Really enjoyed this topic. Tim is a good lecturer • Tim Brinded is an excellent lecturer. Consistent in his support and nurturing to the 1 st year students • Great module, no changes to recommend…keep Tim! • Very enjoyable module • Formative was useful, but potentially one lecture on the extent of our presentation may have been useful as it was the first presentation and the level required could have been shown with an example of another powerpoint • Formative should have been the summative and closer to 20/30mins. Took far too long to prepare for considering it was a formative. Perhaps individual presentation and 5 minutes focused on an area would be more appropriate. Would also avoid repetition. • Student led seminar could be on one of the essay topics TUTOR’S COMMENTS & ACTION PLAN FOR 2012-13 Concerns over formative: A comment was received (above) that the formative presentation involved too much preparation and that it was difficult to deliver substantive content in the allotted time. Estimating an adequate amount of preparation for an assessment is, however, subjective – this is a skill which students will learn over time, as is concisely delivering qualitative content in presentations. The same student also suggested that it was ‘unfair’ that some presentations had run over time (and thus gained an advantage) – rest assured though, timings are taken into account when marks and feedback are given. Considerable class time was dedicated to discussing the formative presentation, and while the tutor appreciates that students might like to see and ‘example’ of a presentation (as mentioned above), the design and delivery of presentations is a skill which they will develop. ‘Student led seminar could be on one of the essay topics’: All sessions on this module do relate to essay questions. Availability of books: One student commented on the lack of books on ‘this subject’ in the LRC. It is unclear if this comment relates to material culture in general or one of the essay topics in particular. However, attempts will be made to obtain further readings for this module, either as electronic links, or as books for the LRC. Students should also be prepared to use the electronic resources at their disposal (Ebrary and JSTOR).

WEEKLY PROGRAMME

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Week 4: 01 OCT

i) Introduction to the Module ii) Lecture: Why Study Material Culture?

Aims and Objectives: The first part of this session will introduce the module’s content and assignments. Using the module handbook as a guide we will outline what you can expect to learn during the course of the module, and reflect upon previous students’ experiences. In the second part, we will address the question ‘what is material culture’, and students will be introduced to the reasons for its study by historians, and the development of the use of material culture as a source base. This will enable students to begin to explore the interface between material and written sources. Week 5: 08 OCT

i) Lecture & Discussion: ‘Material Culture and Museums: Complications of (Re) Presenting the Past’

Aims and Objectives: We will begin this extended lecture by discussing some themes which are encountered in ‘postmodern’ approaches to the study of the material culture of the past. Firstly, we will introduce the idea that material culture does not possess inherent ‘meaning’; rather we must interpret ‘meanings’ through our understanding of the cultural context of artifacts, architecture and landscapes, and secondly, we will discuss the suggestion that our interpretations of material culture can never recreate ‘the past’ in its entirety. These ideas will then be considered in relation to the presentation of material objects in museums, one of the most common environments in which we encounter the material culture of the past. We will trace the history of the museum to see that the didactic, educational institutions we recognize today have developed since the 19 th century when museums were designed with inherent political and nationalistic ideals, and we will look at the arguments of some historians and theorists who believe that many museums still struggle to free themselves of these past associations. To close the session, we will consider a local case study to explore how a museum attempts to depict and interpret the material culture of the past, the potential difficulties it encounters, and how the popular (public) understanding of the material world is therefore affected. Finally, we will reflect upon how the legacy of British colonialism has created deeply sensitive controversies in ‘ownership’ of certain material culture. Ahead of this session, please read the following chapter (available on Moodle) which will introduce some of the themes which we will discuss. Jordanova, Ludmilla, History in Practice (London: Arnold, 2000), Chapter 6, ‘Public History’, pp.141-171. Week 6: 15 OCT

i) Lecture: ‘Gender and the Material World: Concepts and Case Studies’ ii) Group discussion of formative assignment.

Aims and Objectives: In this session, we will approach the use of ‘gender’ as a category with which we can analyse the material world. In this context, gender is defined as the social roles and behaviors of men and women (as opposed to their biological differences); gender theory is perhaps one of the most important developments in historiographical study of recent decades. In the first part of our lecture will explore how gender theory originated, with references to the crucial phases of Women’s history and Feminist history. Gender theory encourages us to recognize that the relations between men and women – their roles and expectations - are one of the most fundamental ways in which societies are ordered; these roles and expectations are not dictated by evolution but are determined by cultural forces, be they political, social or religious. The second part of the lecture will move on to exploring how gender theory can aid our interpretation of the material culture of the past; we will look at Timothy Taylor’s controversial and highly entertaining argument that some prehistoric artifacts should be considered not from a androcentric (male centered) ‘ritual’ perspective, but by an approach that considers the sexual relations, activities and identities of both men and women. We will then move on to Roberta Gilchrist’s influential study of the design and layout of female religious

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buildings in the middle ages, wherein she argues that symbolism related to the cultural roles of women in the later medieval period can be used to interpret architectural form. Week 7: 22 OCT

i) Extended Seminar: ‘Reading the Late Medieval World: City, Castle and Park’.

Aims and Objectives: Following our introduction to the symbolic interpretation of medieval architecture provided by Roberta Gilchrist in the previous week, this session finds us again in late medieval England. In this extended seminar we will discuss three readings, each providing us with an alternative view of the aspects of the medieval material world indicated in the above title. First of these is Dr Keith Lilley’s brief article ‘Cities of God’, in which it is suggested that medieval urban plans were based upon a desire to replicate God’s divine design of the cosmos, the earth and the human body in a material form – the city was thus a ‘microcosm’ of the universe, and a ‘macrocosm’ of the human body. Second is a chapter from Matthew Johnson’s excellent and at times controversial book ‘Behind the Castle Gate’, in which Professor Johnson rejects the longstanding ‘martial’ interpretation of castles, in favour of a holistic reading of the symbolism imbued in late medieval castle forms, revealing them to be a means through which social elites ‘performed’ their identity. Finally, our third reading is Dr S.A. Mileson’s chapter ‘The Sociology of Park Creation in Medieval England’ in which the author investigates and problematises our understandings of late medieval hunting parks as material statements of status by noble landowners. All three readings are united by a fundamental principle: we must seek to interpret how people of different social groups actively experienced the architecture and landscapes that constituted the material world of late medieval England if we are to understand what such things might have meant. READINGS (LINKS OR DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE ON MOODLE): Lilley, Keith, ‘Cities of God? Medieval Urban Forms and Their Christian Symbolism’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, New Series, Vol. 29, No. 3, September 2004, pp.296-313. Johnson, Matthew, Behind the Castle Gate (London & New York: Routledge, 2002), Chapter 3: The Ordering of the Late Medieval Castle, pp.55-92. Mileson, S.A., ‘The Sociology of Park Creation in Medieval England’ in Liddiard, Robert, ed., The Medieval Park: New Perspectives (Macclesfield: Windgather Press Ltd., 2007), pp.11-26. Note: Please see p,17(below) for advice on your expected contribution to seminars. Week 8: 29 OCT

DIRECTED STUDY WEEK

Week 9: 05 NOV

i) Lecture: ‘The Material Culture of Animals in Medieval England’ ii) Preparation for Formative Assessments.

Aims and Objectives: Continuing the theme of functionalism/symbolism in medieval material culture, this session offers an exploration of the use and perception of the material bodies of animals in the Middle Ages. We will introduce the idea that animals provided a means through which social relations were communicated, both in term of which levels of society had ‘access’ to certain animals, and which animals (or parts of animals) were eaten by different social groups, as revealed by the material culture of the zooarchaeological record. Moving on from this, we will look at the proliferation of bestiaries in the later Middle Ages which saw allegorical moral messages read into the bodies of animals. Such symbolic associations can be found in the material 12


record of the past in the forms of illuminations and carvings, and we will look at such evidence to answer such intriguing questions as why did medieval sparrows attack owls in religious carvings, and why were medieval beavers depicted castrating themselves? Finally, we will examine medieval attitudes towards pigs in particular; animals associated with the ‘inhumanity’ of foreign cultures, and discuss the bizarre case of a pig put on trial for inciting its fellow sows to eat an unfortunate swineherd. Week 10: 12 NOV

FORMATIVE PRESENTATIONS

Please note – depending upon class size it may be necessary to extend the running time of this session, or to move location. Please check Moodle for regular updates. Week 11: 19 NOV

i) Lecture: ‘Social Skins: Clothing, Fashion and Human Relations’ ii) Seminar: Experiencing Clothing.

Aims and Objectives: While we might think that the pursuit of fashionable clothing is a relatively modern phenomenon, reliant upon large scale industry, commercial advertisement and expendable income, many historians argue that concepts of fashion emerged in the fourteenth century. During this session, we will examine the sociocultural environment of late-medieval England that facilitated the dissemination of ‘fashionable’ clothing, and how authoritarian hierarchies used clothing as a means by which to regulate and control different elements of society. We will also briefly consider how and why men and women transgressed clothing regulations during this time. In the seminar, we will reflect upon a series of readings that move beyond the medieval period and into the early modern and pre-industrial centuries in England. Each of these readings presents a different example of how people experienced clothing; what it meant to them and why. You will be asked to study one of the following readings and come prepared for an informal group discussion. READINGS (LINKS OR DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE ON MOODLE) Please consider the following questions when reading. Richardson, Catherine, ‘A very fit hat’: Personal Objects and Early Modern Affection, in Tara Hamling and Catherine Richardson, Everyday Objects: Medieval and Early Modern Material Culture and its Meanings (Farnham: Ashgate, 2010), pp.289-298. 1. How did the hats referred to in this chapter have an active role in courtship between couples in the 16th century? 2. What are the social significances of these hats? How are they viewed by the communities in general? 3. What does this chapter tell us about practices of consumerism and consumption in 16 th century Kent? 4. How is the social space of the market square significant in the second case study? Lemire, Beverley, ‘The Theft of Clothes and Popular Consumerism in Early Modern England’, Journal of Social History, Vol.24, No2, Winter 1990, pp.255-276. 1. What does this article imply about early modern conceptions of how material culture (clothes in this case) contributed to social ordering and hierarchies? 2. What were the motivations behind the theft of clothing? 3. In what ways does Lemire relate the material culture of clothing to the wider industrial and economic environment of early modern England? 4. How did people of the early modern period experience clothing? Think here of those described in the article – the owners, thieves and receivers of clothing; what did the clothing mean to them? Lemire, Beverley, Consumerism in Preindustrial and Early Industrial England: The Trade in Second hand Clothes, Journal of British Studies, Vol.27, No.1 (1988), pp.1-24. 13


1. Why is the study of second-hand clothes potentially problematic for the historian? 2. Amongst which social groups did the desire for second-hand clothes exist? Why was this? 3. Who was responsible for the trade in second-hand clothes? How and why did London bear an influence on this trade? 4. In what ways did the development of mass industry change people’s attitudes towards and acquisition of clothing? Styles, John, The Dress of the People: Everyday Fashion in Eighteenth Century England (New Haven & London: Yale University Press, 2007), ‘Clothing Biographies’, pp.57-69. 1. In what ways do the case studies of this chapter indicate the personal importance of clothes to young people in the mid-late eighteenth century? . 2. In what ways were the clothes of these case studies used to generate social identities, and why? 3. How were clothes used as a form of capitol in many of these examples and why?

Note: Please see p,17(below) for advice on your expected contribution to seminars. Week 12: 26 NOV

i) Lecture and possible Group Task: ‘The Material Culture of Burial and Commemoration: Prehistory to the Present’

Aims and Objectives In this extended lecture we will engage in a broad survey concerning practices of burial and commemoration in England from the Paleolithic to the twentieth century, touching upon Bell Beaker culture, theories surrounding Bronze Age henge monuments, Anglo-Saxon resistance to and adoption of Christian practices, the importance of the concept of purgatory in medieval culture, the development of extramural cemeteries in the 19th century and memorials to the countless brave lives lost during the Great War. The material culture of burial and commemoration is a valuable source base from which we can interpret the social relations and beliefs of the living, and throughout the course of this lecture we will not only study processes concerning the interment of the dead, we will continually consider why such processes were engaged in, and what they reveal about past societies. Week 13: 03 DEC

i) Student Led Seminar: ‘Household Objects and the Consumer: Experiencing a Material World’

Aims and Objectives: Last session provided a wide ranging study of the material culture of the dead: this session will tackle some more intimate studies of the material culture of the living from the early modern period to the present. The so-called ‘rise of consumer culture’ in England has been identified by historians variously in the 17 th, 18th and 19th centuries and different socio-economic factors have been used to point to the rise in consumption and manufacture of material goods, Rather than offer a narrative history of this subject matter, this seminar will focus on a selection of readings which provide studies of how individuals at different times have experienced the material goods associated with consumer culture. First, Neil McKendrick discusses the broad impact of many aspects of material culture in the 18 th century in his chapter ‘The Acceptance of Modernity’; the second reading is Maxine Berg’s study of gendered attitudes towards material objects in the industrial cities of Birmingham and Sheffield, and third is Helen Berry’s insightful consideration of the practice of shopping and the significance of spatial relations in this activity. Fourth is Paul Johnson’s examination of how and why working class individuals of the late 19 th – early 20th century might have displayed evidence of ‘conspicuous consumption’, and the final reading brings us right up to date with Alison J. Clarke’s engaging case studies focusing in the motivations surrounding home re-decoration amongst families in 1990’s north London. 14


PLEASE NOTE – DEPENDING UPON CLASS SIZE (UNKNOWN AT THE TIME OF WRITING) MORE READINGS MAY BE ADDED FOR THIS SESSION. CHECK MOODLE FOR UPDATES. READINGS (LINKS OR DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE ON MOODLE): A series of questions are posed below connected with each reading. It may help to structure your discussion of the article or chapter in question if you use these questions as a guide with which to assemble information. Berg, Maxine, ‘ Women’s Consumption and the Industrial Classes of Eighteenth-Century England’, Journal of Social History, Vol. 30, No. 2, Winter, 1996, pp.415-434. 1. What do you think are the strengths and weaknesses of the source base that Berg uses in this article? 2. What gender differences does Berg observe in the possession, description and bequest of material items? 3. Do you feel Berg is correct in her conclusions regarding the social and familial significance women accorded to material culture in the 18th century? 4. What conclusions can we draw about material consumption among women of the urban middle and working classes in the 18th century – what did the material objects mean to them, and how might this have differed from social elites? Berry, Helen, ‘Polite Consumption: Shopping in Eighteenth-Century England’, Transactions of the RHS 12 (2002), pp.375-94. 1. What does Berry say has been a previously overlooked area in the study of consumption in 18 th century England? 2. How does Berry suggest consumer behaviours and the availability of material goods changed during the 18th century? Exactly what is meant by ‘polite consumption’? 3. How was the material form of shops – in terms of both their environment and their material content – used as a theatre in which social identities were performed? 4. How did individuals of different social strata’s or different genders experience the activity of shopping? Think about the different interactions which took place, the items that were bought and the access people had to different things. 5. Berry suggests that shopping and consumption changed towards the end of the period – how and why was this? Clarke, Alison J., ‘The Aesthetics of Social Aspiration’ in Miller, Daniel, Home Possessions: Material Culture Behind Closed Doors (Oxford: Berg, 2001), pp.23-46. 1. What socio-cultural forces and events does Clarke imply influence the desire to alter the materiality of the home? 2. What suggestions does this chapter make regarding the attitudes of different gender and ethnic groups about home owning and occupation? 3. Clarke suggests that Thatcher’s Britain saw a change in attitudes towards home orientated material consumption. How is such a change explained and what do you think motivated it? 4. In what different ways do the characters from the case studies experience the material form of their homes, and what socio-cultural reasons underpin these differences? Johnson, Paul, ‘Conspicuous Consumption and Working-Class Culture in Late Victorian and Edwardian Britain’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Fifth Series, vol. 38, 1988, pp.27-42 1. What does Johnson state about the current historiography of working class consumption in Victorian Britain? 2. How is it suggested that working class families used material culture to display ‘conspicuous consumption’? 3. What were the contemporary social responses to conspicuous consumption amongst the Victorian and Edwardian working classes? 4. Through what means was working class society stratified by the acquisition and display of material culture? 15


5. Do you agree with Johnson’s apparent assertion that conspicuous consumption amongst the Victorian working class was solely motivated by a desire to display ‘pecuniary strength’? McKendrick, Neil, ‘The Acceptance of Modernity, in McKendrick, Neil, Brewer, John and Plumb, J.H., The Birth of a Consumer Society: The Commercialization of Eighteenth-Century England (London: Europa, 1982), pp.316-334. 1. How did the Voyages of Discovery prior to the 18th century influence interest in the natural and material world? 2. How was the material form of animals manipulated and used in the 18 th century to communicate social ideals and interests? 3. Consider the question above in respect of plant life. 4. Through what means did material culture facilitate education in the 18 th century? How widely was this diffused through the social strata? 5. How did material culture contribute to the spread of ‘scientific rationalism’? Do you agree this assessment? Note: Please see p.17 (below) for advice on your expected contribution to seminars. Week 14: 10 DEC

i) Workshop: Preparation for Summative Assessments ii) Module conclusion and evaluation

Aims and Objectives: At this late point of the module it is likely that students will be researching and compiling information for the summative assessment. With this in mind, our final class session will be dedicated to offering advice on essay research and writing. Towards the end of the session, students will have the chance to evaluate critically the module in terms of their own input, to review it in terms of its overall progression, and to assess whether it has developed their historical understanding. They will also be able to voice their opinions on its structure and content, and make recommendations for its future improvement. Week 15:

HAND IN SUMMATIVE ASSIGNMENTS BY 2PM TUES 17th DECEMBER.

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ADVICE ON PREPARING FOR SEMINARS It will be common during your time at university for you to attend a lecture followed immediately by a seminar in the same room. While both the lecture and seminar may take place in the same location, you will be expected to approach them differently – you should be attentive in the former but try to actively engage in the latter. Seminars provide a valuable learning environment at this level, as they offer the chance to pose questions, exchange ideas, challenge theories and really expand your knowledge. However, it cannot be stressed enough that seminars require your participation – otherwise they merely become an extension of the lecture with the tutor required to do all the talking. The Material World module differs from many of the other Level 4 modules in that only three seminars have been timetabled into the weekly programme, and only one of these will immediately follow a lecture. In Week 4, we will engage in a seminar titled ‘Reading the Late Medieval World: City, Castle and Park’ – ahead of this session you will be asked to read one or more (preferably all in fact) of the articles listed above. During the session, the tutor will lead the discussion by recapping the content of each reading and posing questions regarding the content – ideally, it is hoped to create an informal atmosphere in which we can critically analyze each reading and gain confidence in speaking in the group environment ahead of the formative presentation. The second seminar will be a short one following on from Week 8’s lecture on clothing. You will be asked to read at least one of the chapters/articles mentioned above and engage in an informal discussion about the content, which will help to tease out further understandings of cultural attitudes towards – and uses of - clothing from the medieval to pre-industrial periods in England. For the last of our scheduled seminars, titled ‘Household Objects and the Consumer: Experiencing a Material World’ in Week 11, you will be assigned a reading to study prior to the session (though again, it is advisable to read all articles to give yourself a broad idea of the subject matter). However, this seminar will be ‘student led’. This means that you will be asked, in groups, to provide a summary of the content of the reading, to pick out points of particular interest and to highlight areas you contest or particularly agree with. The rest of the class – including the tutor – will then pose each group questions regarding the reading. Your group analysis of the reading should last between 10 and 20 minutes including questions. It should be emphasized that this form of ‘syndicate learning’ is not an assessment, and can be treated relatively informally – it is certainly not something to be worried about! At levels 5 and 6, student led seminars become more common and are a valuable means of encouraging group work and facilitating ‘deep learning’ whereby students learn to pick apart the source they are studying, rather than merely remembering a few facts. Recommendations for seminar readings: To get the most out of the seminars described above, bear the following advice in mind: • Make notes – by transcribing information in your own words, you will better be able to comprehend and recall the content. • Try not to feel reluctant to voice your opinions in class – you will never be ridiculed or ignored. While you may find it daunting speaking in front of large groups of unfamiliar people, the more you do it, the easier it becomes! • Feel free to contact the tutor if you find readings are challenging. The idea is to provide you with intellectually demanding material, but not to confuse you.

FINALLY – Please ensure that you have prepared sufficiently before seminars. There is not a vast quantity of reading asked of you during this module, but if you neglect to do what is required, the seminar will not provide an effective learning experience. If you are unable to prepare for any reason, please feel free to email the tutor. Remember - seminars only really work if you are willing to participate.

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MODE OF ASSESSMENT (See above, p.3 for validated Assessment Criteria) In order to gain the 15 credits for this module, students will be required to give an individual oral presentation, and to produce an essay on a form of material culture (see list of titles below, pp.14-15). The weighting for these assessments will be as follows: • Formative: Group presentation (equivalent to 750 words) 30% • Summative: Individual Essay of 1750 words 70%

1) FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT: GROUP PRESENTATION (WEEK 10) (See the ‘History Student Guide to Writing & Referencing’ for detailed guidance on delivering presentations). The formative assignment will consist of a 15-minute group presentation on Chichester Cathedral, under the title given below; 10 minutes for the presentation and 5 minutes for questions from other students. It will be assessed using the criteria in Appendix 4, below, and will constitute 30% of the overall mark for the module. The assignment will be assessed by the module leader and another member of staff, and the exercise is intended to develop your ability to glean information from physical as well as written evidence. Your Powerpoint slideshow should be emailed/given to the tutor by the day before the presentation AT THE LATEST. If this is impossible, please bring it on a memory stick (or similar) on the day. Do not merely store it on your desktop or in ‘My Documents’! The title of the exercise is: HOW DOES THE MATERIAL FORM AND ARCHITECTURE OF CHICHESTER CATHEDRAL REFLECT AND FACILITATE SOCIAL, RELIGIOUS, FUNCTIONAL AND SYMBOLIC BELIEFS AND PRACTICES? CONTENT The presentation concerns the form and architecture of Chichester Cathedral. You should comment on both the interior and exterior features of the building, the spatial layout of the cathedral and perhaps even how its material form relates to the wider environment. Consider what is its date and what is it made of? What messages does it send out? What kinds of clues are there as to its purpose? Is it an important/high-status structure and if so how is this articulated? Does its position within the city tell you anything? The time period covered in your presentation should emphasise the medieval construction and use of the building, but you should also consider how the structure, features and use of space in the cathedral have changed in subsequent centuries, and the socio-cultural reasons underpinning such changes – you can bring this right up to the 20th century if you want. The central objective of this assignment is for you to investigate how the form and architecture of the cathedral was influenced by social, religious, political and other cultural attitudes and beliefs, and how the material structure of the building – including its spatial layout – was experienced by different people. An obvious starting point for this is that the cathedral has a cruciform layout – its material shape was thus a reflection of Medieval Christian theology, while different medieval social groups would have occupied different areas of the cathedral in both life and death In order to interpret the materiality of the cathedral, you will of course need to base your research around written sources to gain an understanding of the social and religious functions of the building, its symbolism, why its architecture takes the form it does and how this all relates to broader cultural attitudes. Please note though that the object of the assignment is not to provide a narrative history of the building; you will need to consider how different people and different historical periods have affected the use and structure of the building, but avoid giving a ‘timeline’ of the life of the cathedral. Ultimately, the most successful presentations will be ones which integrate an analysis of the material form of the cathedral with its history,

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indicating how different (changing?) socio-cultural messages can be ‘read’ from the form and architecture of the cathedral. Finally, It is hoped that your presentations will visually depict the subject matter - a Powerpoint presentation or other form of visual display is thus highly recommended for this assessment. Feel free to be innovative in your presentations, and try to have fun with your slideshows, but remember to reference your sources: ALL information should be fully referenced (on handouts and PowerPoints, including sources of illustrations), and you should include a bibliography, either on a slide or as a handout. RESEARCH: It is advisable – though not essential - to make a trip to the cathedral itself. Unfortunately, a field trip could not be timetabled into the module, but entry is free of charge, though a donation from visitors is encouraged. If you intend to take photographs, please speak to the staff at the cathedral to be sure of their approval and remember at all times to behave in a polite, responsible and sensible manner as befitting an undergraduate student. Chichester Cathedral should prove easy to research. There are a large number of appropriate books in the Learning Resource Centre, many of which are listed in the bibliography below, but the best place to start is the Victoria County History: Sussex Volume 3, which can be accessed online at http://www.british-history.ac.uk/source.aspx?pubid=284. The West Sussex Record Office (see below) also holds hard copies. As well as the resources at the university, there is also a large reference section dedicated to Chichester Cathedral on the first floor of Chichester Library, Tower Street, Chichester, PO19 1QF. Among the books available at the library are ones dedicated to the Bell Tower, the misericords and the famous relief carvings at the cathedral. Obviously it’s a good idea anyway to join the local library. It may come in useful in future if the books you need for various assignments are out of the LRC. A wealth of further sources is also available at West Sussex Records Office (WSRO), 3 Orchard Street, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 1DD. To use the record office you will have to ‘join’ it. To do this you need I.D., including documents containing name, address, and signature (e.g. a Driving Licence). You will then be given a ‘CARN’ ticket which gives you access to any local record office for a period of 5 years - so this may be useful for future academic work, including the Level 6 dissertation! When using the record office, you will need to take a pencil rather than a pen - and take a pound coin for the lockers (for bags etc.). S ee their website at www.westsussex.gov.uk –-leisure> record office -> about us). If you are unsure of what documentation you require as identification, it is advisable to telephone WSRO in advance. The Record Office will provide you with numerous primary and secondary sources to assist you with your presentations, and a day spent there will prove highly rewarding for your assessment. The staff at WSRO are approachable and willing to offer assistance, providing you can ask them something reasonably specific. To get you started, below is a brief selection of resources held at WSRO from which you can gain relevant information for your presentation: Chichester Miscellany, Room 21, Shelf JB2, Ref 2771. Duncan-Jones, A.S., The Chichester Customary: The Rites of the Church as Observed Throughout the Year in Chichester Cathedral (London: S.P.C.K, 1948). Duncan-Jones, A.S., The Story of Chichester Cathedral (London: Raphael Tuck & Sons Ltd, 1933). Mumby, J., ‘Medieval Carpentry in Chichester: 13th Century Roofs of the Cathedral and Bishop’s Palace’, in Down, Alec, Chichester Excavations 5 (Chichester: Phillimore & Co, 1981), pp.229-253. Peckham, W. D, ‘Some Notes on Chichester Cathedral’ in Sussex Archaeological Collections 111(Haywards Heath: Charles Clarice, 1973), pp.20-26. Statutes and Constitutions of the Cathedral Church of Chichester, Room 21, Shelf JA2, Ref 2776 Sussex Record Society XXXVI, Sussex Chantry Records (Cambridge: Heffer & Sons, 1931). Sussex Record Society XLI, Wills – Albourne to Chichester (Lewes: Sussex Record Society, 1935). Tracy, C., ‘Medieval Choir Stalls in Chichester: A Reassessment’ in Sussex Archaeological Collections 124 (Lewes: Sussex Archaeological Society, 1986), pp.141-156. Walcott, M., Early Statutes of Chichester Cathedral (London: Society of Antiquaries, 1877). Willis, R, The Architectural History of Chichester Cathedral (Chichester: William Hayley Mason, 1861).

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Important note: If you decide to arrange appointments with staff at any of the places referred to above, please be sure that you fulfil such meetings. If for any reason you cannot attend an appointment, you must contact the appropriate individual in plenty of time to let them know. People working in these environments are always very busy, and it will not reflect well on the university if students fail to attend arranged meetings with no prior warning. FINALLY - It’s advisable to start your research as early as you can, so that you don't find yourselves competing for resources at the last minute.

2) SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT: ESSAY OF 1750 WORDS (TUESDAY 17TH DECEMBER) See the ‘History Student Guide to Writing and Referencing’ for more detailed guidance on essays. See also the Academic Support Services page on Portia (Uni Services>Academic Skills), and also the ‘Internet Detective’ (www.vts.intute.ac.uk/detective/index.html) to evaluate the research potential of websites. The final taught session of the module will offer some advice on approaches to essay writing, but please do contact the tutor at any point during the module if you are in need of advice. Please remember to read the ‘History Student Guide to Writing & Referencing’ for guidance on referencing. ESSAY TITLES: •

Discuss Karen Harvey’s statement ‘history is impoverished without attention to material culture’. You may focus on one or more of the topics covered in the module if you wish.

What types of questions might historians ask when studying EITHER architecture OR landscapes?

Analyse the problems and potentials associated with displaying material traces of the past in museums and/or heritage sites?

Can the application of gender theory to studies of material culture aid our understanding of past societies?

Explore the suggestion that medieval structural design and architecture were imbued with symbolic as well as functional purposes. Your answer may mention - but not solely discuss – cathedrals.

In what ways did the material form of animals contribute to socio-cultural beliefs and relations in the Middle Ages?

How have past cultural beliefs and attitudes been expressed through the production and/or wearing of clothes in England?

How can we use the material culture associated with death to interpret the social and religious behaviours of the living in past societies? Consider at least two different time periods in your answer.

In what ways and for what reasons have social and gender relations been represented through the consumption of material goods in England since the seventeenth century? If you wish to negotiate the period covered by your answer, please discuss this with the tutor.

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READING LIST *= Almost certainly held at BRC only (although please check LRC catalogue) This bibliography is divided into sections in order to help you prepare for assignments and seminars. The ‘Ebrary’ section is not, although indications are given of content, for similar reasons. The sections are not entirely exclusive, however. If a particular journal is not held in the LRC, you should be able to locate it on JSTOR etc. Access to e-books, JSTOR, Project MUSE etc. is through Portia on the My Library tab -then click the Electronic Resources link. Not all of the books listed below will be available in the LRC, and it is always worth checking EBRARY and GOOGLE BOOKS to see if a particular text is available online (some online texts are listed below). Do also consider seeking to obtain books from the local library or via the inter-library loan service available at the front desk in the LRC – ask a member of staff for assistance and guidance of the (small) costs involved.

Material Culture: general (see also Ebrary section, below) Attfield, J., Wild Things: The Material Culture of Everyday Life (Oxford: Berg, 2000) EBRARY Braudel F. (1967) 1981, ‘The Structures of Everyday Life’, in The Fontana Dictionary of Modern Thought, eds A. Bullock et al. (London, 1988) Buchli, V., ed., The Material Culture Reader (Oxford: Berg, 2002) Dant, T., Material Culture in the Social World: Values, Activities, Lifestyles (Buckingham: Open University Press, 1999) EBRARY Gilchrist, R., Gender and Material Culture: The Archaeology of Religious Women (London:Routledge, 1991) – MOSTLY ABOUT MEDIEVAL NUNNERIES BUT WITH SOME THEORY IN THE INTRO. Gottdiener, M., Postmodern Semiotics: Material Culture & the Forms of Postmodern Life (Oxford: Blackwell, 1996) Grassby, R., ‘Material Culture and Cultural History’, The Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol.35, No.4 (2005), pp.591-603. Harvey, K., ed., History and Material Culture: A Student's Guide to Approaching Alternative Sources (London: Routledge, 2009) Hodder, I., ed., The Meanings of Things: Material Culture & Symbolic Expression (London: Routledge, 1991). Little, B. J., Historical Archaeology: Why the Past Matters (Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Pres, 2007) Pearce, S.M., Interpreting Objects and Collections (London, Routledge, 1994) EBRARY Pink, S., Home Truths: Gender, Domestic Objects and Everyday Life (Oxford: Berg, 2004) EBRARY Sofaer, J., Material Identities (New Interventions in Art History series) (Oxford: Blackwell, 2007) Tarlow, S., ed., Familiar Past: Archaeologies of Late-Historical Britain (London: Routledge, 1998). EBRARY. A SURVEY OF MATERIAL CULTURE FROM 1500-PRESENT. INCLUDES M. JOHNSON ON CASTLES & IDENTITY DURING THE RENAISSANCE, CHAPTER ON EARLY MODERN FOOD AS MATERIAL CULTURE, SOCIAL SPACE & THE ENGLISH COUNTRY HOUSE, ‘ARCHAEOLOGY’ OF THE WORKHOUSE, GARDENS, GRAVESTONES ETC. Tilley, C., Material Culture and Text: The Art of Ambiguity (London: Routledge, 1991) Tilley, C., Reading Material Culture: Structuralism, Hermaneutics and Post-Structuralism (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1990) 21


Tilley, C., ed., Journal of Material Culture, Special Edition, vol. 11, no. 1-2 (2006), pp. 7-32. MOSTLY LANDSCAPE, HERITAGE & IDENTITY BUT WORTH A LOOK , Stacked at 911.42 JOU Tilley, C., et al., Handbook of Material Culture (London: Sage Publications, 2006) GOOGLE BOOKS.

Museums & Public History Barringer, T.J & Flynn, Tom, Colonialism and the Object: Empire, Material Culture and the Museum (London: Routledge, 1998). Boswell D & Evans, J., eds., Representing the Nation: A Reader: Histories, Heritage and Museums (London & New York: Routledge, 1999). Dean, D.K., Museum Exhibition (London: Routledge, 1996) EBRARY Hooper-Greenhill, E., Museums and the Interpretation of Visual Culture (London & New York, Routledge, 2000). Jordanova, L., History in Practice (London: Arnold, 2000). Kavanagh, G., Making Histories in Museums (London & New York, Leicester University Press, 1996). Luke, T.J., Museum Politics: Power Plays at the Exhibition (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2002) EBRARY MacDonald, S., ed., The Politics of Display: Museums, Science, Culture (London: Routledge, 1998). McLean, F., ‘Museums and the Representation of Identity’ in Graham, B. & Howard, P., Ashgate Research Companion to Heritage and Identity (Abingdon: Ashgate, 2008), pp.283-298. EBRARY Merriman, N., ed., Making Early Histories in Museums (London & New York: Leicester University Press, 1999). Pearce, S. M., ‘Museum Objects’ in Pearce, S.M.,ed., Interpreting Objects and Collections (London: Routledge, 1994), pp.9-11. Spalding, J., The Poetic Museum: Reviving Historic Collections (London: Prestel, 2002). Tilley, C., ‘Interpreting Material Culture’, in Pearce, S. M.,ed., Interpreting Objects and Collections (London: Routledge, 1994), pp.67-75. Walsh, K., The Representation of the Past: Museums and Heritage in the Postmodern World (London & New York: Routledge, 1992).

Medieval Landscapes and Architecture Binski, P., Westminster Abbey & the Plantagenets: Kingship and the Representation of Power, 1200 – 1400 (London: Yale University Press, 1995). Creighton, O., Castles and Landscapes: Power, Community and Fortification in Medieval England (London: Equinox, 2002). Creighton, O., ‘Castle studies and the European medieval landscape: traditions, trends and future research directions’, Landscape History, volume 30 Iss. 2, (2009), pp.5-20. Gies, J & F., Life in a Medieval Castle (London: Abelard-Schuman, 1975). Giles, K., ‘Public Space in Town and Village, 1100-1500’ in Giles, K. & Dyer, C., eds., Town and Country in the Middle Ages: Contrasts, Contacts and Interconnections, 1100-1500 (Leeds: Maney, 2007), pp.293-311. Giles, K., ‘Seeing and believing: visuality and space in pre-modern England’, World Archaeology, Vol. 39, No. 1, Mar. 2007 (Taylor & Francis Ltd) pp.105-121, JSTOR Gilchrist, R., Gender and Archaeology: Contesting the Past (London & New York: Routledge, 1999) EBRARY

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Gilchrist, R., Gender and Material Culture: The Archaeology of Religious Women (London & New: Routledge, 1994). James, T. B. & Gerrard, C., Clarendon: Landscape of Kings (Macclesfield: Windgather Press, 2007). Johnson, M., Behind the Castle Gate (London & New York: Routledge, 2002). Liddiard, R., Castles in Context: Power, Symbolism & Landscape, 1066-1500 (Macclesfield: Windgather Press, 2005). Lilley, K. D. ‘Urban Landscapes and Their Design: Creating Town from Country in the Middle Ages’ in Giles, K. & Dyer, C., eds., Town and Country in the Middle Ages: Contrasts, Contacts and Interconnections, 1100-1500 (Leeds: Maney, 2007), pp.229-250. Lilley, K. D., City and Cosmos: The Medieval World in Urban Form (London: Reaktion Books, 2009). Lilley, K. D., ‘Cities of God? Medieval Urban Forms and Their Christian Symbolism’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, New Series, Vol. 29, No. 3, September 2004, pp.296-313. JSTOR Mileson, S.A., ‘The Sociology of Park Creation in Medieval England’ in Liddiard, R., ed., The Medieval Park: New Perspectives (Macclesfield: Windgather Press Ltd., 2007), pp.11-26. Rawcliffe, C., ‘The Earthly and Spiritual Topography of Suburban Hospitals’, in Giles, K. & Dyer, C., eds., Town and Country in the Middle Ages: Contrasts, Contacts and Interconnections, 1100-1500 (Leeds: Maney, 2007), pp.251-274. Richardson, A., ‘The King’s Chief Delights’: A Landscape Approach to the Royal Parks of Post Conquest England’ in Liddiard, R., ed., The Medieval Park: New Perspectives (Macclesfield: Windgather Press Ltd., 2007), pp.27-48. Steane, J. M., The Archaeology of Power (Stroud: Tempus Publishing Limited 2001).

Medieval Animals Albarella, U., ‘Meat Production and Consumption in Town and Country’ in Giles, K. & Dyer, C., eds., Town and Country in the Middle Ages: Contrasts, Contacts and Interconnections, 1100 1500 (Leeds: Maney, 2007), pp.131-148. Cohen, J. J., Medieval Identity Machines (London, Minneapolis; University of Minnesota Press, 2003), ESPECIALLY CHAPTER 2: ‘CHEVALERIE’ ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE HORSE AND KNIGHT IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Hassig, D., ed., The Mark of the Beast: The Medieval Bestiary in Art, Life and Literature (New York & London: Routledge, 2000) – ASK THE TUTOR IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO BORROW THIS TEXT. Pluskowski, A., ed., Breaking and Shaping Beastly Bodies: Animals as Material Culture in the Middle Ages (Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2007) Pluskowski, A., ‘What is Exotic? Sources of Animals and Animal Products From the Edges of the Medieval World’ in Jartiz, G. & Kreem, J., eds., The Edges of the Medieval World (Budapest & New York: Central European University Press, 2009), pp.113-129 EBRARY Pluskowski, A., ‘The Social Construction of Medieval Park Ecosystems: An Interdisciplinary Perspective’ in Liddiard, R., ed., The Medieval Park: New Perspectives (Macclesfield: Windgather Press Ltd., 2007), pp.63-78. Salisbury, J. E., The Beast Within: Animals in the Middle Ages, Second Edition (London: Routledge, 2011). Steel, K, How to Make a Human: Animals and Violence in the Middle Ages (Columbus: The Ohio State University Press, 2011). Sykes, N., ‘Animal Bones and Animal Parks’ in Liddiard, R., ed., The Medieval Park: New Perspectives (Macclesfield: Windgather Press Ltd., 2007), pp.49-62

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Woolgar, C.M., Serjeantson, D. & Waldron, T., Food in Medieval England: Diet and Nutrition Oxford University Press, 2006) EBRARY

(Oxford:

Chichester and Chichester Cathedral Brandon, P., & Cartland, J., The South East from AD 100 (London: Longman, 1990) *Dally, R., The Chichester guide: containing the history and antiquities of the City, and other interesting objects of curiosity, a description of the Cathedral and its monuments and of the minor churches, together with some account of the antiquities and gentlemens' seats in the neighbourhood (Chichester: P. Binstead, 1831). Hobbs, M., Chichester Cathedral: An Historical Survey (Chichester: Phillimore, 1992). Leslie, K. C., and McCann, T. J., Local History in West Sussex: A Guide to Sources (Chichester: West Sussex County Council, 1971) MacDougall, P., The Story of Chichester (Stroud: Sutton Publishing, 2004) McCann, A, with Adams, C., 2000 Years of Chichester (Chichester: West Sussex County Council, 2000) Morgan, R. R., Chichester: A Documentary History (Chichester: Phillimore, 1992). Narin, I. & Pevsner, N., The Buildings of England: Sussex (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1965) Salzman, L. F., ed., The Victoria History of the County of Sussex, vol. 3 (1935). *Willis, T. G., Records of Chichester: some glimpses of its past: and of the neighbourhood: being extracts from the various books written on Chichester and its neighbourhood, but published many years, ago,together with local history written up to date (Chichester: T.G. Willis, 1928).

Churches and Cathedral general reading Cunningham, P., How Old is That Church? (Sherborne: Marston House, 2001). Doig, A., Liturgy and Architecture: From the Early Church to the Middle Ages (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008). Fewins, C., The Church Explorer’s Handbook: A Guide to Looking at Churches and Their Contents (Norwich: Canterbury Press, 2005). Fitchen, J., The Construction of Gothic Cathedrals: A Study of Medieval Vault Erection (London: University of Chicago Press, 1981). Hamilton, S., & Spicer, A., eds, Defining the Holy: Sacred Space in Medieval and Early Modern Europe (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006). Saul, N., English Church Monuments in the Middle Ages: History and Representation (Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, 2009). Scott, R.A., The Gothic Enterprise: A Guide to Understanding the Medieval Cathedral (London: University of California Press, 2003). Sheridan, R., Grotesques and Gargoyles: Paganism in the Medieval Church (Newton Abbot: David and Charles, 1975). Simson, O. von, The Gothic Cathedral: Origins of Gothic Architecture and the Medieval Concept of Order (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988). Taylor, R., How to Read a Church: An Illustrated Guide to Images, Symbols and Meanings in Churches and Cathedrals (London: Rider, 2004).

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Gender and Material Culture Derevenski, J. S., Children and Material Culture (London: Routledge, 2000) EBRARY Gilchrist, R., Gender and Archaeology: Contesting the Past (London & New York: Routledge, 1999) EBRARY Gilchrist, R., Gender and Material Culture: The Archaeology of Religious Women (London & New York: Routledge, 1994). Massey, A., Hollywood Beyond the Screen: Design & Material Culture (Oxford: Berg Publishers, 2000) EBRARY LOTS ON NATIONAL & GENDERED IDENTITIES AS REFLECTED IN/ PROMOTED BY CLOTHES (ESPECIALLY ) & OTHER MATERIAL CULTURE IN HOLLYWOOD AND NATIONAL FILMS THROUGH THE 20THC Marcoux, J-S., ‘Body Exchanges: Material Culture, Gender and Stereotypes in the Making’, Home Cultures, Volume 1, Issue 1, 2004, pp.51-60. Edwards, T., Men in the Mirror: Men’s fashion, masculinity and consumer society (London: Cassell, 1997). Moore, J. & Scott, El., eds., Invisible People and Processes: Writing Gender and Childhood into European Archaeology (London & New York: Leicester University Press, 1997). Pink, S., Home Truths: Gender, Domestic Objects and Everyday Life (Oxford: Berg, 2004) Schmidt, R. A., & Voss, B. L., Archaeologies of Sexuality (London: Routledge, 2000) EBRARY Shoemaker, R. B., Gender in English Society, 1650-1850: The Emergence of Separate Spheres (Harlow: Addison Wesley Longman Limited, 1998) USEFUL FOR BACKGROUND TO GENDER THEORY Sorensen, M. L. S, ‘The Archaeology of Gender’ in Bintliff, J., ed., A Companion to Archaeology (Oxford:Blackwell Publishing, 2004). Sweely, T., Manifesting Power: Gender and the Interpretation of Power in Archaeology (London: Routledge, 1999) EBRARY Suthrell, C., Unzipping Gender: Sex, Cross-Dressing and Culture (Oxford: Berg Publishers, 2004). EBRARY ESPECIALLY CHAPTER ENTITLED ‘CLOTHING SEX, SEXING CLOTHES’. NOT A HISTORICAL STUDY, BUT USEFUL FOR UNDERSTANDING CONCEPTS AND THEORIES BEHIND CLOTHING AS MATERIAL CULTURE. ALSO GOOD FOR UNDERSTANDING GENDER AS A CONCEPT. Taylor, T., The Prehistory of Sex: Four Million Years of Human Sexual Culture (London: Fourth Estate, 1996).

Clothing & Consumption Adam, S. A. M., Material Culture in Europe and China, 1400-1800: The Rise of Consumerism (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1997) Barringer, T., & Flynn, T., eds, Colonialism & the Object: Empire, Material Culture & the Museum (London: Routledge, 1998) Berry, H ‘Polite Consumption: Shopping in Eighteenth-Century England’, Transactions of the RHS 12 (2002), pp.375-94. JSTOR Berg, M., ‘Women’s Consumption and the Industrial Classes of Eighteenth-Century England’, Journal of Social History, Vol. 30, No. 2, Winter, 1996, pp.415-434 JSTOR Braudel, F., Afterthoughts on Material Civilisation & Capitalism (London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977) Braudel, F., Capitalism & Material Life, 1400-1800 (London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson, 1973) Braudel F. (1967) 1981, ‘The Structures of Everyday Life’, in The Fontana Dictionary of Modern Thought, eds A. Bullock et al. (London, 1988) 25


Breward, C., The Culture of Fashion: A New History of Fashionable Dress (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1995) Breward, C., The Hidden Consumer: Masculinities, Fashion and City Life 1860-1914 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1999) Brewer, J., & Porter, R., Consumption & the World of Goods (London: Routledge, 1993). Bullough, V. L, ‘Transvestites in the Middle Ages’, American Journal of Sociology, Vol.79, No.6 (1974), pp.1381-94. JSTOR Campbell, C., The Romantic Ethic & the Spirit of Modern Consumerism (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1987). Clark , R.L.A. and Sponsler, C., ‘Queer Play: The Cultural Work of Crossdressing in Medieval Drama, New Literary History, Vol.28, No.2, 1997, pp.319-44. JSTOR Clarke, A. J., ‘The Aesthetics of Social Aspiration’ in Miller, D., Home Possessions: Material Culture Behind Closed Doors (Oxford: Berg, 2001), pp.23-46 EBRARY Dant, T., Material Culture in the Social World: Values, Activities, Lifestyles (Buckingham: Open University Press, 1999) EBRARY Hotchkiss, V. R., Clothes Make the Man: Female Cross Dressing in Medieval Europe (New York & London: Garland Publishing Inc., 1996) Jardine, L., Worldly Goods (London: Macmillan, 1996) – THE RENAISSANCE & MATERIAL CULTURE Johnson, P., ‘Conspicuous Consumption and Working-Class Culture in Late Victorian and Edwardian Britain’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Fifth Series, vol. 38, 1988, pp.27-42 JSTOR Lemire, B., Consumerism in Preindustrial and Early Industrial England: The Trade in Secondhand Clothes, Journal of British Studies, Vol.27, No.1 (1988), pp.1-24. JSTOR Lemire, B., ‘The Theft of Clothes and Popular Consumerism in Early Modern England’, Journal of Social History, Vol.24, No2, Winter 1990, pp.255-276. JSTOR McKendrick, N., The Birth of a Consumer Society: The Commercialization of Eighteenth Century England (London: Europa, 1982) Edwards, T., Men in the Mirror: Men’s fashion, masculinity and consumer society (London: Cassell, 1997). Pink, S., Home Truths: Gender, Domestic Objects and Everyday Life (Oxford: Berg, 2004) EBRARY Richardson, C., ‘A very fit hat’: Personal Objects and Early Modern Affection, in Hamling, T and Richardson, C, Everyday Objects: Medieval and Early Modern Material Culture and its Meanings (Farnham: Ashgate, 2010), pp.289-298. Richardson, C., Clothing Culture, 1350-1650 (History of Retailing & Consumption series) (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004). Sponsler, C., Drama and Resistance: Bodies, Good and Theatricality in Late Medieval England (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997) EBRARY CHAPTER 1 EXCELLENT ON MEDIEVAL CLOTHES.

Death and commemoration Boase, T.S.R, Death in the Middle Ages: Mortality, Judgement and Remembrance (London: Thames and Hudson, 1972). Curt, J. S., The Victorian Celebration of Death (Newton Abbot: David and Charles, 1972) Dinn, Robert, ‘”Monuments Answerable to Men’s Wealth”: Burial Patterns, Social Status and Gender in Late Medieval Bury-St-Edmunds’, The Journal of Ecclesiastical History, Vol. 46, No. 2 (April 1995), pp.237-255. Hallam, E., & Hockey, J., Death, Memory and Material Culture (Oxford: Berg, 2001)

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Houlbrook, R. A., Death, Religion, and the Family in England, 1480-1750 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998). Howarth, G., and Leaman, O., Encyclopedia of Death and Dying (London: Routledge, 2001) Gordon, B., and Marshall, P., eds., The Place of the Dead: Death & Remembrance in Late Medieval and Early Modern Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000) FOR BACKGROUND Jones, O., and Cloke, P., Tree Cultures: The Place of Trees & Trees in their Place (Berg, 2002), GOOGLE BOOKS CHAPTER 7, ‘CEMETERY’ Jupp, P. C., and Gittings, C., Death in England: An Illustrated History (Manchester, MUP, 1999) Jupp, P.C., and Howarth, G., eds, The Changing Face of Death: Historical Accounts of Death & Disposal (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1997). Kidd, W., and Murdoch, B., Memory and Memorials: the commemorative century (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004) Llewellyn, N., Funeral Monuments in Post-Reformation England (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000) Litten, J., The English Way of Death: The Common Funeral Since 1450 (London: Hale, 1991) Lucy, S., The Anglo-Saxon Way of Death (Stroud: Sutton Publishing, 2000). Lucy, S. & Reynolds, A., eds., Burial in Early Medieval England (Leeds: Maney Publishing, 2002) Morley, J., Death, Heaven and the Victorians (London: Studio Vista, 1971) Murray, S., ‘Military Gravestones in south-east Essex: classification and analysis of a neglected source’, The Local Historian, Vol.32, No.1 (Feb. 2002) Noys, B., The Culture of Death (Oxford: Berg, 2005) Philpot, R., Burial Practices in Roman Britain: A Survey of Grave Treatment and Furnishing, AD.43 410 (Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, 1991). Reynolds, A., Anglo-Saxon Deviant Burial Customs (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009) Rutherford, S., The Victorian Cemetery (Shire Publications, 2008) Tarlow, S., ‘Wormie Clay & Blessed Sleep: Death & Disgust in Late-Historic Britain’, in Tarlow, S., ed., Familiar Past: Archaeologies of Late-Historical Britain (London: Routledge, 1998), pp.215-30 EBRARY. Wheeler, M., Heaven, Hell and the Victorians (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994) ESP. CHAPTER ON THE GRAVE, PP.50-73.

War memorials Bartlett, J. & Ellis, K., ‘Remembering the Dead in Northop: First World War Memorials in a Welsh Parish’, Journal of Contemporary History, Vol.34, No.2 (1999) Borg, A., War Memorials: from antiquity to the present (London: Leo Cooper, 1991) Brown, J., ‘Recording War Memorials in Northumberland’, The Local Historian, Vol.26, No.4 (1996) Evans, M. & Lunn, K. (eds), War and Memory in the Twentieth Century (1997) Gillis, J. R., ed., Commemorations: the politics of national identity (Princeton: New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1994) Grieves, K., ‘Investigating local war memorial committees: demobilised soldiers, the bereaved and expressions of local pride in Sussex villages, 1918-1921’ The Local Historian, Vol. 30, No.1 (February, 2000) Kidd, W., and Murdoch, B., Memory and Memorials: the commemorative century (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004) Knight, L. & Hewitt, N., ‘War memorials and local history: the UK National Inventory of War Memorials’, The Local Historian, Vol.31, No.4 (November 2001) 27


Lloyd, D., Battlefield Tourism: pilgrimage and the commemoration of the Great War in Britain, Australia and Canada, 1919-1939 (Oxford: Berg, 1998) Lunn, K. (eds), War and Memory in the Twentieth Century (1997) Mansfield, N., ‘Class Conflict and Village War Memorials, 1914-24’, Rural History, Vol. 6, No. 1, April 1995. Moriarty, C., ‘Private Grief and Public Remembrance: British First World War Memories’ in Evans, M. & Moriarty, C., Review Article: ‘The Material Culture of the Great War Remembrance’, Journal of Contemporary History, Vol.34 (4), 1999 Mosse, G.L., Fallen Soldiers: reshaping the memory of the World Wars (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991) Murray, S., ‘Military Gravestones in south-east Essex: classification and analysis of a neglected source’, The Local Historian, Vol.32, No.1 (Feb. 2002) Young, J.E., Texture of Memory: Holocaust memorials and meaning (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994) Wood, N., Vectors of Memory: legacies of trauma in post-war Europe (1999)

Landscape (general) Bender, B., ed., Landscape: Politics and Perspectives (Oxford: Berg Publishers, 1993 Brace, C., Landscape, Place and Identity (London: Sage, 2002) Cosgrove, D.E., Social Formation & Symbolic Landscape (Madison, WIS: University of Wisconsin Press, 1998) Dimbleby, D., et al., A Picture of Britain (London: Tate Publishing, 2005) Hoskins, W.G., The Making of the English Landscape, new edition with introduction & commentary (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1988) Hooke, D., ed., Landscape: The Richest Historical Record (Society for Landscape Studies, 2000) Liddiard, R., Castles in Context: Power, Symbolism and Landscape (Macclesfield: Windgather Press, 2007) James, T.B., and Gerrard, C., Clarendon: Landscape of Kings (Bollington: Windgather, 2007) Johnson, M.H., An Archaeology of Capitalism (Oxford: Blackwell, 1996) Johnson, M.H., Housing Culture: Traditional Architecture in an English Landscape (London: Routledge, 1993) Johnson, M.H., Ideas of Landscape (Oxford: Blackwell, 2007) Johnson, M.H., ‘Reconstructing Castles & Refashioning Identities in Renaissance England’ in Tarlow, S., ed., Familiar Past: Archaeologies of Late-Historical Britain (London: Routledge, 1998), pp.69-86 EBRARY Matless, D., Landscape & Englishness (London: Reaktion, 1998) ESPECIALLY GOOD ON IDEAS ABOUT LANDSCAPE THROUGH THE 20THC Muir, R., Be Your Own Landscape Detective: Investigating Where You Are (Stroud: Sutton Publishing, 2007) Muir, R., Landscape Detective: Discovering a Countryside (Macclesfield: Windgather Press, 2001) Muir, R., The New Reading the Landscape: Fieldwork in Local History (Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 2000) Paine, C., Sacred Places: Spirit & Landscape (London: National Trust, 2004) Richardson, A., The Forest, Park and Palace of Clarendon c.1200-1650: Reconstructing an Actual, Conceptual and Documented Wiltshire Landscape (Oxford: Archaeopress, 2005) SOME GENERAL LANDSCAPE HISTORIOGRAPHY & THEORY IN HERE

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Schama, S., Landscape & Memory (London: HarperCollins 1995) Thirsk, J., ed., The English Rural Landscape (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000) Whyte, I., Landscape and History Since 1500 (London: Reaktion, 2003)

Country house landscapes Arnold, D., The Georgian Country House: Architecture, Landscape & Society (Stroud: Sutton, 2003) Jacques, D., Georgian Gardens: The Reign of Nature (London: Batsford, 1983) James, T.B., and Gerrard, C., Clarendon: Landscape of Kings (Bollington: Windgather, 2007) Ousby, I., The Englishman’s England: Taste, Travel and the Rise of Tourism (Cambridge: CUP, 1990). Musson, J., How to Read a Country House (London: Ebury, 2005), CH 8, GARDENS Turner, R., Capability Brown & the Eighteenth-Century English Landscape (London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson, 1985) Watkin, D., The English Vision: The Picturesque in Architecture, Landscape & Garden Design (London: Murray, 1982) Whyte, I., Landscape and History Since 1500 (London: Reaktion, 2003) Wilson, R., and Mackley, A., Creating Paradise: the Building of the English Country House, 1660-1880 (London: Hambledon Continuum, 2000).

A Few More Material Culture Books on Ebrary… Chaney, D., Cultural Change and Everyday Life (London: Palgrave MacMillan, 2002). PARTICULARLY CHAPTER 4 ‘EVERYDAY LIFE AND PERSONAL SETTING’ Crowley, J. E., Invention of Comfort: Sensibilities and Design in Early Modern Britain and Early America (The John Hopkins University Press, 2001). COVERS ARCHITECTURE, OBJECTS LIKE CANDLES & MIRRORS, AND LANDSCAPE Dalglish, C., ed., Rural Society in the Age of Reason: An Archaeology of the Emergence of Modern Life in the Southern Scottish Highlands (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003) USEFUL STUFF ON VILLAGE MORPHOLOGY, LANDSCAPE & HOUSES AS EXPRESSIONS OF CULTURAL IDEALS (ESP. 18THC), DOMESTIC SPACE & CHANGES TO. Funari, P. P., ed., Historical Archaeology: Back from the Edge (London: Routledge, 1999) GOOD CHAPTER (D. BROWN) ON MATERIAL CULTURE FROM MEDIEVAL SOUTHAMPTON Ingold, T., ed., Companion Encyclopedia of Anthropology: Humanity, Culture and Social Life (London: Routledge, 1994). ESPECIALLY PART II ON CULTURE McMurry, S. A., Families and Farmhouses in Nineteenth-Century America: Vernacular Design and Social Change (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988). VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE AS AN INDEX OF SOCIAL & CULTURAL HISTORY Miller, D., ed., Acknowledging Consumption (London: Routledge, 1995). ESPECIALLY CH 5, ‘CONSUMPTION WITHIN HISTORICAL STUDIES’ Penelope, A. M., Archaeology of Household Activities (London: Routledge, 1999) INCLUDES ‘CHANGING MEANINGS OF THE DOMESTIC SPHERE IN THE 19TH CENTURY’ – A BIT JARGONY, BUT WORTH A READ FOR ITS ANALYSIS OF GENDER & MATERIAL CULTURE Quinn, M., Swastika: Constructing the Symbol (London: Routledge, 1994)

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Websites of Interest Material Culture Hirst, K. K., ‘Material Culture’, About.Com: Archaeology, http://archaeology.about.com/od/mterms/g/material_cultur.htm Material World Blog, http://www.materialworldblog.com/ UCL Centre for Museums, Heritage and Material http://www.mhm.ucl.ac.uk/index.php Waugh, D., ‘Material Culture/Objects’, World History Sources, http://chnm.gmu.edu/worldhistorysources/unpacking/objectsmain.html

Culture

Studies,

Landscape (rural & urban) AHRC Landscape and Environment Programme http://www.landscape.ac.uk/ Centre for Urban History http://www.le.ac.uk/ur/ Crosby, A., BBC History Trails: Local History, ‘Landscape History’ http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/trail/local_history/landscape/landscape_history_top_tips_01.shtml Institute for Garden & Landscape History http://www.gardenhistoryinstitute.co.uk/news.html (INCLUDES REVIEWS OF RECENT BOOKS) The Garden & Landscape Guide, http://www.gardenvisit.com/history_theory (LINKS INCLUDING 200 ONLINE ARTICLES) Wikipedia, ‘Landscape History’, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Landscape_history

Burial and Commemoration Chevalier, T., ‘Victorian Cemeteries & Funerary Monuments’, www.tchevalier.com/fallingangels/bckgrnd/cemeteries/ Rugg, J., ‘Burial Policy and the Management of Death in England, 1939-79’, Cemetery Research Group, University of York, www.york.ac.uk/inst/chp/crg/esrc-crg.htm Rugg, J., ‘What Makes a Cemetery a Cemetery?’, Cemetery Research Group, University of York, www.york.ac.uk/inst/chp/crg/cemeterydef.htm Southampton University Students, ‘The Victorian Attitude to Death’, National Federation of Cemetery Friends www.cemeteryfriends.org.uk/15.html, www.questionablefilms.com/deathinsoton.html (VIDEO INCLUDES INFO ON VICTORIAN MOURNING TRADITIONS, FUNERAL PRACTICE, GRAVESTONES ETC.) Walk Around Stoke-on-Trent, ‘Hartshill Cemetery: Reflecting the Values of Victorian Society’ www.thepotteries.org/walks/hartshill_cem/index.htm

Medieval Symbolism (urban and animal) Mapping Medieval Chester: Place and Identity in an English Borderland City, c.1200-1500 www.medievalchester.ac.uk The Medieval Bestiary: Animals in the Middle Ages http://bestiary.ca/index.html

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Appendix 1 Departmental Administration Office ASSIGNMENT SUBMISSION PROCEDURE Before you submit: • Please put all work in a plastic folder it is ideal to protect your work from damage but please do not use cardboard wallet folders. Special arrangements will be made by your module tutor for submission of large or bulky pieces of work. Please ensure that videos are submitted with your work in a ‘sealable’ folder so that they do not get separated or lost. • Work must be accompanied by an Assignment Submission Sheet. These are obtainable from the Departmental Administrator/Office but supply is limited, so please do not take more than you really need. • Please complete all the boxes on the Assignment Submission Sheet. DO NOT PUT YOUR NAME ON YOUR WORK. If you are not sure of your student number, please check the lists on the wall of the lobby where you hand in your work (See below) • Ensure that you have submitted your work electronically to TurnItIn (as well as submitting a paper copy of your work.) Please write the Paper ID (available from your Turnitin receipt) number onto the MAC cover sheet attached to your hard copy assignment. Failure to submit your work via TurnItIn, or to record your Paper ID on your MAC form could result in your work being classed as a non-submission • Work which is submitted without (or an incomplete) Assignment Submission Sheet will be returned to students for completion and will be classified as ‘late without permission’. • Please do not remove the top page of the Assignment Submission Sheet. They are needed for recording your submission. Where to submit your work: Unless instructed to do otherwise, please post your work in the appropriate programme/departmental box in the central lobby area, ground floor, New Hall __________________________________________ If you have genuine reasons for not being able to submit work on time, please complete an extension request form before the assignment is due.

Appendix 2 Departmental Administration Office ASSIGNMENT EXTENSION PROCEDURE If you have a genuine reason for not being able to submit your work on time, please complete an extension form.

• These (green) forms are available from the Departmental Administrator/Office in New Hall and in a tray above the hand-in boxes and should be completed before the assignment deadline. • Ensure that the form is signed by your Module Co-ordinator and the nurse (where applicable) before handing into office. • You will then be informed if your extension request has been granted. • Please submit your completed assignment, before the agreed extended deadline, to the Departmental Office (New Hall). Do not put it into the departmental box on the ground floor of New Hall!

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APPENDIX 3 University of Chichester Generic Undergraduate Marking Criteria 2011

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Class /Marks Overall Quality Fail 0% Fail 1-9% Minimal Quality

Relevance

Argument (reasoning)

Evidence

Non-Submission or work of no value Contains little of No practical, academic relevance to the or intellectual application. objectives of the assessment task. Fails to answer and address the set topic

Based on little or no evidence. Lacks academic and intellectual integrity and quality. Use of non-academic sources limits intellectual understanding.

Fail 10-19% Very Poor Quality

Contains limited relevance to the objectives of the assessment task. May address the topic but not the assignment brief. May be scanty and brief.

Work is descriptive and anecdotal. Minimal or no argument. May be entirely reliant on the work of others, with no practical and /or academic application to demonstrate understanding of the material.

Irrelevant or minimal use of recommended sources, resulting in a lack of understanding and inadequate supporting evidence. Nonacademic sources that lack intellectual integrity are relied upon.

Fail 20-34% Poor Quality

Inconsistency of relevance to the objectives of the assessment task. Addresses topic but not always the assignment brief. May be significantly short of required length/ time.

Descriptive or anecdotal work with scanty or no argument. Reliant on the work of others and does not use this to develop own arguments. No critical discussion or theoretical engagement. Little practical and intellectual application.

Minimal and inadequate knowledge of relevant and recommended sources. Their use as supporting evidence may be inaccurate, inappropriate or negligible. Reliance on dated, unreliable or non-academic sources.

May be some deviation from objectives of the assessment task. May not consistently address set question or assignment brief. May be short of required length/time.

Descriptive or anecdotal with little or no critical discussion and theoretical engagement. Unconvincing or minimal line of argument. Mostly reliant on the work of others, displaying little understanding or ability to apply the material.

Very limited range, use and application of relevant and recommended sources. Demonstrates lack of real understanding. Too much reliance may be placed on dated, unreliable or nonacademic sources.

Satisfactorily addresses most objectives of the assessment task Completed to acceptable tolerance, limits of time/length.

Work is descriptive with minimal critical discussion and limited theoretical engagement. Too much reliance on the work of others rather than developing own understanding and application of the material

Limited range of relevant and recommended sources are used, but with some inadequacies in their use and employment as supporting evidence. There may be some reliance on dated or unreliable sources

Competently addresses objectives of the assessment task, but may contain minor errors or

Some limited critical discussion, but argument is unconvincing, particularly at the lower end where the work is

Range of relevant and recommended sources are used, but this may be in an unimaginative or literal manner, particularly at the lower end of

Fail/PP 35-39% Weak Quality

3rd 40-49% Acceptable Quality

2 (ii) 50-59% Sound Quality, competent

33

Structure and Presentation (visual / written) Presentation is inappropriate, unclear and inaccessible. Work is not coherent or succinct. Serious errors of vocabulary, syntax, spelling and punctuation obscure the overall meaning. No logical development or organisation of the materials with few links between statements and sections. References are absent, incorrect or inaccurate. Presentation is inappropriate, unclear and inaccessible. Points are not made coherently or succinctly. Compound errors of vocabulary, syntax, spelling and punctuation seriously detract from the overall meaning. Materials lack logical development. Relationship between statements and sections are hard to recognise. References may be absent, incorrect or inaccurate. Poor visual and written presentation. The style may be inappropriate, unclear and inaccessible. Points may not be made coherently or succinctly. Errors of vocabulary, syntax, spelling & punctuation may seriously detract from the overall meaning. The materials may lack logical development & organisation. Relationship between statements & sections may be difficult to recognise. References may be absent, inaccurate or incorrect. Weak presentation. Aspects of the style may be inappropriate, unclear & inaccessible. Some points will not be made coherently or succinctly. Errors of spelling, vocabulary, syntax & punctuation may seriously detract from the overall meaning. The materials may lack logical development and organisation. Relationship between some statements & sections may be difficult to recognise. Limited use of references & some may be inaccurate. Acceptable presentation. Some aspects of the style may be unclear. Points may not be made coherently or succinctly. Some errors of vocabulary, syntax, spelling & punctuation but these are not serious distractions from the overall meaning. Some lack of logical development and organisation of the materials. The relationship between some statements and sections may be hard to follow. Work is referenced accurately with some errors. Generally sound presentation. Style is largely clear and accessible. There may be minor errors of vocabulary, syntax, spelling and punctuation but these


Class /Marks Overall Quality with some limitations

Relevance

Argument (reasoning)

Evidence

omissions at the lower end, where treatment of issues may be superficial. Completed to required time/length, etc.

more descriptive. More reliance on work of others rather than developing own arguments. Limited theoretical and conceptual analysis.

the range. Limited use of sources beyond the standard recommended materials.

Clearly addresses the objectives of the assessment task, especially those elements requiring critical analysis. At the higher end the work will not contain errors or omissions.

Generally clear line of critical and evaluative argument, with ability to develop own ideas from the work of others. Ability to engage in theoretical and conceptual analysis.

Good range of relevant and recommended sources used in an imaginative and largely consistent way as supporting evidence. Use of some sources beyond recommended texts including more complex materials.

1st 70-79% Excellent Quality

Authoritatively addresses the objectives of the assessment task, especially those components requiring critical analysis, synthesis and evaluation.

A clear and consistent line of critical and evaluative argument, displaying the ability to develop one’s own insightful ideas from the work of others. Excellent engagement in theoretical and conceptual analysis.

Wide range of relevant and recommended sources used in an insightful and consistent way as supporting evidence. Some in depth use of sources beyond recommended texts, to demonstrate independent research.

1st 80-89% Outstanding Quality).

Innovatively addresses objectives of the assessment task, especially those components requiring sophistication of critical analysis, synthesis and evaluation.

A clear and consistent line of highly critical and evaluative argument, displaying the ability to develop one’s innovative ideas from the work of others. Creative flair in theoretical and conceptual analysis.

Wide range of recommended and relevant sources used in an innovative and consistent way to support arguments. In depth use of sources beyond recommended texts, demonstrates creative flair in independent research.

1st 90-100% Exceptional or distinguished Quality

Professionally addresses the objectives of the assessment task, especially those components requiring originality of critical analysis, synthesis and evaluation.

Consistent line of profound critical and evaluative argument, displaying the ability to develop original ideas from an innovative synthesis of the work of others. Creative flair in advanced theoretical and conceptual analysis.

Wide range of relevant and recommended sources used in a profound and consistent way as supporting evidence. Use of cutting-edge sources beyond the recommended texts, including in-depth use of complex material demonstrating advanced independent research.

2(i) 60-69% High Quality, skilled work

Structure and Presentation (visual / written) should not detract from the overall meaning. There may be inconsistencies in the organisation and development of materials. The relationship between some statements and sections may not be easy to follow. Some points may not be made coherently or succinctly. Work is referenced accurately with few errors Good visual and written presentation. Clear and accessible style. Generally good standards of vocabulary, syntax, spelling and punctuation. Logical organisation and development of materials. Coherent. Relationship between statements and sections are easy to follow. Referencing is accurate and appropriate. Excellent visual and written presentation. Very clear and accessible style. Good standards of vocabulary, syntax, spelling and punctuation. Logical and fluent organisation and development of materials. Coherent and succinct. Relationship between statements and sections are very clear. Referencing is accurate, appropriate and extensive. Outstanding visual and written presentation. Sophisticated yet clear and accessible style. Very good standards of vocabulary, syntax, spelling and punctuation. Possibly innovative yet logical and fluent organisation and development of materials. Articulate, coherent and succinct. Relationships between statements and sections are clear and precise. Referencing is accurate, appropriate and extensive.. Distinguished visual and written presentation. Highly sophisticated yet clear and accessible style. Extremely good standards of vocabulary, syntax, spelling and punctuation. Innovative yet logical and fluent organisation and development of materials. Highly articulate, coherent and succinct. Relationships between statement and sections are precisely made with great clarity. Referencing is accurate, appropriate and extensive.

Appendix 3 Appendix 4 34


Marking Criteria for Individual & Group Oral Presentations Individual Presentations Structure Introduction is relevant, clear concise

Gradation Excellent to Poor A B C D

E No introduction/irrelevant introduction

Argument is well sequenced, a substantial analysis of the area introduced

A

B

C

D

Argument is confusing, lacks coherence E and/or explanation of the area

Conclusion follows from the main argument

A

B

C

D

E No conclusion/little link with main argument

Content Positioned content/discussion relevant/ focused throughout

A

B

C

D

E Lack of position – disorientated/raises too many irrelevant issues

Shows sound knowledge of relevant sources

A

B

C

D

E Lacks knowledge/limited and/or irrelevant sources

Intellectually strong & rigorously argued throughout

A

B

C

D

E Low intellectual level/too much generalisation; unfocused

Evidence of appropriate background reading; historiographical as necessary

A

B

C

D

E Little or no evidence of background reading; little or no historiographical awareness

Capable of generating class discussion; Open and inviting/stimulating

A

B

C

D

E Incapable of class involvement/closed (too narrowly focused; lacks stimulation)

A

B

C

D

E Lack of lucidity/lack of clarity and limited vocabulary

A

B

C

D

Use of any audio-visual aids lacks relevancy E and fails to extend understanding/fails to integrate

A

B

C

D

Incapacity to respond to questions from the E ‘audience’/lack lustre or non-existent engagement

Communication Ideas are lucidly and clearly expressed/ appropriate vocabulary Use of any audio-visual type ‘aids’ is relevant and well integrated The capacity of the presenter(s) to defend/ enlarge upon/consolidate the argument put is of high quality re: post-presentation discussion

Group Presentations In addition to all of the above, you will be expected to: Demonstrate effective group co-operation Lack of evidence to demonstrate group and genuine collaborative input in relation A B C D E cohesion and subsequent presentation of to the overall topic findings in an individualist manner

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