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Major Animal Diseases in Mashonaland Central Wilmot Chikurunhe Provincial Veterinary Officer Mashonaland Central 0772521332 wchikuru@yahoo.com


Assumed Knowledge  Definition of disease  Immunity  Disease vs Immunity  Disease presentation  General signs of disease

 Disease Diagnosis  Case report and history  Clinical examinations  Post mortems


Assumed Knowledge (continued)  Clinical and subclinical disease  Treatment  When to treat on farm  When to call the vet

 Stock Remedies  Stock Remedies Kit  What to keep on farm


Assumed Knowledge (Continued)  Disease prevention  Good farming practices: the stockman’s calendar    

Vaccination Deworming Vector control eg Dipping Movement control(fencing, quarantine, permit system)

 Disease Control  Vaccination  Treatment  Awareness campaigns/communication


Classification of Diseases  By Aetiology(Causative Agent)  Bacterial diseases  Viral diseases  Protozoal diseases  Fungal infections


Classification of Diseases  By Species(Type of animal)  Bovine diseases  Equine diseases  Caprine Diseases  Ovine diseases  Porcine diseases  Canine diseases  Feline diseases


Classification of Diseases  By Vector  Eg Tick-borne diseases  Insect-borne diseases  Other groupings  Zoonotic Diseases(Anthropozoonoses/Zooanthroposes)  Diseases of economic importance  Endemic diseases  Epidemic diseases  Pandemic diseases


Disease Reporting  Responsibility to protect the public from diseases that

are of animal origin

 60% of the epidemics that affect man today have been

traced to animals        

Anthrax Rabies Rift Valley Fever Ebola Virus Tuberculosis Avian Influenza Swine fever Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy(BSE/Mad cow disease)


Disease Reporting  Responsibility to protect other farmers against losses  Deaths  Production losses  

Reduced weight gains Reduced milk production Trade embargos

 Stamping out/Slaughter policy 

Foot and Mouth Disease, BSE(Mad cow), Brucellosis

 Trade embargos  

Foot and Mouth disease BSE/Mad cow disease


Disease Reporting  Responsibility to protect the nation against revenue

losses(previous slide)  Planning of prevention interventions(eg Anthrax peak periods and vaccinations)  Planning of control interventions  Resource mobilization(Need to convince politicians to release money)


Disease Reporting  Regional and International Reporting obligations  OIE  SADC  AU-IBAR


Disease Reporting  The Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary(SPS) Agreement of

the WTO

 All international Trade amongst members of the WTO

is governed by this agreement  Member states have the right to take measures to protect animal and human health and life, but these measures must not constitute arbitrary constraint on trade.  Measures must be based on scientific evidence  Animal disease risk assessment, based on a clear record of reported diseases over a period of time


Disease Reporting Why report diseases? • Notifiable diseases • Mandatory reporting by owner(Animal Health Act and specific

disease regulations)

• Other diseases • Voluntary notification


Disease Surveillance Surveillance is defined in simple terms as the: ď‚— gathering, recording and analysis of data; ď‚— dissemination of information to interested parties, so that: ď‚— action can be taken to control disease. Surveillance is the key responsibility of the official veterinary authority in any country. It aims to provide an early warning system so that diseases are detected at their


Surveillance as an Early Warning System  Surveillance is the key responsibility of the official    

veterinary authority in any country. It aims to provide an early warning system so that diseases are detected at source It reduces the cost of disease outbreak control It inspires confidence in trading partners It relies heavily on disease reporting, both voluntary and mandatory


Active Surveillance ď‚— Involves the sampling (including post-mortem

examination) of clinically normal animals in the population, therefore being important in the surveillance of diseases in which subclinical cases and carriers predominate.


Passive Surveillance ď‚— The examination of only clinically affected cases of

specified diseases


Surveillance Database ď‚— Special report forms are used to record disease

occurrence ď‚— This information is fed into a disease database at district and province ď‚— Provincial databases amalgamate into the national animal disease database


Surveillance, Monitoring & Report Form


Field Epidemiology & Report Form


Mashonaland Central Provincial Animal Disease Database Microsoft Acess


Major Diseases of Mashonaland Central Dermatophilosis

1. • • • • • • • •

Is a bacterial disease Causative agent is Dermatophilosis congolense Nicknamed Senkobo disease A skin disease associated with wet conditions Complicated by secondary bacterial infections Mash West, Mash Central, Mash East Production losses, Loss of hide value, Deaths Treatment: Antibiotics


2. Lumpy Skin Disease A viral skin disease of bovines Skin nodules, intra-dermal Causative agent is Lumpy Skin Disease virus Transmitted by a special type of mosquitoes Therefore seasonal Not contagious Complicated by secondary bacterial infections Deaths, reduced hide value Treatment is against secondary infections with broadspectrum antibiotics • Prevention: vector control, vaccination • • • • • • • • •


3. Anthrax  A bacterial disease  Soil borne  In a dormant state when not exposed to oxygen, vegetates      

when exposed to oxygen Very acute, not usually detected until sudden deaths have occurred An important zoonosis Carcasses are in good condition, temptation Losses are due to deaths Prophylactic treatment Prevention: carcass disposal, vaccination of problem areas


Global Distribution of Anthrax


THE RAIN DRAMATICALLY REDUCES THE INCIDENCE OF ANTHRAX WHY!!

 PHYSICAL RINSING OF THE VEGETATION  WATER FLOW AND DILUTION OF SPORES  ISPERSAL OF ANIMALS


Dissemination and transmission by water runoff, insects, scavengers and predation


TYPICAL BODY POSITION AND CONDITION OF ANTHRAX VICTIMS


BLEEDING FROM ORIFICES


BLEEDING FROM ORIFICES


The Spleen


Hippo – Kanyemba 2011/12


Facial Swelling in the predators


Facial Swelling in the predators


Facial Swelling in the predators


Cutaneous Anthrax


Diagnosis Of Anthrax


Anthrax Lifecycle


4. Tick-borne Diseases  Anaplasmosis(Gallsickness)  Bovine babesiosis(Red Water) • Highveld and lowveld distribution • Have specific treatment • Problem is delayed reporting/treatment  Heartwater • Lowveld distribution • Sudden deaths • Treatment: Tetracycline injection  Theileriosis • Highveld distribution


Tick-borne diseases (continued) ď‚— Treatment: Butalex injection, very expensive, not

readily available ď‚— Prevention: Vector control Climate change!!!!!


Peripheral Blood Smear (Babesiosis)


Heartwater PM - Matepatepa


Heartwater PM - Matepatepa


Heartwater PM - Matepatepa


Heartwater PM - Matepatepa


Heartwater PM - Matepatepa


Heartwater PM - Matepatepa


Heartwater PM - Matepatepa


Brain – Crush Smear

(Heartwater, Cerebral Babesiosis)


5. Rabies  Viral disease of all warm-blooded animals  An important zoonosis, once clinical signs have been      

observed, not treatable Maintained in the wild in jackals Passed on to dogs through bites Virus is in the saliva of sick animals Infection is through a bite Treatment: Post Exposure vaccination(explain) and proper case management Prevention: Pre-exposure vaccination and public awareness, responsibilities and obligations


Blackleg Disease(Quarter Evil)  A bacterial  Soil-borne  Characterised by limping and deaths  Treatment: Antibiotics(Penicillins and Tetracyclines)  Prevention: Proper carcass disposal, vaccination


6. New Castle Disease(NCD)  Viral disease of poultry  Nervous signs  Sudden deaths in large numbers  Of economic importance  Not treatable  Control: Isolation of sick birds, movement control,

vaccination  Prevention: Movement control, vaccination


7. Other diseases of poultry  Fowl pox  Infectious bursal disease(heavy production losses)  Infectious Corryza(heavy production losses)  Prevention and control is through good husbandry

practices, paying attention to space, ventilation and hygiene


8. Emerging and re-emerging diseases  Contagious Bovine Pleuro-Pneumonia(CBPP) –

Botswana, Namibia, Zambia  Rift Valley Fever – South Africa, Namibia, Zimbabwe 

An important zoonosis

 Pestes des Petits Ruminants(PPR) - Kenya, Malawi?

Zambia? Mozambique?  Foot and Mouth Disease


FMD Outbreaks in Zimbabwe 2010 and 2011

N W

E S

KAROI

CENTENARY

#

#

MT. #DARWIN

U % BINDURA

U %

CHINHOYI

# MUREWA

U %

HARARE HWANGE #

GOKWE

#

#

#

CHEGUTU

#

K ADOMA

#

RUSAP E

#

K WEKWE

LUP ANE

NYANGA

MARONDERA

# CHIVHU #

#

MUTARE

U %

GUTU

2010 outbreaks

# CHIMANIMANI

U %

ZVISHAVANE

#

FILABUSI

2011 outbreaks

BUHERA

U GWERU%

BULAWAYO

#

#

U %

MASVINGO

#

#

#

CHIPINGE

National parks

P LUMTREE

% U April 2011

Wild Life Conservancies

CHIREDZI#

GWANDA MWENEZI #

Feb2011 Jan 2011

50

0

50 Kilometers

BEITBRIDGE #

March 2011 Buffalo sightings Insiza district

Districts with outbreaks

April 2011

Wild Buffalo sightings 2011 Buffalo sightings Buhera district April 2011 April 2011 Buffalo sightings Mwenezi , Chiredzi, Beitbridge complex


PRUSSIC ACID POISONING  Sorghums and Rye grass may be poisonous if grazed

or fed improperly.  The active compound is hydrocyanic acid (HCN), also called prussic acid.  The most affected species is bovine  Sheep and goats are susceptible


HCN LEVELS IN PLANTS  Soil fertility - soils high in available nitrogen and low

in phosphorus favour HCN accumulation in plants  Drought – the period following a period of moisture stress shows high accumulation in plants  Young regrowth forage - have high HCN content, especially in sorghum  Frost - prussic acid release potential increases slightly shortly after frost


HCN LEVELS IN PLANTS  As plants mature and plant height increases, the risk

of prussic acid poisoning is reduced.  Only during times of stress, such as drought or frost, will toxicity remain high in maturing plants.  Hay maybe be dangerous when cut but becomes safe in time through volatilization of the HCN. Hay stored for two or more months gradually losses all its cyanide potential.


THE SIGNS OF HCN POISONING  gasping,  staggering,  trembling muscles,  convulsions, and death resulting from respiratory

failure.  the mucous membranes of the mouth and eyes may have a blue coloration as evidence of cyanosis.  characteristic almond smell of the acid upon opening of the rumen at post mortem  peeling of ruminal mucosa/lining


TREATMENT  Prussic acid poisoning is very fast-acting on high-risk

forage and death will occur quickly.  Strict avoidance of problem pasture  TLC  Very few will recover


PREVENTION  Do not graze sorghum during or after a drought, or if  

  

the plants show visible signs of moisture stress. Do not graze short regrowth forage following hay or silage harvest or following a period of close grazing Do not graze hungry livestock on sorghum. Poisoning potential increases with the amount of high- risk forage consumed. Fence off sorghum fields Plough and bury all sorghum regrowths from previous seasons Educate


FMD Outbreaks in Zimbabwe 2010 and 2011

N W

E S

KAROI

CENTENARY

#

#

MT. #DARWIN

U % BINDURA

U %

CHINHOYI

# MUREWA

U %

HARARE HWANGE #

GOKWE

#

#

#

CHEGUTU

#

K ADOMA

#

RUSAP E

#

K WEKWE

LUP ANE

NYANGA

MARONDERA

# CHIVHU #

#

MUTARE

U %

GUTU

2010 outbreaks

# CHIMANIMANI

U %

ZVISHAVANE

#

FILABUSI

2011 outbreaks

BUHERA

U GWERU%

BULAWAYO

#

#

U %

MASVINGO

#

#

#

CHIPINGE

National parks

P LUMTREE

% U April 2011

Wild Life Conservancies

CHIREDZI#

GWANDA MWENEZI #

Feb2011 Jan 2011

50

0

50 Kilometers

BEITBRIDGE #

March 2011 Buffalo sightings Insiza district

Districts with outbreaks

April 2011

Wild Buffalo sightings 2011 Buffalo sightings Buhera district April 2011 April 2011 Buffalo sightings Mwenezi , Chiredzi, Beitbridge complex


THE END


Animal diseases of mashonaland central (by Wilmot Chikurunhe)