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P

eahoone fassaad on lihtsa ja range joonega, mõjudes ühtaegu soliidselt ja elegantselt. Fassaadi keskmes tõuseb esile võimas portikus, mille kuus Toscana sammast toetavad kolmnurkviilu. See sammaskoda, mille keskelt avaneb sissepääs teadmiste templisse, on ühtlasi Eesti rahva hariduspüüdluste sümboliks. Sama motiiv kordub pilastritena hoone tagaküljel, kus asuvad ka ehituse alguse- ja lõpudaatumitega graniittahvlid. Kõrgklassitsistlikus stiilis kolmekorruseline hoone on paigutatud ajastule iseloomulikult veidi eenduvale soklile, millelt kerkib rustikaga kaunistatud esimene korrus. Ülakorruste siledat seinapinda ehivad vaid akantuselehtedest ornamendid akende all – motiiv, mis viitab veel 18. sajandi arhitektuurile. Hoone ülaosa ümbritseb triglüüfidega friis ning hammaslõikes katuseääris. 1998. aastal taastati Krause-aegse maketi järgi fassaadi esialgne värvigamma – valgete sammastega kivihall seinapind ning kuldkollase taustaga valged ornamendid.

T

he facade of the main building has a simple and austere outline, appearing both majestic and elegant. In the middle of the facade there is a grand portico, the six Tuscan pillars of which support a triangular entablature. The colonnade through which the entrance to the temple of knowledge passes is also a symbol of the Estonian people’s educational ambitions. The same motif is repeated in pilasters at the rear of the building, where there are also granite tablets bearing the dates of commencement and completion of construction. The three-storey building, designed in the late classicistic style, is set on a slightly projecting foundation, from which the first storey, which bears rustic decorations, extends. The flat exterior wall of the upper stories is decorated only with acanthus leaf ornaments below the windows – a motif evocative of 18th-century architecture. The upper part of the building is surrounded by a frieze with triglyphs, and the roof has a denticulated edge. 1998 saw the restoration of the facade’s original colour scheme as designed by Krause – the stonegrey wall surface with white columns, and the white ornaments against an ochre background.

P

eahoone tiibhooned kavandas hiljem arhitekt Karl Rathaus. Rektoraadi asukohana tuntud lõunatiib ning füüsika- ja keemiaõpetuseks mõeldud põhjatiib rajati 1856–1859. Lõunatiivas asuvad endiselt rektoraadi ruumid ning Tartu Ülikooli rektori kabinet. Rektori kabinetis on säilinud üks vähestest peahoone vanadest ahjudest ning ajalooline sekretärikapp ja kirjutuslaud. Kabineti ees asuv avar ruum oli varem õpetatud nõukogu saal, kus veel nüüdki näitab aega 1811. aastal Tartu kellassepa J. Huberti valmistatud kappkell. Ülikooli nõukogu uus saal, kus toimuvad nõukogu istungid ja doktoritööde kaitsmised, asub peahoone keskosas, aulaga külgnevas ruumis. Saali seintel ripuvad ülikooli ajaloos olulist rolli etendanud isikute portreed. Need on Rootsi-aegse ülikooli kantsler J. Skytte, taasavatud ülikooli esimene rektor G. F. Parrot, eestikeelse ülikooli rajajad kantsler P. Põld ning rektor H. Koppel.

T

he wings of the main building were designed at a later date by the architect Karl Rathaus. The south wing, which is known as the location of the rector’s office, and the north wing, intended for the teaching of physics and chemistry, were built in 1856–1859. The south wing is still used to accommodate the office of the rector and of those of other members of his team. The rector’s office still has one of the main building’s few old stoves, and a historical escritoire and desk. The spacious room opposite the office was earlier used as the hall for meetings of the Learned Society, where the grandfather clock made by Tartu watchmaker J. Hubert in 1811 still keeps time. The new hall of the university’s council, where council meetings are held and doctoral theses are defended, lies in the centre of the main building, in a room adjacent to the assembly hall. Portraits of persons who have played an important role in the university’s history hang on the walls of the hall. Of central importance are, of course, Johan Skytte, the university’s chancellor during the Swedish era, G. F. Parrot, the first rector after the university was reopened, P. Põld, one of the founders of the Estonian-language university, and rector H. Koppel.

L

õunatiiva alumisel korrusel on Eesti vanim muuseum, 1803. aastal asutatud ülikooli kunstimuuseum. Muuseumi seinu ehivad 1868. aastast alates antiikse Pompei originaale jäljendavad maalingud, mis hästi säilinuna on haruldaseks 19. sajandi ruumikujunduse näiteks Euroopas. Hoone pööningul võib külastada korda rikkunud üliõpilaste karistamiseks mõeldud kartserit. Algsest viiest kartserist ainsana säilinud ruumi seintel on näha karikatuure ja vemmalvärsse. Hävitavalt laastas hoonet 1965. aasta tulekahju, milles põles ära suurem osa hoone keskosast koos aula ja katusekonstruktsioonidega. Peahoone kui rahvusliku sümboli restaureerimine lõpetati riigi abiga 1967. aasta aprillis. Ekskursioonid ettetellimisel Tartu Ülikooli kunstimuuseum tel +372 737 5384 e-post kmm@ut.ee www.ut.ee/artmuseum Autoriõigus: Tartu Ülikool 2009

T

he bottom floor of the south wing houses the oldest museum in Estonia, the university’s Art Museum, founded in 1803. Since 1868, the walls of the museum are decorated with well preserved copies of murals from ancient Pompeii, which are rare examples of 19th-century European interior design. In the attic, visitors can see an old lock-up intended as a place of confinement for misbehaving students. Originally, there were five such facilities, of which only one has been preserved, with some of the drawings and doggerels left on the walls by the inmates still visible. The main building was dealt a heavy blow by the fire which broke out in its central part in 1965, destroying most of the assembly hall and a considerable part of the roofing timbers. Restoration of the main building, an edifice of immense symbolic value for Estonians, was completed in 1967 with support from the national budget. Tours by appointment University of Tartu Art Museum tel +372 737 5384 e-mail: kmm@ut.ee www.ut.ee/artmuseum Copyright: University of Tartu 2009

TARTU ÜLIKOOLI ÜLIKOOLI PEAHOONE PEAHOONE TARTU The Main Building of the University of Tartu The main building of the university of Tartu

T

artu Ülikool, mille sümboliks on kuue valge sambaga peahoone, on üks silmapaistvamaid tähiseid Eesti haridus- ja kultuuriloos. 1632. aastal asutatud ülikool on olnud sillaks saksa ja vene kultuuri vahel ning siin on sajandeid töötanud ja õppinud silmapaistvad loodus- ja ühiskonnateadlased. Ülikooli asutaja, Rootsi kuningas Gustav II Adolfi järgi Academia Gustavianaks nimetatud Tartu Ülikool kuulub Ida-Euroopa vanimate ülikoolide hulka ning on alates 1919. aastast maailma esimene eestikeelne ülikool.

T

he University of Tartu, which is symbolised by the main building with its six white columns, is one of the most notable landmarks in Estonian educational and cultural history. The academy founded in 1632 by the Swedish king Gustavus Adolphus has now trained social and natural scientists for almost four centuries. Many of the university’s graduates have attained wide recognition among their peers, and returned to their alma mater as professors. During the 19th century, the university functioned as an important cultural bridge between Germany and Russia. In 1919, it became the first establishment in the world to adopt Estonian as its language of instruction. The University of Tartu, known in its early days as Academia Gustaviana (after the king who founded it) is also one of the oldest universities in Eastern Europe.

P

eahoone avatseremoonia toimus 31. juulil 1809 aulas, kus on esinduslikumaid klassitsistlikke interjööre Eestis. Aula lae peegelvõlv ja lühtrite ümbrus maaliti koidupunaseks, millele joonistati hall-halliga grisaille’ tehnikas rosette, akantuselehti või ornamente. Kunagisi maalinguid meenutab peegelvõlvi taastatud värvitoon. Aulas toimuvad kõik ülikooli tähtsündmused – akadeemilise aasta avaaktus, Eesti Vabariigi ja emakeelse ülikooli aastapäeva aktus, konverentsid, väljapaistvate külaliste loengud, kontserdid ja muud pidulikud kogunemised.

T

he main building’s opening ceremony took place on 31 July 1809 in the assembly hall, which is marked by one of the most impressive neoclassical interior designs in Estonia. The assembly hall’s arched ceiling and the area surrounding the chandeliers was painted pink, onto which grey on grey – grisaille – rosettes, acanthus leaves or ornaments were drawn. The restored colour recalls the former paintings. The assembly hall is used as the venue for all important events of the university: the opening of the academic year, ceremonial meetings to celebrate the anniversary of the Republic of Estonia and of Estonian-language university education, conferences, public lectures by renowned guests of the university, concerts and other festive gatherings.


P

eahoone fassaad on lihtsa ja range joonega, mõjudes ühtaegu soliidselt ja elegantselt. Fassaadi keskmes tõuseb esile võimas portikus, mille kuus Toscana sammast toetavad kolmnurkviilu. See sammaskoda, mille keskelt avaneb sissepääs teadmiste templisse, on ühtlasi Eesti rahva hariduspüüdluste sümboliks. Sama motiiv kordub pilastritena hoone tagaküljel, kus asuvad ka ehituse alguse- ja lõpudaatumitega graniittahvlid. Kõrgklassitsistlikus stiilis kolmekorruseline hoone on paigutatud ajastule iseloomulikult veidi eenduvale soklile, millelt kerkib rustikaga kaunistatud esimene korrus. Ülakorruste siledat seinapinda ehivad vaid akantuselehtedest ornamendid akende all – motiiv, mis viitab veel 18. sajandi arhitektuurile. Hoone ülaosa ümbritseb triglüüfidega friis ning hammaslõikes katuseääris. 1998. aastal taastati Krause-aegse maketi järgi fassaadi esialgne värvigamma – valgete sammastega kivihall seinapind ning kuldkollase taustaga valged ornamendid.

T

he facade of the main building has a simple and austere outline, appearing both majestic and elegant. In the middle of the facade there is a grand portico, the six Tuscan pillars of which support a triangular entablature. The colonnade through which the entrance to the temple of knowledge passes is also a symbol of the Estonian people’s educational ambitions. The same motif is repeated in pilasters at the rear of the building, where there are also granite tablets bearing the dates of commencement and completion of construction. The three-storey building, designed in the late classicistic style, is set on a slightly projecting foundation, from which the first storey, which bears rustic decorations, extends. The flat exterior wall of the upper stories is decorated only with acanthus leaf ornaments below the windows – a motif evocative of 18th-century architecture. The upper part of the building is surrounded by a frieze with triglyphs, and the roof has a denticulated edge. 1998 saw the restoration of the facade’s original colour scheme as designed by Krause – the stonegrey wall surface with white columns, and the white ornaments against an ochre background.

P

eahoone tiibhooned kavandas hiljem arhitekt Karl Rathaus. Rektoraadi asukohana tuntud lõunatiib ning füüsika- ja keemiaõpetuseks mõeldud põhjatiib rajati 1856–1859. Lõunatiivas asuvad endiselt rektoraadi ruumid ning Tartu Ülikooli rektori kabinet. Rektori kabinetis on säilinud üks vähestest peahoone vanadest ahjudest ning ajalooline sekretärikapp ja kirjutuslaud. Kabineti ees asuv avar ruum oli varem õpetatud nõukogu saal, kus veel nüüdki näitab aega 1811. aastal Tartu kellassepa J. Huberti valmistatud kappkell. Ülikooli nõukogu uus saal, kus toimuvad nõukogu istungid ja doktoritööde kaitsmised, asub peahoone keskosas, aulaga külgnevas ruumis. Saali seintel ripuvad ülikooli ajaloos olulist rolli etendanud isikute portreed. Need on Rootsi-aegse ülikooli kantsler J. Skytte, taasavatud ülikooli esimene rektor G. F. Parrot, eestikeelse ülikooli rajajad kantsler P. Põld ning rektor H. Koppel.

T

he wings of the main building were designed at a later date by the architect Karl Rathaus. The south wing, which is known as the location of the rector’s office, and the north wing, intended for the teaching of physics and chemistry, were built in 1856–1859. The south wing is still used to accommodate the office of the rector and of those of other members of his team. The rector’s office still has one of the main building’s few old stoves, and a historical escritoire and desk. The spacious room opposite the office was earlier used as the hall for meetings of the Learned Society, where the grandfather clock made by Tartu watchmaker J. Hubert in 1811 still keeps time. The new hall of the university’s council, where council meetings are held and doctoral theses are defended, lies in the centre of the main building, in a room adjacent to the assembly hall. Portraits of persons who have played an important role in the university’s history hang on the walls of the hall. Of central importance are, of course, Johan Skytte, the university’s chancellor during the Swedish era, G. F. Parrot, the first rector after the university was reopened, P. Põld, one of the founders of the Estonian-language university, and rector H. Koppel.

L

õunatiiva alumisel korrusel on Eesti vanim muuseum, 1803. aastal asutatud ülikooli kunstimuuseum. Muuseumi seinu ehivad 1868. aastast alates antiikse Pompei originaale jäljendavad maalingud, mis hästi säilinuna on haruldaseks 19. sajandi ruumikujunduse näiteks Euroopas. Hoone pööningul võib külastada korda rikkunud üliõpilaste karistamiseks mõeldud kartserit. Algsest viiest kartserist ainsana säilinud ruumi seintel on näha karikatuure ja vemmalvärsse. Hävitavalt laastas hoonet 1965. aasta tulekahju, milles põles ära suurem osa hoone keskosast koos aula ja katusekonstruktsioonidega. Peahoone kui rahvusliku sümboli restaureerimine lõpetati riigi abiga 1967. aasta aprillis. Ekskursioonid ettetellimisel Tartu Ülikooli kunstimuuseum tel +372 737 5384 e-post kmm@ut.ee www.ut.ee/artmuseum Autoriõigus: Tartu Ülikool 2009

T

he bottom floor of the south wing houses the oldest museum in Estonia, the university’s Art Museum, founded in 1803. Since 1868, the walls of the museum are decorated with well preserved copies of murals from ancient Pompeii, which are rare examples of 19th-century European interior design. In the attic, visitors can see an old lock-up intended as a place of confinement for misbehaving students. Originally, there were five such facilities, of which only one has been preserved, with some of the drawings and doggerels left on the walls by the inmates still visible. The main building was dealt a heavy blow by the fire which broke out in its central part in 1965, destroying most of the assembly hall and a considerable part of the roofing timbers. Restoration of the main building, an edifice of immense symbolic value for Estonians, was completed in 1967 with support from the national budget. Tours by appointment University of Tartu Art Museum tel +372 737 5384 e-mail: kmm@ut.ee www.ut.ee/artmuseum Copyright: University of Tartu 2009

TARTU ÜLIKOOLI ÜLIKOOLI PEAHOONE PEAHOONE TARTU The Main Building of the University of Tartu The main building of the university of Tartu

T

artu Ülikool, mille sümboliks on kuue valge sambaga peahoone, on üks silmapaistvamaid tähiseid Eesti haridus- ja kultuuriloos. 1632. aastal asutatud ülikool on olnud sillaks saksa ja vene kultuuri vahel ning siin on sajandeid töötanud ja õppinud silmapaistvad loodus- ja ühiskonnateadlased. Ülikooli asutaja, Rootsi kuningas Gustav II Adolfi järgi Academia Gustavianaks nimetatud Tartu Ülikool kuulub Ida-Euroopa vanimate ülikoolide hulka ning on alates 1919. aastast maailma esimene eestikeelne ülikool.

T

he University of Tartu, which is symbolised by the main building with its six white columns, is one of the most notable landmarks in Estonian educational and cultural history. The academy founded in 1632 by the Swedish king Gustavus Adolphus has now trained social and natural scientists for almost four centuries. Many of the university’s graduates have attained wide recognition among their peers, and returned to their alma mater as professors. During the 19th century, the university functioned as an important cultural bridge between Germany and Russia. In 1919, it became the first establishment in the world to adopt Estonian as its language of instruction. The University of Tartu, known in its early days as Academia Gustaviana (after the king who founded it) is also one of the oldest universities in Eastern Europe.

P

eahoone avatseremoonia toimus 31. juulil 1809 aulas, kus on esinduslikumaid klassitsistlikke interjööre Eestis. Aula lae peegelvõlv ja lühtrite ümbrus maaliti koidupunaseks, millele joonistati hall-halliga grisaille’ tehnikas rosette, akantuselehti või ornamente. Kunagisi maalinguid meenutab peegelvõlvi taastatud värvitoon. Aulas toimuvad kõik ülikooli tähtsündmused – akadeemilise aasta avaaktus, Eesti Vabariigi ja emakeelse ülikooli aastapäeva aktus, konverentsid, väljapaistvate külaliste loengud, kontserdid ja muud pidulikud kogunemised.

T

he main building’s opening ceremony took place on 31 July 1809 in the assembly hall, which is marked by one of the most impressive neoclassical interior designs in Estonia. The assembly hall’s arched ceiling and the area surrounding the chandeliers was painted pink, onto which grey on grey – grisaille – rosettes, acanthus leaves or ornaments were drawn. The restored colour recalls the former paintings. The assembly hall is used as the venue for all important events of the university: the opening of the academic year, ceremonial meetings to celebrate the anniversary of the Republic of Estonia and of Estonian-language university education, conferences, public lectures by renowned guests of the university, concerts and other festive gatherings.


H

oone vestibüül ja esimene korrus on range ning asjaliku kujundusega. Tumehall puitpõrand kaeti 1930. aastatel valgete ja punaste plaatidega, mis muutis fuajee koos sellest hargnevate koridoridega rõõmsamaks. Peahoones on mälestustahvlid nimekatele õppejõududele, hoone põhjatiival Nobeli preemia laureaadile keemik W. F. Ostwaldile. Ajakirjanduse ja kommunikatsiooni instituudis asub aga laud, mille peal 1920. aastal kirjutati alla Venemaa ja Soome vaheline rahuleping. 19. sajandi lõpul, venestuse survel, ehitati peahoone vasakusse nurka õigeusu kabel ning selle kohale katusele sibulkuppel. Kuppel lammutati 1920. aastal, kuid endise kabeli asukohas avastati renoveerimise ajal krohvikihtide alt Kristust kujutav seinamaal, mis restaureeriti.

T

he building’s vestibule and ground floor are characterised by an austere and functional design. In the 1930s the dark grey wooden floor was covered with white and red tiles, which made the foyer and branching corridors more cheerful. There are plaques in the main building to honour well-known professors of the university. In the north wing of the building there is a plaque in honour of Nobel laureate chemist W. F. Ostwald. The Institute of Journalism and Communication still preserves the table on which the peace treaty of Russia and Finland was signed in 1920. At the end of the 19th century, as part of the policy of Russification pursued by Russian imperial authorities, an Orthodox chapel was built in the left corner of the main building, and above that an onion dome, on the roof. The dome was demolished in 1920, yet during renovations in the area of the chapel, a mural with a portrait of Christ was discovered, and this was restored.

A

astal 1802 taasavatud ülikooli peahoone rajati Toomemäe jalamile, sõdades hävinud Maarja kiriku krundile, mille Vene keiser Paul I oli koos Toomega kinkinud ülikoolile. Ühtaegu range ja suursugune peahoone tõuseb Tartu linnasüdames majesteetlikult esile nii oma mõõtmete kui ka hea asukoha tõttu, paigutatuna tänavajoonest tahapoole, kõrgemale terrassile. 1804–1809 ehitatud peahoone ja osa Toomemäe ansamblist kavandas Johann Wilhelm Krause, kes kunstihariduselt oli iseõppija, kuid praktiseerinud mõisaarhitektina Liivimaal. 1803. aastal sai temast esimene ülikooli arhitekt ja ehituskunsti professor. J. W. Krause loodud ülikooliansambel on esimesi klassitsistlikke ehitisi Tartus, mis jättis sügava jälje Tartu kesklinna arhitektuurile.

T

he university’s main building, reopened in 1802, was built at the foot of Toome Hill, on the foundation of Maarja [St. Mary’s] Church, which was destroyed in war. The land had been given to the university by Russian Tsar Paul I with the rest of Toome Hill. The austere yet majestic main building is notable both for its dimensions and its favourable location, as it is set at a distance from the road, on a raised terrace. The main building, built between 1804 and 1809, and part of the group of buildings on Toome Hill, were designed by Johann Wilhelm Krause, a self-taught architect who had previously designed a number of manors in Livonia. In 1803 Krause became the university’s first official architect and professor of architecture. The university complex created by J. W. Krause is one of the first classicistic buildings in Tartu, and has had a lasting influence on the architecture of downtown Tartu.

Johann Wilhelm Krause

A

ula suursugust pidulikkust rõhutavad läbi korruste kerkivad rikkaliku ornamendiga pilastrid ja 28 kuusepuust voolitud Joonia sammast, mis toetavad ümberringi paiknevat rõdu. Sambakapiteelide voluudid ja ažuurne rõdupiire on nikerdatud meistrikäega, milles klassitsistlikud vormid on maitsekalt ühendatud kohalike motiividega. Puitdekoori kujundamisel oli arhitektil abiks meister Christian Holz Greifswaldist, kes lisas aulale lihtsa rõdumustri näol Tartu linnamajadest pärit elemente. Rõdu ehib vaid tammepärja, loorberivanikute ja rosettidega dekooritud eend, millel algselt asus keiser Aleksander I portree. Põrandal, rõdu tammepärja all, paiknesid suur ja väike kateeder. Suurest kateedrist võis kõnet pidada ainult ülikooli rektor, väikesest ülejäänud rektorid. Mõlemad kateedrid olid kaunistatud saksa hilisrokokoo stiilis vanikute ja rosettidega, mida saab näha väiksel kateedril.

T

he majestic splendor of the assembly hall is accentuated by the richly ornamented pilasters that rise through the floors, and the 28 Ionic columns carved from spruce trunks that support the surrounding balcony. The volutes of the capitals of the columns and the trellised balustrade were carved with a mastery that tastefully combined classical forms and local motifs. In designing the wooden décor, the architect was assisted by master craftsman Christian Holz from Greifswald, who combined elements from the buildings of Tartu to create the simple ornamental pattern that adorns the gallery. The latter is accentuated with a single overhang, which originally bore a portrait of Tsar Alexander I, and is decorated with a wreath of oak leaves, laurel garlands and rosettes. On the main floor, beneath the oak wreath, lay the large and small rostra. Only the university´s rector was permitted to make speeches from the large rostrum, all other rectors used the small rostrum. Both rostra were decorated with the late Rococo style garlands and rosettes that can be seen on the small rostrum.

M

ärtsis 2009 kingiti ülikoolile firma Steinway & Sons valge täismõõdus kontsertklaver. Eesti esimene valge Steinway lubab Tartus taas kõlada maailma muusika tippteostel tuntuimate interpreetide esituses. Varasematel aegadel on ülikooli aulas andnud kontserdi näiteks 1842. aastal Tartut külastanud Ungari helilooja ja klaverivirtuoos Ferenc Liszt. Kaks aastat hiljem esines ülikooli aulas Saksa pianist Clara Schumann, helilooja Robert Schumanni abikaasa. Uue valge klaveri esitluskontserdil mängis 6. märtsil 2009 pianist Kalle Randalu. Idee kinkida ülikoolile peahoone 200. sünnipäeva puhul valge klaver tuli rektor Alar Kariselt. Rektori algatusel loodi ka valge klaveri fond ning korraldati kontserdisari, mille piletitulust ning annetustest kogunes fondi ligi kolmandik klaveri hinnast.

I

n March 2009, the majestic assembly hall received another magnificent addition – a white Steinway & Sons full-size grand piano. The first white Steinway to arrive in Estonia is expected to enrich Tartu’s musical scene with performances of world-famous compositions by the world’s top pianists. We know from history that, during his visit to Tartu in 1842, the Hungarian composer and piano virtuoso Ferenc Liszt gave a concert in the assembly hall. Two years later, the assembly hall was graced by a performance by Clara Schumann, wife of the composer Robert Schumann. The Estonian pianist Kalle Randalu inaugurated the new grand piano in a concert that took place on 6 March 2009. The idea to donate a world-class white grand piano to the university on the occasion of the 200th anniversary of its main building was put forward by the rector Alar Karis, on whose initiative the White Piano Fund was established and a series of concerts organised to raise the sum required for the purchase. The proceeds of the concerts, together with donations to the fund, amounted to almost one third of the cost of the piano.


H

oone vestibüül ja esimene korrus on range ning asjaliku kujundusega. Tumehall puitpõrand kaeti 1930. aastatel valgete ja punaste plaatidega, mis muutis fuajee koos sellest hargnevate koridoridega rõõmsamaks. Peahoones on mälestustahvlid nimekatele õppejõududele, hoone põhjatiival Nobeli preemia laureaadile keemik W. F. Ostwaldile. Ajakirjanduse ja kommunikatsiooni instituudis asub aga laud, mille peal 1920. aastal kirjutati alla Venemaa ja Soome vaheline rahuleping. 19. sajandi lõpul, venestuse survel, ehitati peahoone vasakusse nurka õigeusu kabel ning selle kohale katusele sibulkuppel. Kuppel lammutati 1920. aastal, kuid endise kabeli asukohas avastati renoveerimise ajal krohvikihtide alt Kristust kujutav seinamaal, mis restaureeriti.

T

he building’s vestibule and ground floor are characterised by an austere and functional design. In the 1930s the dark grey wooden floor was covered with white and red tiles, which made the foyer and branching corridors more cheerful. There are plaques in the main building to honour well-known professors of the university. In the north wing of the building there is a plaque in honour of Nobel laureate chemist W. F. Ostwald. The Institute of Journalism and Communication still preserves the table on which the peace treaty of Russia and Finland was signed in 1920. At the end of the 19th century, as part of the policy of Russification pursued by Russian imperial authorities, an Orthodox chapel was built in the left corner of the main building, and above that an onion dome, on the roof. The dome was demolished in 1920, yet during renovations in the area of the chapel, a mural with a portrait of Christ was discovered, and this was restored.

A

astal 1802 taasavatud ülikooli peahoone rajati Toomemäe jalamile, sõdades hävinud Maarja kiriku krundile, mille Vene keiser Paul I oli koos Toomega kinkinud ülikoolile. Ühtaegu range ja suursugune peahoone tõuseb Tartu linnasüdames majesteetlikult esile nii oma mõõtmete kui ka hea asukoha tõttu, paigutatuna tänavajoonest tahapoole, kõrgemale terrassile. 1804–1809 ehitatud peahoone ja osa Toomemäe ansamblist kavandas Johann Wilhelm Krause, kes kunstihariduselt oli iseõppija, kuid praktiseerinud mõisaarhitektina Liivimaal. 1803. aastal sai temast esimene ülikooli arhitekt ja ehituskunsti professor. J. W. Krause loodud ülikooliansambel on esimesi klassitsistlikke ehitisi Tartus, mis jättis sügava jälje Tartu kesklinna arhitektuurile.

T

he university’s main building, reopened in 1802, was built at the foot of Toome Hill, on the foundation of Maarja [St. Mary’s] Church, which was destroyed in war. The land had been given to the university by Russian Tsar Paul I with the rest of Toome Hill. The austere yet majestic main building is notable both for its dimensions and its favourable location, as it is set at a distance from the road, on a raised terrace. The main building, built between 1804 and 1809, and part of the group of buildings on Toome Hill, were designed by Johann Wilhelm Krause, a self-taught architect who had previously designed a number of manors in Livonia. In 1803 Krause became the university’s first official architect and professor of architecture. The university complex created by J. W. Krause is one of the first classicistic buildings in Tartu, and has had a lasting influence on the architecture of downtown Tartu.

Johann Wilhelm Krause

A

ula suursugust pidulikkust rõhutavad läbi korruste kerkivad rikkaliku ornamendiga pilastrid ja 28 kuusepuust voolitud Joonia sammast, mis toetavad ümberringi paiknevat rõdu. Sambakapiteelide voluudid ja ažuurne rõdupiire on nikerdatud meistrikäega, milles klassitsistlikud vormid on maitsekalt ühendatud kohalike motiividega. Puitdekoori kujundamisel oli arhitektil abiks meister Christian Holz Greifswaldist, kes lisas aulale lihtsa rõdumustri näol Tartu linnamajadest pärit elemente. Rõdu ehib vaid tammepärja, loorberivanikute ja rosettidega dekooritud eend, millel algselt asus keiser Aleksander I portree. Põrandal, rõdu tammepärja all, paiknesid suur ja väike kateeder. Suurest kateedrist võis kõnet pidada ainult ülikooli rektor, väikesest ülejäänud rektorid. Mõlemad kateedrid olid kaunistatud saksa hilisrokokoo stiilis vanikute ja rosettidega, mida saab näha väiksel kateedril.

T

he majestic splendor of the assembly hall is accentuated by the richly ornamented pilasters that rise through the floors, and the 28 Ionic columns carved from spruce trunks that support the surrounding balcony. The volutes of the capitals of the columns and the trellised balustrade were carved with a mastery that tastefully combined classical forms and local motifs. In designing the wooden décor, the architect was assisted by master craftsman Christian Holz from Greifswald, who combined elements from the buildings of Tartu to create the simple ornamental pattern that adorns the gallery. The latter is accentuated with a single overhang, which originally bore a portrait of Tsar Alexander I, and is decorated with a wreath of oak leaves, laurel garlands and rosettes. On the main floor, beneath the oak wreath, lay the large and small rostra. Only the university´s rector was permitted to make speeches from the large rostrum, all other rectors used the small rostrum. Both rostra were decorated with the late Rococo style garlands and rosettes that can be seen on the small rostrum.

M

ärtsis 2009 kingiti ülikoolile firma Steinway & Sons valge täismõõdus kontsertklaver. Eesti esimene valge Steinway lubab Tartus taas kõlada maailma muusika tippteostel tuntuimate interpreetide esituses. Varasematel aegadel on ülikooli aulas andnud kontserdi näiteks 1842. aastal Tartut külastanud Ungari helilooja ja klaverivirtuoos Ferenc Liszt. Kaks aastat hiljem esines ülikooli aulas Saksa pianist Clara Schumann, helilooja Robert Schumanni abikaasa. Uue valge klaveri esitluskontserdil mängis 6. märtsil 2009 pianist Kalle Randalu. Idee kinkida ülikoolile peahoone 200. sünnipäeva puhul valge klaver tuli rektor Alar Kariselt. Rektori algatusel loodi ka valge klaveri fond ning korraldati kontserdisari, mille piletitulust ning annetustest kogunes fondi ligi kolmandik klaveri hinnast.

I

n March 2009, the majestic assembly hall received another magnificent addition – a white Steinway & Sons full-size grand piano. The first white Steinway to arrive in Estonia is expected to enrich Tartu’s musical scene with performances of world-famous compositions by the world’s top pianists. We know from history that, during his visit to Tartu in 1842, the Hungarian composer and piano virtuoso Ferenc Liszt gave a concert in the assembly hall. Two years later, the assembly hall was graced by a performance by Clara Schumann, wife of the composer Robert Schumann. The Estonian pianist Kalle Randalu inaugurated the new grand piano in a concert that took place on 6 March 2009. The idea to donate a world-class white grand piano to the university on the occasion of the 200th anniversary of its main building was put forward by the rector Alar Karis, on whose initiative the White Piano Fund was established and a series of concerts organised to raise the sum required for the purchase. The proceeds of the concerts, together with donations to the fund, amounted to almost one third of the cost of the piano.


H

oone vestibüül ja esimene korrus on range ning asjaliku kujundusega. Tumehall puitpõrand kaeti 1930. aastatel valgete ja punaste plaatidega, mis muutis fuajee koos sellest hargnevate koridoridega rõõmsamaks. Peahoones on mälestustahvlid nimekatele õppejõududele, hoone põhjatiival Nobeli preemia laureaadile keemik W. F. Ostwaldile. Ajakirjanduse ja kommunikatsiooni instituudis asub aga laud, mille peal 1920. aastal kirjutati alla Venemaa ja Soome vaheline rahuleping. 19. sajandi lõpul, venestuse survel, ehitati peahoone vasakusse nurka õigeusu kabel ning selle kohale katusele sibulkuppel. Kuppel lammutati 1920. aastal, kuid endise kabeli asukohas avastati renoveerimise ajal krohvikihtide alt Kristust kujutav seinamaal, mis restaureeriti.

T

he building’s vestibule and ground floor are characterised by an austere and functional design. In the 1930s the dark grey wooden floor was covered with white and red tiles, which made the foyer and branching corridors more cheerful. There are plaques in the main building to honour well-known professors of the university. In the north wing of the building there is a plaque in honour of Nobel laureate chemist W. F. Ostwald. The Institute of Journalism and Communication still preserves the table on which the peace treaty of Russia and Finland was signed in 1920. At the end of the 19th century, as part of the policy of Russification pursued by Russian imperial authorities, an Orthodox chapel was built in the left corner of the main building, and above that an onion dome, on the roof. The dome was demolished in 1920, yet during renovations in the area of the chapel, a mural with a portrait of Christ was discovered, and this was restored.

A

astal 1802 taasavatud ülikooli peahoone rajati Toomemäe jalamile, sõdades hävinud Maarja kiriku krundile, mille Vene keiser Paul I oli koos Toomega kinkinud ülikoolile. Ühtaegu range ja suursugune peahoone tõuseb Tartu linnasüdames majesteetlikult esile nii oma mõõtmete kui ka hea asukoha tõttu, paigutatuna tänavajoonest tahapoole, kõrgemale terrassile. 1804–1809 ehitatud peahoone ja osa Toomemäe ansamblist kavandas Johann Wilhelm Krause, kes kunstihariduselt oli iseõppija, kuid praktiseerinud mõisaarhitektina Liivimaal. 1803. aastal sai temast esimene ülikooli arhitekt ja ehituskunsti professor. J. W. Krause loodud ülikooliansambel on esimesi klassitsistlikke ehitisi Tartus, mis jättis sügava jälje Tartu kesklinna arhitektuurile.

T

he university’s main building, reopened in 1802, was built at the foot of Toome Hill, on the foundation of Maarja [St. Mary’s] Church, which was destroyed in war. The land had been given to the university by Russian Tsar Paul I with the rest of Toome Hill. The austere yet majestic main building is notable both for its dimensions and its favourable location, as it is set at a distance from the road, on a raised terrace. The main building, built between 1804 and 1809, and part of the group of buildings on Toome Hill, were designed by Johann Wilhelm Krause, a self-taught architect who had previously designed a number of manors in Livonia. In 1803 Krause became the university’s first official architect and professor of architecture. The university complex created by J. W. Krause is one of the first classicistic buildings in Tartu, and has had a lasting influence on the architecture of downtown Tartu.

Johann Wilhelm Krause

A

ula suursugust pidulikkust rõhutavad läbi korruste kerkivad rikkaliku ornamendiga pilastrid ja 28 kuusepuust voolitud Joonia sammast, mis toetavad ümberringi paiknevat rõdu. Sambakapiteelide voluudid ja ažuurne rõdupiire on nikerdatud meistrikäega, milles klassitsistlikud vormid on maitsekalt ühendatud kohalike motiividega. Puitdekoori kujundamisel oli arhitektil abiks meister Christian Holz Greifswaldist, kes lisas aulale lihtsa rõdumustri näol Tartu linnamajadest pärit elemente. Rõdu ehib vaid tammepärja, loorberivanikute ja rosettidega dekooritud eend, millel algselt asus keiser Aleksander I portree. Põrandal, rõdu tammepärja all, paiknesid suur ja väike kateeder. Suurest kateedrist võis kõnet pidada ainult ülikooli rektor, väikesest ülejäänud rektorid. Mõlemad kateedrid olid kaunistatud saksa hilisrokokoo stiilis vanikute ja rosettidega, mida saab näha väiksel kateedril.

T

he majestic splendor of the assembly hall is accentuated by the richly ornamented pilasters that rise through the floors, and the 28 Ionic columns carved from spruce trunks that support the surrounding balcony. The volutes of the capitals of the columns and the trellised balustrade were carved with a mastery that tastefully combined classical forms and local motifs. In designing the wooden décor, the architect was assisted by master craftsman Christian Holz from Greifswald, who combined elements from the buildings of Tartu to create the simple ornamental pattern that adorns the gallery. The latter is accentuated with a single overhang, which originally bore a portrait of Tsar Alexander I, and is decorated with a wreath of oak leaves, laurel garlands and rosettes. On the main floor, beneath the oak wreath, lay the large and small rostra. Only the university´s rector was permitted to make speeches from the large rostrum, all other rectors used the small rostrum. Both rostra were decorated with the late Rococo style garlands and rosettes that can be seen on the small rostrum.

M

ärtsis 2009 kingiti ülikoolile firma Steinway & Sons valge täismõõdus kontsertklaver. Eesti esimene valge Steinway lubab Tartus taas kõlada maailma muusika tippteostel tuntuimate interpreetide esituses. Varasematel aegadel on ülikooli aulas andnud kontserdi näiteks 1842. aastal Tartut külastanud Ungari helilooja ja klaverivirtuoos Ferenc Liszt. Kaks aastat hiljem esines ülikooli aulas Saksa pianist Clara Schumann, helilooja Robert Schumanni abikaasa. Uue valge klaveri esitluskontserdil mängis 6. märtsil 2009 pianist Kalle Randalu. Idee kinkida ülikoolile peahoone 200. sünnipäeva puhul valge klaver tuli rektor Alar Kariselt. Rektori algatusel loodi ka valge klaveri fond ning korraldati kontserdisari, mille piletitulust ning annetustest kogunes fondi ligi kolmandik klaveri hinnast.

I

n March 2009, the majestic assembly hall received another magnificent addition – a white Steinway & Sons full-size grand piano. The first white Steinway to arrive in Estonia is expected to enrich Tartu’s musical scene with performances of world-famous compositions by the world’s top pianists. We know from history that, during his visit to Tartu in 1842, the Hungarian composer and piano virtuoso Ferenc Liszt gave a concert in the assembly hall. Two years later, the assembly hall was graced by a performance by Clara Schumann, wife of the composer Robert Schumann. The Estonian pianist Kalle Randalu inaugurated the new grand piano in a concert that took place on 6 March 2009. The idea to donate a world-class white grand piano to the university on the occasion of the 200th anniversary of its main building was put forward by the rector Alar Karis, on whose initiative the White Piano Fund was established and a series of concerts organised to raise the sum required for the purchase. The proceeds of the concerts, together with donations to the fund, amounted to almost one third of the cost of the piano.


H

oone vestibüül ja esimene korrus on range ning asjaliku kujundusega. Tumehall puitpõrand kaeti 1930. aastatel valgete ja punaste plaatidega, mis muutis fuajee koos sellest hargnevate koridoridega rõõmsamaks. Peahoones on mälestustahvlid nimekatele õppejõududele, hoone põhjatiival Nobeli preemia laureaadile keemik W. F. Ostwaldile. Ajakirjanduse ja kommunikatsiooni instituudis asub aga laud, mille peal 1920. aastal kirjutati alla Venemaa ja Soome vaheline rahuleping. 19. sajandi lõpul, venestuse survel, ehitati peahoone vasakusse nurka õigeusu kabel ning selle kohale katusele sibulkuppel. Kuppel lammutati 1920. aastal, kuid endise kabeli asukohas avastati renoveerimise ajal krohvikihtide alt Kristust kujutav seinamaal, mis restaureeriti.

T

he building’s vestibule and ground floor are characterised by an austere and functional design. In the 1930s the dark grey wooden floor was covered with white and red tiles, which made the foyer and branching corridors more cheerful. There are plaques in the main building to honour well-known professors of the university. In the north wing of the building there is a plaque in honour of Nobel laureate chemist W. F. Ostwald. The Institute of Journalism and Communication still preserves the table on which the peace treaty of Russia and Finland was signed in 1920. At the end of the 19th century, as part of the policy of Russification pursued by Russian imperial authorities, an Orthodox chapel was built in the left corner of the main building, and above that an onion dome, on the roof. The dome was demolished in 1920, yet during renovations in the area of the chapel, a mural with a portrait of Christ was discovered, and this was restored.

A

astal 1802 taasavatud ülikooli peahoone rajati Toomemäe jalamile, sõdades hävinud Maarja kiriku krundile, mille Vene keiser Paul I oli koos Toomega kinkinud ülikoolile. Ühtaegu range ja suursugune peahoone tõuseb Tartu linnasüdames majesteetlikult esile nii oma mõõtmete kui ka hea asukoha tõttu, paigutatuna tänavajoonest tahapoole, kõrgemale terrassile. 1804–1809 ehitatud peahoone ja osa Toomemäe ansamblist kavandas Johann Wilhelm Krause, kes kunstihariduselt oli iseõppija, kuid praktiseerinud mõisaarhitektina Liivimaal. 1803. aastal sai temast esimene ülikooli arhitekt ja ehituskunsti professor. J. W. Krause loodud ülikooliansambel on esimesi klassitsistlikke ehitisi Tartus, mis jättis sügava jälje Tartu kesklinna arhitektuurile.

T

he university’s main building, reopened in 1802, was built at the foot of Toome Hill, on the foundation of Maarja [St. Mary’s] Church, which was destroyed in war. The land had been given to the university by Russian Tsar Paul I with the rest of Toome Hill. The austere yet majestic main building is notable both for its dimensions and its favourable location, as it is set at a distance from the road, on a raised terrace. The main building, built between 1804 and 1809, and part of the group of buildings on Toome Hill, were designed by Johann Wilhelm Krause, a self-taught architect who had previously designed a number of manors in Livonia. In 1803 Krause became the university’s first official architect and professor of architecture. The university complex created by J. W. Krause is one of the first classicistic buildings in Tartu, and has had a lasting influence on the architecture of downtown Tartu.

Johann Wilhelm Krause

A

ula suursugust pidulikkust rõhutavad läbi korruste kerkivad rikkaliku ornamendiga pilastrid ja 28 kuusepuust voolitud Joonia sammast, mis toetavad ümberringi paiknevat rõdu. Sambakapiteelide voluudid ja ažuurne rõdupiire on nikerdatud meistrikäega, milles klassitsistlikud vormid on maitsekalt ühendatud kohalike motiividega. Puitdekoori kujundamisel oli arhitektil abiks meister Christian Holz Greifswaldist, kes lisas aulale lihtsa rõdumustri näol Tartu linnamajadest pärit elemente. Rõdu ehib vaid tammepärja, loorberivanikute ja rosettidega dekooritud eend, millel algselt asus keiser Aleksander I portree. Põrandal, rõdu tammepärja all, paiknesid suur ja väike kateeder. Suurest kateedrist võis kõnet pidada ainult ülikooli rektor, väikesest ülejäänud rektorid. Mõlemad kateedrid olid kaunistatud saksa hilisrokokoo stiilis vanikute ja rosettidega, mida saab näha väiksel kateedril.

T

he majestic splendor of the assembly hall is accentuated by the richly ornamented pilasters that rise through the floors, and the 28 Ionic columns carved from spruce trunks that support the surrounding balcony. The volutes of the capitals of the columns and the trellised balustrade were carved with a mastery that tastefully combined classical forms and local motifs. In designing the wooden décor, the architect was assisted by master craftsman Christian Holz from Greifswald, who combined elements from the buildings of Tartu to create the simple ornamental pattern that adorns the gallery. The latter is accentuated with a single overhang, which originally bore a portrait of Tsar Alexander I, and is decorated with a wreath of oak leaves, laurel garlands and rosettes. On the main floor, beneath the oak wreath, lay the large and small rostra. Only the university´s rector was permitted to make speeches from the large rostrum, all other rectors used the small rostrum. Both rostra were decorated with the late Rococo style garlands and rosettes that can be seen on the small rostrum.

M

ärtsis 2009 kingiti ülikoolile firma Steinway & Sons valge täismõõdus kontsertklaver. Eesti esimene valge Steinway lubab Tartus taas kõlada maailma muusika tippteostel tuntuimate interpreetide esituses. Varasematel aegadel on ülikooli aulas andnud kontserdi näiteks 1842. aastal Tartut külastanud Ungari helilooja ja klaverivirtuoos Ferenc Liszt. Kaks aastat hiljem esines ülikooli aulas Saksa pianist Clara Schumann, helilooja Robert Schumanni abikaasa. Uue valge klaveri esitluskontserdil mängis 6. märtsil 2009 pianist Kalle Randalu. Idee kinkida ülikoolile peahoone 200. sünnipäeva puhul valge klaver tuli rektor Alar Kariselt. Rektori algatusel loodi ka valge klaveri fond ning korraldati kontserdisari, mille piletitulust ning annetustest kogunes fondi ligi kolmandik klaveri hinnast.

I

n March 2009, the majestic assembly hall received another magnificent addition – a white Steinway & Sons full-size grand piano. The first white Steinway to arrive in Estonia is expected to enrich Tartu’s musical scene with performances of world-famous compositions by the world’s top pianists. We know from history that, during his visit to Tartu in 1842, the Hungarian composer and piano virtuoso Ferenc Liszt gave a concert in the assembly hall. Two years later, the assembly hall was graced by a performance by Clara Schumann, wife of the composer Robert Schumann. The Estonian pianist Kalle Randalu inaugurated the new grand piano in a concert that took place on 6 March 2009. The idea to donate a world-class white grand piano to the university on the occasion of the 200th anniversary of its main building was put forward by the rector Alar Karis, on whose initiative the White Piano Fund was established and a series of concerts organised to raise the sum required for the purchase. The proceeds of the concerts, together with donations to the fund, amounted to almost one third of the cost of the piano.


P

eahoone fassaad on lihtsa ja range joonega, mõjudes ühtaegu soliidselt ja elegantselt. Fassaadi keskmes tõuseb esile võimas portikus, mille kuus Toscana sammast toetavad kolmnurkviilu. See sammaskoda, mille keskelt avaneb sissepääs teadmiste templisse, on ühtlasi Eesti rahva hariduspüüdluste sümboliks. Sama motiiv kordub pilastritena hoone tagaküljel, kus asuvad ka ehituse alguse- ja lõpudaatumitega graniittahvlid. Kõrgklassitsistlikus stiilis kolmekorruseline hoone on paigutatud ajastule iseloomulikult veidi eenduvale soklile, millelt kerkib rustikaga kaunistatud esimene korrus. Ülakorruste siledat seinapinda ehivad vaid akantuselehtedest ornamendid akende all – motiiv, mis viitab veel 18. sajandi arhitektuurile. Hoone ülaosa ümbritseb triglüüfidega friis ning hammaslõikes katuseääris. 1998. aastal taastati Krause-aegse maketi järgi fassaadi esialgne värvigamma – valgete sammastega kivihall seinapind ning kuldkollase taustaga valged ornamendid.

T

he facade of the main building has a simple and austere outline, appearing both majestic and elegant. In the middle of the facade there is a grand portico, the six Tuscan pillars of which support a triangular entablature. The colonnade through which the entrance to the temple of knowledge passes is also a symbol of the Estonian people’s educational ambitions. The same motif is repeated in pilasters at the rear of the building, where there are also granite tablets bearing the dates of commencement and completion of construction. The three-storey building, designed in the late classicistic style, is set on a slightly projecting foundation, from which the first storey, which bears rustic decorations, extends. The flat exterior wall of the upper stories is decorated only with acanthus leaf ornaments below the windows – a motif evocative of 18th-century architecture. The upper part of the building is surrounded by a frieze with triglyphs, and the roof has a denticulated edge. 1998 saw the restoration of the facade’s original colour scheme as designed by Krause – the stonegrey wall surface with white columns, and the white ornaments against an ochre background.

P

eahoone tiibhooned kavandas hiljem arhitekt Karl Rathaus. Rektoraadi asukohana tuntud lõunatiib ning füüsika- ja keemiaõpetuseks mõeldud põhjatiib rajati 1856–1859. Lõunatiivas asuvad endiselt rektoraadi ruumid ning Tartu Ülikooli rektori kabinet. Rektori kabinetis on säilinud üks vähestest peahoone vanadest ahjudest ning ajalooline sekretärikapp ja kirjutuslaud. Kabineti ees asuv avar ruum oli varem õpetatud nõukogu saal, kus veel nüüdki näitab aega 1811. aastal Tartu kellassepa J. Huberti valmistatud kappkell. Ülikooli nõukogu uus saal, kus toimuvad nõukogu istungid ja doktoritööde kaitsmised, asub peahoone keskosas, aulaga külgnevas ruumis. Saali seintel ripuvad ülikooli ajaloos olulist rolli etendanud isikute portreed. Need on Rootsi-aegse ülikooli kantsler J. Skytte, taasavatud ülikooli esimene rektor G. F. Parrot, eestikeelse ülikooli rajajad kantsler P. Põld ning rektor H. Koppel.

T

he wings of the main building were designed at a later date by the architect Karl Rathaus. The south wing, which is known as the location of the rector’s office, and the north wing, intended for the teaching of physics and chemistry, were built in 1856–1859. The south wing is still used to accommodate the office of the rector and of those of other members of his team. The rector’s office still has one of the main building’s few old stoves, and a historical escritoire and desk. The spacious room opposite the office was earlier used as the hall for meetings of the Learned Society, where the grandfather clock made by Tartu watchmaker J. Hubert in 1811 still keeps time. The new hall of the university’s council, where council meetings are held and doctoral theses are defended, lies in the centre of the main building, in a room adjacent to the assembly hall. Portraits of persons who have played an important role in the university’s history hang on the walls of the hall. Of central importance are, of course, Johan Skytte, the university’s chancellor during the Swedish era, G. F. Parrot, the first rector after the university was reopened, P. Põld, one of the founders of the Estonian-language university, and rector H. Koppel.

L

õunatiiva alumisel korrusel on Eesti vanim muuseum, 1803. aastal asutatud ülikooli kunstimuuseum. Muuseumi seinu ehivad 1868. aastast alates antiikse Pompei originaale jäljendavad maalingud, mis hästi säilinuna on haruldaseks 19. sajandi ruumikujunduse näiteks Euroopas. Hoone pööningul võib külastada korda rikkunud üliõpilaste karistamiseks mõeldud kartserit. Algsest viiest kartserist ainsana säilinud ruumi seintel on näha karikatuure ja vemmalvärsse. Hävitavalt laastas hoonet 1965. aasta tulekahju, milles põles ära suurem osa hoone keskosast koos aula ja katusekonstruktsioonidega. Peahoone kui rahvusliku sümboli restaureerimine lõpetati riigi abiga 1967. aasta aprillis. Ekskursioonid ettetellimisel Tartu Ülikooli kunstimuuseum tel +372 737 5384 e-post kmm@ut.ee www.ut.ee/artmuseum Autoriõigus: Tartu Ülikool 2009

T

he bottom floor of the south wing houses the oldest museum in Estonia, the university’s Art Museum, founded in 1803. Since 1868, the walls of the museum are decorated with well preserved copies of murals from ancient Pompeii, which are rare examples of 19th-century European interior design. In the attic, visitors can see an old lock-up intended as a place of confinement for misbehaving students. Originally, there were five such facilities, of which only one has been preserved, with some of the drawings and doggerels left on the walls by the inmates still visible. The main building was dealt a heavy blow by the fire which broke out in its central part in 1965, destroying most of the assembly hall and a considerable part of the roofing timbers. Restoration of the main building, an edifice of immense symbolic value for Estonians, was completed in 1967 with support from the national budget. Tours by appointment University of Tartu Art Museum tel +372 737 5384 e-mail: kmm@ut.ee www.ut.ee/artmuseum Copyright: University of Tartu 2009

TARTU ÜLIKOOLI ÜLIKOOLI PEAHOONE PEAHOONE TARTU The Main Building of the University of Tartu The main building of the university of Tartu

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artu Ülikool, mille sümboliks on kuue valge sambaga peahoone, on üks silmapaistvamaid tähiseid Eesti haridus- ja kultuuriloos. 1632. aastal asutatud ülikool on olnud sillaks saksa ja vene kultuuri vahel ning siin on sajandeid töötanud ja õppinud silmapaistvad loodus- ja ühiskonnateadlased. Ülikooli asutaja, Rootsi kuningas Gustav II Adolfi järgi Academia Gustavianaks nimetatud Tartu Ülikool kuulub Ida-Euroopa vanimate ülikoolide hulka ning on alates 1919. aastast maailma esimene eestikeelne ülikool.

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he University of Tartu, which is symbolised by the main building with its six white columns, is one of the most notable landmarks in Estonian educational and cultural history. The academy founded in 1632 by the Swedish king Gustavus Adolphus has now trained social and natural scientists for almost four centuries. Many of the university’s graduates have attained wide recognition among their peers, and returned to their alma mater as professors. During the 19th century, the university functioned as an important cultural bridge between Germany and Russia. In 1919, it became the first establishment in the world to adopt Estonian as its language of instruction. The University of Tartu, known in its early days as Academia Gustaviana (after the king who founded it) is also one of the oldest universities in Eastern Europe.

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eahoone avatseremoonia toimus 31. juulil 1809 aulas, kus on esinduslikumaid klassitsistlikke interjööre Eestis. Aula lae peegelvõlv ja lühtrite ümbrus maaliti koidupunaseks, millele joonistati hall-halliga grisaille’ tehnikas rosette, akantuselehti või ornamente. Kunagisi maalinguid meenutab peegelvõlvi taastatud värvitoon. Aulas toimuvad kõik ülikooli tähtsündmused – akadeemilise aasta avaaktus, Eesti Vabariigi ja emakeelse ülikooli aastapäeva aktus, konverentsid, väljapaistvate külaliste loengud, kontserdid ja muud pidulikud kogunemised.

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he main building’s opening ceremony took place on 31 July 1809 in the assembly hall, which is marked by one of the most impressive neoclassical interior designs in Estonia. The assembly hall’s arched ceiling and the area surrounding the chandeliers was painted pink, onto which grey on grey – grisaille – rosettes, acanthus leaves or ornaments were drawn. The restored colour recalls the former paintings. The assembly hall is used as the venue for all important events of the university: the opening of the academic year, ceremonial meetings to celebrate the anniversary of the Republic of Estonia and of Estonian-language university education, conferences, public lectures by renowned guests of the university, concerts and other festive gatherings.


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eahoone fassaad on lihtsa ja range joonega, mõjudes ühtaegu soliidselt ja elegantselt. Fassaadi keskmes tõuseb esile võimas portikus, mille kuus Toscana sammast toetavad kolmnurkviilu. See sammaskoda, mille keskelt avaneb sissepääs teadmiste templisse, on ühtlasi Eesti rahva hariduspüüdluste sümboliks. Sama motiiv kordub pilastritena hoone tagaküljel, kus asuvad ka ehituse alguse- ja lõpudaatumitega graniittahvlid. Kõrgklassitsistlikus stiilis kolmekorruseline hoone on paigutatud ajastule iseloomulikult veidi eenduvale soklile, millelt kerkib rustikaga kaunistatud esimene korrus. Ülakorruste siledat seinapinda ehivad vaid akantuselehtedest ornamendid akende all – motiiv, mis viitab veel 18. sajandi arhitektuurile. Hoone ülaosa ümbritseb triglüüfidega friis ning hammaslõikes katuseääris. 1998. aastal taastati Krause-aegse maketi järgi fassaadi esialgne värvigamma – valgete sammastega kivihall seinapind ning kuldkollase taustaga valged ornamendid.

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he facade of the main building has a simple and austere outline, appearing both majestic and elegant. In the middle of the facade there is a grand portico, the six Tuscan pillars of which support a triangular entablature. The colonnade through which the entrance to the temple of knowledge passes is also a symbol of the Estonian people’s educational ambitions. The same motif is repeated in pilasters at the rear of the building, where there are also granite tablets bearing the dates of commencement and completion of construction. The three-storey building, designed in the late classicistic style, is set on a slightly projecting foundation, from which the first storey, which bears rustic decorations, extends. The flat exterior wall of the upper stories is decorated only with acanthus leaf ornaments below the windows – a motif evocative of 18th-century architecture. The upper part of the building is surrounded by a frieze with triglyphs, and the roof has a denticulated edge. 1998 saw the restoration of the facade’s original colour scheme as designed by Krause – the stonegrey wall surface with white columns, and the white ornaments against an ochre background.

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eahoone tiibhooned kavandas hiljem arhitekt Karl Rathaus. Rektoraadi asukohana tuntud lõunatiib ning füüsika- ja keemiaõpetuseks mõeldud põhjatiib rajati 1856–1859. Lõunatiivas asuvad endiselt rektoraadi ruumid ning Tartu Ülikooli rektori kabinet. Rektori kabinetis on säilinud üks vähestest peahoone vanadest ahjudest ning ajalooline sekretärikapp ja kirjutuslaud. Kabineti ees asuv avar ruum oli varem õpetatud nõukogu saal, kus veel nüüdki näitab aega 1811. aastal Tartu kellassepa J. Huberti valmistatud kappkell. Ülikooli nõukogu uus saal, kus toimuvad nõukogu istungid ja doktoritööde kaitsmised, asub peahoone keskosas, aulaga külgnevas ruumis. Saali seintel ripuvad ülikooli ajaloos olulist rolli etendanud isikute portreed. Need on Rootsi-aegse ülikooli kantsler J. Skytte, taasavatud ülikooli esimene rektor G. F. Parrot, eestikeelse ülikooli rajajad kantsler P. Põld ning rektor H. Koppel.

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he wings of the main building were designed at a later date by the architect Karl Rathaus. The south wing, which is known as the location of the rector’s office, and the north wing, intended for the teaching of physics and chemistry, were built in 1856–1859. The south wing is still used to accommodate the office of the rector and of those of other members of his team. The rector’s office still has one of the main building’s few old stoves, and a historical escritoire and desk. The spacious room opposite the office was earlier used as the hall for meetings of the Learned Society, where the grandfather clock made by Tartu watchmaker J. Hubert in 1811 still keeps time. The new hall of the university’s council, where council meetings are held and doctoral theses are defended, lies in the centre of the main building, in a room adjacent to the assembly hall. Portraits of persons who have played an important role in the university’s history hang on the walls of the hall. Of central importance are, of course, Johan Skytte, the university’s chancellor during the Swedish era, G. F. Parrot, the first rector after the university was reopened, P. Põld, one of the founders of the Estonian-language university, and rector H. Koppel.

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õunatiiva alumisel korrusel on Eesti vanim muuseum, 1803. aastal asutatud ülikooli kunstimuuseum. Muuseumi seinu ehivad 1868. aastast alates antiikse Pompei originaale jäljendavad maalingud, mis hästi säilinuna on haruldaseks 19. sajandi ruumikujunduse näiteks Euroopas. Hoone pööningul võib külastada korda rikkunud üliõpilaste karistamiseks mõeldud kartserit. Algsest viiest kartserist ainsana säilinud ruumi seintel on näha karikatuure ja vemmalvärsse. Hävitavalt laastas hoonet 1965. aasta tulekahju, milles põles ära suurem osa hoone keskosast koos aula ja katusekonstruktsioonidega. Peahoone kui rahvusliku sümboli restaureerimine lõpetati riigi abiga 1967. aasta aprillis. Ekskursioonid ettetellimisel Tartu Ülikooli kunstimuuseum tel +372 737 5384 e-post kmm@ut.ee www.ut.ee/artmuseum Autoriõigus: Tartu Ülikool 2009

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he bottom floor of the south wing houses the oldest museum in Estonia, the university’s Art Museum, founded in 1803. Since 1868, the walls of the museum are decorated with well preserved copies of murals from ancient Pompeii, which are rare examples of 19th-century European interior design. In the attic, visitors can see an old lock-up intended as a place of confinement for misbehaving students. Originally, there were five such facilities, of which only one has been preserved, with some of the drawings and doggerels left on the walls by the inmates still visible. The main building was dealt a heavy blow by the fire which broke out in its central part in 1965, destroying most of the assembly hall and a considerable part of the roofing timbers. Restoration of the main building, an edifice of immense symbolic value for Estonians, was completed in 1967 with support from the national budget. Tours by appointment University of Tartu Art Museum tel +372 737 5384 e-mail: kmm@ut.ee www.ut.ee/artmuseum Copyright: University of Tartu 2009

TARTU ÜLIKOOLI ÜLIKOOLI PEAHOONE PEAHOONE TARTU The Main Building of the University of Tartu The main building of the university of Tartu

T

artu Ülikool, mille sümboliks on kuue valge sambaga peahoone, on üks silmapaistvamaid tähiseid Eesti haridus- ja kultuuriloos. 1632. aastal asutatud ülikool on olnud sillaks saksa ja vene kultuuri vahel ning siin on sajandeid töötanud ja õppinud silmapaistvad loodus- ja ühiskonnateadlased. Ülikooli asutaja, Rootsi kuningas Gustav II Adolfi järgi Academia Gustavianaks nimetatud Tartu Ülikool kuulub Ida-Euroopa vanimate ülikoolide hulka ning on alates 1919. aastast maailma esimene eestikeelne ülikool.

T

he University of Tartu, which is symbolised by the main building with its six white columns, is one of the most notable landmarks in Estonian educational and cultural history. The academy founded in 1632 by the Swedish king Gustavus Adolphus has now trained social and natural scientists for almost four centuries. Many of the university’s graduates have attained wide recognition among their peers, and returned to their alma mater as professors. During the 19th century, the university functioned as an important cultural bridge between Germany and Russia. In 1919, it became the first establishment in the world to adopt Estonian as its language of instruction. The University of Tartu, known in its early days as Academia Gustaviana (after the king who founded it) is also one of the oldest universities in Eastern Europe.

P

eahoone avatseremoonia toimus 31. juulil 1809 aulas, kus on esinduslikumaid klassitsistlikke interjööre Eestis. Aula lae peegelvõlv ja lühtrite ümbrus maaliti koidupunaseks, millele joonistati hall-halliga grisaille’ tehnikas rosette, akantuselehti või ornamente. Kunagisi maalinguid meenutab peegelvõlvi taastatud värvitoon. Aulas toimuvad kõik ülikooli tähtsündmused – akadeemilise aasta avaaktus, Eesti Vabariigi ja emakeelse ülikooli aastapäeva aktus, konverentsid, väljapaistvate külaliste loengud, kontserdid ja muud pidulikud kogunemised.

T

he main building’s opening ceremony took place on 31 July 1809 in the assembly hall, which is marked by one of the most impressive neoclassical interior designs in Estonia. The assembly hall’s arched ceiling and the area surrounding the chandeliers was painted pink, onto which grey on grey – grisaille – rosettes, acanthus leaves or ornaments were drawn. The restored colour recalls the former paintings. The assembly hall is used as the venue for all important events of the university: the opening of the academic year, ceremonial meetings to celebrate the anniversary of the Republic of Estonia and of Estonian-language university education, conferences, public lectures by renowned guests of the university, concerts and other festive gatherings.


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