Journal of Texas School Women Executives, Volume II, Issue 1 2013 respective literacy practices in the home through limited understanding of literacy practices. Furthermore, St. Jean Barry (2009) attests to the fact that in order for learning to be effective in many immigrant families, it is imperative to link studentsâ€™ culture and perspective.
Literacy and Empowerment: Some immigrant families are lacking in empowerment and guidance on literacy. One of the ways to empower immigrant families is to break the barrier of intimidation that many immigrants feel towards institutions by creating an atmosphere where immigrant families can feel comfortable to embrace all access of literacy (DaSilva, 2005). The general findings about literacy research centralize on the fact that arrival in the United States most of the time does not promise immediate access to literacy. Many immigrants live in the United States for years as illiterates despite the fact that they learn to speak very fast English very quickly. Their illiteracy is demonstrated in their inability to find jobs to support their families. However with assertive determination, immigrants can learn how to read and write in a short period of time. According to Miller (2005), the experience of living without literacy in the United States is a hindrance to completing personal and professional objectives. In her study, she captured the story of a young Somali woman who was nineteen years old and illiterate. Although she spoke English fluently, her lack of literacy was an obstacle in securing a job to provide for herself and her young son. The woman was embarrassed by activities she was not capable of doing; however she still held lofty goals for her life, which included receiving her GED and starting a center for abused Somali women. The Somali woman asserted that if she concentrated, she could learn to read and write in one or two months. (Miller, 2005). The aforementioned narrative impeccably defines the determination possessed by the majority of immigrants. Literacy and Second Language Learners: Within brick and mortar schools, there is an urgency when instructing language-minority students to read and write well in English. This urgency centers around the fact that English literacy is essential to, not only, achievement in academia but also educational and economic opportunities beyond formal schooling (August and Shanahan, 2006). An indication of this pressure is present among Somali refugees who typically have little or no education from their home country due to civil war, absence of scholastic opportunities in refugee camps, or the fact their native tongue did not have any written form until 1972. These factors contribute to the high number of illiterates among Somali refugees who have a rigorous road to learning while living here in the United States (Bigelow, 2007). Research in the area of literacy is contributing towards an enhanced understanding of how to address the quandary of illiteracy among immigrant families. One aspect that has been neglected in understanding literacy is the link between phonetics and literacy. Curtis and Kruidenier (2005) offered a comprehensive and useful review of research on adults learning to read in their home 18