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Inside HEAL YOUR DIGESTION IS THERE A DOWNSIDE TO KETO? SEAFOOD RECIPES
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Sustainable seafood is good for your body and the planet.
Why You Need Enzymes Ann Louise Gittleman, PhD, CNS, explains.
departments 6 Editor’s Note 9 News Bites
Berries for heart health • Misdiagnoses are a serious concern • Foods taste better with repeat exposure • More
12 Special Diets
Everything you need to know about going vegan.
21 Natural Beauty
Supplements for hair, skin, and nails.
26 Healthy Planet
Learn why shopping Fair Trade is important.
30 Healing Herbs
Echinacea and elderberry can help keep viruses at bay.
32 Q & A
James LaValle, RPh, CCN, answers your probiotics questions.
34 Hot Products 37 Trending
Potential pitfalls of the keto diet.
44 Smart Supplements
Discover what vitamins C and D can do for you.
48 Last Word Cover: Echinacea
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9/9/19 12:41 PM
The Link Between Digestion & Immunity It seems that researchers learn more every day about the importance of the human microbiome—those trillions of microorganisms living inside us that keep us either in balance or tilting toward disease. A balance of good bacteria in the gut contributes to healthy digestion, and it also makes us less likely to get sick—especially important at the start of cold and flu season. The majority of our immune cells live in the gastrointestinal tract. The healthier our guts, the less likely we are to catch a cold or develop serious conditions, including Type 2 diabetes, obesity, anxiety, depression, and colon cancer. Probiotics can be a key player in strengthening both digestion and immunity. In “Probiotics, Decoded” on page 32, we discuss probiotics—those found in supplements and foods—with James B. LaValle, RPh, CCN. James works with the NFL, NBA, and MLB to optimize wellness. He explains which probiotic strains to consider, how many colony forming units you need, how to tell if you should take probiotics, and how often to take them. If you’re already eating fermented foods such as kimchi and sauerkraut, he addresses whether you need probiotic supplements as well. In keeping with the theme of strong digestion, editorial advisor Ann Louise Gittleman, PhD, CNS, explores the role of digestive enzymes on page 40. Dr. Gittleman explains that digestion naturally weakens as we age due in part to a decline in enzyme production. It makes sense if you think about it. Our bodies have been busy digesting pretty much since the day we were born with very few breaks. Fortunately, the natural decline doesn’t mean we need to settle for poor digestion, nutrient malabsorption, or ill health. Learn her tips for supporting digestion and feel better fast. To your health,
Chief Content Officer and Strategist Lynn Tryba (Lynn.Tryba@TasteforLife.com) Contributing Editors Lisa Fabian, Rich Wallace Assistant Editor Kelli Ann Wilson Art Director Michelle Knapp Custom Graphics Manager Donna Sweeney Business Development Director Amy Pierce Customer Service: 800-677-8847 CustomerService@TasteforLife.com Client Services Director - Retail Judy Gagne (x128) Client Services Director - Advertising & Digital Ashley Dunk (x190) Western Brand Promotions Director Shannon Dunn-Delgado 415-382-1665 Group Brand Promotions Director Bob Mucci 603-831-1868 Executive Director of Retail Sales and Marketing Anna Johnston (Anna.Johnston@TasteforLife.com) Retail Account Manager Kim Willard Founder and Chief Executive Officer T. James Connell Editorial Advisory Board
Mike Barnett, marketing director for Clark’s Nutrition & Natural Foods Market Seth J. Baum, MD, author, Age Strong, Live Long Hyla Cass, MD, author, Supplement Your Prescription Ann Louise Gittleman, PhD, CNS, author of The Fat Flush Plan and 29 other health and nutrition titles Maria Noël Groves, RH (AHG), registered clinical herbalist, health journalist, and author of Body into Balance Clare Hasler, PhD, MBA, advisor, Dietary Supplement Education Alliance; executive director, Robert Mondavi Institute for Wine and Food Science Tori Hudson, ND, professor, National College of Naturopathic Medicine and Bastyr University Christina Pirello, MS, chef/ host, Christina Cooks Sidney Sudberg, DC, LAc, herbalist (AHG) Jacob Teitelbaum, MD, author of best-selling books on integrative medicine Roy Upton, cofounder and vice president, American Herbalists Guild; executive director, American Herbal Pharmacopoeia Taste for Life® (ISSN 1521-2904) is published monthly by CCI, 149 Emerald Street, Suite 0, Keene NH 03431, 603-283-0034 (fax 603-283-0141); © 2019 Connell Communications, Inc. All rights reserved. Subscription rates: $29.95. This magazine is not intended to provide medical advice on personal health conditions, nor to replace recommendations made by health professionals. The opinions expressed by contributors and sources quoted in articles are not necessarily those of the editor or the publisher. Advertisers and advertising agencies assume liability for all content of advertising and for any claims arising therefrom. Information appearing in Taste for Life may not be reproduced in whole or in part without express permission of the publisher. Creative and Sales Offices: 149 Emerald Street, Suite 0, Keene NH 03431 603-283-0034
A note on recipes
Nutritional analysis from Edamam. Nutritional values vary depending on portion size, freshness of ingredients, storage, and cooking techniques. They should be used only as a guide. Star ratings are based on standard values (SVs) that are currently recommended: HHHHH Extraordinary (50 percent or better), HHHH Top source, HHH Excellent source, HH Good source, H Fair source
Recipe key D Dairy Free G Gluten Free N Nut Free V Vegan V Vegetarian 6 tasteforlife
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The inks used to print the body of this publication contain a minimum of 20%, by weight, renewable resources.
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A matter of TASTE Hate broccoli? Scientists say it will taste better if you just give it time. “If we can convince people to try broccoli, greens, and bitter foods, they should know that with repeated exposure, they’ll taste better,” said University at Buffalo researcher Ann-Marie Torregrossa, PhD. Her team found that proteins in saliva affect the sense of taste. Saliva—which contains around 1,000 different proteins—helps dissolve food. Exposure to certain foods will increase the amounts of specific proteins, eventually modulating how those foods taste. “Trying to convince someone that a salad tastes great isn’t going to work because to that person it doesn’t taste great,” said Dr. Torregrossa. “Understanding with taste that we’re dealing with something that’s moveable is significant.” SOURCE “With bitter foods, what you eat determines what you like to eat,” University at Buffalo, 7/24/19
Berries boost HEART HEALTH Blueberries could be an answer to metabolic syndrome. A new study from the University of East Anglia found that adults who consumed the equivalent of one cup of fresh blueberries daily showed clinically relevant changes in measures of heart health. Metabolic syndrome, a collection of risk factors for heart disease including high blood pressure, increased abdominal obesity, and high triglyceride levels, is a challenge that impacts more than a third of the US population. Lead researcher Aedin Cassidy, PhD, said the findings “add weight to the evidence that a dietary intervention with a realistic serving of blueberries may be an effective strategy to decrease important risk factors for heart disease.” SELECTED SOURCES “Blueberries improve biomarkers of cardiometabolic function in participants with metabolic syndrome . . .” by P.J. Curtis et al., Am J Clin Nutr, 5/28/19 n “New research examines blueberries’ effect on cardiometabolic health in adults with metabolic syndrome,” www.multivu.com, 5/29/19
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MISDIAGNOSES cause serious harm It’s estimated that more than 100,000 Americans suffer from serious misdiagnoses each year. A new study from Johns Hopkins Medicine has found that nearly two-thirds of those misdiagnoses involve vascular events, infections, and cancers. The study, which analyzed diagnostic error cases drawn from a list of US malpractice claims, found that the median age of patients with serious misdiagnoses was 49. Half of the cases studied resulted in patient death while the other half suffered permanent disability. “Our findings suggest that the most serious harms can be attributed to a surprisingly small number of conditions. It still won’t be an easy or quick fix, but that gives us both a place to start and a real hope that the problem is fixable,” said David E. Newman-Toker, MD, PhD, primary author of the study.
SELECTED SOURCES “Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers identify health conditions likely to be misdiagnosed,” www.EurekAlert.org, 7/11/19 n “Serious misdiagnosis-related harms in malpractice claims: The ‘Big Three’— vascular events, infections, and cancers” by D.E. Newman-Toker et al., Journal of the Society to Improve Diagnosis in Medicine, 7/11/19
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Love THINGS WE
DID YOU KNOW? Eating a healthy diet that promotes nutrients, reduces fat, and lowers weight can help ease symptoms of depression, according to an analysis of previous studies. Consuming vegetables and other fiber-rich foods while cutting back on fast foods and refined sugars showed significant benefits. SOURCE “Healthy diet can ease symptoms of depression,” University of Manchester, 2/5/19
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SPECIAL DIETS B Y L I S A FA B I A N
THINKING OF GOING VEGAN? WHAT TO CONSIDER WHETHER THEY’VE CHOSEN THE DIET FOR ENVIRONMENTAL, RELIGIOUS, ETHICAL, OR HEALTH REASONS, ALMOST 4 MILLION AMERICAN ADULTS CONSIDER THEMSELVES VEGAN, ACCORDING TO A RECENT HARRIS INTERACTIVE POLL. As concerns about global warming rise, so does interest in this plant-based eating plan, which excludes all animal-derived foods. Cattle grazing causes massive amounts of methane to be released into the atmosphere, contributing to global warming. Eliminating meat and dairy is the “single biggest way”— more so than reducing flights or driving an electric car—to reduce one’s carbon footprint, according to researchers at the University of Oxford. Then there are the considerable health benefits, which include lower weight and improved heart health and digestion. Avoiding processed and red meats means a lesser risk for heart disease and colorectal cancer. Those with Type 2 diabetes who follow a vegan diet can reduce their LDL (bad) cholesterol—some research shows by as much as 21 percent!
Deficiency Concerns While the health benefits of a plant-based diet are clear, the intake of certain nutrients is a consideration when going vegan. A retrospective review conducted by Mayo Clinic physicians and published in the Journal of the American Osteopathic Association found that vegans should ensure they’re getting enough vitamins B12 and D, iron, ferritin, and calcium.
The review team also recommended that healthcare practitioners screen vegan patients’ blood levels for these nutrients. “We found that some of these nutrients, which can have implications in neurologic disorders, anemia, bone strength, and other health concerns, can be deficient in poorly planned vegan diets,” says Heather Fields, MD, of the Community and Internal Medicine department at Arizona’s Mayo Clinic. Vegans have not been shown to have deficiencies in protein intake or specific amino acids, she adds. Consider your lifestyle when making the switch to a vegan diet. How do you feel about potentially more meal preparation? Are you willing to supplement with additional nutrients, if necessary? Do you have a medical condition that may be impacted by the diet? Are you okay with limited menu selections when dining out? Start off making changes slowly when transitioning to a vegan diet, and if you feel good, make more adjustments. As always, discuss any dietary changes with your healthcare provider. TFL SELECTED SOURCES “9 pros and cons to going vegan” by Monica Bhide, www. AARP.org n “Veganism is ‘single biggest way’ to reduce our environmental impact on planet, study finds” by Olivia Petter, www.Independent.co.uk, 6/1/18 n “Vegans may lack essential nutrient intake” by Jim McVeigh, www.newsnetwork.mayoclinic. org, 3/16/16
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B Y E VA M I L O T T E
S U ST AIN
h s i F sh
The food we choose to eat affects not only our bodies but the planet as well. Seafood is a source of protein for over one billion people throughout the world. Due to demand, overfishing has become a huge threat when it comes to the health of our oceans. With an increasing world population, the necessity for sustainable choices is more imperative than ever. The Monterey Bay Aquarium Seafood Watch offers consumers a list of the best seafood choices. It encourages consumers to choose from the list’s “Best Choices” category. These include species that are well managed and caught or farmed responsibly. They include farmed abalone; catfish from the US; Pacific cod from Alaska; Canadian and farmed oysters; New Zealand salmon; farmed scallops; US farmed shrimp; US farmed trout; albacore tuna (from trolls, pole, and lines); and skipjack tuna (from Pacific trolls, pole, and lines). If “Best Choices” aren’t available, Seafood Watch sug-
gests you seek out “Good Alternatives.” Be aware there are concerns with how species on this list are caught, farmed, or managed. Good alternative choices include Atlantic cod (from hand lines, pole, and lines); Pacific cod from Canada and the US; US wild oysters; salmon from California, Oregon, or Washington; wild sea scallops; wild shrimp from Canada and the US, and farmed shrimp from Ecuador and Honduras; and farmed trout from Canada and Chile. The following recipes feature seafood species that can all be found on the “Best Choices” list. SOURCE “National Consumer Guide July-December 2019,” The Monterey Bay Aquarium Seafood Watch, www.seafoodwatch.org, 2019
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MAKES EYES LOOK YOUNGER
Shrimp Stir-Fry with Tomatoes, Avocado, and Garlic dGn From the Taste for Life test kitchen
From The New England Seafood Markets Cookbook by Mike Urban ($19.95, The Countryman Press, 2016). Recipe courtesy of City Fish Market, Wethersfield, Connecticut
25 minutes prep time n serves 4
30 minutes prep time n serves 4
1 lb large shrimp N c low-sodium chicken broth K tsp cornstarch K tsp chili powder Salt and freshly ground black pepper 2 Tbsp vegetable oil, divided 3 cloves garlic, minced 2 tomatoes, cut into K-inch wedges 2 avocados, cut into K-inch wedges K c cilantro, chopped 1 lime, sliced into 4 wedges 1. Peel and devein shrimp. Pat shrimp dry with paper towels. Set shrimp aside. 2. In a small bowl, combine broth, cornstarch, chili powder, and salt and pepper to taste. Set aside.
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3. Heat a wok or a large skillet over high heat. Reduce heat slightly. Add 1 tablespoon of the oil and swirl to coat. Add shrimp and garlic. Stir-fry shrimp until they begin to turn pink. Transfer shrimp and garlic to a plate and set aside. 4. Add remaining tablespoon of oil to wok or skillet. Add tomato wedges and stir-fry for 1 minute. Return shrimp and garlic to wok or skillet. Stir in broth mixture and gently add avocado wedges. Stir-fry mixture, tossing gently, until shrimp are cooked through. Divide mixture between 4 plates.
1 c sweet onion (Oso Sweet or Vidalia), thinly sliced 2 garlic cloves, minced 2 tsp olive oil 12 large fresh basil leaves 2 lb fresh cod fillet 2 tsp salt 2 fresh tomatoes, sliced N c pitted Kalamata olives, sliced 1 medium lemon, divided K tsp fresh cracked black pepper
1. Preheat oven to 425Â°. 2. In a nonstick skillet, sautĂŠ onions and garlic in oil until tender and then set aside. Coat a 13x9-inch baking dish with cooking spray. 3. Arrange basil leaves in a single layer in dish, top with fish fillets, and sprinkle with salt. Top fillets with onion mixture from skillet. 4. Arrange tomato slices and olives over fillets. Thinly slice half of lemon and place slices over top of fillets. Squeeze juice from remaining lemon half over everything. Top with black pepper. 5. Cover baking dish and bake for 15 minutes, or until fish flakes easily with a fork. Per serving: 249 Calories, 42 g Protein, 9 g Carbohydrates, 2 g Fiber, 5 g Total fat (1 g sat), 828 mg Sodium, HHHHH Vitamin B6, B12, Phosphorus, HHH Vitamin B3 (niacin), HH Vitamin C, Magnesium, Potassium, H Vitamin B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), D, E, K, Zinc
5. Garnish with cilantro. Serve with lime wedges. Kitchen Note: Be sure to pat the shrimp dry with paper towels before cooking; otherwise any extra moisture may braise the shrimp instead of stir-frying them. If desired, serve over brown rice. Per serving: 328 Calories, 19 g Protein, 15 g Carbohydrates, 8 g Fiber, 23 g Total fat (3 g sat), 742 mg Sodium, HHHHH Vitamin B12, Phosphorus, HHHH Vitamin B6, HHH Vitamin E, HH Vitamin B3 (niacin), C, K, Folate, H Vitamin A, B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), Magnesium, Potassium, Zinc
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GIVES YOUR FACE A PICK-ME-UP
© AMERICA’S TEST KITCHEN
Sesame Salmon with Grapefruit Slaw dGn From Dinner Illustrated by the Editors at America’s Test Kitchen ($32.99, America’s Test Kitchen, 2018)
45 minutes prep time n serves 4
K head napa cabbage (1 lb) 3 carrots 3 scallions 1 red grapefruit 1 jalapeño
4 (6- to 8-oz) skin-on salmon fillets, 1- to 1K-inches thick Salt and pepper 2 Tbsp sesame seeds, divided N c vegetable oil 3 Tbsp rice vinegar
1. Prep fruit and vegetables: Remove core from cabbage and then slice thin. Peel and then shred carrots. Slice scallions thin. Cut away peel and pith from grapefruit and cut into quarters. Slice quarters crosswise into N inch–thick pieces. Cut jalapeño in half lengthwise, seed, and slice thin. 2. Prep salmon: Pat salmon dry with paper towels and then season with salt and pepper. Sprinkle flesh sides of fillets evenly with 1 tablespoon of the sesame seeds.
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3. Render salmon skin: Arrange salmon, skin side down, in 12-inch nonstick skillet. Place skillet over medium-high heat and cook until fat from skin renders, about 7 minutes. 4. Continue cooking salmon: Flip salmon and continue to cook until center is still translucent when checked with tip of paring knife and registers 125° (for medium-rare), about 7 minutes. 5. Make dressing: While salmon cooks, whisk oil, vinegar, remaining 1 tablespoon sesame seeds, K teaspoon salt, and N teaspoon pepper together in a large bowl. 6. Make slaw and finish dish: Add cabbage, carrots, scallions, grapefruit, and jalapeño to dressing in bowl and toss to combine. Season with salt and pepper to taste. Serve salmon with slaw. Kitchen Note: Adding a sesame seed crust to pan-seared salmon gives it a great crunch. A bright cabbage and citrus slaw provides the perfect contrast to the rich fish. Starting the salmon in a cold pan allows the fat to render and the skin to crisp. You can use either white or black sesame seeds (or a combination of the two) in the coating. Shred the carrots on the large holes of a box grater. Per serving: 555 Calories, 37 g Protein, 13 g Carbohydrates, 3 g Fiber, 39 g Total fat (6 g sat), 426 mg Sodium, HHHHH Vitamin B3 (niacin), B6, B12, E, Phosphorus, HHHH Vitamin A, C, HHH Vitamin B1 (thiamine), HH Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), K, H Calcium, Folate, Magnesium, Potassium, Zinc
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MAKES WRINKLES ALMOST DISAPPEAR
© AMERICA’S TEST KITCHEN
Roasted Trout with White Bean and Tomato Salad dGn From Dinner Illustrated by the Editors at America’s Test Kitchen ($32.99, America’s Test Kitchen, 2018)
45 minutes prep time n serves 4
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2 s hallots arlic cloves 2 g F resh rosemary bsp capers 2 T 3 lemons, divided z cherry tomatoes 12 o
Fresh parsley K c extra-virgin olive oil, divided 4 (7- to 10-oz) boneless, butterflied whole trout Salt and pepper 2 (15 oz) cans cannellini beans
1. Prep vegetables and aromatics: Adjust oven rack to middle position, place rimmed baking sheet on rack, and heat oven to 450°. Mince shallots and garlic. Mince 4 teaspoons of the rosemary. Rinse capers and then chop. Squeeze N cup lemon juice from 2 lemons. Cut remaining lemon into wedges. Cut tomatoes in half. Chop N cup of the parsley. 2. Make dressing: Whisk N cup of the oil, the shallots, garlic, rosemary, capers, and lemon juice together in a large bowl. 3. Season trout: Pat trout dry with paper towels and season with salt and pepper. 4. Heat oil: Add remaining N cup oil to preheated baking sheet, tilting to coat evenly, and return to oven for 4 minutes. 5. Roast trout: Carefully place trout, skin-side down, on hot baking sheet; return to oven and cook until trout flakes apart when gently prodded with a paring knife, 7 to 9 minutes. 6. Make salad and finish dish: While trout roasts, drain and rinse beans. Add beans, tomatoes, and parsley to dressing in bowl and toss to coat. Season with salt and pepper to taste. Serve with trout and lemon wedges and drizzle with extra oil to taste. Kitchen Note: By starting with trout that have already been boned and butterflied, you can focus on roasting this rich, flavorful fish and creating a complementary side dish. Adding the trout to a preheated baking sheet in the oven ensures that it will develop a nice crisp skin. Given the trout’s brief roasting time, it is partnered with an equally quick accompaniment: creamy cannellini beans tossed with the bright, fresh flavors of shallots, parsley, lemon juice, capers, rosemary, and garlic. Cannellini beans work well in this salad, but any small white beans will work. Per serving: 1,162 Calories, 92 g Protein, 142 g Carbohydrates, 36 g Fiber, 28 g Total fat (5 g sat), 538 mg Sodium, HHHHH Vitamin B1 (thiamine), B3 (niacin), B6, B12, C, D, E, K, Calcium, Folate, Iron, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Zinc, HHHH Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), HH Vitamin A
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NATURAL BEAUTY BY V I C TO R I A D O L BY TO E WS , M P H
HAIR, SKIN & NAIL SUPPLEMENTS DOES YOUR BATHROOM MIRROR REFLECT THE MARCH OF TIME? FROM AGE SPOTS AND CROW’S FEET TO BRITTLE HAIR AND CHIPPING NAILS—YOU MIGHT BE WONDERING WHAT CAN BE DONE TO SLOW DOWN THE VISIBLE SIGNS OF AGING. It’s not just what you buy to slather on the outside, but also the supplements you take that can help transform your mirror’s reflection. “The inside-out beauty concept is certainly not a new one,” explains Asma Ishaq, CEO of wellness company Modere, “and although consumers understand that external appearance is heavily influenced by one’s diet, there is still a gap in the association between oral supplements and beauty. That gap is narrowing as research-based dietary supplements show improved skin health and reduction of wrinkles.” There’s lots of good research about which supplements offer the biggest payoff when it comes to complexion. Consider starting with a daily multivitamin/mineral supplement. Some specifics to keep in mind are the B vitamins to ensure good circulation to the skin, the mineral selenium for better skin elasticity, and vitamin C for firmer skin collagen.
Good for One . . . Good for All When you take a supplement for the sake of your skin, it will also benefit your hair and nails (and vice versa). This is because skin, hair, and nails are all made from the same fibrous proteins, so what’s good for one of them is generally good for all of them. This is certainly the case with the mineral silica. Silica helps create the structures of the proteins in your skin, hair, and nails. Silica from foods or supplements, once in the stomach, gets transformed into an active form called orthosilicic acid, which is better absorbed into the bloodstream than silica. As you age, however, this conversion of silica to the active form slows down. So, it can be helpful to supplement with the more active form—orthosilicic acid— rather than relying on silica obtained through your diet. Getting optimal silica will translate into firmer skin; shinier, stronger hair; and stronger nails. If your skin’s a bit too sun-kissed, silica can help repair some of that sun damage. Research shows that when women supplement with orthosilicic acid for several months, their skin is noticeably smoother and more elastic. Although this study aimed to track skin
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SKIN MUST-DOS Put your best face forward with these healthy skin choices: * Don’t smoke. If not for your overall health’s sake, at least quit to avoid the extra wrinkles smoking guarantees to send your way.
benefits from this supplement, the researchers—and the women in the study—couldn’t help but notice the side benefits of less brittle hair and nails while taking this supplement. Collagen, the protein in skin that helps create strength, elasticity, and smoothness, is continuously renewed by your body. Getting enough vitamin C and protein supports your body’s collagen production, but oral supplements of collagen can also play a role. Over time, your body doesn’t make as much collagen as it used to; this goes hand-in-hand with the appearance of wrinkles and loss of youthful skin “plumpness.” Oral and topical supplemental sources of collagen can help shore things up, say researchers who’ve designed several studies using women taking supplements of collagen daily (either 2.5 grams or 5 grams) for two months. By eight weeks into the collagen supplementation, researchers noted skin improvements such as more plumpness, a smoother feel, and greater elasticity. These benefits were noticed in comparison to a group of women taking inactive dummy pills for the same time period. In follow-up research, the 2.5 gram daily collagen supplements showed improvement to women’s crow’s feet compared to women taking placebo pills. TFL
* Wear sunscreen whenever you go out in the sun (and, yes, daily errands count— it’s not just for a day at the beach). Sunscreen of at least SPF 15 (SPF 30 is better) ranks as the best anti-aging product, hands-down. * Avoid sun exposure between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. and don’t consider going to a tanning bed. UV light (from the sun or a tanning bed) is the number one contributor to prematurely oldlooking skin. * Drink plenty of water to keep your skin hydrated.
Victoria Dolby Toews, MPH, has been a health journalist for more than two decades. She is the author of Life After Baby: Rediscovering and Reclaiming Your Healthy Pizzazz (Basic Health Publications, 2012). SELECTED SOURCES “Hair, nails, and skin: Differentiating cutaneous manifestations of micronutrient deficiency” by M. DiBaise and S.M. Tarleton, Nutr Clin Pract, 5/29/19 n “Oral intake of specific bioactive collagen peptides reduces skin wrinkles and increases dermal matrix synthesis” by E. Proksch et al., 12/24/13; “Oral supplementation of specific collagen peptides has beneficial effects on human skin physiology: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study” by E. Proksch et al., 8/14/14, Skin Pharmacol Physiol n Personal communication: Ashma Ishaq n “Use of silicon for skin and hair care: An approach of chemical forms available and efficacy” by L.A. Araujo et al., An Bras Dermatol, 5/16
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8/27/19 5:19 PM
HEALTHY PLANET B Y TA S T E F O R L I F E S TA F F
FAIR TRADE, EXPLAINED OCTOBER IS FAIR TRADE MONTH. HERE, WE ANSWER COMMON QUESTIONS ABOUT THIS ETHICAL LABEL. Q: What does “fair trade” mean? A: Basic principles of fair-trade certification include fair wages for farmers, no child labor or forced labor, good working conditions, improvement of local communities, and responsible land management. When small-scale farmers are paid a living wage, they can feed their families, send their children to school instead of to the fields, and obtain healthcare. Fair-trade certifiers include Fair Trade USA, Fair for Life, Fairtrade International, and World Fair Trade Organization. To determine if a product or ingredient is fair trade, look for the certification seal.
spices, flowers, rice, honey, wine, shea butter, coconut oil, and cotton. Part of the migration spike occurring in the United States today is due to the collapse of coffee prices, with small-scale farmers being unable to cover production costs. It’s been reported that more than 60 percent of producers are selling coffee for less than what it costs to produce it. Guatemala has been hit extremely hard, with coffee prices dropping 60 percent since 2015. This is the type of crisis the fair-trade model seeks to help alleviate by giving coffee farmers a minimum fair trade price for coffee as well as community development funds so that farmers can invest in needed farm renovations and improved processing methods. Still, even with these safeguards in place, the volatile coffee market has been hard on fair trade cooperatives.
Q: Are fair-trade products also certified organic? A: Not necessarily. Certified organic products are produced without the use of toxic and persistent fertilizers and pesticides. About half of Fair Trade Certified imports are organic. Still, fair-trade certification does ensure that certain environmental standards have been met. These include the protection of water resources, agricultural diversification, the elimination of slash-and-burn agriculture techniques, reducing the use of pesticides and fertilizers, and banning the use of GMOs. TFL LEARN MORE “Frequently asked questions,” Fair Trade USA, www.FairTradeCertified.org n “The migration problem is a coffee problem” by Kevin Sieff, www.WashingtonPost.com, 6/11/19 n “We love coffee. Are we willing to pay the price?” by Peter Kettler, Fairtrade International, www.Fairtrade.net, 6/5/19
Sneak in some veggies with these Chocolate Zucchini Cupcakes!
➤ 26 tasteforlife
More than 1.66 million farmers and workers from 73 countries participate in fair-trade programs. SOURCE Fair Trade Foundation
Q: What type of products are available as fair trade? A: Some fair-trade products include coffee, chocolate, tea, herbs and
Get the recipe here: tasteforlife.com/fair-trade-cupcakes
“While the global coffee industry now generates more than $200 billion per year, the average farmer’s income has not changed in the past 20 years— or has actually declined when taking into account higher farmer costs.” SOURCE Fairtrade International
Did somebody say Chocolate Popcorn?
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9/6/19 12:44 PM
FOOD FOR THOUGHT
UNDERSTANDING THE ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM
Excerpted with permission from Road to Ananda: Simple Guide to the Endocannabinoid System, Hemp Phytocannabinoids/ CBD and Your Health by Carl Germano, CNS, CDN ($21.65, Healthy Living Publishing, 2018). This book can be purchased at www.roadtoananda.com.
THE PRESENCE OF ENDOCANNABINOIDS IN OUR BODIES IS ABUNDANT. RESEARCHERS FIND MORE ENDOCANNABINOID RECEPTORS THAN THE NEUROTRANSMITTER RECEPTORS OF SEROTONIN AND DOPAMINE. IN TOTAL, THE NUMBER OF ENDOCANNABINOID RECEPTORS IN THE BODY IS BELIEVED TO BE GREATER THAN ALL OTHER NEUROTRANSMITTER RECEPTORS COMBINED. Receptors are proteins that act as doorways on the surface of cells for messengers to deliver information into the cell. They act as the cell’s eyes and ears for what is happening in the body. Every cell in every organ has specialized receptors to react to signaling throughout the body. Compounds that have the ability to sit at the doorway to deliver messages into the cell are called ligands. Ligands you may be familiar with are neurotransmitters and hormones that bind to receptors to initiate certain and specific activities. Endocannabinoid receptors, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), live on the surface of cells and act as the binding sites for the endocannabinoids we produce in the body (anandamide, 2-AG). They are also influenced directly and indirectly by many plant cannabinoids (phytocannabinoids) we consume. Hemp extracts represent a highly concentrated source of phytocannabinoids. Hemp’s most popular and dominant phytocannabinoid is called cannabidiol or CBD. However, CBD is only one of 100-plus phytocannabinoids present in hemp that are equally important or more effective than CBD in addressing certain conditions. Most notably, the phytocannabinoids CBG (cannabigerol), CBC (cannabichromene), CBN (cannabinol), and BCP
(beta caryophyllene) are but a few that are equally important. CB1 receptors are abundant in the brain, especially in the cerebellum, basal ganglia, hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus, and spinal cord regions. They play significant roles in regulating pain signaling, memory processing, movement, motor control, and many other neurological functions. In addition to their concentration in the brain, CB1 receptors reside in the cardiovascular system, digestive tract, heart, liver, lungs, and immune system as well as other parts of the body. Their presence in these regions expands their activity to include functional roles in bone, heart, liver, and immune modulation. CB2 receptors are predominant in the brain and immune system, but are present throughout the entire body. Researchers have found an abundant amount of CB2 receptors scattered throughout the brain along with its CB1 counterpart. In addition, CB2 receptors are present in our bones, as well as peripheral organs such as the spleen, liver, and pancreas. As situated in these organ systems, CB2 receptors have many roles, including immune modulation, bone mass enhancement, brain protection, pain and inflammation control, liver support, and healthy stress response. TFL
Carl Germano, CNS, CDN, is a NY board-certified clinical nutritionist, vice president of Verdant Oasis, and a frequent lecturer and radio guest. He holds a master’s degree in clinical nutrition from New York University and has over 35 years’ experience in product development and education for several of the largest vitamin supplement companies, where he has brought innovative formulations and clinically important phytocannabinoid ingredients to dietary supplements, medical foods, and functional beverages. A prolific author, he has several bestselling books, including The Misled Athlete, Nature’s Pain Killers, The Osteoporosis Solution, and The Brain Wellness Plan.
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HEALING HERBS BY TO R I H U DS O N , N D
MEET ECHINACEA YOUR FRIEND THIS FALL
SIMPLE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS INCLUDE SINUS INFECTIONS AND THE COMMON COLD. UP TO ABOUT 80 PERCENT OF THE TIME, THEY ARE SELF-LIMITING. THIS MEANS SYMPTOMS ARE HARMLESS AND EXPECTED TO RESOLVE ON THEIR OWN. THE ONLY TREATMENT NEEDED IS FOR SYMPTOM RELIEF. UP TO 20 PERCENT OF RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS ARE COMPLICATED, THOUGH, AND LEAD TO BRONCHITIS, PNEUMONIA, TONSILLITIS, CONJUNCTIVITIS, EAR INFECTION, OR BACTERIAL SINUSITIS.
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Prevention of respiratory tract infections is a desired goal, of course, but often frequent hand washing, healthy eating, regular exercise and fresh air, and not smoking are not enough. Here is where one of the valued aspects of echinacea comes in. Echinacea (Echinacea spp.) is used for the prevention and treatment of respiratory tract infections. Previously published studies have shown the herb possesses anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects, and immunomodulatory effects that stimulate immunity. The purpose of a recent meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of echinacea on recurrent respiratory tract infections and complications from these infections. The intent of the metaanalysis was to see if two to four months of taking echinacea products could prevent recurrent respiratory tract infections, which then also prevents complications. A comprehensive literature search was done of randomized, placebo-controlled trials using echinacea in healthy individuals over two to four months for prevention of respiratory tract infections. Of the 101 clinical trials, 89 did not meet the fullinclusion criteria. Of the 12 remaining, six were eliminated due to methodology or test materials. The remaining six studies reported significant benefits of echinacea treatment with regard to recurrent respiratory tract infections over those taking placebos. When comparing the alcohol extracts with the pressed echinacea juices, there was a more pronounced effect from the alcohol extracts. In the largest study, not only was there a reduction in respiratory tract infections, but there also were fewer viral infections in the nasal passages that corresponded to a 58 percent reduction in the risk of viral reinfection. In people with recurrent respiratory tract infections who had risk factors such as stress, poor sleep, and smoking, the benefits were even greater. Data from three studies also demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in risk for complications such as conjunctivitis, ear infection, tonsillitis, and sinusitis, and even a 64.9 percent reduction in pneumonia in those taking echinacea products. Of additional importance, antibiotic use declined in three studies in those using echinacea compared with control groups or standard treatments. In summary, this meta-analysis demonstrates that echinaceacontaining products significantly reduce the risk of recurrent respiratory tract infections in healthy individuals and in those with risk factors. TFL SOURCE “Echinacea reduces the risk of recurrent respiratory tract infections and complications: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials” by A. Schapowal et al., Adv Ther, 2015
Tori Hudson, ND, is medical director of A Woman’s Time clinic in Portland, Oregon. She is a clinical professor at National College of Naturopathic Medicine, Bastyr University, and Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine.
Elderberry & Friends Help with Colds and Ear Infections A recent meta-analysis examining the effects of black elderberry (Sambucus nigra) found that supplementation with this herb substantially reduces upper respiratory symptoms. Researchers noted that the findings “present an alternative to antibiotic misuse for upper respiratory symptoms due to viral infections, and a potentially safer alternative to prescription drugs for routine cases of the common cold and influenza.” In another study, researchers looked at the effects of supplements that contained elderberry, zinc, Lactobacillus acidophilus, larch extract, and vitamins C, D, and E to study their effects on kids who get recurrent ear infections. All the children treated with the supplements showed a reduction in respiratory infections. The supplements were found to reduce inflammation in the ear. —Taste for Life staff SELECTED SOURCES “Black elderberry (Sambucus nigra) supplementation effectively treats upper respiratory symptoms: A meta-analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials” by J. Hawkins et al., Complement Ther Med, 2/19 n “The effects of oral supplements with Sambucus nigra, zinc, tyndallized Lactobacillus acidophilus (H122), arabinogalactans, vitamin D, vitamin E, and vitamin C in otitis media with effusion in children: A randomized controlled trial” by A. Della Volpe et al., Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, 7/19
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PROBIOTICS, DECODED WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW DO YOU HAVE QUESTIONS ABOUT PROBIOTICS? JAMES B. LAVALLE, RPH, CCN, HAS ANSWERS! DR. LAVALLE IS A CLINICAL PHARMACIST, AUTHOR, BOARD-CERTIFIED CLINICAL NUTRITIONIST, AND HOLDER OF A DOCTORATE IN NATUROPATHY. HE WORKS WITH THE NFL, NBA, AND MLB TO OFFER HEALTH, WELLNESS, AND DIET STRATEGIES. Taste for Life: How do you know if you need to take probiotics? James LaValle: Other than people with SIBO [small intestine bacterial overgrowth], anyone with digestive issues such as gas, bloating, indigestion, constipation, or loose stools or immune issues such as allergies or being prone to colds will benefit from probiotics. Anyone who has taken antibiotics for an illness or surgery or acne in the past should take a probiotic to restore beneficial flora to adequate levels. People on acid-blocking medications or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) should also consider probiotics. TFL: Which strains work well for specific symptoms/conditions? JL: The science of probiotics for condition-specific uses is still evolving. For example, L. rhamnosus has a couple of studies showing it might help weight loss, especially in women. I recommend “the friendly trio,” which are three of the most stable, well-documented, clinically studied species: Lactobacillus gasseri KS-13, Bifidobacterium longum MM-2, and Bifidobacterium G9-1. These have been reported to improve digestion, reduce cold and allergy symptoms, and restore a healthy microbiome in aging adults. TFL: What are the recommended levels of colony forming units (CFUs)? JL: You want counts in the billions. Some conditions like antibiotic-induced diarrhea will resolve more quickly with higher CFUs. For issues like colitis or autoimmune disorders, healthcare providers may recommend higher CFUs initially but then back down to lower doses as maintenance. It is not just about CFU count. Verifying that a brand tests to guarantee that the bacteria remain viable through the shelf life and CFU counts are accurate to the date of expiration is an important part of picking a probiotic.
TFL: If you eat fermented food, do you need to take probiotics? JL: Depending on the products, you often do still need to take a probiotic supplement, mostly because the bacteria starters used to make those food products can be limited in bacteria types. Kefir tests out pretty well for the amount of beneficial bacteria it contains, but you have to tolerate milk. TFL: How do you know if you should take probiotics daily or weekly? JL: Take probiotics daily until symptoms improve. After that, cut down to a couple of times a week. If you are on medications that disrupt the microbiome, try taking a probiotic at least five days per week. TFL: If you’re taking antibiotics, when and how do you take probiotics to restore healthy flora? JL: Take a probiotic at least two hours away from antibiotic dosing, typically twice a day. TFL: Can people of any age take probiotics? JL: Probiotics are safe and effective for every stage of life. I often recommend probiotics for children due to their role in supporting the immune system, in addition to helping to address skin issues, and easing digestive woes associated with antibiotic usage. TFL
Best known for his expertise in metabolic and integrative medicine, Dr. LaValle has written more than 20 books, including Cracking the Metabolic Code and Your Blood Never Lies.
Visit www.probiotics.com for more information. This website is a great way to understand how probiotics work and which are appropriate to take and when.
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Can’t find these products? Ask your store to contact the manufacturer directly. These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA.These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
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9/4/19 4:13 PM
TRENDING BY CLAIRE SYKES
THE KETO QUESTION WHY CAN’T SOME PEOPLE STOMACH THIS POPULAR DIET?
WHAT DO KIM KARDASHIAN, HALLE BERRY, AND GWYNETH PALTROW HAVE IN COMMON BESIDES THE HOLLYWOOD-CELEBRITY SPOTLIGHT? THE KETOGENIC DIET. Research suggests that the popular diet known for rapid weight loss also could benefit those with cancer, diabetes, epilepsy, and cardiovascular concerns. It can help with digestion, too, but some people find that the keto diet worsens their digestive issues. Let’s explore why, and see if anything can be done to prevent this from occurring.
Keto Basics The diet’s whole-food meals of roughly 75 percent of calories from fats, 20 percent from protein, and 5 percent from carbohydrates rely on fuel mainly from steadier-burning fats versus the rollercoaster ride from sugar. That’s good news for weight loss. “Lowering carbs in general also reduces the
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continued from page 37
fermentable ones that bad gut bacteria feast on. This can reduce and prevent gas and bloating,” says Michael Smith, ND, BHSC, of Planet Naturopath, in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. “Keto can be a great diet for some. But to make the most of it, your fat digestion has to be optimal,” explains Ann Louise Gittleman, PhD, CNS, New York Times bestselling author of Radical Metabolism.
What Can Go Wrong
Restricting carbs forces the body to use ketones for energy. The liver makes these chemical compounds as it breaks down fat with the help of bile, sending any excess bile to the gallbladder for storage. “If you have congested bile from blocked ducts, too little bile, fatty liver disease, or other digestive issues, or your gallbladder has been surgically removed, then you can’t digest all the fats the keto diet requires you to eat,” continues Dr. Gittleman. To support fat digestion, she recommends the lipotropic nutrients choline, inositol, and methionine, all of which help break down and speed up the removal of fat from the liver. She also recommends taking beetroot and bile salt supplements to make it easier to absorb and digest fats. The keto diet also can fail you when its carb restrictions make you overdo it on taste-treat alternatives. That’s when you spend most of your fat and protein allowance on bacon, hamburgers, cheese, and butter and don’t eat enough healthy proteins and fiber, green leafy vegetables, and other plants rich in nutrients. “Too much animal fat and too little fiber cause diarrhea,” Dr. Smith says. This is also true with an excess of MCT [medium-chain triglycerides] oil, which is found in coconut oil and as a partially human-made oil by itself. “And too much cheese brings on constipation. Not enough water will do that, too, particularly in the early stages,” Dr. Smith continues. “The first weight you lose on a ketogenic diet is water weight,” says Dr. Gittleman. “At first, you feel good and the weight loss is a moralebooster. But the flushing causes the toxins to concentrate, giving you the ‘keto flu,’ with symptoms from digestive upset and skin rashes to headaches and body aches.” Good thing it lasts only a few days.
How to Succeed on Keto Drink plenty of water while on the keto diet. But since you’ll urinate more, you’ll lose crucial electrolytes, so be sure to boost those with bone broth, which also supports healthy gut bacteria. Keep only keto-diet ingredients in your home, carefully plan all your meals, study restaurant menus before you go, inform loved ones, don’t go to parties too hungry, and keep track of everything you eat. And forget cheat days. Not everyone can obey such a strict diet, but millions wouldn’t at least try unless they felt it was worth the effort and the potentially positive results. If you’re one of them, see your healthcare practitioner before starting. Your favorite movie star may rave about the keto diet, but like any health routine, you want to make sure it’s the right one for you. TFL SELECTED SOURCES Personal communication: Ann Louise Gittleman, Michael Smith, 7/19
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BY ANN LOUISE GITTLEMAN, PHD, CNS
ENZYMES WORK NONSTOP, ALWAYS IN THE BACKGROUND, SILENTLY RUNNING THINGS. I LIKE TO IMAGINE THEIR CENTRAL COMMAND SOUNDS SOMETHING LIKE THIS, “PANCREAS, WE NEED YOUR DIGESTIVE ENZYMES—PRONTO—TO BREAK THIS SALAD DOWN INTO ABSORBABLE NUTRIENTS!” Enzymes are biologically active proteins. Everything you eat needs enzymes to break it down into nutrients you can use. When digestive issues occur, this isn’t you “growing old before your time,” it’s a decline in enzyme production
Your body isn’t a ticking time bomb, waiting to go off into a variety of ailments when you reach a certain age. The truth is you start with a limited ability to make enzymes, and little by little, your enzyme production declines, starting around age 30. Edward Howell, MD, called this limited ability to make enzymes your “enzyme potential.” (He studied enzymes from the 1940s until his death in 1988.) He found that enzyme potential is determined by genetics and the environment you inherit from your parents, known as epigenetics. Some people seem to eat and drink whatever they want, rarely exercise, and live stressful lifestyles, yet still enjoy what appears to be good health. On the flip side are people who need to be careful about everything they do or it will bring on fatigue, illness, and even a shortened life span. Most of us fall somewhere in between the two extremes. If we fail to be mindful and make healthy choices, it catches up to us and shows itself in the form of fatigue, sickness, and premature aging. Dr. Howell found that the faster you use up your enzyme potential, the shorter your life will be. He categorized en40 tasteforlife
zymes into three basic types: digestive, metabolic, and food based, and found that the body keeps a balance between them. If you use most of your enzymes to digest food, then few are left to support metabolic processes, and vice versa. His solution was simple: Increase the amount of food-based enzymes in your diet. Since his death, Dr. Howell’s enzyme research has been expanded on, and we know there are more factors than DNA and epigenetics that affect enzyme potential. It isn’t simply because you’re getting older: It’s because your internal organs are sustaining cumulative damage from the diet, chemicals, and toxins you’re being exposed to daily, and they aren’t able to make as many enzymes as they used to.
Digestive enzymes help you break down food, absorb nutrients, and excrete waste products. This process, for one meal, can take three to 10 days. You are in the process of digestion nonstop throughout your life, unless you fast. The need for enzymes starts as soon as you chew your first bite of food. Your salivary glands release saliva, which contains enzymes that immediately start breaking down carbohydrates. The flow of saliva also regulates how much stomach acid you’ll release. If you drink liquids with meals, you dilute saliva and stomach acid, ultimately making less stomach acid. Less stomach acid means less bile. Fewer digestive enzymes are released from the pancreas into the small intestine. The result is food not being digested prop-
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erly or absorbed, and inflammation builds. Once you have inflammation in the small intestine, the small, fingerlike projections known as microvilli become flattened. These structures normally have digestive enzymes attached to their ends that break down food. Once they are flattened, the enzymes have nothing to attach to and digestion is impaired. Without enough stomach acid or digestive enzymes, you can’t absorb protein. What are digestive enzymes made of? Proteins. Now you don’t have enough raw materials to make digestive enzymes, and you’re stuck in a vicious cycle. If you want to preserve enzyme potential and reverse the premature aging of your digestion, you need to take pressure off the process and consume more enzymes.
Declining enzyme production is part of the cycle that ages organs prematurely. Once this cycle starts, the clock is ticking. It’s only a matter of time before the inflammation that’s building as your enzyme potential wanes spills over into a disease process. Normally, metabolic enzymes would break down inflammation, but there’s a problem—these are proteolytic enzymes made from protein, and you don’t have enough raw materials to make them because of malabsorption issues. To increase enzyme levels, eat enzyme-rich foods and take enzyme supplements. Try lactofermented foods like unpasteurized sauerkraut, and raw vegetables, raw milk cheeses, and fresh fruits in moderation. You can drink fresh raw vegetable juices for their high enzyme content, but limit it to eight ounces per day of low-glycemic vegetables until healthy digestion is restored. Chew food thoroughly and delay drinking liquids until at least 30 minutes after a meal for maximum saliva production. This will start the digestive cascade going in the right direction. Try a teaspoon of raw apple cider vinegar first thing in the morning, and take a supplement formula that contains the enzyme pepsin, ox bile extract, and betaine hydrochloride before each meal. When protein starts being broken down properly, then the raw materials needed to make enzymes are once again available. Do not take this type of supplement if you have active ulcer disease. Additionally, look for an enzyme supplement that includes ingredients such as pancreatin, bromelain, and trypsin. TFL
High-fiber diets are linked to a reduced risk of digestive diseases. For example, eating dietary fiber is linked to a lower risk of diverticular disease. Women need 25 grams (g) of fiber daily; men need about 38 g. Most people eat 15 g a day. —Taste for Life staff SOURCE “Intake of dietary fiber, fruits, and vegetables and risk of diverticulitis” by W. Ma et al., Am J Gastroenterol, 8/7/19
Ann Louise Gittleman, PhD, CNS Dr. Gittleman (www.AnnLouise.com) is a New York Times bestselling author of more than 30 books, including Radical Metabolism, The Fat Flush Plan, and The Fast Track Detox Diet. She has appeared on Good Morning America, 20/20, The View, PBS, and CNN. www.tas teforl i fe.com
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SMART SUPPLEMENTS BY JANE EKLUND
WHY C AND D ARE KEY
FOR HEALTHY IMMUNITY & SO MUCH MORE
VITAMINS C AND D GET A LOT OF AIRPLAY, AND FOR GOOD REASON: THEY ARE ROCKSTAR NUTRIENTS. WHAT DO THEY DO, AND HOW MUCH DO YOU NEED? READ ON!
Get Your C On Also known as ascorbic acid, vitamin C is water soluble and not easily stored in the body, meaning you need to get your daily dose through food or supplements. An antioxidant that can rein in free radicals that damage cells, C is used in making collagen, hormones, and brain and nervous system chemicals, and it stimulates white blood cells to keep your immune system tuned up. One thing C doesn’t do, contrary to what your grandmother may have told you, is prevent the common cold. If you do get a cold, though, taking the recommended daily dose of C when the symptoms start may ease its severity. How much do you need? The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is 75 milligrams (mg) per day for women and 90 for men. The dose increases to 85 mg for pregnant women and 120 mg for breastfeeding women. If you’re a smoker or exposed to secondhand smoke, up your dosage by 35 mg. To prevent gastrointestinal disturbances, the maximum amount of vitamin C you should take is 2,000 mg per day. Too much C can cause cramps, diarrhea, and nausea. The amount of C your body can absorb drops by half when you take a dose larger than 1,000 mg.
Your Daily D Step into the sun: It’ll convert a chemical in your skin into vitamin D3—which is then turned into vitamin D via your liver and kidneys. One of D’s critical functions is to help your intestines absorb calcium. Without continued on page 47
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enough D, the body can access only 10 to 15 percent of the calcium it takes in; that number increases to 30 to 40 percent when sufficient vitamin D is present. The result? Healthier bones. Vitamin D also helps with nerve, muscle, and immune system function. Combined with calcium, it helps ward off osteoporosis. Research on vitamin D and cancer is mixed: Some studies have indicated a protective effect against colon, prostate, and breast cancer, but higher levels of D in the blood have also been linked to higher pancreatic cancer rates. But let’s get back to the sun. Vitamin D occurs naturally in very few foods, so if your skin is mostly covered when you go outdoors, either by clothing or sunscreen, there’s a good chance you’re not getting enough D. The RDA for D is 600 IU (international units) for adults, including pregnant and breastfeeding women, and 800 IU for adults over 70. Don’t take more than 4,000 IU per day: It can cause toxicity, along with nausea, constipation, weight loss, confusion, heart arrhythmias, and kidney damage. If you’re taking medication or dealing with a chronic or serious condition, be sure to check with your healthcare practitioner before starting a new vitamin regimen. TFL SELECTED SOURCES “Office of Dietary Supplements—Vitamin C”; “Office of Dietary Supplements— Vitamin D,” National Institutes of Health, https://ods.od.nih/gov n “Vitamin C” Harvard School of Public Health, www.hsph.harvard.edu n “Vitamin D and your health: Breaking old rules, raising new hopes” Harvard Health Publishing, www.health.harvard.edu, 5/17/19
C&D Did you know?
Vitamin D was discovered in 1920 when scientists were searching for a cure for rickets, a childhood bone disease. Rickets was largely eliminated in the next decade after foods were fortified with D. Vitamin C was discovered in 1932—long after sailors began bringing citrus fruits on voyages to prevent scurvy.
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