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University of California, Santa Barbara || Volume XI, Issue XXVI || May 31, 2017 || BottomLineUCSB.com

Community Responds to Increased Sexual Assaults in I.V.

SHOMIK MUKHERJEE News Editor

Students and Isla Vista residents raised alarm about safety in I.V. at the May 30 I.V. Community Services District meeting, following a reported increase in sexual assaults in the area. Many spoke up about their own unsafe experiences in I.V., positing that dangerous incidents in the neighborhood often go unnoticed. CSD Directors framed the biweekly meeting as a Public Safety Town Hall, encouraging those who attended to speak out about their experiences and pose potential solutions. The public raised issues familiar to I.V., like sexual assault prevention and police transparency. The town hall was planned and widely publicized after the Santa Barbara County Sheriff’s Department last month released its 2016 crime report, which listed a total of 56 reported sexual assaults for the year — 23 of which counted as forcible rape cases. 2015’s crime report, by contrast, showed 40 sexual assault reports, 13 of them forcible rape cases. Third year biology major Kian Maalizadeh spoke at public comment, alleging that a month ago he encountered an individual at a party who he heard was “groping girls.” He said the man, when confronted, elbowed Maalizadeh and brandished a knife at him. The man was arrested, Maalizadeh said, but the next day his friend saw the man walking around freely. Maalizadeh further alleged he never received an e-mail or letter regarding the incident. I.V. local Derek Hayes spoke passionately about his own experience as

Photo by Alex Yam | Photo Editor Students and community members gather to address a reported increase in sexual assaults in Isla Vista. a survivor of the 2014 Isla Vista shoot- community,” Hayes said. He also said policy major Daniel Torres spoke of ing tragedy. Hayes said that the perpe- that certain communities in I.V. are a perceived “smugness” in police offitrator’s violent tendencies could have forgotten. cers patrolling the neighborhood. He been predicted and noted that stu“If you are a certain phenotype in turned attention to I.V. Foot Patrol Lt. dents needed to take their safety into I.V., they don’t care what you have to Ruben Cintron, with regard to police their own hands on the tragic night. say,” he said. transparency. “We are unwilling to connect as a Second year history of public “There are always several sides of a

UC Regents to Limit OutOf-State and International Enrollment ARTURO SAMANIEGO National Beat Reporter The University of California Regents approved a non-California resident enrollment cap at its May 18 meeting, placing a limit on the number of out-ofstate and international students who can enroll in the UC. The enrollment cap limits the enrollment of nonresident undergraduates at 18 percent at UC Merced, UC Santa Cruz, UC Davis, and UC Santa Barbara — the last of which currently has 12.2 percent nonresident enrollment. UCLA, UC Irvine, UC San Diego, and UC Berkeley, which currently exceed the cap, will be allowed to maintain their current levels of enrollment but not increase them. Overall, nonresidents comprise 16.5% of undergraduate enrollment. The Regents established the cap nearly a year after a state audit triggered public outrage, claiming that the UC subjected nonresident admits to lower admission standards than California residents. According to the Los Angeles Times, the Regents refuted the claim that the increased revenue brought by non-residents paying out-of-state or international tuition often helped in enrolling residents and allowed for better services. Nevertheless, all but two board members voted to approve the new cap. The enrollment cap also follows pressure on the Regents from Gov. Jerry Brown, who said state lawmakers would allocate $18.5 million to the UC after the Regents developed a nonresident enrollment policy. The extra funds are expected to help in enrolling an additional 2,500 resident undergraduates this coming school year. The efforts to recruit more nonresident undergraduates started in the midst of the recession when the UC lost $1 billion in state funding. This deficit was sought to be reduced with the help of the $27,000 supplemental fee nonresident undergraduates pay in addition to their tuition; at UCSB the nonresident tuition fee amounts to $26,682.

“Our new nonresident enrollment policy strikes the right balance between UC’s continued commitment to putting California students first and the significant benefits that out-of-state and international students provide the university,” said UC President Janet Napolitano in an official statement. Napolitano also asserted that the new policy “reaffirms our pledge that nonresident students will be enrolled only in addition to, and never in place of, Californians.” There was some criticism thrown at the cap, specifically by Regent Hadi Makarechin, who shared concern that the cap would serve to isolate UC campuses. “I know the ‘in thing’ today is to build walls, but we are building a wall around the University of California by doing this,” he said, according to the Sacramento Bee. The official document outlining the nonresident student enrollment policy states that the policy seeks to align with the California Master Plan for Higher Education, “while also acknowledging the substantial benefits provided by moderate levels of nonresident student enrollment.” Those benefits are outlined as pertaining to “the intellectual, social, and cultural diversity provided by students from other states and other countries” that give residents “perspective and understanding of people whose experiences and backgrounds may be quite different from their own.” The document also puts forth that revenue from nonresidents helps in recruiting and maintaining faculty, lowering class sizes, and purchasing resources that are “key building blocks of undergraduate education for all undergraduates.” One important note the document claims is that “$70 million of the base tuition that nonresident undergraduates pay in 2016-17 will directly subsidize need-based aid for California residents.” The policy is set to be reviewed in at least four years to analyze its impact on the higher education of Californian students.

story,” Cintron told The Bottom Line after the Town Hall. “We’ll sit there and listen to them. If there’s something we can do better, we’d love to hear it.” At the meeting, Cintron noted that violent crime in I.V. isn’t often perpe-

trated by students or locals, but rather by out-of-towners. He cited the recent robbery-and-stabbing on Pardall Road, as well as the alleged hate crime against an LGBTQ-identifying I.V. resident in April. Cintron said that in both instances, the alleged assailants were not residents of I.V. Despite the largely negative experiences that attendees had to share, the tone of the town hall was mostly productive. Multiple speakers praised the Student Neighborhood Assistance Program, which arranges for students to act as first responders to local noise complaints. Multiple students identified Greek life at UCSB as a “resource” for communication of safety practices to students. CSD President Ethan Bertrand moderated public comments. Afterwards, he shared his notes on potential solutions that he had heard, including an improved crime report system, a foundation of “looking out” for those under the influence of alcohol and drugs, and “better follow-up for victims who come in contact with law enforcement.” Fourth year Ro’shawndra Earvin spoke to close the town hall. Earvin had told the CSD, at its first ever meeting, that she had been raped in January and subsequently had negative encounters with the Sheriff’s Department. Speaking at the town hall, she emphasized the need for discussion between cops and the community. “Communication could have canceled out a lot of the stresses that I had to go through,” she said, “or that other people had to go through.” Jackie Caldwell contributed reporting to this article.

Swearing in the 2017-2018 A.S. Officials GWENDOLYN WU Editor-in-Chief

At 11:41 p.m. on Wednesday night in the Flying A Room, 25 senators took the oath that officially makes them elected representatives. By 11:47 p.m., all five executives had been sworn in on a copy of Robert’s Rules of Order, starting the 68th Associated Student’s Senate meeting. “I’m feeling super excited for the year to come, you know: optimistic, excited, a little nervous in the best way possible,” said incoming Student Advocate General Jack Tannenbaum minutes before he was sworn in. Several incoming officials shared the sentiment. “I feel really excited for starting on my projects officially, continuing all the good work that was done this year in the [External Vice President for Statewide Affairs] office,” echoed Kristin Hsu, the new EVPSA. Hsu has spent most of her undergraduate career in the EVPSA office. She was a first year fellow for EVPSA Melvin Singh in the 2014-2015 academic year and chief of staff for former EVPSA Neha Nayak in the 20162017 academic year. As a veteran of the office, situated in A.S. Main, Hsu feels that her experience, where she learned from the individuals who passed through the office, will help her better serve the community. As the 2016-2017 senators and executives left their positions, some departing members had advice and well-wishes for new representatives. “I’m so excited and happy for them to enter in their new term,” Batsheva Stoll, an outgoing offcampus senator, wrote in a Facebook message to The Bottom Line. “Senate is a wonderful learning experience. In this position you will gain a greater understanding about how to work with different types of people and communities.”

Photo by Alex Yam | Photo Editor Hieu Le is sworn in as the first ever transfer student to be elected A.S. President.

Stoll, a two-year senate veteran who became the External Vice President for Local Affairs for the 2017-2018 academic year, has advice for the students filling positions like hers. Senators should listen to their constituents and peers before talking, she said, and “try to truly understand what those around you are saying before you respond.” Outgoing A.S. executive President Austin Hechler, Internal Vice President Natalie Jordan, EVPLA Ashcon Minoiefar, EVPSA Nayak, and SAG Josephine Ampaw echoed Stoll’s sentiment at the senate meeting. “Cherish your disagreements and don’t hold them against people personally,” Hechler said. “In the long term you’re here to help the students,” Nayak said.

“That’s why you ran, that’s why you’ve been at all this. That’s what you always need to keep in hindsight.” Other advice went beyond the confines of the Flying A Room. At the beginning of the double-header meeting, Jordan and A.S. Executive Director Marisela Marquez introduced Pauline Venieris, a new Counseling & Psychological Services liaison dedicated to working with A.S. elected representatives in the future. The efforts to remind students that they are still students first came from both staff and outgoing A.S. representatives. “Most importantly though, take care of yourself,” Stoll said. “At the end of the day you’re a student too.” “Our health comes first — men-

tal, emotional, physical,” outgoing Student Advocate General Josephine Ampaw reinforced at the meeting. Senators and executives alike are already planning for the future. The elected representatives promised grand projects and initiatives, which they promoted through their campaign platforms last month. With ambitious projects like refining GauchoLink, extending the class drop deadline, and increasing street lighting in Isla Vista, new Senators and executives have to get moving if they want to stick to their promises. “It’s really awesome that I’m having this opportunity to finally be sworn in as a senator,” said Adnan Mansur, one of the representatives from the off-campus constituency.


TBL | May 31, 2017

2 | NEWS

BRIEFS CAMPUS The University of California, Santa Barbara’s Gevirtz Graduate School of Education collaborated with Girls Inc. of Greater Santa Barbara to found the Curie-osity Project, a program which engages female elementary school students in scientific research and activities. During the winter and spring quarters, the fourth- through sixth-grade girls participated in enrichment programs that allowed them to meet and work with female scientists and engineers at UCSB, the Current reports. The students conduct scientific research experiments and write about their findings and experiences, their final project culminating with a presentation at UCSB on May 31. Through encouraging the girls to pursue STEM majors and careers, the program directors and contributors hope to prepare the participants for higher education and beyond. Third-year College of Creative Studies physics major Mayer Feldman, coxswain for UCSB’s nationally ranked rowing team, was recently invited to the USRowing Under 23 national team tryouts, the Current reports. Feldman is one of three coxswains — the position at the back of the boat that steers and directs rowers during practice and races — invited to the tryouts. If selected, he will compete in the 2017 World Rowing Under 23 Championships this July in Bulgaria. “I really enjoy being the brains behind the brawn, getting all these guys doing the same thing at one time,” Feldman said to the Current. “That’s what I love about the sport.” ISLA VISTA Santa Barbara police arrested four men from Lompoc in connection with a robbery and a stabbing in Isla Vista early Sunday morning, according to KEYT. A 28-yearold man was allegedly assaulted and robbed near the intersection of Pardall Road and Camino Pescadero by 22-year-old Ignacio Sanchez Reyes, who was soon arrested at gunpoint near the 900 block of Camino Pescadero at 12:50 a.m. Approximately one hour later, at 2:20 a.m., deputies and UCPD officers responded to the alleged stabbing of a 21-year-old man on the 6500 block of Del Playa Drive. UCPD later arrested three suspects at gunpoint near Camino Pescadero and Picasso Road. Police allege that the suspects — who were later identified as 21-year-old Javier RodriguezAnguiano, 21-year-old Francisco Guzman and 20-year-old Juan Raul Garibay Arredondo — may be involved in the stabbing and may also be involved in the aforementioned robbery. COUNTY Immigration and Customs Enforcement officers arrested 10 undocumented men in Santa Barbara County last week as part of a five-day Southern California raid, the Independent reports. Authorities stated that nine of the ten arrested had prior criminal convictions, and eight of the ten were previously deported. Only one of the ten arrested did not have a criminal record, although he had illegally re-entered the U.S. after being previously removed. Nine of the ten arrested are from Mexico. A total of 188 persons were arrested in the fiveday Southern California ICE raid. County fire departments declared last Monday the beginning of high fire season. Within the past few weeks, several locations throughout Santa Barbara county have erupted in flames, with the largest being a 190acre fire near New Cuyama, approximately 70 miles inland of UCSB. Due to the influx of fires and the approach of the hot season, fire departments are increasing personnel and equipment. More information can be found at sbcfire.com.

Identification Mix-Up at Gio’s Leads to Confusion and Outrage

Photo by Alex Yam | Photo Editor The recent incident at Giovanni’s Pizza has left the restaurant reeling from negative press and low reviews. GWENDOLYN WU AND SHOMIK MUKHERJEE Editor-in-Chief and Managing Editor

At 9 p.m. last Saturday night, the usual Isla Vistan activities were in full swing. Students crowded into popular bars and restaurants in town, clamoring for pitchers at local favorites like Giovanni’s Pizza on Pardall Rd. When one group of friends set foot in a crowded Gio’s that night, they intended to get beer. One student, Oscar Zarate, says he showed his Mexican government-issued identification and was turned down. Another, Stephanie Periban, said she was rejected after showing her employment authorization document. The group further claimed they were harassed by fellow patrons and later removed from the restaurant by Gio’s employees. Rosemary Moll, the manager who dealt with the group, said Monday that she was unfamiliar with the IDs and wanted to protect the restaurant’s liquor license, denying any racial motivations. “She saw it and she was like, ‘you know, you really need a passport with

this,’” Zarate, a fourth year political science major, told The Bottom Line on Sunday. He had shown his Mexican ID that night. “She wanted extra documentation,” Zarate said. “From the beginning, she really was not into the Mexican ID. She was not going to accept it.” Zarate finally got a cup for beer when he showed an expired California ID. Periban, a fourth year sociology major, then tried to get her own cup of beer with her EAD card, but was turned down. EAD cards are provided to recipients of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals, an Obama administration immigration policy that allows undocumented immigrants who entered the U.S. as minors to receive work permits. Briana Bui, a fourth year global studies and environmental studies double major who was with Zarate and Periban that night, recounted what she had witnessed to The Bottom Line. “Five minutes later, my German boyfriend arrived and offered his German driver’s license which was not in English and didn’t even have an expiration date, which she accepted immediately without hassle,” Bui wrote

in a Facebook message. After seeing their friend get a cup, Periban went back to the counter to try again. She said the woman behind the counter accused her of having an “attitude.” “That’s so insulting,” Zarate told The Bottom Line on Sunday. “Whenever a person of color wants to defend their rights for equality, they’re told, ‘hey, you have an attitude.’” Fourth year sociology major Gilberto Arteaga said he began asking the woman why she wouldn’t accept Periban’s ID. All of a sudden, he said, a college-aged white male behind him began to “shove” him and yell at the group to leave the line. Arteaga alleges the woman behind the counter threatened to call the cops, at which point the group decided to leave the line. On the way back to the table, Arteaga said, another employee approached the group and “kicked them out” of the restaurant. The group was in the process of completing the popular “I.V. Loop,” a drinking challenge in which participants buy a beverage from every location in I.V. that sells alcohol. Every business they’d visited before arriving

at Gio’s had accepted their ID cards, they said. Moll, who identified herself as the current owner of Gio’s, responded to the group’s comments on Monday, saying the group didn’t have the correct card and calling Periban “belligerent” and “aggressive.” She went on to say her primary interest was protecting Gio’s liquor license. “I can’t just give someone a beer unless I feel sure that it’s legitimate,” she said. Moll said Zarate’s suggestion that she would have served someone with a Canadian ID took her aback, noting that Gio’s cares about hiring a diverse staff. “To be accused of racism — it hurts to the core because it’s not true,” Moll said. She wanted everyone to be safe and have a good time, she said, and dealt with the group in a “professional” fashion. “I will swear to God it’s not based on race,” she said. “If they cause an unsafe situation for my customers and staff, I can ask them to leave.” The California Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control requires that all establishments serving alcohol ask for valid ID with proof of the con-

conditions, violations of safety laws, and verbal and physical abuse are just a few of the things sweatshop workers experience. In 2006, the UC agreed to implement the Designated Suppliers Pro-

Universities that have agreed to the terms of the DSP, such as all the UC campuses, must obtain most of their university logo apparel from supplier factories that respect the rights of their employees in the ways that the

Additionally, the factory itself must comply with internationally recognized labor standards. To ensure that supplier factories are in accordance with these standards, the WRC investigates the factories that produce

sumer’s age. According to the Business & Professions Code, Section 25660, evidence can be presented via “a document issued by a federal, state, county, or municipal government” and must include a name, date of birth, photo, and written description. Passports, or ID cards issued by the Armed Forces, are also sufficient forms of evidence. Leslie Pond, the supervising agent in charge for the ABC’s Central Coast region, clarified that a physical description was the most important part of an ID. While servers may accept a foreign ID if it lists height, weight, hair color, and other physical descriptors, Pond said that most foreign-issued IDs don’t have them. An establishment may deny an ID if it does not feature physical descriptions. Out of Zarate’s Mexican ID, Periban’s EAD card, and their friend’s German ID, none contained physical descriptions. “It is within their discretion to say ‘yea’ or ‘nay’ depending on the totality of circumstances,” Pond told The Bottom Line. “We didn’t know what to do at that point, so we just left,” Bui wrote. Following the incident, Zarate and Bui took to Facebook to air their frustrations. “I never thought I would experience this level of discrimination in Isla Vista,” Zarate wrote in a Facebook post. Many expressed outrage in the comments and took their discontent to the public Gio’s Facebook pages. An update posted on Zarate’s Facebook late Wednesday night clarified the reasoning why IDs may have been turned down, but stated that he believed it was “disparate treatment and possible discrimination” when the worker accepted the German ID and turned down the other two’s initial IDs. A barrage of 1.0-star reviews later, both pages have taken a hit. As of press time, Giovanni’s of Santa Barbara, the official page, sits at a 2.4-star average rating. Gio’s Isla Vista, a Facebook page operated by former owner Matt Meczka, now has an average rating of 2.2 stars. A warning on the business’s Yelp page says that reviews are unrepresentative of the restaurant’s quality and are due to recent media reports. Amid rumors that the establishment was closing down, original owner Danny Babai transferred ownership to Moll in April of 2016. A statement sent to The Restaurant Guy, a local food blog, said that the three-part franchise had been in business since 1979. The group says that they have not yet been contacted by Gio’s Isla Vista about the incident, despite posting on its social media accounts and Yelp business page.

UCSB to Drop Nike as Athletics Sponsor JACKIE CALDWELL Staff Writer

In 2016, Forbes Magazine ranked Nike as the world’s most valuable sports brand, but that doesn’t exempt the corporation from the University of California, Santa Barbara’s anti-sweatshop policy. The university’s athletics department confirmed May 23 that it will drop Nike as the school’s athletic sponsor, because the university cannot confirm whether Nike factories comply with supplier standards. Typically, large retailers don’t produce their own clothing. Instead, they hire manufacturers who enter into contracts with small factories. Because there are often a lot of these factories, they can be hard to monitor, and retailers often ignore the way the workers in those factories are treated. While not all small factories violate workers’ rights, some of them, known as sweatshops, have infamously poor working conditions. Long hours, low wages, unsanitary

“Various WRC reports from 2007 to 2008 connect Nike to sweatshops in Thailand, the Dominican Republic, and Honduras. Despite these reports, workers’ rights violations seem to have continued” gram. The DSP was created by the Worker Rights Consortium and United Students Against Sweatshops to help protect the rights of the workers who make university apparel.

DSP stipulates. To be in accordance with DSP standards, a factory’s employees must be paid a living wage and be able to organize and bargain collectively.

university apparel. Because UCSB cannot confirm that Nike factories are in accordance with the DSP, the university will look for another company — possibly Under

Armour, which has already signed with UC Berkeley. Various WRC reports from 2007 to 2008 connect Nike to sweatshops in Thailand, the Dominican Republic, and Honduras. Despite these reports, workers’ rights violations seem to have continued. In 2011, workers at a Nike Converse factory in Indonesia claimed that they were verbally and physically abused by factory supervisors. Many universities throughout the United States, including UCSB, rely on the WRC to report on the conditions of the factories used to produce university apparel. However, Nike has recently blocked the WRC from entering its supplier factories, according to reports. According to Bill Mahoney, assistant athletics director for communications, the change shouldn’t have that big of an impact on the campus overall. While Nike used to be a premier brand, “it doesn’t hold as much sway as it used to,” he said.

TBL 2017-2018 STAFF Editor-in-Chief | Gwendolyn Wu Managing Editor | Frances Castellón Deputy Editor | Jeremy Levine Senior Copy Editor | Kamran Yunus Senior Layout Editor | Cindy Chang Senior Web Editor | Joanne Rhee

News Editor | Shomik Mukherjee Features Editor | Jack Alegre Arts & Entertainment Editor | Rebecca Lauffenburger Science & Tech Editor | Tanner Walker Opinions Editor | Andrew Melese

Photo Editor | Alex Yam Video Editor | Julia Nguyen Marketing Director | Linus Li Campus Beat Reporter | Lauren Marnel Shores National Beat Reporter | Arturo Samaniego

Opinions expressed in TBL do not necessarily represent those of the staff or UCSB. All submissions, questions or comments may be directed to managing@bottomlineucsb.com or content@bottomlineucsb.com.

Copy Editor | Stephani Anderson Copy Editor | Spencer Wu Layout Editor | Veronica Arvizo Layout Editor | Yao Yang Web Editor | Matthew Lee


3 | FEATURES

JACK ALEGRE Features Editor

TBL | May 31, 2017

Edible Campus Program Builds Vertical Gardens

Two vertical garden towers have been built in the Multi Activity Courtyard of the University of California, Santa Barbara’s Recreation Center. This is the result of a collaboration under the Edible Campus Program between a variety of organizations including the Associated Student’s Department of Public Worms and UCSB Sustainability. The Edible Campus Program seeks to increase the food available to lower income students and produce the food in an environmentally-friendly fashion. It achieves the former by donating its projects’ produce to the Associated Students Food Bank and the latter by undertaking environmentally-conscious projects, such as the Vertical Towers. According to Sasha Kurkcuoglu, who built and maintains the towers, “each tower can hold forty-four plants.” Across the surface of the tower are pockets of developing produce from a variety of species. Kurkcuoglu

listed watermelon, squash, and peppers among the produce currently being grown. Additionally, Kurkcuoglu mentioned how the tower was resource

within the tower ensures that no soil needs to be used, as the plants’ roots come in direct contact with the water. The whole design is very simple. Water is generated by plugging the

The majority of the food is expected to supplement what stock the Campus Food Bank has. Even then, the vertical towers are only part of a longer initiative.

Vertical Gardens was our second project, launched just this month. The third of our projects will be our student farm.” The student farm that Katie men-

“The Edible Campus Program seeks to increase the food available to lower income students and produce the food in an environmentally-friendly fashion.” efficient, ”They use a hydroponic system. What this means is that water is carried up through the tower and then cascades down.” Essentially, water is recycled. Because it operates in a self-contained unit, water does not flow freely across the ground and so every drop is used up by the plants. The free-growing nature of the plants

mechanism into an electrical outlet and the entire tower, when empty, is man-portable. Kurkcuoglu said that the most time intensive part was actually acquiring the necessary permits to build them near the MAC. “This produce here will actually be ready for harvest in about a month,” he explained.

According to Katie Maynard, the event manager and sustainability coordinator for the Edible Campus Program, the vertical towers are just part two of an ambitious yet realistic plan. “The first part of our project was our Urban Orchard Program. At Storke Plaza we have seven citrus trees that are growing there. The

tions would be a cooperative garden. Built near the West Campus Family Housing facility, the proposed student garden will also be easily accessible by students from the new San Joaquin dorms and faculty housing. Maynard was enthusiastic about all the incoming campus traffic. “We think this is a very central

part to where folks live, and we think it’ll be very successful for people,” she said. The farm is envisioned as an important asset in the fight to end food insecurity on campus, and an important focal point for student activity. “It’s community based, in that it’s going to be relying on a large numbers of volunteers to make this happen,” said Maynard. Unlike other campus greenhouses where families tend to a single plot, the student garden has a more cooperative outlook in mind. “A lot of low-income students, they don’t have the time to be able to manage the entire plot. They may not have grown up gardening so the idea of having to manage an entire plot yourself and taking full responsibility for that can be a little intimidating.” Maynard continued. “Here, students can come out, they can volunteer for an hour or two hours. They can take a leadership role, they can do anything they want from very small amounts of volunteering to a lot of volunteering.”

Cat Therapy SB Offers the Purrr-fect Chance to Unwind

Photos by Juan Gonzalez | Staff Photographer Cat Therapy owner Catalina Esteves gets ready to open the new Cat Therapy lounge. SKYLER MELNICK

“Are you a cat or a dog person?” This is the ultimate, divisive, and eternal question. For dog people, University of California, Santa Barbara has its muchanticipated Dog Therapy Days, and dogs are generally always trotting along on campus and in Isla Vista. But what about cat people? Do they just have to lie around on their twin XL beds missing their far away kitties or fruitlessly dreaming about playing with cats they don’t have? The solution for cat people is finally here: come May 29th, Cat Therapy SB will give cat lovers their

purring, fuzzy fix. The creation of Santa Barbara’s cat cafe can be attributed to Catalina Esteves, animal lover and frequent volunteer with local shelter ResQcats. Following much contemplation about how to turn her passions into a profession, she was inspired to open up a cat cafe after stumbling upon a Buzzfeed video covering the subject. Seven months later, Cat Therapy SB was born. Cat cafes have been popular in countries like Japan and China since 1998; now North America is finally catching on. Cat cafes combine the joys of tasty coffee shops with the therapeutic essence of unwinding and meeting new

feline friends. Cat Therapy SB joins the two dozen cat cafes present here in the U.S. Esteves cites the fact that “this had never been done before in town” and that she had to “work closely with the city” as the main difficulty in making her dream a reality. When Esteves pitched the idea, the “shelters were excited.” A major aspect of the cat cafe’s mission is to help shelters (Animal Shelter Assistance Program [ASAP], Ventura County Animal Services, and ResQcats) empty out cages to allow more space for helpless kitties. In addition to providing temporary homes for cats, Santa Barbara’s cat cafe

Customers are able to hang out and play with various breeds of cats in downtown Santa Barbara. provides a place of organic, cageless bonding where the cats can “let their personalities shine” and connect with visitors looking to adopt. Cat Therapy SB seeks to create a space for people who are unable to own cats, are missing their own cats, or simply need some cat loving. Esteves points out that cats don’t need the company of people; they are independent creatures. Despite this, cats still seek human contact and love. Cat Therapy SB offers a variety of friendly felines of all sorts of breeds and personalities. There’s the thoughtful and pensive Dusk, Dusk’s cuddly sibling, Twilight, the grumpy Willow,

Empurress, the rightfully named Bonkers, and many more. Cat fights are avoided by gradually introducing the kitties into the cafe space and carefully observing them to make certain they are all happy. As for the human side of things, patrons can expect nothing but love and affection from these cuddly creatures. A reservation, which includes 75 minutes of kitty time, is $10 on weekdays and $12 on weekends. Esteves notes that visitors can also book the entire space for study groups or any type of event. Groups of up to 16 people are welcome. The price of its “75 Minutes in Feline Heaven” is $150 on weekdays

Seven-Time Bond Actor Roger Moore Passes Away JACK SHEA Staff Writer Renaissance man and former star of the James Bond series Roger Moore died Tuesday, May 22 in Switzerland. Moore’s first noteworthy mark on American pop culture started on the American/British syndicated television series “The Saint.” From there he would find himself in one of Hollywood’s most coveted roles: MI6 agent and super spy James Bond. “Live and Let Die” his first film as Bond, launched him into global stardom. Born in 1927 in South London, Moore’s first foray into the entertainment industry was during his teen years, working at the animation company Publicity Picture Productions. One of Publicity Picture’s directors encouraged Moore to pursue acting, so he dabbled in theater work before going to the Royal Academy of Art to further develop his skills. Moore’s acting career came to a halt because of World War II’s draft. He ended up

in the Royal Army Service Corps as a second lieutenant, but he proceeded to pursue theater and film work immediately after his time in service. While today’s theatergoers rave about the gritty realism and cool detachment of Daniel Craig’s bond, Moore’s turn as 007 saw him introduce an element of fun and fantasy to the legendary secret agent. Generation X required diversification, and Moore answered their needs with his humor and unique modesty. Moore started his seven-film-long Bond career older than his predecessors, at age 44, but he was still a charmer with boyish looks. His resume encompassed a confection of American, British, and other European films that suited his personality and timespan playing Bond. His unique persona and eclectic background represented the diverse pop culture trends from the 1970s to the 1980s shown in that generation’s Bond films. “For 50 years [Bond’s] gone on and people go back because it’s an

old friend,” he said in an interview with Time Magazine. Moore saw the Bond series’ potential in accuracy that’s almost frightening. “Their fathers may have taken them to see it the first time, and then they take their grandfathers. And Christmas never seems to be Christmas without a Bond movie showing on a television screen somewhere,” he finished. Judging by global box office success of the most recent Bond film, Spectre, and the success of its forerunner, Skyfall, James Bond will live on. Moore’s talents went beyond the stage. In the 1990s, he dedicated much of his time to activism. As goodwill ambassador for the United Nations Children’s Fund, Moore raised almost a billion dollars. He advocated for children’s issue and spread awareness for multiple other issues. These included HIV/AIDS, iodine deficiency, and landmine injury issue-awareness. In the late ‘90s, Moore was named a Commander of the Order of the British Empire and, in 2003, was knighted for his work as

an ambassador. In another interview with Time Magazine in 1973, Moore expressed sincere gratitude and self-awareness in his honest modesty. “I often stop in the middle of a day’s work and say: ‘Jesus Christ, they’re really going to pay you for being a kid and living out your fantasies!’” said Moore. After four marriages and three children, Moore settled down with Kristian Tholstrup, a Danish socialite. The two married in 2002 after dating throughout the 1990s. In his book “My Word is My Bond,” Moore described their marriage as one of his best life decisions that he ever made. After a long cross-continental and interdisciplinary career, Moore passed away at age 89 from cancer. His loved ones described his last days ending as a Hollywood dream. They explained, “The love with which he was surrounded in his final days was so great it cannot be quantified in words alone,” according to a press statement released by his family on Twitter.

Image Courtesy of Wikimedia

and $180 during the weekends. Depending on visit time, the cafe ambience will shift. In the morning and evening time slots, the cats will be most active and outgoing. If some laidback cuddling is what you prefer, then the afternoon is perfect since that is when the cats are most mellow, focusing on getting their beauty rest. Cat people, I am talking to you. This is what you have been waiting for. Sip on your almond milk mocha latte as cats nuzzle up to you, fighting for your attention. The time is now. What more could anyone ask for? Cat Therapy SB: where cat heaven is just a reservation away.


4 | PHOTO

TBL | May 31, 2017

All-ASA Athletic Games

Photos by Juan Gonzalez | Staff Photographer CSUN and UCLA mid charge towards the ball.

A CSUN forward goes in for a layup.

A CSUN power forward drives to the basket.

On Memorial Day weekend, UCSB hosted its annual All-ASA Games where eight different Armenian Student Associations came together to compete in a twoday basketball and soccer tournament. It was a great event for all students, families, and friends across Southern California to come together for a fun weekend of rivalry and comradery.

A UCLA player locks in on a teammate to throw the ball to.


5 | PHOTO

TBL | May 31, 2017

Photos by Stephanie Torres | The Bottom Line An intrigued crowd watches a film by Scotty Wagner in his colorful set.

The AD&A Museum Fest

The Art, Design, and Architecture Museum at UCSB hosted an entertaining and creative Museum Fest on Thursday, May 25. It had DIY printmaking, collaborative mural making, food, and music. The event exhibited the art of MFA graduates and catered Nimita’s Cuisine to people who attended. The event brought out guests’ artistic sides by providing fun art and collaborative activities.

A couple observes “Artemesia absinthum” by Rose Briccetti.

TBL Staff writer Rebecca Lauffenburger intently observes a painting by Marcos Christodoulou.


6 | ARTS & ENTERTAINMENT

Twin Peaks Returns Unique As Ever

“In an attempt to seemingly make up for lost time, Lynch updates the Twin Peaks universe to parody and/or pay homage to some of the most popular tropes that have surfaced in television since the original series’ finale.” MILES BISHOP

As much as the term “spectacle” gets attached to undeserving events, this word describes the two-part Season 3 premiere and episodes three and four of “Twin Peaks: The Return.” The weeks leading up to it increased sales in cherry pies and brought a vocal resurgence of the fanbase, cryptic cast interviews, mysterious teasers, and cynicism that director David Lynch, who had distanced himself from filmmaking since 2006’s “Inland Empire,” could actually produce 18 hours of content that was anywhere near the quality of the original cult classic from 26 years ago. The result was a polarizing, baffling, primarily visual collage pulled from all of Lynch’s past works. Lynch’s first foray into television, the original run of “Twin Peaks,” borrowed from some of the foremost genres of the medium — soap opera, murder mystery, high school drama. Prior to and during the time period of its airing to create an entirely unique, eclectic pastiche straddling the line between irony and sincerity. “Twin Peaks: The Return” revives this ambiguous tone, though it may not be initially apparent. Accounting for lost time, Lynch updates the “Twin Peaks” universe to parody and pays homage to some of the most popular tropes that have surfaced in television since the original series’ finale. These tropes are the gory horror foregrounded in shows like “American Horror Story,” the technological jargon resorted to in shows like “NCIS,” and the broader geographical scope utilized by shows like “Heroes.” Episode 3’s closing scene features FBI agents Gordon Cole (David Lynch) and Albert Rosenfield (Miguel Ferrer.) It discusses the significance of the code-phrase “blue rose,” subject to extreme color correction reminiscent of the recent trend of blue camera filters. In an amusing act of subtle meta-commentary, Cole remarks, “It doesn’t get any bluer.” However, moments like this have evoked debate inside and outside of the fanbase over Lynch’s intention. Are the claims of irony valid or merely desperate rationalizations from an overly-apologetic fanbase? Comically-intended scenes impeding police activity and Michael Cera’s appearance as a James Hurley-esque biker whose legitimacy wavers increasingly the more he talks convinced me of “The Return”’s self-awareness. Prior familiarity with Lynch’s sense of humor (see his awkward appearance in Louis) reinforced this affect. Nevertheless, more questionable segments like an almost self-indulgently lengthy depiction of eccentric psychiatrist Dr. Jacoby (Russ Tamblyn) spray painting shovels casts doubt on the coherence of Lynch’s vision. Several other self-referential clues, however, such as the naming of the “Silver Mustang Casino,” numerical iconography, and multiple shots closely resembling Lynch’s own paintings published on his website reveal an attention to detail that is admirable regardless of artistic significance. Choices that hover in a strange middle-ground between these two polaritiesare also present where perhaps the ironic self-awareness is not enough to justify its inclusion. One set to Dave Brubeck’s “Take Five,” depicts Cooper, who knowingly plays the part of Dougie Jones,

who goes about his morning routine in an askew manner. This sequence may be cutely conscious of its own ridiculousness, but it does extend to the point of boredom, and Dougie Jones’ son’s reactions are all the while cloying. Other jokes fall flat anyway. The acting throughout is also subject to an ambiguity of tone. New cast members Madeline Zima (Tracey Barberato) and Ben Rosenfield (Sam Colby) showcase an impressive penchant for surreal humor in a doomed relationship parodying “Netflix and chill” culture. Nafessa Williams (Jade) delivers an incredibly stilted performance, both in dialogue and movement, that perplexes in regards to aim. Even returners Richard Beymer (Benjamin Horne) and David Patrick Kelly (Jerry Horne) show hints of confusion over their respective characters’ off-screen evolution. Meanwhile, Kyle MacLachlan (Dale Cooper, Dougie Jones) and Miguel Ferrer reprise their roles with grace while convincingly adapting to whatever the context requires. Of course, there are sequences of clear authenticity. These are the moments that confuse in content; the moments of pure, unadulterated, signature Lynchian weirdness. In the original run, this sincere strangeness arose in scenes like The Giant’s apparition at the Bang Bang Bar, Cooper’s zen-influenced method for crime-solving, and anything featuring the Black Lodge. This tone did increase dramatically in the post-series film “Twin Peaks: Fire Walk with Me,” but “The Return” now embraces it wholeheartedly. Such moments are unsurprisingly taxing when attempting to piece together a cohesive plot, but again moments of self-awareness toward the absurdity (Gordon Cole’s declarations of, “What the hell?” and “I don’t understand this situation at all”; humanoid vessel Dougie Jones’ concerned yet nonchalant remark of “that’s weird”) add an element of rewarding empathy. Although Lynch’s four-hour return to directing was certainly a visual exhibition, one cannot ignore the reunion of his partnership with Angelo Badalamenti. Badalamenti, who famously scored the original series as well as multiple Lynch films, returns for Season 3 with a supply of dauntingly droning ambience. Unlike the original series, however, music is employed much more sparingly. Rather than juxtaposing against cheesy, albeit well-written, motifs, Badalamenti’s ominous punctuations are present only in the stead of silence. Such an effect substantiates dreamlike sequences while adding a realism to the actual world that was absent in the fantastical coziness of the original. Perhaps to compensate for the sparsity of original composition, each episode ends with a Julee Cruise-style pseudo-live performance by a real-life artist in the Bang Bang Bar. These performances, however, necessitate a small degree of formulaic structure that may not counterbalance the moderate to high quality of the music. Despite the occasional ambiguity of stylistic choices, “Twin Peaks: The Return” is a wholly intriguing modernization of the original series. It manages to escape the pattern of most hollow television show revivals. The sheer uniqueness and novelty that Lynch brought to the first fourr episosdes is indisputable.

TBL | May 31, 2017

Fantastic Films Surprise at UCSB’s Reel Loud Silent Film Festival

Image Courtesy of the Reel Loud Film Festival Facebook REBECCA LAUFFENBURGER Arts & Entertainment Editor Last Friday, hundreds of people gathered at Campbell Hall to watch the 26th Annual Reel Loud Silent Film Festival. This festival brings a unique take to silent films by having live bands and musicians perform as locally and student-made silent films are screened. It was an exciting film watching experience that exceeded my expectations and redefined how I look at silent films. This year, the festival’s theme was “Now: Yesterday’s Tomorrow, Tomorrow’s Yesterday.” It was an interesting theme, although it did not play a significant role in the festival, besides the hosts making a few jokes about the concept of time. The hosts switched between the producers and directors throughout the show, but they were all charismatic and lively. Despite the several moments of awkward silence and banter, they still managed to bring the show together and create a friendly atmosphere.

The festival started off on a lively note with the film “House of Seitan” directed by Rachel Taylor. This film explores the lives of the people’s dogs that reside at a co-op. With its bright colors and upbeat music, it brought everyone’s spirits up and set a good mood for the rest of the festival. One of my personal favorite films was “Severance,” directed by Astor Stark, who also performed live music during the film. The film utilizes beautiful neon lights and a heart-wrenching classical score to tell the story of an agoraphobic man who lost his wife. The film that brought about the greatest amount of laughter from the crowd was Aaron Kesler’s film “Jackson Park Express,” an adaptation of the Weird Al song of the same name. This film is about a man and a woman communicating with each other during a bus ride about their potential relationship using only facial expressions, body language, and ridiculous special effects. The green screen effects are cheesy and ridiculous, but they work perfectly

with the silliness of the song itself. The song was woven seamlessly into the film by a live band, with Aaron Kesler performing on the drums. Between the acts of this festival, local bands played original songs. The first band to perform was the rock band “Times New Roman,” which embodied the typical college garage rock band. The second band that performed was the jazz band “The Honey Men,” which performed a few soothing jazz songs. The festival ended with the powerful film “Elsewhere,” directed by Leah Bleich. This film is about a young boy who freezes time right before his abusive father gets into a fight with his mother. Throughout the film, the boy moves his frozen parents around and positions them in scenarios that make them seem like an ideal family, only to realize how alone he truly feels. Accompanying the film was a performance of a live acoustic song by musician Melissa Leanda that perfectly encapsulated the melancholy-based

theme of the film. At the very end of the festival, there was an awards show that honored several films. “Severance” won for best editing, “Wade Out” (an adaptation of an E.E. Cummings poem) won for best cinematography, and “Jackson Park Express” won for best music. Fred Toye, a University of California, Santa Barbara alumnus, festival judge, and producer/director for shows like “Designated Survivor” and “Westworld,” won the Inspirational Alumni Award. The film “Elsewhere” won the audience choice award and the Scott Wells Award, which is an award for the film which is the most creative and impactful. This award was created in honor of Scott Wells, a former UCSB filmmaker who died a few years ago. It seemed fitting that “Elsewhere” won this award with its genuine, unfiltered creativity. The Reel Loud Film Festival was a great show that everyone should experience. It was a wonderful celebration of art made by fellow UCSB and community members.

Brian Wilson Takes Santa Barbara to the Beach

Photo by Stephanie Torres | The Bottom Line Brian Wilson performes “I Get Around” to an enthusiastic and lively crowd at the Santa Barbara Bowl. REBECCA LAUFFENBURGER Arts & Entertainment Editor

Last year marked the 50th anniversary of the monumental Beach Boys album “Pet Sounds,” one of the most influential albums in music history. In honor of the acclaimed 1966 release, Beach Boys’ founder and creative leader Brian Wilson embarked on a yearlong tour that, due to popular demand, has stretched into 2017. Last week, the music icon made a stop at the Santa Barbara Bowl to perform songs, among various others, off of his magnum opus. The tour has been advertised as being comprised of Wilson’s final performances, prompting thousands of fans to flock to the 4,500-seat amphitheater to take one last stroll down memory lane with the man behind the defining surf rock band of the ‘60s. Brian Wilson and his ten piece backing band began promptly at 8 p.m., wasting no time before launching into a medley of “California Girls” and “Dance, Dance, Dance.” After a few performances of classic Beach Boys tunes, Wilson switched the spotlight onto Beach Boys co-founder Al Jardine. Jardine, the band’s original rhythm guitarist and vocalist, revved up the crowd with iconic songs such as

“Little Honda,” “Little Deuce Coup,” and “Shut Down.” Jardine remained incredibly animated throughout the entire show. His youthful exuberance captured the spirit of Beach Boys songs, an overwhelming majority of which communicate the elusive feelings of teenage years in an adept, straightforward, and beautiful way. Without help, Wilson would likely not have been able to carry these tunes on his own. An onslaught of bouts of mental illness, physical challenges, and addiction have posed problems for Wilson throughout his illustrious career, and as the night progressed, it became increasingly apparent that Wilson had finally hit a wall in his career too vast to overcome. Despite this, my enjoyment, and evidently the audience’s as well, was not blunted. Al Jardine, his son Matthew Jardine, and Blondie Chaplin, who reprised his role as a touring member of The Beach Boys, each took the reigns, respectively, when Wilson began to falter. Beyond just providing Wilson with a bit of recovery time, these guest performances provided audience members — many of which had likely witnessed Wilson in his heydey — with a wholly novel experience.

Wilson handed the metaphorical torch to Matthew Jardine, who performed the falsetto-vocal parts scattered throughout the show. His father, Al Jardine, warned the audience: “He’s gonna sing the crap out of this song,” and the younger Jardine did not disappoint. Matthew Jardine’s vocal performances on songs such as “Don’t Worry Baby” and “Let Him Run Wild” were well-received by the audience, who awarded him endless cheers and a standing ovation. “You Still Believe in Me,” a duet between the young Jardine and Wilson, was particularly moving. The contrast between the young singer and his predecessor added an element of nostalgia and provided audience members with a new perspective on the old classic. Wilson seemed a bit more vulnerable as he sang this and the quintessential “God Only Knows.” Whether due to built-up vocal strain or an intentional artistic choice, he dropped the facade of being a Beach Boy, and performed instead as a man with a voice withered by four decades worth of challenges since the original release of Pet Sounds in 1966. In one touching moment, Wilson honored the memory of his brother and fellow Beach Boy Carl Wilson

with “Darlin.” The song, according to Wilson, was recorded by his brother in the mid-60’s, with Wilson adding “and now Darian is here to sing it,” in reference to keyboardist Darian Sahanaja. As the show came to a close, Wilson performed the “holy trinity” of Beach Boys tunes: “Do You Wanna Dance,” “Good Vibrations,” and “Surfin’ USA.” After performing the light-hearted songs The Beach Boys are best known for, Wilson showed his more down-toEarth side with “Love and Mercy.” Before ending the show, Wilson and co. graciously imparted to the audience how “wonderful it is to be back in California,” adding, “It’s been a long road to get here, but it’s a great honor and privilege to play this music for you.” It might have been difficult for younger members of the crowd to fully realize the magnitude of The Beach Boys’ impact, but as I recall memories of watching “Brian Wilson Presents SMiLE,” a straight-to-DVD live concert recording, as a six-year-old with my family, I think of my own unique connection to Wilson’s music. It’s hard not to feel some amount of reverence and appreciation for the man who continues to supply us with no shortage of smiles and good vibrations.


TBL | May 31, 2017

7 | SCIENCE & TECH

New Apps Help Students and Schools Combat Sexual Assault

TANNER WALKER Science & Tech Editor From kindergarten to college, schools are starting to embrace the use of smartphone apps to protect students against sexual assault. Several new apps allow students to report uncomfortable, unsafe, and illegal situations to their peers, school, or law enforcement. Apps like Circle of 6 are meant to give students a quicker way to report violent acts and prevent them from happening in some cases. More and more schools are providing emergency “Blue Light” safety systems around campus that connect students with campus security and hotlines to report sexual assault, but the app’s developers claim that students rarely use these services. “Most young people first report sexual assault to a friend or a peer, not to the police or a blue safety light,” said Nancy Schwartzman, the creator of Circle of 6. “And they’re always on their phones.” Circle of 6 lets users select six of their contacts to “form their circle” and have trusted people with whom they will always be connected. Once the circle is formed and users are connected, they have a number of options aimed at controlling or diffusing a situation before it escalates to a dangerous level. Users can hit one button that sends a text that says, “Come and get me. I need help getting home safely,” while it also provides their location’s Global Positioning System coordinates. There are also buttons to send texts that say, “Call and pretend you need me. I need an interruption.” There are also ways

to connect users with direct access to national and local help hotlines and general information about sexuality, relationships, and safety. Circle of 6 is free to download and is currently used by about 150,000 students with customized versions available for certain schools like the University of California, Los Angeles or the University of Houston. Other apps, like STOPit, are paid for by the school and cost between one dollar and five dollars per student. For K-12 schools, the app is primarily used to report offenses like cheating, bullying, or drug related activity while colleges use it mainly for reporting sexual assault. The price is high for larger schools, but the Associated Press reports that school insurers have started to pay for the software because they see it as a way to minimize risk and reduce the number of serious threats. The benefit of having a school-sponsored app is that it allows for more customization depending on each school’s specific needs. STOPit “allows victims and bystanders to report anonymously to administrators, teachers and virtually anyone the school deems appropriate,” says the Associated Press. Customization for each school means students can stay connected with officials after school hours or off-campus. It also lets users “send either a single text or have a two-way chat, and attach pictures, screenshots and video.” The complicated process of collecting important contacts and storing them in one simple platform is streamlined. For the people involved, witnessing and reporting a sexual assault can be

Drones:

Illustration by Allie Sullberg | Staff Illustrator a traumatic experience. The anonymous reporting that apps provide can potentially increase the number of assaults reported and decrease the time it takes to report incidents. Apps may also provide a third party to help students cope with sexual assault independently of their school. As evidenced by a recent student-led sit-in at Chancellor Yang’s office, a growing number of college students are unsatisfied with the way their campus deals

with victims and perpetrators of sexual assault. Last month, Stanford began a three year partnership with Callisto, a software that provides similar ways of anonymous reporting compared to other apps but with a few key differences. All the data a student shares with Callisto is encrypted and “will not be shared with your school unless you choose to share it.” Callisto asks users questions that are

sensitive to the fear and stress they may be feeling in order to accurately document the event and stores that information to compare it to other reports and establish larger trends. After the report is made, the Title IX office will contact the student and set up a meeting where it gives personalized suggestions for either legal action or emotional help based on the data that the student submitted. None of the apps currently avail-

able are meant to be the final, magical solution that will completely eliminate sexual assault, and developers say they will never replace bystander intervention and a safe campus environment. However, these apps are another tool that students can use to help protect themselves and people around them. They can be a potential way for schools to increase their accessibility and openness for students who have experienced sexual assault.

“Cognitive Gadgets: The Cultural Evolution of Thinking”

A Nuisance or an Advancement?

– SAGE Center Lecture by Cecilia Heyes

“Overall, the notion that the most complex facilities of the human mind are products of cultural learning is nothing short of groundbreaking.” AMEEN HUSSAINI Staff Writer

Illustration by Jackie Caldwell |The Bottom Line JACKIE CALDWELL When you hear the word “drone” what comes to mind? The remotecontrolled camera-carriers from Best Buy? The way your high school physics teacher talked? What about futuristic delivery system? Recently, retailers have been looking at how drones can be used to deliver commercial items to consumers. For instance, JD.com, China’s largest online retailer, has been using drones to deliver small packages to people in rural areas. JD.com is also looking into using drones to transport items from remote regions to more populated areas. JD.com’s drones will be able to carry a payload of over one ton up to 186 miles. This will be especially helpful to farmers in the Shaanxi province, since Shaanxi roads can be difficult to traverse. The drones will allow perishable items such as meat, fruit, and vegetables to quickly reach more populated areas. Amazon, whose national distribution for the United States matches that of JD.com in China, has also been looking into using drones for transporting goods. However, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has limited Amazon’s ability to implement the program. In 2013, Jeff Bezos, the Chief Ex-

ecutive Officer of Amazon, announced that Amazon.com was looking into implementing a drone delivery service known as Prime Air, but it wasn’t until almost a year later that the FAA granted Amazon a permit to fly. During that period, Amazon was determined to test its drones despite the delay and went to the United Kingdom. The UK has more lenient air traffic regulations than the United States. In December 2016, Amazon’s Prime Air delivered its first order in Cambridge. In the UK, Amazon’s drones are allowed to fly autonomously and out of the visual range of the drone pilot which is illegal in the U.S. However, the FAA’s reluctance to permit drone use in America is warranted. Because drones can take clearer images than satellites can from the sky, many Americans have privacy concerns. Some people may also be alarmed at seeing drones flying overhead because of their association with warfare. According to John Sifton, the Advocacy Director for Asia at Human Rights Watch, drones may make people especially uncomfortable because they know that military drones are primarily used to target individual humans while the perpetrator of the violence is absent. Drones create an alienated form of violence which may make them seem

sinister. Initially, drones were designed for military use. Corporations have been quick to embrace their efficiency and autonomy, but drone applications go beyond battle and delivery. In Haiti however, drones helped document the damage caused by Hurricane Matthew to determine what kind of aid to send and where to send it. It was impossible with only satellites. Satellite imagery has a larger scale, but drones fly closer to the ground and take clearer, more detailed images than satellites do. Drones can also provide assistance after a disaster because they can quickly transport items. In 2012, drones transported aid to people who had been injured in an earthquake in Nepal. In 2015, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) piloted the use of drones to transport diagnostic samples from remote health centers to a general hospital for testing. `In recent years, the use of drones has extended beyond the military sector. Perhaps this is the reason that malfunction is the public’s primary concern and not intentional misuse. Many remain indecisive about drone delivery according to the United States Postal Service Office of Inspector General; however, more Americans are open to drone delivery than opposed to it.

“Why are humans such peculiar animals?” This is the question that Doctor Cecilia Heyes of the University of Oxford is trying to answer with her recent research which she presented in her talk “Cognitive Gadgets – The Cultural Evolution of Thinking”. She gave her talk at the SAGE Center for the Study of the Mind at the University of California, Santa Barbara. The talk addressed a question that many people have asked and continue to ask. No extensive knowledge of psychology was needed in order to understand the vast majority of Heyes’ talk, but the research seemed to appeal to experts in the field who were present as well. Heyes explained that the question is best approached by focusing on bodies, behavior, brains, or minds of human beings. She chose to research the mind, and she first asked what ways of thinking make human beings distinct. The most popular choice is language, but Heyes presented a variety of other options as well. More obvious candidates included teaching and imitation, but less common facilities like metacognition (thinking about thinking) and what she calls mental time travel (episodic memory and planning) were also mentioned. These mental abilities of humans are often thought of as products of genetic evolution, or “cognitive instincts” that are innate. However, Heyes’ opinion and the crux of her argument are that these ways of thinking are “cognitive gadgets” which are developed through a cultural evolutionary process rather than a genetic evolutionary process. She com-

pares these gadgets to tools like kayaks, spinning wheels, and bows and arrows. She explained that, like these objects, our unique mental abilities were not designed. Rather, they were developed through a cultural selection process. For example, the kayak was not an ingenious invention that was built from the ground up. Instead, many different boats were built, and the ones that sank the least were passed down through generations to become what we know today as a kayak. Just like kayaks need wood to be built, our cognitive gadgets need resources to develop. Heyes described a “genetic starter kit” that all people are born with which has temperament, attention, and cognition. The temperament of human beings is important for the development of our mental facilities because it allows us to be much more tolerant of others, especially juveniles. This is because human beings, specifically males, have much lower testosterone levels than other primates. Lower testosterone is evolutionarily selected as it prevents humans from fighting each other. Another aspect of human temperament is response contingent stimulation which enables us to feel good when we have an affect on the world. It explains why we like to make people laugh, smile, and express other emotions. Heyes also touched briefly on the innate qualities of attention and cognition. Attention is demonstrated by the fact that babies will follow objects that vaguely look like faces when they are only a few hours old. Cognition is showcased by our far superior inhibitory control, which allows us to refrain from acting on impulses that are detrimental to our own or others’ well-being. Cognition is also responsible for our advanced

associative learning, which makes functions as complex as heeding advice possible. Once Heyes thoroughly explored our genetic toolkit, she moved on to expand upon imitation which is another of our cognitive gadgets. Imitation is often thought of as a simple ability, but a number of Heyes’s claims suggest otherwise. Heyes introduced an idea called associative sequence learning that may explain how imitation comes about through cultural evolutionary processes. Essentially, mirror neurons are capable of matching observed actions to performed actions because of links that exist between sensory and motor representations. These links are first created by watching one’s self perform an action. For example, when a baby looks at their own hand grasping an object, they can see the action that they are performing, so both sensory and motor representations are engaged. This creates a link, and actions can be imitated through mirror neurons when we simply watch others. This is why we are able to imitate others without having to constantly look at ourselves to make sure we are correctly performing actions. When we see others holding their hands behind their backs, we are able to imitate the action perfectly even though we don’t see our own hands. This is known as the correspondence problem. Overall, the notion that the most complex facilities of the human mind are products of cultural learning is nothing short of groundbreaking. This notion even opens up possibilities to research cognitive gadgets that have been lost to war and epidemics and presents the opportunity to research the emergence of new ones as well.


8 | OPINIONS

TBL | May 31, 2017

Even Presidents Should Have Limits ARTURO SAMANIEGO National Beat Reporter How much classified information should a president be allowed to disclose with foreign nations? This has become a legitimate question after President Trump revealed classified intelligence pertaining to Israel to Russian officials. Trump also disclosed the locations of two nuclear submarines with Philippines President Rodrigo Duterte. On Twitter, Trump defended himself by stating that he had an “absolute right” to share the information with Russian officials since it aided in the fight against terrorism, according to The New York Times. In concern to his disclosure of the nuclear submarines, Trump mentioned the submarines to affirm their presence near North Korea. North Korea has recently advanced its own nuclear arsenal. Though the president has the final say in what information is disclosed with foreign nations, Trump and other officials should show caution and discretion when it comes to discussing highly sensitive information. This helps to ensure that relationships with allies are maintained and that our national security is not endangered. Some may argue that the administration should be given some leeway since “it was not clear whether the president or other Americans in the meeting were aware of the sensitivity of what was shared.” It was only after the meeting that the information was “flagged as too sensitive to be shared.” It may seem tempting to give the president a pass as he may have been ignorant of the exact nature of the information that he shared. Yet, such a revelation raises other concerns. If the president was unaware of the intelligence’s sensitivity, it would have been best if he had never revealed it. It is reckless to carelessly share information that relates to foreign allies. When dealing with classified intelligence, officials should be more cautious. Representative Adam B. Schiff reveals another great reason why presidents should display great caution when disclosing intelligence. As quot-

Don’t be Hard-Headed: Wear Your Helmet SPENCER WU Copy Editor

Illustration by Allie Sullberg | Staff Illustrator ed by The New York Times, a country that usually shares information with the U.S. “could decide it can’t trust the United States with information” after hearing the news. If long term allies grow reluctant about sharing vital information with the U.S. out of fear that the president will disclose that information, this can greatly hinder our ability to detect and fight terrorist threats. The New York Times adds, “Israel is one of the United States’ most important allies and runs one of the most active espionage networks in the Middle East.” Without key allies, the U.S. may lose valuable insight on the

operations of ISIS which may put our national security at risk. Once again, this emphasizes why caution should be taken when one deals with classified intelligence. Reckless disclosure has the potential to alienate and drive away important allies. One important note is that, “Trump has broad authority to declassify government secrets” reports The Washington Post. Though Trump is free to disclose information as he wishes, he should keep the consequences in mind. Sharing classified intelligence from allies “undercuts trust considered essential to sharing secrets.” Relating back to Trump’s disclo-

sures on the nuclear submarines in North Korea, it is important to note that “the Defense Department historically does not reveal the locations of its submarines, since keeping the vessels’ movements secret is key to their missions,” says The Hill. Through his reckless action, Trump has undermined our national security by sharing information that relates to one of our defense’s essential tools. When it comes to the disclosure of classified information, presidents need to show great caution. Discretion will ensure that officials do not upset essential allies or threaten our national security.

Ever notice that most University of California, Santa Barbara bikers violate California law by not wearing a helmet? Though helmets do significantly increase bike safety, does this mean that helmets should be optional and not required? Most people, including myself, currently undermine the law by ignoring it. California law states that “anyone under the age of 18 must wear a helmet when riding a bicycle on a street, bikeway, or public bicycle path or trail.” The law has a large potential effect on UCSB since biking is such an integral part of the average university student’s lifestyle. As of 2011, UCSB received the honor of a Gold-Level Bicycle Friendly University which is a reflection of campus biking infrastructure and safety practices. With the law in place and a distinction awarded, how come more students do not wear helmets while careening down the bike paths? It seems counterintuitive that thousands of students do not protect the most important part of their body while riding their Fixies, cruisers, or mountain bikes at high speeds. Given unknown variables like an inexperienced biker not yielding or someone texting while biking, you would think that more students would strap on headgear before pedaling down the road. When you get into a car, the first thing you do is put on your seatbelt to protect yourself from any accident that might occur. Why does another form of transportation make any difference? You’ll be hard-pressed to find a student with any head protection or gear

to prevent injury on UCSB’s campus. Clearly, it is more common to see a helmet on the head of a recreational biker or a professor going from his or her office to a lecture hall. Before I moved to school here, my aunt got me a helmet. I immediately declined to wear it because I deemed it too “lame” and “uncool” to wear. I only felt this way because it was rare to spot a helmeted biker on the path during campus visits and in online videos or pamphlets. If many incoming freshmen have this sort of mentality, this will be a safety concern that will only worsen over the years. The norm on campus is to go without headgear. However, changes can be made to alter the bike culture in Santa Barbara. There should be certain measures, at least preliminary ones, to ensure the safety of student bikers. For starters, there could be a safety training guide or instructional video that first year students must take before attending school. This is equally as important as the Alcohol & Drug education and the Gaucho For Your Information courses. They all aim to improve the quality of students’ lives while they maintain safety standards. With explicit standards, students will be more aware of the dos and don’ts of biking on campus, general bike etiquette, and major safety rules and tips to prevent crashes and subsequent injuries. Although it may be difficult to catalyze a paradigm shift to ensure a 100% helmet-wearing rate, it is definitely feasible to enact tangible, productive change on campus. Through the implementation of a mandatory lecture or periodic training sessions, there will be a safer environment for bikers from campus to Isla Vista.

Interested in broadcast journalism? Want to learn more about filming, producing, scriptwriting, and editing? Come join The Bottom Line Productions team, where we create a biweekly broadcast, news, and student life channel. Experience with Adobe Premiere Pro and Final Cut Pro preferred but not necessary. For more information, email us at tblproductions@bottomlineucsb.com. Want to watch our videos? Visit us on YouTube at The Bottom Line UCSB.

Spring 2017 Issue 8  
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