Page 1







Image i ALgorithmic modeling

CONTENTS introduction


Part a : conceptualisation








Image1-6 Past design work



introduction I’m Taylah Parker, a third year architect student at Melbourne. Outside of university my interests predominantly include dance. Despite growing up with an understanding and appreciation for the fluidity of movement, I find that my interests in architecture are related more closely to the geometric form. For most of my life I have found myself intrigued by the world that surrounds me. Particularly, when I used to walk to the football with my dad, I would look up at the surrounding structures in awe. I believe this sparked my interest in architecture.

ing the building. As an example, I’ve studied the timber post gridshell structures often seen in small pavilions. I am intrigued by how simplistic some designs can be. With only a few lines and repeated geometric shape an entire construct can accumulate For me architecture is about establishing an experience that incorporates the users and space they inhabited. Furthermore, I was look to the future, I believe that is is important to be considerate of sustainable practices.

My technical understanding of digital design fabriI would say my existing knowledge of digital archi- cation is limited to my use of Rhino3D. However, I tend to find with the models I create that they tecture is relatively limited, especially in terms of being able to design and create it. There are seem unrealistic. As I begin to learn Grasshopper, I hope that I will be able to not only learn a new projects that I have previously researched but repertoire for design, but increase my skills in other than being amazed at the entirety of the structure, I have always found, myself to become establishing a probable reality. overwhelmed at the prospect of even construct-







A . 2. d e s i g n c o m p u t a t i o n


A.3 composition / generation


A.4 conclusion


A.5 learning outcomes


A.6 algortithmic sketches references

16-17 18- 19



Image 7 Aspen art museum

A1.1 Aspen Art Museum


Shigeru Ban Architects Aspen, USA 2014


A.1 Design Futuring

he Aspen Art Museum (AAM) looked to achieve a T “unified relationship between the structure and its surImage 8 intergration of interior & exterior

roundings.” By doing so the architects aimed to encourage consumers to not only reflect upon the building from the outside, but aid reflection on the natural exterior landscape from the buildings interior. This approach to the structure reflects upon design futuring, as consumers are given the opportunity to utilize the space as they desire.1

Apparent in the accompanying imagery the AAM incorporates these ideas through open planes of view and transparency from the exterior to interior. The multitude of spaces encourage users to actively participate in the role of the design. For example, the museum not only incorporates spaces for art, but facilitates community exchange and education practices.

Image 9 trusse weaving detail

The façade embodies a woven wood screen, similar to a wooden basket, which is thought to be a simple yet structurally limited in strength. This lead to critical speculation as designers were challenged over their management for weather conditions. The designers established their woven technique using Prodema. Which encases within wood veneer resin and an amalgam of paper. This allows the illusion of naturally occurring materials and aids consumer’s reflection upon nature. Finally, the wooden trusses prevalent throughout the design, were the designer’s intent to minimize steel and non-naturally occurring materials. The curvature of the trusses and their connection points were untested techniques and therefore, underwent a unique testing program, evaluating the properties in various axial ranges. However, this has paved the way for further timber, timber-like structures and we can begin to see more timber construction in none residential designs.2

Image 10 nature reflection perspective A.1 Design Futuring


1. Dunne, Anthony & Raby, Fiona (2013) Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (MIT Press) pp. 1-9, 33-45 2. archdaily , Aspen Art Museum / Shigeru Ban Architects (2014) <> [accessed 8 March 2016].

Image 11 artist residency

A1.2 Artist Residency - thread


Toshiko Mori Architects Sinthian,Senegal 2015


A.1 Design Futuring

he Artist Residency, THREAD in Sinthian, Senegal, T was designed to offer artists a range of programs to not

only engage with the diverse environmental surroundings but allow them to engage their creativity and captivating skills with the cultural region. For the locals the venue acts as a communal place, facilitating education, performance and consumption.5

To constructed the building, the designers sourced local materials and building practices, engaging with local builders on techniques for employing bamboo, brick and thatching. Although still used today in these communities, this practices are not relatively modern. THREAD combines these local’s techniques with innovating design, to create a pioneering new structure. However, not only does this design approach characterize design futuring, the construction aims to encapsulate sustainable methods; essentially caring for both the locals and the environment. Which is significant as the village is located in a distinctly rural and poor area of Senegal. Observed in the image below, the thatched roof has a customary pitch created using bamboo. The inverted roof also doubles as a water collection system, enabling the villages a 40% increase in fresh rainfall for domestic purposes.4

Image 12-13 artistic render detailing community intergration Image 14 detail of water collection

“ Thread promises to succeed as a piece of architecture because it speaks in something approaching a local dialect—a material and structural language that its users and builders can understand—and because it speaks about things that people on the ground care about, like art and education and water. (Line 138 - 142) “ 4

A.1 Design Futuring


3. Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1–16 4.archdaily, New Artist Residency In Senegal / Toshiko Mori (2015) <> [accessed 8 March 2016].

Image 15 Honeycomb morphologies

A2.1 Honeycomb Morphologies


Matsys LONDON, UK 2004



6. Digita

To many it appears that computerization and compuImage 15 Honeycomb morphologies edge detail

tation are not interchangeable means. Though, it has become more apparent to me that it is important in distinguishing these two terms as they are critical to helping define the process of digital design. As computer techniques developed the architect began to be able to test in real time, and have a more hands on approach. They become master builders again and in many instances gained control of the whole project, following the practice of traditional architects. Computational design offers a holistic approach. Designers are able to work with engineers, environmentalist, scientists, etc. to create a well-rounded design. This is particularly fundamental in terms of designing for sustainability, assisting in defining a better future. 5

Image 16 computational process

Honeycomb Morphologies demonstrate how computing design can be implemented in reality. The project aimed to integrate its performance and design through the aid of digital fabrication of a singular material. The design structure is intended to replicate the natural unfolding forms of nature and evolutionary forces. The structure was exclusively formulated through the use of parametric tools, and was modelled to adapt to a diverse range of performance requirements using the inherent geometric and material parameters. This showcases how computational model can be beneficial tool as multiple structures can be developed from a simple set geometric pattern. This can be observed in the range of Grasshopper models displayed below, each demonstrating the same geometric sequence, however through different forms. The model constructed in London, was a large scale prototype, and aimed to show an open framework for architectural design. Through the computational research they constructed a tool that can be integrated to conflicting and overlapping issues in emerging projects.6

Image 17 Honeycomb morphologiesinternal detail A.2 Design COMPUTATION


5. Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architectureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25 al Design and Fabrication, Schools of Architecture ,Honeycomb Morphologies - MATSYS (2004) <> [accessed 14 March 2016].

Image 18 sculptures by the sea

A2.2 Sculptures by the Sea-Mirador sydney university


i Sydney, australia 2012


through the use of mirror surfaced influenced a reflection of man and nature to a place that is inaccessible. The 3.5-metre-tall dome was first conceptualised as the designers shaped small reflective surfaces whilst visiting the site (Image 20). The design was enhanced as they utilized Grasshopper to not only formalize various shapes (Image 21 - 22), but used the software as a structural tool to establish the exact geometries required to establish a modular component that could be stack upon one another to form the dome shape.

Image 19 fabrication & Joint detail

Image 20 conceptual process

In this instance, Grasshopper enabled the architects to conceive geometries that allowed the design to be as efficient as possible. In many other cases, computational techniques allow the moulding of geometries, that by hand would be tedious and perhaps non-plausible. Furthermore, opportunities that these design methods offer architectural theory includes the possibility to create the unimaginable or perhaps the dreams that we look to in design futuring.8

lead to limitations in creativity, vs. the possibly of liberated imagination. It is important in computational design to use the tool as a way to advance your design instead of a means to emulate. Computerization is a form of digital designing where the software is used to facilitate the creation already formulate in the designer’s mind. This method helps to manipulate and store, often being used to assist in fabrication. In comparison, computer based-design is also able to offer the same benefits as computerization, however refers to a method in designing where the design is established using computer modelling, i.e. parametric. Rather than hand drawing each curvature, the designer uses the software to accumulate the ‘perfect curve’.7

I m a g e 21 - 2 2 c o m p u t e r a t i o n a l p r o c e s s

Many have argued that these technical advances have

Mirador, displayed at Sculptures By The Sea in 2012, I would argue to be a essentially a computerized design. The design concept established from that of a theatre, and



7. Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 8. Gunther, David, Digital Fabrication leads the way in Sculptures by the Sea, Bondi. (2012) <> [accessed 14 March 2016].

Image 23 national aquatics centre

A3.1 National CSCEC


Aquatics Centre



CSCEC’s , National Aquatic Centre in Beijing, also known as ‘The Water Cube” employed a form of generative design to be able to establish the geometric form and structure of the building. The buildings façade was inspired by the curvature of bubbles. In addition, when bubbles are closely observed joined together a geometric, hexagonal like, structure can be seen. This formation inspired the structural components of the façade.

Image 24 facade detail

Originally it was estimated that to efficiently distribute the weight- to strength ratio of the structure they had to divide the space into cells of equal volume. However, the amount that they equated to exceeded the methods in which they could use to not only generate a model, but accurately test the buildings features for stability.

W ithin architectural design generation has allowed

humans to manage and control a new system of forces, powerful than our minds can comprehend alone. With it we are able to design buildings that may possibly seize to exist. However, the process is not solely about design a building, generation design involves creating a system that designs the project.

AS a result, they utilized parametric model software, set to around 190 loading scenarios, they were able to iterate a range of diagrams that check the distribution of forces through the entire structure. the process was carried out until the ideal solution was determined, which they were able to determine with the feedback in 25 minutes. These methods not only allow humans to create new and almost inconceivable designs, but it facilitates methods of shorter time constraints and in many instances saves clients money, i.e. Designers of the Aquatic Centre saved their clients almost $10 Million in cost from generating idea structural arrangements. 10

Image 26 design influence

In the early instances of generation, mathematical logic was considered in the construction of generation based models, such as Gaudi’s Hanging Chain Model. In more recent forms, designers are able to combine this logic with computerized model that will allow, in most cases, more possible outcomes at a faster rate of production.9

Image 25 generation method



9. Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15 10. Stocking, Angus W. , Generative Design Is Changing the Face of Architecture (2012) <> [accessed 14 March 2016].

Image 27 silk pavilion

A3.2 silk pavilion Mediated Matter


i cambridge , ENGLAND



Not only were the silkworms affected by the constraints of the spatial arrangements, but the design team found that there were variations in light and heat, showing the silkworms migration towards the darker and denser spaces. Based on these observations the overall geometry of the pavilion, created by a Computer- Numerically Controlled Machine, was set to an algorithm that employed a single continuous thread. However, the shortcomings to this approach, that may be applied to further generation process, is that it can be difficult to clarify were generation is still generation and not composition. In composition we change the structure based on computational data we receive rather than letter the computer find the optimal form from data.

Image 28 silk pavilion detail

G eneration has given designers the opportunity to be

more explorative. They are able to be more efficient, and touch areas that have not been touched before. Essentially, generation design in the field of architecture opens up a world of possibilities.

In addition, many generation process are always generation and morphing, there is never really a clear finishing. Only we are able to stop the process of generation and in some cases we may end the process for the ideal condition is met.12

Previously architects were required to compose the whole structure themselves. Nowadays we are able to use logical and computational techniques to create something that might be considered ‘out of this world’. Using parametric modelling you can create a algorithmic recipe and instruct the computer to continuously perform this recipe and perhaps slightly change each time. In many instances, it can be a reflection of a biological process.11 The relationship between biological fabrication and generation modelling was explored in the Silk Pavilion. The Image 29 generation detail structure was inspired by the silkworm, whom the designers studied as they allowed them to construct their own 3D cocoons. For the base of the construction the designers combined both computational modelling and the silkworms to complete the structure. They allowed the silkworms to create a scaffold of silk, spun at the base, over the non-woven components from the machine, established a reinforced structure across the gaps.

Image 30 desgin influence



11. Peters, Brady. (2013) 12. Hu, Ray , A New Spin on Biomimicry in Architecture and Design: ‘Silk Pavilion’ by MIT MediaLab’s Mediated Matter Group (2012) <> [accessed 14 March 2016].

A4 Conclusion

A cross Part A we have essentially be looking at con-

ceptualization. This refers to an initialization of how we as designers consider the object that we construct and how we proceed to actually building that project. Based on references of both the past and present there are instances in design where I believe we as humans have had success and failures. An achievement that I would specifically like to consider in my future design approach, is that of sustainability. Not only do I hope to create something that promotes this, but formalizes this creation in an equally sustainable way. I believe it to be significant to design this way, as we are essentially designing for the future. Which not only benefits us, who currently inhabit this earth, but the generations to come. Looking to nature is a means in which to influence this formation. In particular, I found interest through design generation that mimics natural formation. Perhaps through formation, where we use computation to find the optimal method, we can achieve a process that can provide the maximum benefits. However, I would not consider this method as entirely innovative. Many people intend to design this way nowadays as it is an approach to design futuring. Instead, I consider it to almost be a necessity and a common method of thinking, rather than a new or advanced method.

14 Image 31 Grasshopper model


A5 learning outcomes

I would like to say at this stage my experience with archi-

tectural computing is a love – hate relationship. I constantly find it frustrating when a design doesn’t appear how I intend it to, yet when I manage to achieve something it is almost the best feeling in the world. I have a slight worry that it will only get worse from here. My overall understanding of Grasshopper has increased significantly over the preceding weeks and I only intend to gain a greater knowledge as move forward. I believe that Grasshopper is a significant tool in many instances. Not only can it help me to generate my design, but it often offers a more convenient method than other forms of computation. In past designs, I could have used grasshopper to create what many may consider to be one of the simplest things, contours. I believe it is important to consider the site in which you are designing and the topography is a significant element of this, especially because I was constantly being asked “have you consider the ground plane”. Finally, I have learnt through Grasshopper, how I can digitally model these contours to be able to present against my designs. Another circumstance where I may have been able to utilize Grasshopper in a design, was through simply exploring a range of possible design outcomes. Often it can be tiring and inconvenient to have to model each scenario. Yet, through simply baking a stage of your grasshopper component you almost instantly create a backlog of your design.


15 Image 32 Grasshopper model

Week2 -transform - mesh & box morph

Week2 - Contourin with planes

Week2 - Curve intersections





I have found that with most things in life I am

surfaces seemed to show fewer variations in size then the more abstract ones. A similar scenario amazed by the simple things. And the simplistic aspect of Grasshopper is an instance where this was apparent in the following sketch, where the occurs. It amazes me how such simple algorithms planar surfaces attached to a regular geometry was not as appealing as that of an irregular can be used to create quite complex structures. structure. Even more so, how by changing a few simple points can completely alter the entire look of a However, what I have found important in all of structure. these structures is the concept of efficiency. As programs such as Grasshopper were developed, In reference to what I consider to be my best more imaginative architect became possible. sketches, I believe to be those that represent These sketches can represent the simplicity instances where a simple method of points was behind creative ideas, yet also show each compoaltered, or a complex geometry came from a nent at its complexity. Such as, the final sketch not as complex set of components. I have also found great joy when inputs connected to outputs, indicates a series of intersecting circles. However, especially when I attempted to create an irregular by using Grasshopper I was able to locate the exact intercept points and formulate a connection form. between them that can be used to emulated a Extending from the tutorials, for most sketches I structural component. aimed to establish a new form of geometry. Often Finally, I believe that these sketches demonstrate this lead to unmatched outcomes or absurd formations. However, I found through trial and error a form a modelling tool that allows designers to that the best approach would soon be optimized. expand their mode of thinking. Using these platforms, it is ok to make mistake and try new things. As an example, the first sketch observed on the The ability to easily manipulate the computerized previous page, Transform â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Mesh & Box Morph, I models and patterns allows us to trial as many first trailed the use of different meshes that were series until reach what we consider to be the perto be set to various points of the rhino form. How- fect one, or perhaps we can program the computever, it became apparent that the less structured er to determine the perfect outcome for us.



TEXT REFERENCES archdaily , Aspen Art Museum / Shigeru Ban Architects (2014) <http://www.archdaily. com/546446/aspen-art-museum-shigeru-ban-architects> [accessed 8 March 2016]. archdaily, New Artist Residency In Senegal / Toshiko Mori (2015) < http://www.archdaily. com/608096/new-artist-residency-in-senegal-toshiko-mori> [accessed 8 March 2016].

Hu, Ray , A New Spin on Biomimicry in Architecture and Design: ‘Silk Pavilion’ by MIT MediaLab’s Mediated Matter Group (2012) <http://www.> [accessed 14 March 2016]. Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25

Architecture, Design & Planning, Sydney University , Rachel Couper + Ivana Kuzmanovska: Mirador - Thursday Night Lectures(2013) <https://> Kingsley, Gregory R. (2014). Aspen Art Museum [accessed 14 March 2016]. Roof Structure: (USA-Golden), pp. 3 - 7 Digital Design and Fabrication, Schools of Architecture ,Honeycomb Morphologies - MATSYS (2004) <http://digitaldesignfabrication.blogspot.> [accessed 14 March 2016]. Dunne, Anthony & Raby, Fiona (2013) Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (MIT Press) pp. 1-9, 33-45

Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15

Stocking, Angus W. , Generative Design Is Changing the Face of Architecture (2012) <http:// Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1–16 tive-design-is-changing-face-architecture-12948> [accessed 14 March 2016]. Gunther, David, Digital Fabrication leads the way in Sculptures by the Sea, Bondi. (2012) <http:// The Thread Artist Residency , The Thread : The Building (2014) < storyid=10399> [accessed 14 March 2016]. the-building/> [accessed 8 March 2016]. Hubarb, R, MATSYS (2013) <> [accessed 14 March 2016].


Volner, Ian, Senegal’s Cutting-Edge Artists’ Residency (2015) <> [accessed 8 March 2016].


IMAGE REFERENCES IMAGE i NFORMATIONS, Grasshopper Modeling (2015) <> [accessed 15 March 2016].

Bondi. (2012) <> [accessed 14 March 2016].

IMAGE 7 archdaily , Aspen Art Museum / Shigeru Ban Architects (2014) <http://www.archdaily. com/546446/aspen-art-museum-shigeru-ban-architects> [accessed 8 March 2016].

IMAGE 20 – 22 Architecture, Design & Planning, Sydney University , Rachel Couper + Ivana Kuzmanovska: Mirador - Thursday Night Lectures(2013) < watch?v=Akvt7O5ZCCA> [accessed 14 March 2016].

IMAGE 5 & 6 Kingsley, Gregory R. (2014). Aspen Art Museum Roof Structure: (USA-Golden), pp. 3 - 7 IMAGE 8 archdaily , Aspen Art Museum / Shigeru Ban Architects (2014) <http://www.archdaily. com/546446/aspen-art-museum-shigeru-ban-architects> [accessed 8 March 2016]. IMAGE 11 – 13 archdaily, New Artist Residency In Senegal / Toshiko Mori (2015) < http://> [accessed 8 March 2016]. IMAGE 14 The Thread Artist Residency , The Thread : The Building (2014) <http://www.> [accessed 8 March 2016].

IMAGE 23 – 25 Stocking, Angus W. , Generative Design Is Changing the Face of Architecture (2012) <> [accessed 14 March 2016]. IMAGE 27 – 30 Hu, Ray , A New Spin on Biomimicry in Architecture and Design: ‘Silk Pavilion’ by MIT MediaLab’s Mediated Matter Group (2012) < posts/24986/a-new-spin-on-biomimicry-in-architecture-and-design-silk-pavilion-by-mit-medialabs-mediated-matter-group-24986> [accessed 14 March 2016]. IMAGE 31 Fablab El Paso , Essentials of Parametric Modeling: Intro to Rhino + Grasshopper (2014) <> [accessed 17 March 2016].

IMAGE 15 – 17 Digital Design and Fabrication, Schools of Architecture ,Honeycomb Morphologies - MATSYS (2004) < IMAGE 32 The Proving Ground , Exercise 1: phologies-matsys.html> [accessed 14 March Space Truss Structure (2015) <http://wiki.theprov2016].> [accessed 17 March 2016]. IMAGE 18 – 19 Gunther, David, Digital Fabrication leads the way in Sculptures by the Sea,







B . 2. C A S E S T U D Y 1 . 0

26 - 35












57 58-59




B.1 RESEARCH FIELD tesselation



Image 33 Voussoir Cloud | IwamotoScott

Prior to my experience with Grasshopper and

algorithmic modelling, I was aware of tessellation as a form of patterning used commonly in tiling and decorative elements of Islamic art and Ancient Roman Architecture. However, tessellation follows a mathematical order and the more complex the sequence, it may lead to a more interesting geometry.

shapes to the overall form not only from its outer perspective but from within the geometric form. A continuous boundary of a 3D form is represented in computerized modelling by faces, edges and vertices surfaces. As it is difficult to manually analyse these forms, as they often intricate and complex, the 3D volume can be assessed with a mesh â&#x20AC;&#x201C; in particular that of a tetrahedral or hexahedra form.

The advancement of tessellation in computerised modelling overall allowed a more efficient design We are able to analyse through this method as and construction process. In reference to a more each surface is given an individual mesh face efficient method, computerised tessellation perwith a distinct edge â&#x20AC;&#x201C; which takes into account mits for the dynamic subtraction and addition of the original vertices. 13



13 . Microsoft, Tessellation Overview (2015) <> [accessed 2 April 2016] 14 ., Tessellation (2014) <> [accessed 2 April 2016].

tesselation Voussoir Cloud IwamotoScott , SanFransisco


Image 34 Voussoir Cloud below Image 35 Voussoir Cloud above

There are various implications when taking into

account this method of design. Such as when generating the mesh for tessellation the following parameters must be defined of considered - the maximum angle, size and distance of the mesh to the original curve. These rules are defined as an almost precaution to guarantee that there is enough detail and similarity within the mesh and current structure to be able to establish an effective analysis.

Traditionally, the geometrical forms in tessellation must not overlap or form spaces between shapes14. However, in â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Voussoir Cloudâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, by IwamtoScott, there are multiple vault geometries that form together, that when separately follow tradition, however when combined produced gap that may have been designed to draw in light and ventilation.


The design intention was to combine the pure structural compression with an ultra-light material system. This lead to opportunities to explore various strengthening formations through the use of the Delaunay tessellation. The denser tessellations, with tighter connections, formed at the bases of the structureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s columns to form strengthened ribs. In comparison the upper vaults were looser and allowed a more curvature form. This difference in strength capacity also led to the consideration of more appropriate materials for fabrication, such as almost paper thin wood laminate. Finally, the many layers and pieces to each mesh, can create a complex fabrication form that if not correctly installed will serious inhibited not only the design intent but the structural capability. 15


tesselation FERMID Behnaz Babazadeh


Image 36 fermid overall structure Image 37 fermid close up detail

A typical method in tessellation is the repeti-

tical elements to create the overall form. This is tion of heterogeneous elements to define a whole due to the way the pieces connect. To be able to create an 3D interesting form each identical piece homogenous element. In Fermind, by Behnaz follows its own direction and angle. Although this Bahazadeh a series of white curls are overlaid and connected together to form an almost living may be maintainable in computerised- design organism. The curvature of the form allows an or- when manually fabricating the design (as Bahazganic, yet mechanical movement that is so subtle adeh demonstrated) it requires precise and often time-consuming alterations 16 and deceptively simple. The opportunities created when using a singular heterogeneous form leads to a more efficient fabrication process. As the same element can be generated as many times as necessary, without manipulation of form. However, it becomes more difficult in the process of combining these iden-

Overall, tessellation allows for a diverse range of geometry formations. The method through finding these forms can be both singular in reference to one repeating element or unique, where many different forms make up the overall picture.



15 . Archivenue, â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Voussoir Cloudâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; by IwamotoScott with Buro Happold (2009) <> [accessed 2 April 2016]. 16. Think Parametric, FERMID by Behnaz Babazadeh (2011) <> [accessed 2 April 2016].

B.2 case study 1.0 tesselation



B .2 c a s e s t u d y 1 . 0

Image 38 Voltadom skylar tibbits

The Voltadom is installation that occupies a

Voltadom expands on the architectural practice of panel surfaces. They aimed to increased the concrete and class hallway in MIT, as a part of a depth of dual vaulted surface with the ability for 150th year celebration of FAST Arts Festival (Fes- efficient manufacture and fabrication.17 tival of Arts, Science and Technology). Created by the studio SJET, founded by Skylar Tibbits aims The use of tessellation was manipulated to proto embed a multifaceted studio approach where cess single strips of materials that would be bent they establish a research platform for computing to achieve the complex vault surface. and experimental design. The Voltadom, is characteristically reminiscent in is constructive appeal to the historical vaults in gothic cathedrals. The oculi, often seen at the top of gothic cathedrals, is utilized across the installation as a way of limiting light and views of the outside.

The use of tessellation was manipulated to process single strips of materials that would be bent to achieve the complex vault surface. In addition, the installation utilizes tessellation as a means to multiply and grow, as a cell group would, with independenceÂŹÂŹ of each cell however with connections remaining to establish a solid boundary. 18

B .2 c a s e s t u d y 1 . 0


17. Think Parametric, FERMID by Behnaz Babazadeh (2011) <> [accessed 2 April 2016]. 18. Luis Pina Lopes, Voltadom by Skylar Tibbits | Skylar Tibbits (2011) <> [accessed 5 April 2016].

p l ayi n g w it h vo r o n i val u e


changing the domain - up per b ounds

B .2 c a s e s t u d y 1 . 0

changi ng t he doma

ai n -lower bo u n ds

chan g i n g t he he i g ht o f overal cone

B .2 c a s e s t u d y 1 . 0

p laying with trimming height


c h a n g i n g t r i mmi n g val u e o f i d e e n t i cal co n es

Sub stituting second cone geometry for cylinder

Sub stituting one cone geometry for cylinder

Sub stituting all cone geometry cylinder and trimming

Sub stituting all cone geometry cylinder and trimming


B .2 c a s e s t u d y 1 . 0

Sub stituting one cone geometry for sp here

S u b st it u t in g Al l co n e g e o me t r y f o r cy l i n d e r s

Sub stituting one cone geometry for cylinders and one cone geometry for sp he re

S u b st it u ti n g o n e co n e g e o me t r y f o r c yl i n d e r s a n d o n e co n e g e o me t r y fo r s phere & t r i mmi n g changing order of cylinder and sphere ge om e t ry

S u b st it u ti n g o n e co n e g e o me t r y fo r c yl i n d e r s a n d o n e co n e g e o me t r y fo r s phere changing order of cylinder and sp here ge om e t ry

S u b st i t u t i ng s e co n d co n e g e o me t r y fo r cy l i n d e r

Sub stituting All cone geometr y for sp heres

B .2 c a s e s t u d y 1 . 0


Ar r ay ove r c u r ves & chan g i n g a r r ay a ng l es


Array over sphere

B .2 c a s e s t u d y 1 . 0

Array over cylinde r & tub e

Image 39 Voltadom skylar tibbits





B.2 case study 1.0 VOLTADOM



B .2 c a s e s t u d y 1 . 0






B.2 case study 1.0 VOLTADOM



Image 40 Voltadom skylar tibbits


B .2 c a s e s t u d y 1 . 0

Being still relatively new to Grasshopper I was

apprehensive about this task and how I would approach it. I first began playing with the case study by manipulating each of the sliders. This allowed me to gain an understanding of how each component became a part of the design and how it was significant. However, I found that although this may alter the design overall itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s impact was not crucial to manipulating the intent of the design. Nonetheless I found that there were same iterations more favorable then others for this design. For example, when using the populate 2D function, it is more beneficial to have a higher points value for the N input. As the lower value created less intersections and this impacted the amount of trimming of the cones later in the process. It also became apparent that the width and height of the cones could impact the trimming process and either this would limit the cones from toughing or change the size of the hole that was cut in the cone. However, I aimed to further explore this case study by subsisting to the cone geometry for others shapes, such as cylinders & spheres. As there were two cone components used in the Grasshopper file I manipulated with how the cones could be incorporated with these shapes, or how these shapes may function on there own. In some instances, I found the shapes to create a texture like geometry, or others created curved surfaces that may be replicated as walls.

its fabrication), poetic (in form), solid (able to withstand its own shape) & efficient (through repeating elements). Although, the 4 chosen iterations may not reference all of these criteria, I believe elements from each of them can be manipulated together to generate an overall ideal form. Iteration 1, was successful as I considered it an efficient process, the repeating elements meant that generating the form was fast and may lead to an efficient fabrication process. However, due to the irregular curved shape, fabrication may not be as manageable without additional joining elements. Iteration 2 & 3, was successful as I believed these to be solid forms. When fabricated these elements would be able to exist as themselves without support. Finally, iteration 4 was successful as I found its form to be poetic. The repeating spheres generate a bubble texture that could be manipulated to a particular geometry. There are many different qualities that can be achieved with this installation. Due to the holes throughout the shape, light and views is one major aspect. In addition, changing the size of the wholes across the form ca manipulate what views are accessible and how much light. Are darker space can produce a significantly different experience to a laminated space.

In regards to an effected created by this form, is a textured look. This can be achieved by either manipulated the spheres across a surface, or The final challenge I undertook was manipulating perhaps using the cones and changing the directhe way the pattern was arrayed across I surface. tion that they are arrayed to create a scale (like a I initially played with how the points were populat- reptile) appeal. ed, changing from a 2D to a 3D form. Following this I used various 2D geometries that allowed In regards to other forms, surfaces of spaces that me to arranged the cones in any form rather could be form I would look at one of the iterations than a rectangle. However, I mainly wanted to that combined cylinders in place of cones. This achieve arraying the cones over a surface shape created a curved surface plan, when extruded and I found this achievable by manipulating both these component may be manipulated as walls. Grasshopper and Rhino files. Further more Iteration 4 could be arrayed onto

this surfaces to give it a textured element. Or perSelection Criteria: In regards to what I was trying haps a pavilion could be constructed with more to achieve with these iterations I was looking to repeating elements on a larger surface similar to create a form that was practical (in reference to iteration 1. B .2 c a s e s t u d y 1 . 0


B.3 case study 2.0 rEVERSE-ENGINEER




B .3 c a s e s t u d y 2. . 0

Image 41 gardens bythe bay

Gardens by the Bay was designed by Grant

Associates architects, in Singapore, 2012. It acts as a “blend nature, technology, environmental management and imagination to create a 21st century focus for tropical horticulture and a unique destination experience” (Gardens By The Bay, 2012). The Supertree is a particular element in this garden. There are 18 in total ranging from 25 – 50m in height. Acting as vertical gardens, 11 of the trees are embedded with canopies that employ sustainability functions, while the rest act as inverted umbrellas. These canopies provide shade during the day and provide light during the night. Creating an exhilarating space of visual and sounds affects. 19

of the Supertree. For each tree there are a series of plants attached to the steel frame, to withhold these plants, planting panels are installed on the trunk. Essentially this creates a living skin, similar to the live nature of real trees. Finally, photovoltaic cells are attached to harvest the solar energy which will aid in lighting up the canopies. For the remaining trees, air exhaust receptacles are achieved through cooled conservatories.

Although the trees may not appear directly as natural elements, the incorporation of living materials and design inspired by nature, established the blend of technology with the natural. Furthermore, they established their intent to include environmental management by using sustainability materials and practices. Finally, its overall appearance t Furthermore, each tree is reinforced with a concrete surely offers a unique experience.20 core, which upholds the vertical steel frame trunk B .3 c a s e s t u d y 2 . 0


19. Gardens By The Bay , FASCINATING FACTS ABOUT THE ICONIC SUPERTREES (2012 ) <> [accessed 12 April 2016]. 20. Grant Associates, Gardens By The Bay (2012) <> [accessed 12 April 2016].

Case study 2.0 Reverse - engineer gardens by the bay


Image42 supertrees Image43 supertrees

step one

step two

step three

step four

bas i c d i ag r a m of pa r ame t r i c t o o l pr o ces s note not all components shown Line

graph mapper





pLine conmesh


jitter shift


B .3 c a s e s t u d y 2. . 0

step five


P Undertaking this process, I was a little

skeptical at first that I would be able to achieve it. As I had a design in mind for my final project I searched around to find examples of vase as this was the particular shape I was intending to include in my design. I found a script that employed the component of graph mapper. This utilized points and lines that I mapped onto circles that could be manipulate by a slider, to affect the width of each circle. I then was able to divided each circle into the same amount of points. I however, the next step difficult to join each of the points vertically as when a poly line component was added it we joined the points into circles. With help I found that the process was easy and all I had to do was flip the value of each point. Therefore, rather then every point in the circle having the same value, the first point divided of each circle was identical and so on. To create the tree like components I randomly connected the points by jittering the values. Similar to create the lines which wrap around the tree I used a component to shift the data values of each points. To create the inner concrete section, I used a mesh that was laid upon each of the points.

However, I reduced the circle of the circles and the amount so that this cone figure sat within the frame figure. In regards to the outcome of this process I consider the overall concept of my reverse engineer is similar to the actual Supertrees, this includes the overall form of the steel frame and the concrete core. However, the precise branches and shape of the steel frame and concrete core my differ to what I have designed. When looking at images it appears that the base is widen, which would be ideal for stability and the canopies are wider and start early from the trunk. This feature may have been created for better shade. To take this design further I would like to see how I could integrate the canopies and the planting panels that were utilized in the design to be able to establish the design intent to have an environmentally manageable design. Within my reverse engineering I have only created the trunk and concrete inside. To be able to establish the additional more complex parts I would need to undertake further research. However, other methods I could take from this design would be to see how the structural frame and concrete column (which I have established with a mesh) could be re-formed into another shape or into fractions of the original form.

B .3 c a s e s t u d y 2 . 0






B4 technique development

Image 44 gardens bythe bay


ooking back to B2 the selection criteria that I was interested in was a form that was practical. By this I mean something that can be fabricated easily and efficiently. Something that is poetic in form.

form can be achieved in many ways, it doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t particularly have to be form that is solid. Instead I considering something solid to have strength and stability.

Finally, the last criteria I was interested in was a form that was efficient. However, not in the means In reference to this criterion I want to design of fabrication entirely. Through the repletion something that will evoke a response from the of elements this can lead to a more appealing viewer or user. However, the poetic form does not design through pattern. In regards to these necessarily have to be something that is appeal- repeating elements this can also lead to efficiency ing to the eye. I believe something that is harsh in fabrication as programs are not required to will also establish a poetic response, perhaps a create changing elements instead just multiples negative one. of a single element. This may also make assemblage of materials easier as one does not need to The third criteria were that the design is to be sol- understand how different elements join but rather id. It a form is not able to withstand its own shape how do the same elements join. external elements are required. However, a solid B4 technique development


ch ang i ng ove r a l ge om e t r y

s ecti o n i n g g e om e t r y

ch a ng i ng f r a m e a n d co n cr e t e mes h s e pe r at e ly ar r ay & M ir r or in g ov e r al fo r m


B4 technique development

B4 technique development


Image 45 gardens bythe bay





B4 technique development






strating the branches of a tree, to me it appeared as if the shape became the trunk and the roots. To create this, I mirrored the shape, after flipping it, along a curve. in terms of criteria this would demonstrate an efficient process through repetition.

From these iterations I was able to selected four that I considered to not necessarily be the most successful in regards to my selection criteria, but more so the most interesting.

Overall though, I considered this process to be something that would not necessarily be the easiest and most efficient form to fabricate. Which would lead to time and money costs and these are something I would like to consider in my design.

sing my criteria has influence for my iterations, I was mainly interested in the overall form of the design. Therefore, I tested the design for overall form changes including the frame and mesh. Secondly I manipulated the form in sections to see how it would act in different components. Thirdly, I mainly manipulated the mesh in Iteration 2 was selected as I found the form to be both the vertical and horizontal form. and finally, I interesting. Although using the same grasshopper script to create it as my reverse engineer, I found played with the repetition of elements. that it looked distinctively different. It was an With the brief in mind, I aimed manipulating some interesting form as there is a blend of the shapes curve and almost repetition curve at the bottom iterations to a particular form. With my current and top. skills to be able to achieves this I baked certain parts of the script so that it would stay in place Iteration 3 and 4 were both selected because, while I manipulate and moved other sections through grasshopper. For me so far I found this to although very similar to the reverse engineer be a manageable process as it did not necessari- shape, it believed that they could act as a completely different process. ly take an excessive amount of time.

Iteration 1 interested me as rather than demon-

B4 technique development


Image 46 staking & guying p h ot o t a k e n b y t a y l a h p a r k e r




stacking & guying


When I approached the site I found myself

Sporting Grounds & Teams, Residential Housing, Merri Creek, Animals and Climate (particularly considering designing and being able to fabricate wind). The main trees species in this area are the River Redgum, Blackwood, River Bottlebrush and at a 1: 1 scale. Therefore, I didn’t necessarily Silver Wattle. Further more not only are these work around site thinking about large things to design. I often found myself looking towards the trees important to the wetlands but the animals that are housed within them. 21 ground. Interesting I noticed the staking and guarding of trees. This is something that I have definitely seen before however, I began to really Therefore it important that the beginning stages of each tree is established properly. Currently the consider the overall design and purpose of it. process that is undertaken is what you above. Staking which involves stabilizing the newly plantUpon further research after visiting the site, I ed trees, often with wooden off cuts. And guying, found out that the wetlands in the Merri Park which is a surface material to prevent contact to area, on the Merri Creek Trail, are constantly the tree, normally made from a mesh or plastic. under maintenance. And it is only because of the dedicated to volunteers that the wetlands are The benefits of this process is that is offers; protection against animal, protection against wind able to exist in the condition that they do today. However, currently ‘Less than 4% of the original damage, aids growth direction & stabilize root ball. However, there are limitations which must be wetland area remains … and it is mostly in very poor condition’ (Merri Creek Management Com- considered. This includes whether the materials used are biodegradable or reusable, if the trunk mittee, 2009). wrap hides the issues, there must be adjustable during growth, strong yet flexible, should not be The trees are a major contribution to this areas, able to make any contact and allow for continuas well as shrubs and smaller plants. However, they are constantly affected by their local environ- ous monitoring. ment, which includes Northcote Highschool, Local

Image 47 onsite trees



21 Merri Creek Management Commitee, Merri Park Wetlands (2009) <> [accessed 19 April 2016]. 22. University of Nebraska, Care of Newly Planted Trees () <> [accessed 19 April 2016].

ar c h i t e c t u r a l d es ign p reced en t s

Image 48 architectural precedents






The current design used for tree protection is

use, such as food packaging and even medical implants. It is fully biodegradable under the corlimited in appearance and its extra potential. By this I mean, I believe that this form of guard can rect conditions and offer a non-toxic guarantee, which is ideal for the plants growth and long-life also aid the trees growth by capturing water. There are two ways that this could be achieved, ability. It is created by specific strains of bacteria that is exposed to essential nutrients, such as the first is through the design itself. Using tubes at the end of the guard may be able to draw water oxygen and nitrogen. Furthermore, the production directly to the routes of the plants. However, this of this plastic around the world is only growly exponentially as the years go on (see figure 1). 24 may damage the roots as the may struggle to move around the tubes or attach to them. Then The other form of material, water absorption is when they guards is removed it was essentially not as established as biodegradable materials. remove the roots straight out of the ground, And the materials that we would find are costly damaging the tree. and time consuming in fabrication, due to under development. However, instead of using a plastic The other method is to use a particular material that absorbs water, as started early we could use that is able to capture the water. The material could either absorb water moisture and gradually one that has a textured surface to decrease the release it or use a bump surface to slow down the water movement. A specific material that may be waters descent to the roots. This slower descent utilized is Lexan Polycarbonate Film.

would help to not over hydrate the plant and allow At less than $1 for a 24 x 48 inch sheet, it is the process to be gradual. Research states that “surfaces with asymmetric bumps significantly in- generally cheap material, that offers a textured crease water droplet” collection (Prakash, 2016). finished and flexibility – which are two of the keys requirements for this material component. In addition, the strength of the polycarbonate film Another property of the material would be whether it is biodegradable or able to be reused. allows for heat resistance, toughness and rigidity. Which follows the criteria of a solid form that I Polyhydroxalkanoate is a type of plastic that is . 25¬ commonly found in everyday items that we may was intending to quantify in the design


image 49 texture plastic



24. Nova, The future of plastics (2015) <> [accessed 27 April 2016]. 25. ePlastics, Lexan Polycarbonate Film (2016) <> [accessed 27 April 2016].






image 49

fabrication joint connections


The mesh skin was establish again by flattening the piece in Grasshopper and Rhino and then nspired by my reverse engineering process I looked to fabricate how the different wire framed printing it out on a sheet to then overlay on the plastic, this allowed me to gain a more accurate components could be joined together. I also observed how you could break up the wire com- precision of where the mesh would overlap with ponents into separate smaller pieces which would the frame. Printing directly onto the plastic would be the next step as this one allow one less obstathen allow for a more irregular shapes. cle in trying to obtain exact dimensions. Affect trying to achieve from selection criteria This process helped me to inform my digital modFrom my selection criteria the two methods I aimed to establish was the ease in fabrication and el as it allowed me to consider which connections in the wire frame would work and which would the stability of the design. Therefore, I consider not. I found that by increasing the angle of the the best approach to start was to consider how piece connections lead to a more difficult fabricathe components of the wire frame were joined tion. As I intend to have an efficient fabrication I together. Basic plumber joints use angled joints wanted to create the optimal angle, and therefore that I considered to similar to my intent. I took decreased this value. Furthermore, by creating this as inspiration in creating a T-joint, a slightly the wireframe I was able to observe how this curved single joint, cross joint and an irregular would interact with the mesh. As I am intending 4 ways joint. The main joints can be observed to use the mesh as a plastic wrap (something to above. The single joint is crucial to combine the protect the tree as it grows) it is ideal for this to vertical elements together, whereas the remain joints not only help the horizontal elements to join content to the frame, so that it does not move about. but it allows these framing members to join with the horizontal ones. As I previously mentioned that strength is a factor My process of fabrication to test this was by using that I consider to be important. This is particularly important as the tree relies on the staking grasshopper to model the frame and layer out each frame component. In then joined each piece elements for stability, therefore the method that I have currently undertaken failed when I applied using plasticine, however, the material although pressure to the frame. Although not entirely succheap and mouldable, is time consuming in the cessful, I believe with the correct elements that drying process, and therefore left limitations to the design would be more practical. the design angles changing as the piece would gradually slide down. the next step in this process would be to construct the joints in rhino and 3d print them for created strength and stability. B5 TECHNIQUE PROTOTYPES


B.6 TECHNIQUE:PRoposal Merri creek



tree protection

B6 technique : proposal

Based on my exploration and research my

on the rivers edge (the steepest areas), this may actually not act as an issue. Nonetheless is pays design proposal is to establish a form of tree protection in its early stages of development. This to be cautious. is to help ensure the growth of the wetlands in Merri Park. With this design I do not intend to only In regards to what is innovative about the design, I do not consider the design itself. This is because benefit the trees. By allowing better tree growth visual it looks relatively simple and not particuthis establishes homes for animals (i.e. birds), larly unique. However, I believe the proprieties of and by better protection may assist the volunteer this design are different to the current products community in the conservations of the park. being used. I intend to be able to draw water to the roots of the trees, helping to establish greater This technique can be applied to almost anygrowth capacity. As the area is on a gradual slope where on site. From my observations on site, to the river, most water runs away from the plants, it appeared that most areas where new trees were planted were on the outskirts of each bush and therefore we must be able to capture as path. A limitation to my design is that it does not much as possible. consider unstable ground. The angle and the soil for which the protection barrier sits on may hinder its strength in defending from the climate and animals. It may also pose a threat to the tree if it falls, as the tree should not be touched in its initial growing stage. Therefore, at this stage the design is best suited to areas on site where the ground is stable and the soil is level. However, as most of the trees native to the site do not sit

Another drawback to this design is that currently there are many pieces to it. As a have decided to create the frame as something that can be recycle it would be practical to have it easily assembled. Perhaps if the entire frame initially comes in separate pieces, but once established it can be utilised by different trees by simple breaking it into two halves.

B6 technique : proposal



learning outcomes

Throughout this process I have been able to develop my

skills in being able to utilise grasshopper and not only manipulate and existing file but create my own file and further manipulate it. I found that through investigate the geometry and the way that each component worked together that I was able to utilize Rhino and Grasshopper to establish an investigation of the design. One process that I have particularly enjoyed was manipulating the files under a type of series. Through this I was able to observe how small changes could have a large impact on the design. This process can be observed in both my design matrices from B.2 and B.4. As a result of these process have been able to further develop my design computational skills. I was nervous at first when I would even be considering creating my own design. But I have learnt that ideally nothing is purely unique. I was able to learn from other scripts and utilise them together to create something that I considered different or unique in itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s own right. However, I know that my skills are still in process and I hope to further refine them. Being able to use digital tools to make the creattions that I designed come to life was also an interesting experience. Although some aspects I failed at this approached, I believe there are further techniques I looked forward to exploring. When it came to proposing my design, I tried to considering the brief and site before allocating my desired approached. I believed that these were fundamental factors as when designing for a client they are essentially the reason for your work. By looking at all sides to the site, both its strengths and weakness I was able to establish what I considering to not only be an interesting approached but a necessity Research on both the site, materials and techniques that I aimed to utilised also aided me in created an established design. Although, my process is yet to be completed and I look forward to fully developing it in the future.





For this section of the course I aimed to change

The first image below is from exploration for my design proposal. After creating two from various the scripts as much as possible from what was vectors and polylines, rather than keeping the given to me in files or from the videos. Further smooth mesh surfaces I plugged this into a a Demore I played around with adding scripts that I found online with things that I made or with things launay mesh component which created a range of interesting edges. However, I moved on from from the tutorial videos. The main approach I took to this was inputting new geometries to the this shape as I found it to difficult in the fabricascripts. However, I found that the more complex tion process and also off the course of what I was the geometry the likelihood that it didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t or the the aiming to achieve with my design. Grasshopper image would become overbearing The second image is from a tutorial video, and super intricate. where we manipulated lists and trees. However I changed the script from where the panels of the The biggest obstacle in this process wasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t actually the files, but the strength of my computer. sphere surfaces were once joints to having the protruding at various angles. And the final image It was constantly crashing and taking a while to create what I thought was simple changes. This involves graphing various sections. However, I found myself more interested to what these kind forced me to not only randomly selected values of design appeared as and what it could lead to. and shapes, but to actually considering what I was inputting and how it would impact the shape. When I look at it I think of something under the sea, and therefore I believe it could related to a pavilion or shelter of some sort that is positioned However, I still find myself interested in how the by the sea. simple things can make big changes, often this occurs when I play around with mesh and sliders.

Week 7 design proposal






TEXT REFERENCES, Tessellation (2014) <https:// Archdaily, Gardens By The Bay (2012) <http://> [accessed 2 April 2016]. grant-associates> [accessed 12 April 2016]. Archivenue, ‘Voussoir Cloud’ by IwamotoScott with Buro Happold (2009) <> [accessed 2 April 2016]. ePlastics, Lexan Polycarbonate Film (2016) <> [accessed 27 April 2016].

Merri Creek Management Commitee, Merri Park Wetlands (2009) < Site_notes/MCMC%20-%20Merri%20Park%20 Wetland%20web%20version.pdf> [accessed 19 April 2016]. Microsoft, Tessellation Overview (2015) < ff476340%28v=VS.85%29.aspx?f=255&MSPPError=-2147217396> [accessed 2 April 2016].

Gardens By The Bay , FASCINATING FACTS ABOUT THE ICONIC SUPERTREES (2012 ) < Nova, The future of plastics (2015) <http://www.> dens/supertree-grove/facts-and-figures.html> [accessed 27 April 2016]. [accessed 12 April 2016]. Grant Associates, Gardens By The Bay (2012) < gardens-by-the-bay/> [accessed 12 April 2016]. Luis Pina Lopes, Voltadom by Skylar Tibbits | Skylar Tibbits (2011) < voltadom-by-skylar-tibbits-skylar-tibbits/> [accessed 5 April 2016]. Manu Prakash, ‘Wetting: Bumps lead the way’, Natural Materials , 15, (2016), 378–379.


Think Parametric, FERMID by Behnaz Babazadeh (2011) <> [accessed 2 April 2016]. University of Nebraska, Care of Newly Planted Trees () < Care%20of%20Newly%20Planted%20Trees.pdf> [accessed 19 April 2016].


IMAGE REFERENCES IMAGE 33 Architizer, Voussoir Cloud (2008) <http://architiz- IMAGE 45 Archdaily, Gardens By The Bay (2012) <http://> [accessed 2 April 2016].> [accessed 12 April 2016]. IMAGE 34 Architizer, Voussoir Cloud (2008) <> [accessed 2 April 2016]. IMAGE 47 . 1 Wikipedia, Wattle Park, Melbourne (2016) <,_Melbourne> IMAGE 35 Think Parametric, FERMID by Behnaz Baba[accessed 19 April 2016]. zadeh (2011) < fermid-by-behnaz-babazadeh/> [accessed 2 April 2016]. IMAGE 47 . 2 National Register of Big Trees, National Tree Register (2016) <http://www.nationalregisterofbigtrees. IMAGE 36 Luis Pina Lopes, Voltadom by Skylar Tibbits |> [accessed 19 April Skylar Tibbits (2011) < 2016]. skylar-tibbits-skylar-tibbits/> [accessed 5 April 2016]. IMAGE 47. 3 Wattled, Blackwood tree (2002) <http://www. IMAGE 37 Triangulation, VoltaDom By Sklyar Tibbits (2011)< zealand-superior-form-and-growth-2002.jpg/image_view_ bits.htm> [accessed 5 April 2016]. fullscreen> [accessed 19 April 2016]. IMAGE 38 Triangulation, VoltaDom By Sklyar Tibbits (2011) IMAGE 47 . 4 Burkeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Backyard , Bottlebrush (2014) < <> [accessed 5 April 2016]. garden/flowering-plants-shrubs/bottlebrush/#.VyLYvse7LzI> [accessed 19 April 2016]. IMAGE 39 Triangulation, VoltaDom By Sklyar Tibbits (2011) < IMAGE 48 ePlastics, Lexan Polycarbonate Film (2016) bits.htm> [accessed 5 April 2016]. <> [accessed 27 April 2016]. IMAGE 40 Triangulation, VoltaDom By Sklyar Tibbits (2011) < IMAGE 49.1 Streetlife, CorTen Tree Guards (2015) <http:// bits.htm> [accessed 5 April 2016].> [accessed 19 April 2016]. IMAGE 41 Grant Associates, Gardens By The Bay (2012) < 49.2 Villa Root Barrier, Tree Guard (2015) <http:// the-bay/> [accessed 12 April 2016].> [accessed 19 April 2016]. IMAGE 42 Archdaily, Gardens By The Bay (2012) <http:// IMAGE 49.3 Canoe Corner, Voles in the Garden (2012) ciates> [accessed 12 April 2016]. <> [accessed 19 April 2016]. IMAGE 43 Archdaily, Gardens By The Bay (2012) <http:// IMAGE 49 FormUFit, Structural PVC Fittings (2016) <http:// ciates> [accessed 12 April 2016].> [accessed 27 April 2016]. IMAGE 44 Grant Associates, Gardens By The Bay (2012) < 1 Nova, The future of plastics (2015) <http://www. the-bay/> [accessed 12 April 2016].> [accessed 27 April 2016]. PART B REFERENCES



CONTENTS. detailed design

CONTENTS PART c: detailed design

c.1 Design concept


c . 2. t e c t o n i c e l e m e n t s & p r o t o t y p e s


C.3 final detail model


c.4 learning objectives & outcomes




CONTENTS. detailed design


C.1 design concept interim feedback


c.1 design concept

Image 50 butterfly swarm

Frior to my experience with Grasshopper and

and stimulating design I will achieve this through multiple iterations of the same file, such as form Following the interim presentation there appeared manipulation, pattern and trimming effects. to be a big emphasis to scale. I believe that this is not only relevant in the presentation (i.e. My feedback also suggested that I further explore finished renders) but when contemplating your my prototypes. I now understand how impordesign. By keeping scale in to consideration you tant this stage of design development can be, also considered the size of various pieces and because prototypes can truly make or break your perhaps how they may need to be fabricated. project. From prototyping you can test the exact This also then leads on to what type of joints you materials (colours, strength, flexibility), joint types may need and how big they may be. and sizes and the size of the overall form. Therefore, as I begin to develop my fabrication skills I In regards to the feedback I received I intend to will be able to test these qualities. push for a more interesting design. In many cases the designerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s intent for their project may be over- With all these things in mind I was able to carry shadowed by the outcome. For example, if what through to the next step of this design process, you create looks interesting it can be enough to now in a group, and consider a refined design gain the viewers attention without them knowing proposal and concept. the design concept. To create more exciting c.1 design concept


C.1 design concept Design proposal

Image 51 victorian butterfly wings Image 52 butterfly wings under microscope

In Part B my design proposal was for a pro-

tective layer around a tree. This was because the vegetation of Merri Creek is significantly endangered and I intended to help improve its possibilities. With this in mind, I was to use the technique of tessellation to help me establish a form. However, when we combined into groups we found a more suitable concept and technique for out design.

I was initially able to utilisation the protection method in my original design as a concept.

However, our client changed and so too did our site, leading to a new design concept. We now aimed our design proposal as an installation, a piece of art that would communicate poetics through digital tectonics, which is as the subject brief suggests. Furthermore, through this we can establish a contrast between the process of creative work flow that occurs in the space. Finally, Originally, we looked at the endangered Golden this installation is to be cultivate creativity as an Sun Moth. Among its minimal habitual spaces, element in the space, demanding a response Merri Creek was one of them. Furthermore, as an from the client and his customer which is one of endangered species they were not able to expand curiosity, interest and excitement. as they can only fly distances of 100m at a time. So we first thought to design a protection hub for Once we visited the site, and conducted an analythis creature that we would layout across the site sis we decided upon a light installation that would to create a bridge for them to migrate. As a result, compliment the modern artistic site through the


c.1 design concept


design concept precedents

Image 53 butterfly wing pattern from afar Image 54 vlad tenu precedent

existence of a temporary piece of art. We were also able to direct out concept further down to the nail, which was towards the field of biomimicry, inspired by the butterfly species (a concept we carried through from Merri Creek) and the beauty that lies beneath its transitory nature.

With this concept in mind we looked to precedents, such as Vlad Tenu minimal complexity, to discover how to achieve the double layered structure. We decided on this method as we found our projected to have a similar composition, achieved through the gyroid base form. in the above project in particular, (Image 54) Vlad Tenu We selected the Victorian butterfly wings (Image looked at minimal complexity and the “self-or51) to based the biological structure on, and ganization of matter, conservation of energy, through research this we found a common link equilibrium and notions” of it. As we intend to look between the gyroid chiralities and the wing’s at the gyroid form, this project used an analogy micro- structure. A similar composition to that of of the molecular behavior of soap bubbles to the gyroid, is viewed in the double layer of the justify the algorithmic and geometric constraints. butterfly wing, which can be observed under a It is also important for us to consider their design microscope. 26 This discovery pushed our concept challenges as thus may also occur for us. This to included a multi layered structure, taking in includes the ability to create a multi-dimensional to consideration both the micro and macro layer symmetrical and repeated design pattern using levels. minimal surfaces.27

c.1 design concept


26. Winter et al., ‘Coexistence of both gyroid chiralities in individual butterfly wing scales of Callophrys rubi’, PNAS, 112.42, ( August 31, 2015), 12911–12916. 27. Vlad Tenu, ALVEOLATA_3_7_A LONDON 2013 (2016) <> [accessed 7 June 2016].



c.1 design concept

site & client G E Narcist north melbourne



The site is located in North Melbourne, at

In addition, when following the clientâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s brief, we GENarcist Hair Salon. Located on Victoria Street are able to implement the correct technique onto site. The clientâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s brief is relatively free and allows there is a possibility for many people to experience the installation. This includes customers and as to almost create any form that we desire. However, the installation is to be minimal and clean, employees at the Hair Salon and pedestrian on as to keep with the overall aesthetics of the salon. the street. The site is a rectilinear space. Observed in the accompanying images the space is And the colour is to be black and white, which will very minimal, with striking white walls. In particu- also aid the installations ability to blend on site. lar, one side of the salon is cover in art works. The other side is where the mirrors and hair salon Following these requirements, we will be able to effectively position our design to site based stations are. In between the two mirrors is were there is potential for our design to integrate with on our colour choices, inspired by the Victorian the site. By being located here the installation can Butterfly Wings. In addition, by using the gyroid evolve with the site as there is a large clean wall form we are able to establish a simple repetition of elements that follows the minimal requirement that we are able to work with. approach, however, still generate an interested form for our clientâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s costumers.

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Image 57 pattern iteration


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C.1 design concept patterning

Our precedent uses a double layered approach

where there are white bold strips and a black cell pattern beneath. They are then able to connect these two layers by fastening underneath the black layer. The approach of this project and our design use minimal complexity. This technique is based on a single minimal surface structure which creates a simultaneous expression as a whole with all parts working in equilibrium. The science of multi-dimensional symmetry and repetition works together to create continuous form. As a

result, the scale of the model is open-ended and infinitely expandable as a result of this process.28 To begin the design processes, we looked at creating a patterning form for the layers based on a grid of triangles. As can be seen in the diagrams to the left, a single pattern is made onto a triangle. This can then be arrayed onto a grid to create an overall aesthetic. The next stage in this process is to combine two different patterns an observe the overlapping of the two designs.

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28. Alison Furuto, â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Minimal Complexityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; at the TEX-FAB 2.0 and REPEAT Exhibition (8 March, 2011) <> [accessed 7 June 2016].


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C.1 design concept form & patterning

To create the macro level of the pattern we

have divided the form into coloured strips, with the intention to match the aesthetics of the butterfly wings. As the clientâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s requirements were for a black and white form, we created a range of iterations playing with both the colour pattern and colour ration. We found that we liked the aesthetics best were the ratio of black to white is higher. Instead, the black strips would act as the main form colour and the white strips would be used to highlight the inside and the trims of the form.

Image 58 macro iteration c.1 design concept


Image 59 layer interaction


c.1 design concept

design concept idea development Overall, tessellation allows for a diverse range of When creating the micro level, the macro layer was subdivided into grids which allowed multiple cell patterns to be established. Once the two layers were designed we looked at how these two layers can be combined for both the aesthetics of the design and for the ease of fabrication. In the method shown above the black strips represent the macro layer, whereas the white layer represents the cell, micro layer. As can be seen there are wholes in each layer which are used to indicate where the fixings are required. The micro, cell layer, is the structural component to the form and therefore each strip is connected together on its edges. In comparison the macro layer is for the aesthetics of the design and is only attached to the cell layer through centre points of the strips c.1 design concept


Diagram 2: Gyroid creation


design concept gyroid Diagram 1: Gyroid surface creation


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The accompanying diagrams depict how the gyroid form is created using both Rhino and Grasshopper. inimal surfaces is a technique that has been around for quite awhile, since the mid-1700s. since Diagram 1, focuses on the initial creation of the gyroid surface. Which is created by drawing a cube then studies have advance this technique. But and then arcs between the points, and join the edgnothing was as prominent until recently, in 1970, es of this curves at the center of the surface. Then when Alan Schoen discovered the gyroid. using T-Spline tool, you can create a surface over the curves, which will be automatically meshed The structure of the gyroid is triply periodic. This refers to the surfaces, and that small piece of it can together. Finally the surface is optimized to form a tension membrane. be used to assemble to entire form through translation and repetition in three directions of space Diagram 2 explores how the gyroid is formed independently. through the repletion, mirroring and rotating of the surfaces. This occurs through the use of planes. Prior to Schoenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s discovering there were similar Once the gyroid form is created, all surfaces can be triply periodic minimal surface forms, often using welded together. Furthermore, the edges are then the analogy and science of soap film, similar to smoothed to created a seamless curved form.30 Vlad Tenuâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s project in our precedent. Interesting the gyroid is a form that has no planes of reflection Our intent to use the gyroid form is as it allows to symmetry and no straight line segments lying on its surface. Therefore, it is quite difficult to visualize achieve our design concept. This is because the gyroid allows for a minimal and efficient design the surface. 29 process that allows us to be creative and establish a poetic form that will be visually stimulating. c.1 design concept


29. Adam G. Weyhaupt, Meet the gyroid (September 12, 2011) <> [accessed 7 June 2016]. 30.Shaper3D, Gyroid Surface (2015) <> [accessed 7 June 2016].


C.1 design concept triming


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The overall size of the installation was highly


influence by the sites measures and dimensions, which we were able to gather upon visiting the hair salon. It was important to consider these when deciding on the spatial aspects we aimed to achieve. Therefore, we aimed to not overwhelm the space with our installation by complementing the space, however, still gain a response from the observers through visual impact. The form we have decided to create will situate between the 2 mirrors, with a length no wider than 3.5m, and 350mm from the wall. This to aid the establishment of a proportioned design, with consideration of the usable space. To create the overall form around 5 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 8 gyroids were arranged in a box grid. Then using both Rhino and Grasshopper we were able to trim the modular composition to create interesting form iterations, each organic yet unique. Our inspiration for the overall asymmetric trim form stems from the idea of butterflies and swarm intelligence. We aimed to generate a form that was considerate of the transitional and emergent behaviour of swarm logic. In nature this occurs natural through the self-organised systems.31 By utilizing this form technique, we aimed to establish an emotive and organic form that can accentuate the beautiful in the complex curves of minimal surfacing. To exhibit these qualities we trimmed the form organically at varying angles, with the intention to create a natural transition over the design, this also allowed for the original gyroid geometry to become less obvious. It was also important that we were aware of the gyroid interweaving qualities, and intended to showcase this feature in the final trim.

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31. Abraham et al., Swarm Intelligence Algorithms for Data Clustering (2007) <> [accessed 7 June 2016].

ImAGE 62: Macro pattern flow


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design concept Design WORKFLOW This diagram aims to explain how the patterning strips was applied to the trimmed gyroid form. Firstly, the white strips created a continuous path, which allows the white strips to act as the trimming and highlighting point of the form. This is then gradually completed with the black strips to showcase the full completed installation.

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C.1 design concept f a b r i c a t i o n p r e pa r a t i o n

Our construction method stems from the strips

that we have created in patterning the gyroid surfaces. The gyroid is divided into 8 similar surfaces, however the patterns across them can change. The strips are then flattened out on rhino and allocated a number so that we can relay back to the surface in fabrication for the correction position and alignment.


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ImAGE 63: gyroid Fabrication

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ImAGE 64: Material


c.2 tectonic elements & prototypes

C.2 tectonic elements & prototype material

When it came to fabricating the gyroid, we

only costs $5 per sheet, and we are able to fit two wanted a material that was both strong and flexi- surfaces per sheet. However, we can reduce the ble. Some of the prototypes that we had looked at cost of the overall model with the laser cut cap of from Vlad Tenu used aluminium sheeting or poly- $70 at the Fab-lab, which is more cost efficient for propylene. However, we found that polypropylene our client. was an ideal material, as it was readily accessible at the fab-lab. In addition to qualities of strength In regards to the materials colour qualities, we and flexibility, the material has a low density selected a transparent material for the cell layer (meaning it is light weight), good transparency, as this helped to view the pattern layer behind. rigidity and stretchability. Furthermore, as we intent to design for a light feature it is important to However, when viewed closer up you can still consider the heat resistance and maintenance of see the intricate details. For the pattern layer we were required to use black and white materithe material. As polypropylene does not absorb water it is easy to clean or dust. In regards to heat als as this is what the client required. Although, we increased the ratio of black to white as the resistance, polypropylene can withstand up to o 32 transparent layer was viewed better on the black temperatures of 160 C. and the white material showed burn marks more prominently. In future, we will aim to remove the Due to the intricate detail in our cell layer this burn marks through cleaning the polypropylene increases the amount of cutting time to the material. For example, our first two prototypes cost (after is has been cut) with water and a rough over $100 for just the cutting. The material it self sponge.

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32. The University of York , Uses of poly(propene) (polypropylene)(2nd January 2014) <> [accessed 7 June 2016].


c.2 tectonic elements & prototypes

C.2 tectonic elements & prototype tab joint test

For this first prototype we tested how the

OVERLAP Successes: like the tabs this can also be a strong joint. However, in some cases this surfaces would be connected. The two methods method may have increased strength as the tabs we looked at were using tab or, overlapping. The overlay with the strips and spread out the load. As tabs extended out from the strips and, whereas a result, this can have a seamless integration with the overlapping would be an addition part on one the design. side of the strip and overlap on to the other side of the strip it was to attach to. There were both OVERLAP Failures: Due to the overlapping in can positives and negatives to these techniques. be more difficult to assemble as you have to get the except measures between the two strips so TAB Successes: this makes for a strong joint and they overlap correctly. Therefore, this method can it easy to assemble in both digital fabrication and be more time consuming. once the material has been cut. After testing both of these two methods and TAB Failures: this can result in an inconsistency considering their pros and cos, we chose to use to the design by warping the strips in unwanted the overlapping method. Despite an increased places. As a result, this leads to an ugly aesthetic. time requirement to assemble, we found that this method allows us to stay true to the design intent.

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c.2 tectonic elements & prototypes

C.2 tectonic elements & prototype eyelet connection test

After testing both of these two methods and

EYELETS Failures: However, there is inconsistconsidering their pros and cos, we chose to use ent clamping of the material and therefore the aesthetic can look ugly. Furthermore, the fixing the overlapping method. Despite an increased time requirement to assemble, we found that this themselves have the possibility of slipping out method allows us to stay true to the design intent. of the holts, even though the joints may appear big and draw focus in the design. Also, when fastening the eyelet it is difficult to read the inner For the next stage in prototyping we looked at comparing the fixing method, this including using joints (A width greater than 50mm) from the edge of the material. Finally, the products was the most eyelets and rivets. The reason why we were interested in these techniques is that we had found expensive for us to use. that they were useful methods for our precedents of Vlad Tenu (pictured in the image above). How- RIVETS Successes: it is easy to install with the tool from any joints and there is firm clamping of ever, after testing both products, we found their to be success and failures with them that did not the material with no chance of the rivet slipping out. This material was also the cheapest as we comply with our design intent. are able to purchase 1000 for $10. The joint is EYELETS Successes: the hole in the eyelet can also small and does not distract from the design. be used in the product finishes, such as hanging RIVETS Failures: the rivets tend to stick out for installation with wires. In addition, this also slightly from the design and they are difficult to allows for a clean on the the rounded side. remove once fixed. c.2 tectonic elements & prototypes


ImAGE 65: Prototype lighting

C.2 tectonic elements & prototype final prototype


the strip amounts this means less pieces are required to form the entire surface. Furthermore, hough we were finally able to manage to construct the single surface of the gyroid, despite both these methods would help to reduce the cost of the overall products as less material and developing a system of how to construct it, the cutting time is required. process was rather time consuming. The fabrication documents were easier enough to follow. However, we could alter them a little more to have As previously mentioned burn marks are promicolour coordination for the strips rather than trying nent on both the white and transparent polypropylene. It is possible for us to wash this off but to find small numbers. It was especially difficult it can be time consuming. We have considered when trying to locate the numbers on the clear using a card cutter instead of the lazer cutting, transparent strips. In addition, the black strips on the pattern layer did not accurately match the however due to the intricacy in our time it is computation documents and so we had to guess almost impossible for us to use this machine. which pieces would match up. Although this was Finally, the hole size in the strips was insufficient possible it was more time consuming. Overall it to pull the rivets through and instead we could took us 6 people in building two parts of the full only place half the rivet in and secure it with tape. gyroid. Although this adds an interesting design feature this method does not provide enough structural However, this was manly due to the number integrity. Perhaps we can look into how we can of joints and strips in the surface. If we are to reduce the amount of joints then there is less time still use the rivets but length the amount of materirequired to fasten them. In addition, if we reduce al that is cut off.

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C.3 final detail model onsite model


c.3 final detail model

Image 66 site model & design integration

One of largest concerns at this stage is that we

have yet to create a full gyroid form. as a result, we are unable to test the integrity of the surfaces. However, it is expected that the surface will keep its strength and shape as each surface connects and pulls from one another. The weight is also a concern for when the full structure is hung up. At this stage it is to be attached to an existing rod where photos are hung to it, but we made need to suspend the form from other areas to keep it stable. However, the weight is currently difficult to justify as the full rivet is still in use, once we have installed these properly this will ideally reduce half of the weight.

We also determined problems in the transparent cell layer as initially this was supposed to act as the structural layer to stiffen the surface panels. Yet, due to the intricacy in the pattern at this current stage we believe there to be too many holes and not enough material, essentially this has compromised the materials strength. As a result, we have looked further into changing the patterning. However, we would like to maintain as much of the pattern as possible as when shining a light through the layers it produces a beautiful pattern projection.

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C.3 final detail model onsite model


c.3 final detail model

Image 67 site model & design integration

For a next prototype there are few stages we

would like to achieve. Firstly, we aim to increase the length of the number of strips used. At this current stage the black and white strips are limited to single panels. If we extend this over various panels no only will this create a more unified and seamless aesthetic, we can cut down the material cutting and assembling time. It is possible for as to achieve this as the strips are split into a triangle grid and so when they extend of various panel surfaces they will be able to bend to form the correct shape. We also expect with this process that we be able to limit the number of joints and establish a more reliable assemblage and structural system.

The final form that we have anticipate can be observed in the accompanying images. However, it is possible for us to change the form in regards to both the layer patternâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s and the overall form. Nonetheless, we will still aim to achieve an organic silhouette is the form seamlessly flows across the trims. We will also need to account for slag, this is possible for areas of the installation that extend behind the bar, or are not fixed with wire. Perhaps these section can show a new trimmed formation or we can include more wires. Although, for aesthetic purposes it would be more ideal to have a different form over increased fixing measures. This is because it would be interesting to show a form that is almost floating and moving within the walls.

c.3 final detail model


C4 learning outcomes

Objective 1: I learnt that when we come together as a group we each have

different interpretations of the brief. However, we are able to optimize these ideas to formulate the ideal response. In regards to digital techniques, I found this to influence the brief based on the extent to studentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s knowledge of the software. Objective 2: I found parametric tools to be highly beneficial when developing and generating the designs. It was effective in making quick but significant manipulations to either the entire design or smaller parts of it. Objective 3: I found that overall I was able to develop my skills in 3D modelling techniques. As I had already known a little of Rhino, I still found that by using Grasshopper, in conjunction, I was able to develop both skills further. However, I still have a long way to go as I find myself quite slow when using them. Objective 4: prior to this subject I had no actual experience with digital fabrication. Therefore, I believe I have significantly improved this skill and intent to utilize it in the future. Objective 5: Feedback that I have received in both interim and final presentations has pushed me to critically analysis my design and strive to push it further. For example, in the final crit we were told to integrate the form with the space more and to play around more with the pattern used in in the final form. Usually after a presentation I tend to leave the design, but I have continued to consider how these principles can be better applied to the site, such as extending the form so that it appears to weave in and out of the walls (Represented in the proceeding images on page 100 - 103). Objective 6, 7 & 8: In regards to role of architecture and computation design process, I believe I know have a greater appreciation for the designers and the buildings themselves. Even though the process may appear simple, there is a lot of underlying work that goes into the final design. With this in mind I am amazed at how far I have come, from no knowledge at all. And I intend to see how I can push myself in the future.


99 Image 32 Grasshopper model









TEXT REFERENCES Abraham et al., Swarm Intelligence Algorithms for Data Clustering (2007) < cluster-web.pdf> [accessed 7 June 2016]. Adam G. Weyhaupt, Meet the gyroid (September 12, 2011) <> [accessed 7 June 2016]. Alison Furuto, ‘Minimal Complexity’ at the TEX-FAB 2.0 and REPEAT Exhibition (8 March, 2011) <http://> [accessed 7 June 2016]. Shaper3D, Gyroid Surface (2015) <http://shaper3d. com/2015/05/12/gyroid-surface/> [accessed 7 June 2016]. The University of York , Uses of poly(propene) (polypropylene)(2nd January 2014) <> [accessed 7 June 2016]. Vlad Tenu, About Vlad Tenu (2016) <> [accessed 7 June 2016]. Vlad Tenu, ALVEOLATA_3_7_A LONDON 2013 (2016) <> [accessed 7 June 2016]. Winter et al., ‘Coexistence of both gyroid chiralities in individual butterfly wing scales of Callophrys rubi’, PNAS, 112.42, ( August 31, 2015), 12911–12916.



IMAGE REFERENCES IMAGE 50 MYGC, Millions of butterflies invade the Gold Coast (NOVEMBER 16, 2014) < thousands-of-butterflies-invade-the-gold-coast/> [accessed 7 June 2016]. IMAGE 51 Sunshine Smile, Butterfly Wings (2012) <http://> [accessed 7 June 2016]. IMAGE 52 SecretDisc, Butterfly Cell Layer (2007) <https://> [accessed 7 June 2016].

IMAGE 61 The University of Melbourne, Bachelor of Environments, Architecture, Gyroid Trim Iterations (2016) [accessed 7 June 2016]. IMAGE 62 Luke Latham, Gyroid Macro Pattern Workflow (2016) [accessed 7 June 2016]. IMAGE 63 The University of Melbourne, Bachelor of Environments, Architecture, Gyroid Strip Fabrication (2016) [accessed 7 June 2016].

IMAGE 64 The University of Melbourne, Bachelor of IMAGE 53 Chip Miller, NaturePhotographie 19 photos de Environments, Architecture, Materials (2016) [accessed 7 papillons de jour et de nuit, avant et après leur métamorJune 2016]. phose. (2012) <> [accessed 7 June 2016]. ALL PRECEEDING IMAGES ARE EITHER CREATED OR PHOTOGRAPHED MY UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE IMAGE 54 Vlad Tenu, ALVEOLATA_3_7_A LONDON STUDENTS, BACHELOR OF ENVIRONMENTS, ARCHI2013 (2016) <, AIR STUDIO, 2016 lata_3_7_a-london-2013/> [accessed 7 June 2016]. IMAGE 55 - 56 Emma Ke, Salon Photographs and 3D Site Models (2016) [accessed 7 June 2016]. IMAGE 57 The University of Melbourne, Bachelor of Environments, Architecture, Micro Pattern Iterations (2016) [accessed 7 June 2016]. IMAGE 58 The University of Melbourne, Bachelor of Environments, Architecture, Macro Pattern Iterations (2016) [accessed 7 June 2016]. IMAGE 59 Emma Ke, Macro and Micro Layer Interaction (2016) [accessed 7 June 2016]. DIAGRAM 1 Shaper3D, Gyroid Surface (2015) <http://> [accessed 7 June 2016]. DIAGRAM 2 Luke Latham, Gyroid Model Form Creation (2016) [accessed 7 June 2016]. IMAGE 60 Hassan Karimi , Swarm Intelligence (2014) <> [accessed 7 June 2016]. PART C REFERENCES



Studio Air: Final Design Journal Taylah Parker  
Studio Air: Final Design Journal Taylah Parker