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r e m I Xe d

By Natasha Aggarwal


BOLLYWOOD: REMIXED THE FUSION OF INDIAN MUSIC AND WESTERN HIP-HOP

By Natasha Aggarwal


Š 2013 Natasha Aggarwal. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission. Designed by Natasha Aggarwal Produced at the Alberta College of Art + Design Art Directed by Rik Zak and Xerxes Irani Printed in Canada Fair Use Notice: The material presented in this book is provided for educational and informational purposes. It may contain copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. The material in this book is distributed without profit to those who have an interest in using the included information for research and educational purposes.


04 WHY BOLLYWOOD?

BOLLYWOOD MEETS HOLLYWOOD 09 WHAT EXACTLY IS BOLLYWOOD? 12 THE GROWTH OF BOLLYWOOD 14 2000s: HOLLYWOOD BORROWS FROM BOLLYWOOD

THE BIRTH OF BHANGRA 18 WHAT IS BHANGRA? 22 THE ASIAN UNDERGROUND 25 THE ASIAN UNDERGROUND: JAY SEAN 26 DESI HIP-HOP

HIP-HOP’S FASCINATION WITH INDIA 31 CHANGING AMERICA’S PERCEPTION 35 PANJABI MC 36 BHANGRA BROTHERS

SAMPLING FROM BOLLYWOOD 41 HYBRIDITY & SUBCULTURAL EXCHANGE 44 TOP BOLLYWOOD SAMPLES IN HIP-HOP 49 LAWSUITS: THE RESULT OF ILLEGAL SAMPLING 50 PLAYLIST


WHY BOLL BOLLYWOOD BORROWINGS IN HIP-HOP CAN BE CONTEXTUALIZED AS A PART OF THE LARGER PHENOMENON OF WESTERN POPULAR CULTURE’S FASCINATION WITH THE INDIAN AESTHETIC. ARTISTS ARE DIGGING DEEPER INTO THE CRATES... LOOKING FOR ORIGINAL SOUNDS TO EXPAND THE PALETTE OF THEIR ART.


LYWOOD?


•08


WHAT EXACTLY IS BOLLYWOOD? Bollywood, a term that refers to the Indian music industry, was first coined in the 1970s when India surpassed Hollywood as the world’s largest film producer. Unlike Hollywood, Bollywood does not exist as a physical place. When combined with other Indian film industries (Tamil, Telugu, Bengali, Malayalam, Kannada), it is considered to be the largest in the world in terms of number of films produced. Currently, Bollywood churns out 1,000 movies per year. Bollywood films are usually musicals. Few movies are made without at least one song-and-dance number.

•09


“Hollywood wants a piece of the film-loving market that the Bollywood industry possesses.�


THE GROWTH OF BOLLYWOOD It was after the turn of the century that Indian entertainment underwent a sea change when the Father of Indian Cinema, Dadasaheb Phalke, released his pathbreaking film of the Silent Era, Raja Harishchandra. The film was India’s first full-length feature film. The growth of technology and the excitement it generated the world over eventually gave birth of India’s first ‘talking and singing’ film, Alam Ara, made by Ardeshir Irani and screened in Bombay in 1931. Finally, India’s actors had found a voice. They could talk, they could shout, they could even cry, and they could do one more thing – sing for their audiences. It was a gift that remains the signature of the quintessential Hindi film to date.

BOLLYWOOD HISTORY

1913

1930s

1937

1947

Raja Harishchandra by Dadasaheb Phalke is the first silent feature film made in India.

The industry is producing over 200 films per annum.

Kisan Kanya by Ardeshir Irani is the first colour film in Hindi.

India becomes an independent nation.

1931

Alam Ara by Ardeshir Irani is a major commercial success. There is clearly a huge market for musicals.

PLAYLIST

• “De De Khuda Ke Naam Per” - Wazir Mohammad Khan (1931) This song, featured in the film Alam Ara, carries the credit of being the first song ever to be played on the Hindi film screen.

• “Holi Aayi Re Kanhai” - Shamshad Begum (1957) This song is cited as a typical Hindi film song which is written for and sung by a female singer, with an emotional charge that appeals to a mass audience. It is featured in the Bollywood film Mother India.

• “Disco Dancer” - Devo (1988) This song is inspired by the song “I am a Disco Dancer” from the Bollywood film Disco Dancer (1982).

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Storytelling becomes a large part of cinema.

Bonnie and Clyde marks the beginning of American cinema rebounding.

Enormous success is enjoyed by Friedkin with The Exorcist, Spielberg with Jaws, Scorsese with Taxi Driver and Lucas with Star Wars, giving rise to the modern “blockbuster”.

1950s

1967

1970s

“NEW HOLLYWOOD” (1950s – 80s) HOLLYWOOD

GOLDEN AGE

MODERN CINEMA

1957

1958

1960s–70s

1975

1988

Mother India by Mehboob Khan is nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film.

Madhumati by Bimal Roy popularizes the theme of reincarnation in Western pop culture.

Romance becomes a popular theme in Bollywood films.

Amitabh Bachchan, now iconic star of Bollywood film, breaks out. He currently has a statue at the famous Madame Tussauds Wax Museum.

Salaam Bombay! by Mira Nair wins the Golden Camera award at the Cannes Film Festival and is nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film.

FILMI: Indian popular music as written and performed for Indian cinema. Though Filmi singers may release solo albums, their performances in film soundtracks tend to be more noticed due to the widespread appeal of movies.

Filmi makes up 72% of the music sales in India. •13


2000s: HOLLYWOOD BORROWS FROM BOLLYWOOD Wider box office successes occur in India and abroad, including Lagaan (2001 – nominated for Best Foreign Language Film at the 74th Academy Awards), Dhoom (2004), Om Shanti Om (2007), Singh Is Kinng (2008), and 3 Idiots (2009). A new generation of popular actors and actresses, such as former Miss Universe, Aishwarya Rai, accept roles in Western-made films such as Bride & Prejudice.

2001 MOULIN ROUGE

2002 THE GURU

When asked about his inspiration for Moulin Rouge, director Baz Luhrmann remarked: “Catherine Martin (production designer and Luhrmann’s wife) and I went to India to work on Midsummer Night’s Dream.

The Guru centers on a dance teacher who comes to America from India to pursue a normal career but incidentally stumbles into a brief but high-profile career as a sex guru, a career based on a philosophy he learns from a pornographic actress.

We went out one night and there was a big poster up for a Bollywood movie. I said, ‘Let’s go see that.’ We did. And we thought that was amazing. So our question was, ‘Could we create a cinematic form like that? Could a musical work?’ A musical must be able to work in western culture again, and could it be comic-tragic? So then began this commitment of moving toward Moulin Rouge. I decided I’d do Romeo and Juliet and then a musical film.

•14

It features several Bollywood-style song-anddance numbers, including one where Ramu and Sharonna sing a version of Kya Mil Gaya from Sasural that morphs into a version of “You’re the One That I Want” from Grease.


PLAYLIST

• “Hindi Sad Diamonds” - Alka Yagnik, John Leguizamo & Nicole Kidman (2001) This song from Moulin Rouge is part of a duet which weaves together the music and lyrics of “Chamma Chamma” (from the 1998 Bollywood film China Gate) along with the classic “Diamonds Are A Girl’s Best Friend”.

• “My Lips Are Waiting” - Ashanti (2004) Ashanti makes a cameo appearance in the film Bride and Prejudice, in which she sings this song. Her appearance in the film is meant as homage to a tradition in Bollywood films where a celebrity would make a cameo appearance to sing a song that has no direct involvement in the plot.

• “Singh Is Kinng” - Akshay Kumar, RDB & Snoop Dogg (2008) This title song from the film Singh Is Kinng features Snoop Dogg venturing into Bollywood with his first ever rap for an Indian movie.

2004 BRIDE & PREJUDICE

BOLLYWOOD MEETS SNOOP

Bride & Prejudice is a romantic musical film directed by Gurinder Chadha. It was filmed primarily in English, with some Hindi and Punjabi dialogue. The screenplay is a Bollywood-style adaptation of Pride & Prejudice by Jane Austen.

American rapper Snoop Dogg is featured, along with Indian actor Akshay Kumar, in a music video for Singh is Kinng, a 2008 Bollywood action comedy film. It received particular attention in the United States due to the incoporation of Snoop Dogg’s cameo in the film, performing the title song. Snoop Dogg’s performance is “The first time that a mainstream American artist has performed on a Bollywood soundtrack”. •15


WHAT IS BHANGRA? Bhangra is a lively form of music and dance that originated in the Punjab region in Southeast Asia. It is seen by some in the West as an expression of South Asian culture as a whole. As many Bhangra lyrics reflect the long and often tumultuous history of the Punjab, knowledge of Punjabi history offers important insights into the meaning of the music. While Bhangra began as a part of harvest festival celebrations, it eventually became a part of such diverse occasions as weddings and New Year celebrations. Moreover, during the last thirty years, Bhangra has enjoyed a surge in popularity worldwide, both in traditional form and as a fusion with genres such as Hip-Hop, House, and Reggae. As Bhangra continues to move into mainstream culture, an understanding of its history and tradition helps to appreciate it.

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PUNJABI

+

Punjabi folk music is the traditional music on the traditional musical instruments of Punjab region. There is a great repertoire of music from the time of birth through the different stages of joy and sorrow till death.The folk music invokes the traditions as well as the hardworking nature, bravery and many more things that the people of Punjab get from its gateway-to-India geographical location.

HIP-HOP In the late 1970s, an underground movement started laying its base in the South Bronx area of New York City called Hip-Hop. By the late ‘70s and early ‘80s, the movement gained a lot of publicity in the media with Billboard magazine printing an article mentioning a lot of the local pioneering figures. Hip-Hop quickly became the dominant cultural movement amongst minorities in urban communities throughout the 1980s.

INSTRUMENTS THAT MAKE UP THE SOUND OF BHANGRA Bhangra today has evolved into a largely beat-based music genre. Both Bollywood music and Hip-Hop traditionally involve a lot of rhythm and beats. Many different Punjabi instruments contribute to the sound of Bhangra, including the following:

DHOL

DHOLAK

DAFLI

SITAR

SARANGI

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“Because the original Punjabi folk beat is different from the commercialized version we see today, the use of Bhangra beats shows the complexity and ingenuity of Hip-Hop in North America and how artists gain inspiration from all different genres of music.�


THE ASIAN UNDERGROUND Asian Underground is a term associated with various British Asian musicians (mostly Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and Sri Lankan) who blend elements of Western underground dance music and the traditional Asian music of their home countries in South Asia. Most of these artists are the children or grandchildren of immigrants and have grown up in Western culture, but still have a strong Asian background through their families.

PLAYLIST

• “Bhabiye Akh Larr Gayee” - Bhujhangy Group (1970) The first song to take the momentous step of combining traditional Asian music with modern western instruments, setting the template for the developments in Bhangra that would follow.

• “Boom Shack-A-Lak” - Apache Indian (1993) This song is Apache Indian’s biggest hit in the UK, reaching #5 in the charts in 1993. The song has also been featured in various Hollywood films such as Dumb & Dumber and Clueless. The song is also featured in the Bollywood film Anjaam.

• “Brimful of Asha” - Cornershop (1997) After a remixed version of this song becomes both a radio and critical success, the song is re-released and reaches #1 in the UK chart in February 1998. The lyrics are a tribute to Asha Bhosle, one of the most famous pop singers/film-score vocalists of India.

•22


In the 1980s, the Asian Underground scene gave rise to the Bhangra music genre, which would later become more mainstream in the 1990s and 2000s. Asian Underground music has influenced mainstream American Hip-Hop, R&B and urban music in the 2000s, including ar tists such as Timbaland, Truth Hurts, Jay Z, Snoop Dogg, Missy Elliott and Britney Spears. According to DJ Green Lantern, “Indian beats have now become a fixture on the R&B scene”.

•23


PLAYLIST

• “Dance With You (Nachna Tere Naal)” - Jay Sean (2003) This song is Jay Sean’s debut single, produced by Rishi Rich. The song was also included in the soundtrack for the 2003 Bollywood film Boom.

• “Down” - Jay Sean ft. Lil Wayne (2009) This song is Jay Sean’s first debut single in North America, from his first album there, All or Nothing.

• “Do You Remember” - Jay Sean ft. Sean Paul & Lil Jon (2009) This song is the second single by Jay Sean from his American debut album, and features Jamaican dancehall musician Sean Paul and American crunk rapper Lil Jon. The song was also featured at the start of the 2010 film remake of The Karate Kid.

•24


THE ASIAN UNDERGROUND: JAY SEAN Kamaljit Singh Jhooti, better known by his stage name Jay Sean, is a British singer-songwriter, rapper, beatboxer and record producer. With his debut album, Sean was influential in popularizing Indian-R&B fusion sounds in Asian Underground and Indian pop music.

U.S. SUCCESS

Jay Sean debuted in the UK’s Asian Underground scene as a member of the Rishi Rich Project with “Dance with You”, reaching #12 on the UK Chart.

This led to him being signed to Virgin Records and having two UK top 10 hits as a solo artist: “Eyes On You” at #6 and “Stolen” at #4.

They were included in his critically acclaimed debut album Me Against Myself which, though only moderately successful in the UK, sold more than two million copies across Asia and remains his most successful album to date. Alongside the Rishi Rich Project, Jay Sean was a pioneer of Bhangra-R&B fusion.

Jay Sean is signed to Cash Money Records. His American debut single “Down” topped the Billboard Hot 100, making him the first solo artist of South Asian origin and first UK urban act to top the Hot 100. It was the seventh best selling song of 2009, having sold more than three million copies in the United States that year. Eventually it reached four million sales in the United States and six million sales worldwide, making him the most successful British/European male urban artist in US chart history. “Down” is the fifth best selling song by a British artist in the digital era. It was soon followed by another hit, “Do You Remember”, which has sold more than a million copies in the US, and entered the top ten on the Hot 100, making him the first male act since Chingy in 2003 to “simultaneously appear in the Hot 100 top 10 with his first two charting singles.” They were included in his American debut album All or Nothing, which debuted at #37 on the US Billboard 200.

•25


DESI HIP-HOP The term “desi” comes from the Sanskrit root “des,” or “desh,” meaning country. Thus, “des-i” or desi refers to peoples, cultures, and products of South Asia. Desi Hip-Hop is used to define a rising cultural movement. The term is an umbrella phrase to cover all things “desi” influenced by Hip-Hop, and all things Hip-Hop influenced by “Desis.” The movement started locally (and to an extent individually) in different parts of the world as South Asian populations migrated.

The Desi Hip-Hop scene in the America grew somewhat independently from was happening in the UK. The DJs were the first to make an impact in New York, San Francisco, and Los Angeles, mixing popular Hip-Hop tunes with Bhangra and Hindi tracks. DJs across the country, including DJ Rekha, Tej Gill, Razor Rus, DJ Notorious, doc bLAdez and Sandeep Kumar were seen in clubs and house parties mixing up Hip-Hop anthems with Bhangra/Punjabi/Bollywood hits.

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PLAYLIST

• “I Am A Breakdancer” - Vijay Benedict & Amit Kumar (1987) In the film Pyar Karke Dekho, actor Govinda does a dance to this song, giving direct reference to the Hip-Hop movement that had started in New York.

• “Star Megamix” - Bally Sagoo (1990) Bally Sagoo is a British-Indian record producer. This song is from his first album Wham Bam: Bhangra Remixes. He later toured India with Michael Jackson on the “HIStory Tour”, produced the Aby Baby album with Amitabh Bachchan, and was invited to New Delhi to meet the Indian President.

• “Thanda Thanda Pani” - Baba Sehgal (1990) Baba Sehgal, considered to be the first Indian “rapper”, comically covers Vanilla Ice’s “Ice Ice Baby” in this Hindi version of the song.

Hip-Hop was evident in Bollywood movies in the mid-1980s. Though as Hip-Hop continued to make cameos in Bollywood films, it was not until the 2000s that social media gave way to real Hip-Hop exposure in India. International artists like 50 Cent, Mobb Deep, Snoop Dogg, and The Black Eyed Peas have all performed in India.

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•30


CHANGING AMERICA’S PERCEPTION The general understanding of East Indians has been imbued with stereotype for years. (The stereotypes are everywhere. Try, “Dr. Science purchased his pre-arranged wife for the low price of two buffalos. They danced in the rain and lived happily ever after, but only after seven or eight show-stopping tunes.”) But in the past decade or so, a noticeable shift has occurred in America. East has met West, and a lovechild is well on the way, because Indian pop culture (stereotypes and all) is getting romanced by the American mainstream, and vice versa.

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“The mainstream perception is changing, as are trends of assimilation, which is why this ‘Bollywood phenomenon’ is so fascinating.”


PLAYLIST

• “Beware” (Jay Z Remix) - Panjabi MC (2004) This song is a remix of Panjabi MC’s hit song “Mundian To Bach Ke”, which mixes the theme of the TV series Knight Rider with Bhangra.

• “99 Problems” - Jay Z (2004) This mega-hit from Jay Z’s The Black Album is from the same time period as his remix with Panjabi MC.

• “Chaiyya Chaiyya Bollywood Joint” - Sapna Awasthi & Sukwinder Singh ft. Panjabi MC (2006) This Hip-Hop remix of the song Chaiyya Chaiyya from the 1998 film Dil Se.. is used in the opening credits of the 2006 film Inside Man.

•34


PANJABI MC Every now and then, a song bursts into the atmosphere with its own gravitational force and manages to pull even the most resistant music fans out of their usual orbits. Run-DMC’s cover of Aerosmith’s ‘’Walk This Way’’ did it in 1986, winning over rock skeptics and persuading Hip-Hop fans that good beats are where you find them. Nirvana’s ‘’Smells Like Teen Spirit’’ did in 1991, convincing millions of punk, pop and metal partisans that they could find common ground. And in 2004, ‘’Beware of the Boys’’ by Panjabi MC and Jay Z did the same thing for the Hip-Hop nation.

In the space of four fierce minutes, ‘’Beware of the Boys’’ conveys both the stylish sang-froid of Hip-Hop and the physical jubilation of an Indian wedding. The drums could be a marching band, except that they sound too liquid, almost like vocals. Full-throated and virtuosic, the singing has an almost religious passion, but it’s obviously pop to somebody. Beneath it all runs a distinctly worldly synthesizer sample, a phrase you think you know. A TV show theme, maybe? It’s a dance tune, but unmistakably not American.

“Under its influence, people who have never listened to Indian music are walking into record stores and asking for things they can barely pronounce.”

PANJABI MC ON WORKING WITH JAY Z “I don’t think it took Jay-Z very long to actually do the verse. He left a message for me, and he kind of spat the verse into my voicemail. Just that voicemail became a classic hit amongst my friends. We acknowledged that this is going to be a groundbreaking moment for Bhangra music, definitely. We hadn’t imagined that these guys, the mainstream Hip-Hop, the biggest artists in the world, are listening to Bhangra music.”

BHANGRA BROTHERS

▶▶ •35


BHANGRA BROTHERS The great boom concerning Bollywood and Indian was sparked off by a single smash hit: “Mundian To Bach Ke“ by Panjabi MC. Manmander Singh Kahi has performed the song with Panjabi MC on all the major stages of the world. After that great success, Manmander Singh Kahi and Gurinder Singh Bewas founded a new band — the Bhangra Brothers.

Bhangra Brothers, along with Panjabi MC, enjoy a very high level of awareness. Packed with energy, rhythmical drive, melody and charisma, they finally fill the huge vacuum that has been crying out for modern, club-compatible Bhangra songs in the wake of the Bollywood boom.

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PLAYLIST

• “Mundian To Bach Ke” - Panjabi MC (2003) The smash hit that sparked the success of the Bhangra Brothers. In addition to features of Bhangra music, this song also uses the bass line and part of the beat from “Fire It Up” by Busta Rhymes. Bhangra Brothers have performed this song live with Panjabi MC.

• “Aaja Nach Ley” - Bhangra Brothers (2007) This song is the most popular tune from the Bhangra Brothers’ 2007 album, Soni Mutear.

• “Sun Baliye” - Bhangra Brothers ft. RDB (2011) From the album of the same name, this song features RDB who is also featured in a Bollywood music video with Snoop Dogg.

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4


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HYBRIDITY & SUBCULTURAL EXCHANGE Hip-Hop’s use of Indian samples is better understood as part of a subcultural exchange of commodities, one result of which is the creation of hybridity as a means to negotiate a relationship between both parties, as well as to a dominant culture. The music of South Asia, especially Bhangra and Bollywood, has become a familiar sound in American Hip-Hop. In 2008, Hip-Hop, Pop, Rap, and R&B charts all featured Indian sounds among their top 10 slots.

•41


“This is part of a larger cultu finding the next beat. It’s w

for something different. It’s p

globally... There has been a l

culture with the Orient. It’s e

stolen, but actually this is pa


ural trend within Hip-Hop of idening the palate, looking

part of the rise of Bollywood

long fascination within black

easy to say culture is being

art of a larger dialogue.� - DJ Rekha


TOP BOLLYWOOD SAMPLES IN HIP-HOP Bollywood’s rich soundtrack catalogue has only started to be heard outside of India in recent years, in perfect timing to grab the attention of western producers who are forever looking for fresh sounds to sample. It’s therefore no surprise to see Bollywood samples cropping up in more and more global chart hits as well as underground Hip-Hop music.

Mobb Deep ft. Young Buck – “Give It To Me” YEAR: 2006 ALBUM: Blood Money PRODUCER: Profile BOLLYWOOD SAMPLE: “Tujhe Yaad Na Meri Aaye” by Alka Yagnik, Manpreet Akhathar and Udit Narayan, taken from the film Kuch Kuch Hota Hai (1998). Instead of choosing a vocal hook from one of the main characters, Profile chops up a choral sequence with parts of the original instrumentation and percussive Bhangra rhythm, resulting in a tough, rolling beat, perfect for Havoc, Prodigy and Young Buck‘s hard gangsta raps.

Erick Sermon ft. Redman – “React“ YEAR: 2002 ALBUM: React PRODUCER: Just Blaze BOLLYWOOD SAMPLE: “Chandi Ka Badan” by Asha Bhosle from the 1963 film Taj Mahal. Just Blaze works Asha Bhosle‘s voice into a a hard-hitting Hip-Hop beat. The verses are as strong as you’d expect from these two legendary MCs, and a creative use of interplay between the raps and the sampled voice makes for a memorable chorus.

Method Man ft. Busta Rhymes – “What’s Happenin’” YEAR: 2004 ALBUM: Tical 0: The Prequel PRODUCER: DJ Scratch BOLLYWOOD SAMPLE: “Dum Maro Dum” (‘puff, take a puff’) by Asha Bhosle and Usha Iyer, taken from the 1971 film Hare Rama Hare Krishna. The film Hare Rama Hare Krishna follows an unusual plot that criticizes the decadence and drug-taking of Western hippies in India in the late 1960s. “Dum Maro Dum” was a huge hit in India in the 1970s, and gained cult status to the extent that a new film released in 2011 is named after it, and features an up-to-date remake of the original.

•44


“Every Hip-Hop record got an Indian sample. Do your research.” - Wyclef Jean

BOLLYWOOD SAMPLES 4–2

▶▶


“Gimmie some new shit.” - Missy Elliott


Jay Z ft. Kanye West – “The Bounce” YEAR: 2002 ALBUM: The Blueprint 2 PRODUCER: Timbaland BOLLYWOOD SAMPLE: “Choli Ke Peeche Kya Hai” by Alka Yagnik and Ila Arun, from the 1993 film Khal Nayak. Raje Shwari sings a rendition of the sample that is more understated than the vocal performance on the original recording and, coupled with a bit of clever studio trickery, creates the perfect haunting vocal to accompany the chorus. Notably, this track also includes the first verse Kanye West ever released as a rapper.

M.I.A. – “Jimmy“ YEAR: 2007 ALBUM: Kala PRODUCER: Switch & M.I.A. BOLLYWOOD SAMPLE: “Jimmy Jimmy Jimmy Aaja” by Parvati Khan, from the 1982 film Disco Dancer. British artist M.I.A., who was born to parents of Sri-Lankan Tamil and Hindu descent, is an artist who can credibly claim to have grown up listening to Bollywood soundtracks. She has built on her connection and passion for that music by incorporating Indian music samples into no less than 4 songs on the album, including opening track “Bamboo Banga”, single “Bird Flu”, and Timbaland-produced “Come Around”.

Black Eyed Peas – “Don’t Phunk With My Heart” YEAR: 2005 ALBUM: Monkey Business PRODUCER: Will.i.am BOLLYWOOD SAMPLE: “Aye Naujawan Hai Sab Kuchch Yahan” by Asha Bhosle, taken from the 1972 film Apradh. The Black Eyed Peas are no strangers to sampling and they sure like to sample Bollywood. They’ve done it several times, including in the opening to quirky single “My Humps”, but the most memorable example is on Grammy award winning single “Don’t Phunk with My Heart”.

PLAYLIST

THE TOP BOLLYWOOD SAMPLE IN HIP-HOP

▶▶

• “Get Ur Freak On” - Missy Elliott (2001) Based on heavy Bhangra elements, this song features a six-note base that is a Punjabi melody played on a tumbi, a stringed Indian instrument.

• “Indian Flute” - Timbaland ft. Magoo (2003) The call and response between Tim and Magoo, and vocalist Raje Shwari, gives this song a distinct Bollywood feel.

• “Nas’ Angels... The Flyest” - Nas ft. Pharrell Williams (2003) This collision of Hip-Hop and Bollywood is featured on the soundtrack to the 2003 film Charlie’s Angels: Full Throttle.

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Truth Hurts ft. Rakim – “Addictive” YEAR: 2002 ALBUM: Truthfully Speaking PRODUCER: DJ Quik & Dr. Dre BOLLYWOOD SAMPLE: “Thoda Resham Lagta Hai’ by Lata Mangeshkar, taken from the 1981 film Jyoti. DJ Quik first heard the Lata Mangeshkar song while watching the Hindi film Jyoti on Z-TV, and subsequently looped large sections into a framework over which the R&B lyrics were laid. Along with the song’s original percussion and groove, he created a sensual, mysterious, and psychedelic beat that has stood the test of time.

“‘Addictive’ has distinguished itself as the boldest example yet to emerge of the Bollywood trend in mainstream Hip-Hop and R&B.”

“ADDICTIVE”: SO CONTAGIOUS “When I first heard it, I was driving in the car with my mom in the passenger seat, the radio tuned to Jammin’ 94.5 and blaring out upbeat Hip-Hop tunes. Suddenly, I hear the words “Kaliyon ka chaman tab bantha hai...” and I can only stare at my mother in shock. This was the first, but certainly not the last I heard of the chart-topping song “Addictive” by Truth Hurts.” - Manasi Singhal, a young man of Indian descent. “Addictive” became a top ten hit, and its video went into heavy rotation on the major video channels. Fans of the track included Indian Americans who were surprised and thrilled to hear “their” Bollywood music in the mainstream media.

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LAWSUITS: THE RESULT OF ILLEGAL SAMPLING

DR. DRE

TIMBALAND

It was not long until “Addictive” was transformed from a symbol of cultural fusion into the latest poster child warning the dangers of copyright infringement in digital sampling. Bappi Lahiri, the composer of “Thoda Resham Lagta Hai,” filed a lawsuit in October 2002 against executive producer Dr. Dre, Aftermath Records, and its parent company, Interscope/Universal Music Group, claiming that the song was used without permission. Lahiri successfully won an injunction, halting the sales of the album and single, and is further seeking damages up to one million dollars, charging the defendants with “cultural imperialism.”

Super producer Timbaland was sued for a single he produced for L.A. rapper The Game titled “Put You On The Game”. The beat contained a looped sample of 3 notes obtained from the song “Baghor Mein Bahar Hai” from the 1960s Bollywood movie, Aradhana, which the plaintiffs, Saregama India Ltd., claimed were used without their permission. However, under the terms of the 1960s contract, the songwriter obtained rights for only two years and after that they reverted back to the film’s producer, Shakti Films. Since the film’s producers currently have the rights to the original song, Saregama could not sue Timbaland for copyright infringement.

COMPLETE PLAYLIST

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PLAYLIST The songs mentioned throughout this book are meant to provide audio context to the content. All songs are available for download in the iTunes store using the search term: Bollywood: Remixed. Enjoy the music!

• “De De Khuda Ke Naam Per” - Wazir Mohammad Khan (1931) • “Holi Aayi Re Kanhai” - Shamshad Begum (1957) • “Disco Dancer” - Devo (1988) • “Hindi Sad Diamonds” - Alka Yagnik, John Leguizamo & Nicole Kidman (2001) • “My Lips Are Waiting” - Ashanti (2004) • “Singh Is Kinng” - Akshay Kumar, RDB & Snoop Dogg (2008) • “Bhabiye Akh Larr Gayee” - Bhujhangy Group (1970) • “Boom Shack-A-Lak” - Apache Indian (1993) • “Brimful of Asha” - Cornershop (1997) • “Dance With You (Nachna Tere Naal)” - Jay Sean (2003) • “Down” - Jay Sean ft. Lil Wayne (2009) • “Do You Remember” - Jay Sean ft. Sean Paul & Lil Jon (2009) • “I Am A Breakdancer” - Vijay Benedict & Amit Kumar (1987) • “Star Megamix” - Bally Sagoo (1990) • “Thanda Thanda Pani” - Baba Sehgal (1990) • “Beware” (Jay Z Remix) - Panjabi MC (2004) • “99 Problems” - Jay Z (2004) • “Chaiyya Chaiyya Bollywood Joint” - Sapna Awasthi & Sukwinder Singh ft. Panjabi MC (2006) • “Mundian To Bach Ke” - Panjabi MC (2003) • “Aaja Nach Ley” - Bhangra Brothers (2007) • “Sun Baliye” - Bhangra Brothers ft. RDB (2011) • “Give It To Me” - Mobb Deep ft. Young Buck (2006) • “React” - Erick Sermon ft. Redman (2002) • “What’s Happenin’” - Method Man ft. Busta Rhymes (2004) • “The Bounce” - Jay Z ft. Kanye West (2002) • “Jimmy” - M.I.A. (2007) • “Don’t Phunk With My Heart” - Black Eyed Peas (2005) • “Get Ur Freak On” - Missy Elliott (2001) • “Indian Flute” - Timbaland ft. Magoo (2003) • “Nas’ Angels... The Flyest” - Nas ft. Pharrell Williams (2003) • “Addictive” - Truth Hurts ft. Rakim (2002)


Bollywood: Remixed  
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