THE GRAPHIC IMPERATIVE PROCESS WORK
MAIA BRIDGES DESIGNER AS AUTHOR VISC 402 // FALL 2013 PATRICK DOOLEY
PROJECT ASSIGNMENT www.thegraphicimperative.org For THE GRAPHIC IMPERATIVE assignment we are to create advocacy posters in relation to current events and organizations present today. The GRAPHIC IMPERATIVE organization contains over 100 posters from the past 40 years. The issues present cover a wide range of issues but stems from one of the three advocacy directions: Enviornmental, Social Justice, or Peace. The final product will consist of two posters: One type based poster and one image based. These two posters will be in congruence to a certain advocacy issue and organization related to the issue. Each poster will consist of: 1) Headline 2) Problem 3) Solution 4) Call to Action
â€œAn advocacy poster is the manifestation of a charged social or political idea designed to inform and illuminate, stimulate and inspire, agitate and attack. When finely honed it communicates without ambiguity,â€? Steven Heller Ode to Ink Saturated Paper
ESSAY ANALYSIS HELLER In his essay “Ode to Ink Saturated Paper” Steven Heller discusses the importance of advocacy posters from it’s past, present, and future roles in our environment. He defines an advocacy poster as a tool for ideas to “inform and illuminate, stimulate and inspire, agitate and attack,” making a poster more than just a message scribbled on paper. Posters are also the “ultimate graphic imperative to propagate a message” in Heller’s mind. He describes the role in which posters were used in history such as the Vietnam War and Pro-Choice/ Life issues. Heller argues that these posters will still be in our future despite technological advances in social media. The web may be cheaper and more easily accessible to a larger group of individuals but they lack the stop sign impact that a poster uses to grab and demand an action. I agree with most of Heller’s points. I think posters are effective because they make you stop, look, think, and act . You could take something away from it. It may be a desire to act or just a passing thought but the poster achieved its goal: to make you aware. What would appeal more to a person; an email in their inbox or a poster near their daily route? To me, an effective poster would allow the viewer to question the meaning or call to action behind it.
WELLS Whereas Heller praises the print medium, Carol A. Wells calls for an end to printed posters as the main form of awareness in her essay “Why the Poster in the Internet Age?” The Internet is a far better and faster tool to communicate to the masses. A poster can only be produced so much and used in a very localized area. She explains that using social media can band together more people around the around quicker to create a larger stand against a social issue. She explains that posters are not necessarily a bad way to promote an idea but it is not as effective as using email or websites. I would have to disagree with Well’s stance on the importance of posters. Personally I feel that posters have more power than anything I read on social media sites. I receive daily asking for donations. Posters do not jump out and force you to look at them as I feel some websites do. Advocacy posters are meant to appeal to you emotionally or mentally and if the viewer doesn’t understand the meaning, it makes the message more appealing once it is understood. Posters have more emotion that can not be seen in an email or twitter post. Videos are an effective way to show messages but not everyone can view it. Posters can show meaning without saying anything, making it more communicable to those without internet, education, or means of access.
POSTER ANALYSIS 01 AND OUR WORLD IS STILL ALIVE AMINIAM ,TAHAMTAN IRAN, 2002 ISSUE: SMOKING No matter the language, I believe anyone could identify the cigarette in this poster. However, I think some people who do not understand Arabic might consider this as a pro-smoking poster because the meaning is in the words. As the viewer reads down, the words become more extreme starting with Agony and ending with Fatal. It would be a good global campaign if they mass produced in different languages.
POSTER ANALYSIS 02 WAVE OF PEACE MAGLEBY, MCRAY USA, 1985 ISSUE: PEACE This poster tries to tie in traditional japanese art with a symbol of peace, the dove. If I were to look at this poster, at first glance I would think it was created by an artist in Japan and it advocated peace, but that’s it. I don’t see any real tie-in to the bombing of Hiroshima. I think it could have added a little bit more detail. I also think the headline “PEACE” doesn’t really do much to help the poster’s meaning. Doves are automatically associated with peace.
POSTER ANALYSIS 03 LIFE SAVER: INTERNATIONAL AIDS DAY LEMEL, YOSSI ISREAL, 1993 ISSUE: AIDS I believe this is an extremely effective advocacy poster for aids. Immediately I see a life saver ring and even though they aren’t used often, the viewer knows of the classical image and it’s uses. After realizing its a condom, I made the assumption the add was about birth control until I read the bottom header. The viewer can easily make the connection that condoms are life savers because it can prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS. It is also effective because it can be used in many different contries in different languages and the meaning probably wouldn’t change too much.
POSTER ANALYSIS 04 VICTORY FUKUDA, SHIGEO JAPAN, 1975 ISSUE: WAR I immediately recognized the gun barrell and bullet in this poster and thought about war. Not just about winning but also about losing. Even if the battle is considered a “victory” each side loses so much it can also be considered a lost. If I didn’t see the credits I wouldn’t have known it was made in honor of Japan’s casualties in 1945. I think this poster is very powerful becasue it can be applied to any war, in any country, in any decade.
POSTER ANALYSIS 05 WE’LL NEVER FORGET WOUNDED KNEE THEMPTANDER, CHRISTER SWEDEN, 1971 ISSUE: NATIVE RIGHTS When I first glanced at this poster, all I could see was a Native American behind bars. At a second glance, I saw the American flag and understood the meaning right away. Natives being oppressed in their own land by the American’s, who stand for land of the free. I wouldn’t have known it is in rememberence of the battle at Wounded Knee but I think this is a great poster because it can be used for any Native suffereage issue .
POSTER ANALYSIS 06 BLACK POWER, WHITE POWER UNGERER, TOMI USA, 1971 ISSUE: RACISM Although I found the poster to be a bit crude, the artist succesfully shows his meaning. Two people, who look similiar except for skin color, are each eating each otherâ€™s foot. I took this as Black Power and White Power feed off of each other. The only way to really stop the growth of racism is to stop eating (or supressing) the other side. Without the type I might have guessed the meaning but it does help the viewer reach the message quicker and more effectively.
Whale and Dolphin Conservation (WDC)
Mission Statement: “To reduce, and ultimately, eliminate the continuing threats to cetaceans and their habitats.To raise awareness of cetaceans and educate people about the need to address the continuing threats to their welfare and survival,” The Whale and Dolphin Conservation was established in 1987 and is now the leading global charity dedicated to the conservation and welfare of all whales and dolphins. The WDC’s main headquarters are located in Wiltshire, UK. It also has other offices located in Argentina, Australia, Austria, Germany and the USA. “We are the world voice for the protection of these animals, creating pressure to bring about change,” They divide their work into three areas : Stop, Plan, and Protect in anyway they can to help whales and dolphins around the world.
AREAS OF ADVOCACY 01 CAPTIVITY
PROBLEM: Whales are taken from their familes to be used as tourist attractions. The living conditions and physical exersions at these parks cause them to die off at an early age. SOLUTION: Stop the capture and training of killer whales at theme parks. ACTION: Boycotts on parks and demonstrations
PROBLEM: Hunters use inhumane tactics to slaughter whales at sea by spearing them and waiting for the animal to bleed out. SOLUTION: Finding better ways to ethically kill whales or stop it alltogether. ACTION: Demonstrations and donations to WDC
AREAS OF ADVOCACY 03 POLLUTION
PROBLEM: Air, water, and noise pollution, caused by humans, kill off thousands of whales and dolphins each year. SOLUTION: Reduce waste going into the ocean, updated technology for sonars/radarsd ACTION: Demonstrations and raising local awareness about pollution
04 SHIP STRIKES
PROBLEM: Ships accidentally (or purposly) crash/ hit whales which causes injuries and death. SOLUTION: Better and safer equiptment to deter ships from running into whales. ACTION: Demonstrations and donations for shipping companies.
AREAS OF ADVOCACY 05 BYCATCH
PROBLEM: Whales are accidently caught in fishing nets. This can cause injuries and death as they are carelessly tossed back out to sea. SOLUTION: Better equiptment for fisheries so less unwanted animals end up in the nets. ACTION: Fundraising; contacting local politicians for support
Animal-loving males or females, between the ages 10 and 50, who are familiar with whale park attractions. These familes are the typical ones who attend these parks. They are moderately inclined to participate boycotting or raising awarness of whale and dolphin captivity.
Two parents; Multiple children Dual Income Family Average Income; Enough money for yearly family vacations Pets; Concerned about animal welfare Enviornmentally Concious
www.wdcs.org http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whale_and_Dolphin_Conservation_Society http://www2.wdcs.org/hych/downloads/annualreview.pdf http://www.cetaceanhabitat.org/
RESEARCH 06 PROBLEM
Killer Whale Captivity
Killer whales are captured and taken away from their families at a young age. They are packed in tight with other whales in small tanks where they can barely turn around much less swim. They are fed based on their performance and punished when they do not perform correctly. Whales in captivity have a shorter lifespan and are more likely to become sick in these enviornments. Attractions, such as Sea World, has tried to cover up these whalesâ€™ unhappiness and aggressive behaviors towards trainers only until recently. Whales, as well as other animals, should not be kept in captivity soley for the purpose of entertainment. They need to be back into the wild and denying this basic right is wrong.
RESEARCH 07 TO SUGGEST
01 Captivity - the state or period of being held, imprisoned, enslaved, or confined. 02 Punishment - severe handling or treatment. 03 Amusement Parks - is a group of entertainment attractions, rides, and other events in a location for the enjoyment of large numbers of people 04 Cover-up - any action, stratagem, or other means of concealing or preventing investigation or exposure. 05 Regulations - a law, rule, or other order prescribed by authority, especially to regulate conduct.
RESEARCH 08 HEADLINES
44 Killer whale deaths that were caused by inadequate living conditions in captivity. Who’s the real killer now? 106 attacks; 4 deaths Do you think they’re angry? 4 Human deaths; 44 Orca deaths Pull the Plug on killer whale captivity. Drain the Tank and free 129 captive whales. Empty the Tank and see what whale entertainment industries are hiding. Killer Controversy Killer Industry Who is the real Killer? A tank is not the ocean. Killer whales or Killer Humans Hundreds of killer whales die prematurely in captivity. Who’s the real killer?
RESEARCH 09 PROBLEM
Orcaâ€™s have been recently put on the endagered list. Kept it small concrete tanks. Captured and taken away from their mothers. Capture has caused dwindiling numbers of Southern Killer Whales Killer whales can travel up to 100 miles per day. Why contain them in a 48 foot concrete cage? Because of their living conditions, these stressed whales have been attacking other whales as well as humans.
Stop the capture of young wild orcas. Stop caging orcas at theme parks. Up the park regulations.
Boycott these attractions. Raise awarness about this abuse. Donate/ Join the fight. Learn more at WDC.org
WDC WHALE AND DOLPHIN CONSERVATION
CLASS NOTES 01 08/27
Review of Advocacy Posters Discussion of what makes a powerful poster Type of Poster to choose: -Enviornmental/Ethical Start thinking of possible poster ideas: -Whale Captivity -Dolphin Slaughter
Group Discussion on Powerful Posters What works/ doesnt work? Pick an Organization: -The Dolphin and Whale Conservation
Talk About Organization in Group Decide which issue to follow: -Killer Whale Captivity in Theme Parks Actions to take? Boycotts? Positive or Negative Persuasion? +Unify others -shock into action
Discuss and Review Concept Statements Too Much Info? Narrow Down: Headline, Problem, Solution, and Action
CLASS NOTES 02 09/10
Discuss 15 Typgraphic Posters and 10 Image Posters What works? Is there a Problem-Solution-Action? -Hierarchy -Headlines Poster Notes: -Fish Bowl sucks -TEXTURES -KILLER SHOW works best for image -48 ft ocean for type -Add Puppeter sticks -Hand?
Talk in Class about Posters and Choose 2 Concepts Think about Type Only posters -Make it “feel and think” together -Color, Texture, and Symbol Poster Notes: -Fix Hand Vector -Too Much Rope? -Eye?
CLASS NOTES 03 09/19
Talk About Organization in Group Decide which issue to follow: -Killer Whale Captivity in Theme Parks Actions to take? Boycotts? Positive or Negative Persuasion? +Unify others -shock into action Poster Notes: -Type-sucks -Need to Make the type DO WHAT IT MEANS -Background shouldnâ€™t be red (Try Blue)
Discuss Class Posters In Groups Do the Posters Have Everything? -Problem -Solution -Action Poster Notes: -More ropes = better -Take out the eye -Red is too bold -Add tail to Type poster
KILLER SHOW -Whoâ€™s the real killer now?
Whales in captivity are forced by theme parks to perform tricks in order to recieve food. Many die from infectoins or aggressive attacks from other whales.
SOLUTION + ACTION
Learn what you can do to shut down these parks at www.wdc.org.
48 FT OCEAN
Killer whales can travel up to 100 miles a day in the ocean Captive whales are placed in a concrete pool only 48 ft. wide.
SOLUTION + ACTION
Do your part and stop killer whale captivity. Join the fight at www.wdc.org.
I feel that the most effective way for a poster to be read is through empathy and shocking information. I knew I wanted a clean bold typeface in accordance to the message I was using. Initially, I wanted to use gory images to see the true abuse of the killer whales but instead I focused on the entrapment and confinement they undergo. I decided to use bright blue colors to match their wildlife surroundings and a bright red which is associated with pain and blood.
Earlier, before the project was assigned, I was shocked as I watched the documentary BLACK FISH on killer whale captivity. From the beginning I knew which issue I wanted to address but I didnâ€™t realize how much I could learn from the process and reaserch involved. There are many groups dedicated to the abuse of animals, especially marine wildlife. I wanted my viewers to see and understand the imporatance of my issue against whale captivity which is why I felt so passionate towards this project.
It was hard in the beginning to create my PROBLEM/SOLUTION/ACTIONS because I had many issues I wanted to address in my poster. Not many people are well knowledged in this issue and I wanted them to know everything. I eventually narrowed them down enough for the viewer to completely understand the issue at hand. Another problem was trying to visually show the viewer captivity without images. Through both my type and image poster I belive I effectively showed the viewer that: 1. Killer whale captivity is wrong, and 2. We need to put an end to the abuse thsese animals face.