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October 2014

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CI/SfB

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October 2014

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Blockwork solutions

Blockwork solutions


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Blockwork solutions

Introduction

Blockwork can, literally, be the foundation and structural heart of your building and we regard our block products as integrated and flexible systems that can be adapted and configured to suit your building and its specific criteria. Tarmac Building Products (TBP) offer a complete range of building blocks including lightweight aircrete blocks, medium and dense aggregate blocks. As a UK market leader, our blocks meet the most demanding of building requirements and will help you meet your project criteria.

Contact us

Blockwork solutions 195

To contact us: ››› ››› ››› ›››

Technical telephone number: 0870 242 1489 Technical email address: technical.services@tarmacbp.co.uk Sales telephone number: 0845 606 2428 Address: Salisbury House, 2a Tettenhall Road, Wolverhampton, West Midlands, WV1 4SA

For block orders please contact your local builders merchant.

Technical services: 0870 242 1489

www.tarmacbuildingproducts.co.uk


Introduction

Blockwork solutions

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Blockwork solutions

Introduction

Technical services: 0870 242 1489


Introduction

Blockwork solutions

Our blocks form comprehensive solutions, designed and tested to work together from the drawing board, through the contactor’s hands and on through the functional life of the building, bringing unique combinations of thermal, acoustic and structural performance. They are also an optimally sustainable building material, with excellent thermal and energy-saving properties, various routes to meet Code for Sustainable Homes and BREEAM requirements and high levels of recyclability. This document will help you get the best out of our block ranges. Our excellent design, technical and site service will help further with the smooth and rapid delivery of relevant, detailed but easy-to-use information. Contents 6

84

Product data 8

Durox

22

Toplite

46

Hemelite

58

Topcrete

Design and detailing 86

Structural design

94

Thermal insulation

124 The Code for Sustainable Homes 128 Acoustic insulation 138 Durability 142 Movement control 150 Internal and external finishes

156 What sustainability means to us 168 Safety and Sitework 185 Block indentification and pack sizes

www.tarmacbuildingproducts.co.uk

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6

Blockwork solutions

Product data

Technical services: 0870 242 1489


Product data

Blockwork solutions

Product data Aircrete 8 Durox 22 Toplite 34 Aircrete applications

Aggregate 46 Hemelite 58 Topcrete 70 Aggregate applications

See also 20

Durox System

84

Design detailing

185 IdentiďŹ cation and pack sizes

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8

Blockwork solutions

Durox

Durox is a modern construction material, whose versatility, light weight, thermal and acoustic properties make it the ideal solution for a wide variety of applications in all types of building. Contents 9

Applications

10 BeneďŹ ts and attributes 12 Durox Supablocs 14 Durox Foundation 16 Durox Coursing bricks 17 Durox Coursing slips 18 Durox Floor 20 Durox System

Technical services: 0870 242 1489


Durox

Applications

Blockwork solutions

For more detailed product applications, please see pages 34-45

Walls – standard mortar Cavity inner leaves, solid external walls and internal walls

Supabloc

Coursing bricks

Separating walls

Supabloc 4 Supabloc 7 Supabloc 8

Coursing bricks

Higher strength loadbearing walls

Supabloc 4 Supabloc 7 Supabloc 8

Coursing bricks

Cavity inner leaves, solid external walls and internal walls

System 500

System 600

Separating walls

System 600

System 700

Higher strength loadbearing

System 600

System 700

Walls – thin joint

walls

System 700

Foundations Solid walls below DPC Cavity walls below DPC

Foundation Foundation 7

Supabloc Supabloc 4 Supabloc 7 Supabloc 8

Floor Beam and block floors

Floor

Coursing slip

Product identification

Supabloc

Supabloc 4 Brown (zig-zag mark on both faces)

From 9.2014 all Supabloc products (packs) will be identified with inkjet codes as shown, right.

Supabloc 7 Black

Supabloc 8 Red

9


10 Blockwork solutions

Durox

Durox can be used below ground in foundation walls, in suspended beam and block floors and in all types of internal and external walls. It provides many benefits for specifiers and contractors making it the natural choice where blockwork is specified.

Note the paint stripe system of block identification is being superseded with ink jet codes, effective after September 2014. See the Block Identification section on page 185 for further details.

01 Easy to work Cutting, chasing and finishing are all straightforward and quick to achieve using standard tools.

02 Excellent acoustic and thermal performance Good U-values and Rw values, as well as Robust Details help specifiers more easily meet or exceed Code for Sustainable Homes and BREEAM requirements.

03 Speedy cost effective construction Durox is lightweight, easy to handle and fast to lay, reducing build times and with thin joint, even faster.

See also: 20 Durox System 84 Design detailing 94 Thermal Insulation 124 Meeting the Code 128 Acoustic Insulation

›››

Technical services: 0870 242 1489


Durox

Excellent technical performance • Durox aircrete blocks have a low thermal conductivity which aids compliance with Part L Thermal Standards as well as the Code for Sustainable Homes’ requirements. • Standard cavity widths of 100mm can be built to meet U-values of 0.30W/m2K or better.

• The excellent thermal conductivity of Durox can result in a reduction in the amount of cavity insulation required to meet U-values compared with denser blocks. • Walls below ground constructed with Durox Foundation blocks are not only quick to build, but when compared to conventional cavity walls, their use avoids the cost of forming cavities, concrete infill and wall ties.

• Durox can be used in specifications to meet the requirements of Part E Sound Insulation for houses and flats, including compliance with Robust Detail specifications.

Modules sized for speed

• The environmental performance of Durox can help to achieve compliance with the ‘Materials’ section (MAT III) of the Code for Sustainable Homes, including ratings in accordance with the Green Guide to Specification.

• Independently monitored trials have demonstrated that Durox Supabloc is over 20% faster to build with than conventional size aircrete blocks and over 30% faster than dense blocks.

• Compressive strengths of 3.6, 4.2, 7.3 and 8.7N/mm2 cover virtually all structural needs and meet Category 1 manufacturing control requirements of BS EN 5628-1.

On site and construction economy

• At 620mm long, Durox is 40% longer than conventional size blocks meaning they lay at 7 per m2 including mortar joints.

• Use of thin joint blockwork using Durox System can yield exceptionally fast build times and many other associated benefits.

Workability • Durox products are straightforward to work with as they are light, easy to handle and quick to install.

• Faster Durox build-time means lower construction costs.

• They are easily cut, chased and fixed too.

• Due to fewer mortar joints, mortar savings of up to 22% can be made when compared to conventional size blocks.

• They can be finished with render*, cladding, plaster or drylining. Durox System, thin joint blockwork, is particularly suited to the application of thin-coat spray plasters and insulated renders.

• The light weight of Durox means more blocks per load, resulting in more environmentally-friendly transportation.

Blockwork solutions 11

Sustainability All TBP manufacturing plants operate an Environmental Management System (EMS) conforming to ISO:14001. All sites are independently certified for compliance by BSI. Use of Durox products supported by a certified ‘Very Good’ to BES 6001 provides the evidence to comply with the Responsible Sourcing element of the Code for Sustainable Homes. This, together with a responsible supply chain, allows Durox to contribute in a number of ways towards sustainable construction. Summary Green Guide ratings applicable to Durox constructions can be found in the BRE Green Guide to Specification.

Authority and standards All Durox products are BSI Kitemarked to EN 771-4, and are manufactured under a quality system complying with ISO 9001. Durox blocks are Category 1 masonry units in accordance with BS 5628-1. This allows an enhanced partial safety factor to be used for the material strength in design calculations. Durox Floor is covered by British Board of Agrément Certificate (BBA) 97/3371, while all other Durox products are covered by BBA Certificate 00/3776. All Durox products have been awarded ‘Very Good’ to BES 6001. All Durox products are CE marked in accordance with the Construction Products Regulations (CPR). Further information can be obtained from www.tarmacbuildingproducts.co.uk/ce

* subject to block strength (see Table 26 on page 42 for further guidance).

www.tarmacbuildingproducts.co.uk


12 Blockwork solutions

Durox

Durox Supablocs combine low unit weight with high thermal insulation and acoustic performance, in strengths of 3.6, 4.2, 7.3 and 8.7 N/mm2. Note the paint stripe system of block identification is being superseded with ink jet codes effective after September 2014. See the Block Identification section on page 184 for further details

215mm

620mm 100 200mm

Low unit weight Easy to handle, high strength to weight, lower overall build weight

Excellent acoustic and thermal performance Good U-values and Rw values, as well as Robust Details

Range of strengths 4 options available for wide range of specifications

General purpose walling

Table 1: Standard units and weights Block width (mm)

100

115

125

140

200

6.3

7.3

7.9

8.8

12.6

55

64

69

77

111

8.7

17.4

72

143

Unit weight (kg)

9.3

10.7

11.7

13.1

18.6

Laid weight (kg/m2)

77

88

110

107

153

Supabloc Unit weight (kg) 2

Laid weight (kg/m ) Supabloc 4 Unit weight (kg) 2

Laid weight (kg/m ) Supabloc 7

Supabloc 8 Unit weight (kg)

9.9

13.8

Laid weight (kg/m2)

80

113

Notes (i) Unit and laid weights, which are given for design purposes, are approximate and calculated based on the specified dry density with a moisture content of 3% by weight added to provide equilibrium weights. (ii) Dimensional tolerance to BS EN 771-4: Length +3/-5mm, width +3/-3mm, height +3/-5mm.

Durox Supabloc is recommended for general-purpose walling applications including inner leaves, solid external walls, internal partitions and walls below DPC*. They are particularly suited for cavity and solid wall construction that require low U-values to be met. The use of Supabloc will minimise the amount of additional thermal insulation required, compared to the use of denser blocks. * Subject to soil sulphate conditions - see Table 25 on page 40 for further details

Separating walls Durox Supabloc 4, 7 and 8 are recommended for use in separating walls including those conforming to Robust Details E-WM-6, E-WM-15, E-WM-23 and E-WM-24 as well as other key applications such as the rendered outer leaf of cavity walls*, and in loadbearing situations where a 4.2N/mm2 strength block is demanded. * see Table 25 on page 41 for further details

Technical services: 0870 242 1489


Durox

Loadbearing walls

Table 2: Technical properties Supabloc

Supabloc 4

Supabloc 7

Supabloc 8

3.6

4.2

7.3

8.7

Material dry density (kg/m )

460

630

680

720

Material thermal conductivity @ 3% moisture content

0.11

0.16

0.19

0.19

Moisture movement (m/mm) shrinkage

< 0.70

< 0.70

< 0.70

< 0.70

Typical product air tightness* (m3 (hr/m2) @ 50Pa)

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.12

Mean compressive strength to BS EN 771-4 (N/mm2) 3

Working size (mm): 620 x 215. Reaction to fire: Class A1 * 100mm blocks, no finish

Table 3: Fire resistance of walls (single leaf wall) No finish (hours)

Blockwork solutions 13

1

2

4

Loadbearing (minimum width (mm))

100

125

150

Non-loadbearing (minimum width (mm))

70

70

150

Loadbearing (minimum width (mm))

100

100

150

Non-loadbearing (minimum width (mm))

100

100

100

Supabloc

Supabloc 4, 7 or 8

Durox Supabloc 4, 7 and 8 are suitable for more demanding loadbearing applications, whilst retaining the characteristic low unit weight of aircrete. Supabloc 7 is typically used in the ground floor of 3 storey housing in accordance with Approved Document A. It may also be used in separating walls including those conforming to Robust Details E-WM-6 and E-WM-15. Like all Durox products, Supabloc 8 is produced to Category 1 manufacturing control as defined in BS 5628-1. This can provide an equivalent wall strength to that of conventional 10.4N/mm2 blocks produced to less rigorous category of manufacturing control.

Fire Durox blocks provide excellent periods of fire resistance which can satisfy building regulations and other imposed requirements e.g. those by insurers. All Durox products conform to a fire rating of Class A1 to BS EN 13501-1: 2002. Typical fire resistance values for Durox constructions are shown and are based on the UK National Annex to Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures (Part 1-2).

Sound insulation Table 4: Sound reduction values (single leaf wall) Weighted sound reduction index (RwdB)

No finish

Lightweight plaster

Drylining

100mm

38

41

40

140mm

41

43

43

215mm

46

48

48

100mm

40

41

42

140mm

44

46

46

215mm

49

50

50

100mm

41

44

43

140mm

45

47

47

215mm

50

51

51

Supabloc

Supabloc 4

Durox blocks may be used to provide acoustic insulation between internal rooms. The Building Regulations Approved Document E requires certain internal walls and floors in dwellings to meet a performance standard of 40RwdB. This can be met, for example, using 100mm Supabloc finished with plaster or drylining. Sound reduction values of other Durox products are shown in the Table 4. For further advice including use in separating wall constructions, including Robust Details, please refer to pages 35-36 and pages 128-137.

Supabloc 7 or 8

Notes (i) Finishes to both wall faces are assumed. (ii) Values are based on technical assessment and tests to BS EN 140.

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14 Blockwork solutions

Durox

Durox Foundation blocks are produced specifically for use below DPC in solid walls.

215mm

310mm

350mm

Increased productivity One block for inner and outer leaf, no wall ties, faster construction times

Excellent thermal performance Helps improve the U-value of ground floors

Range of strengths Two strength options available for a wide range of specifications

Table 5: Size and unit weights (kg) Block width (mm)

Foundation blocks

310

350

11.1

11.1

177

200

16.4

16.4

Foundation Unit weight (kg) 2

Laid weight (kg/m ) Foundation 7 Unit weight (kg) 2

Laid weight (kg/m )

242

273

Number of blocks required per m2 of wall

13.0

14.0

Technical services: 0870 242 1489

Notes (i) Unit and laid weights, which are given for design purposes, are approximate and calculated based on the specified dry density with a moisture content of 3% by weight added to provide equilibrium weights. (ii) The calculation of number of blocks per m2 of wall assumes all joints are filled with mortar. (iii) Dimensional tolerance to BS EN 771-4. Length +3/-5mm, width +3/-3mm, height +3/-5mm.

Durox Foundation blocks replace the inner and outer leaf, wall ties and concrete cavity fill associated with traditional build methods. Construction time can be halved compared to cavity construction and the Foundation wall becomes stable soon after laying, allowing the early start of above ground work. In response to increasing standards of energy efficiency, Durox Foundation blocks 310mm x 350mm x 215mm have been introduced. These blocks can accommodate cavity walls above ground of up to 350mm width whilst maintaining a conventional block bedding height.


Durox

Applications

Table 6: Technical properties Foundation

Foundation 7

Mean compressive strength to BS EN 771-4 (N/mm )

3.6

7.3

3

Material dry density (kg/m )

460

680

Thermal conductivity (W/mK) @ 3% moisture content

0.11

0.19

2

Durox Foundation can be used to support cavity, solid walls, or frame constructions. Because of its excellent insulating properties, the product contributes towards the perimeter insulation of ground floors. See page 120-122 Tables 104-107 for typical ground floor U-values. Durox Foundation is suitable for use in soil conditions up to and including DS-2 and Foundation 7 is suitable for use in soil conditions up to and including DS-3, as confirmed by British Board of Agrément Certificate No. 00/3776.

Insulation Screed

Fig 1: Durox Foundation blocks below DPC

DPC

Blockwork solutions 15

The appropriate thickness of Durox Foundation should be selected to suit the width of cavity or solid wall that requires supporting above DPC. For advice on the selection of mortar, see Table 126 on page 177.

Durox Foundation

Installation

310mm

350

125mm

Fig 2: Typical corner bonding of Durox Foundation blocks

For below ground use (excluding work in retaining or basement walls), Foundation blocks can be used with unfilled vertical joints, provided the blocks are built with their ends closely butted together to restrict the passage of vermin. This advice is consistent with the guidance given in BRE information paper IP7/05. The blockwork should be set out to achieve adequate block bonding at corners. A typical solution is shown in Figure 2. Both strengths of our 310 x 350 x 215mm Foundation Blocks are below the 20kg manual handling weight.

125mm

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16 Blockwork solutions

Durox

Durox Coursing bricks used to avoid thermal bridging and minimise wastage. 67mm width

215mm

Reduced thermal bridging Minimises thermal bridging maximises efficiency

Less wastage Ideal for infilling over lintels and between floor joists

Application Coursing bricks are designed for use with the range of Durox blocks and should be used to avoid thermal bridging and minimise wastage. Durox Coursing bricks should be used for general coursing work, in-filling small areas of wall such as between timber floor or roof members as well as at sills and over lintels. Their use will eliminate cutting and wastage.

Fig 3: Typical application

Table 7: Size and unit weights (kg) Block width (mm)

100

115

125

140

Brick (3.6N/mm )

0.71

0.82

0.89

1.00

Brick (7.3N/mm )

1.05

1.21

1.32

1.47

Brick (8.7N/mm )

1.18

1.60

No. bricks per pack

480

400

320

320

2 2 2

Notes Unit and laid weights, which are given for design purposes, are approximate and based on 3% moisture content.

Table 8: Technical properties Bricks Face size (mm)

215 x 67 for all products

Mean compressive strength to BS EN 771-4 (N/mm )

3.6

7.3

8.7

3

Material dry density (kg/m )

460

680

720

Thermal conductivity (W/mK) @ 3% moisture content

0.11

0.19

0.19

2

Reaction to fire

Class A1 for all products 3

2

Air tightness (m (m .h) @ 50Pa)*

0.12 for all products

(i) Dimensional tolerance to BS EN 771-4. Length +3/-5mm, width +3/-3mm, height +3/-5mm. * 100mm blocks, no finish

Technical services: 0870 242 1489


Blockwork solutions 17

Durox

Durox Coursing slips for use with Floor blocks to reduce thermal bridging. 40mm 100mm

215mm

Reduced thermal bridging Minimises thermal bridging maximises efficiency

Less wastage Ideal for infill beneath Durox Floor blocks at the perimeter walls

Application Coursing slips are specifically manufactured for use in combination with Floor blocks. They can be used beneath floor blocks at the bearings where the floor block bears directly on to the inner leaf or an internal wall. They eliminate thermal bridging by providing continuity of thermal insulation. In addition, the use of Coursing slips minimises the need for labour-intensive cutting and reduces wastage. Coursing slips are supplied in packs of 600.

Fig 4: Typical application

Table 9: Technical properties Coursing slips Mean compressive strength to BS EN 771-4 (N/mm2)

3.6

3

Material dry density (kg/m )

460

Unit weight

0.5

Thermal conductivity (W/mK) @ 3% moisture content

0.11

Reaction to fire

Class A1

(i) Dimensional tolerance to BS EN 771-4. Length +3/-5mm, width +3/-3mm, height +3/-5mm.

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18 Blockwork solutions

Durox

Durox Floor blocks used in ground floors to reduce the U-value and minimise wastage.

100mm

530 or 215mm

620mm

Easy installation Lightweight and easy to handle and install

Good thermal performance Improves the thermal performance of internal ground floors and provides acoustic performance for internal floors

Durox floor blocks

Table 10: Size and unit weights (kg) Length x width (mm)

620 x 530

620 x 215**

Thickness

100

100

Floor

15.6

6.3

28

70

No. blocks per pack

Notes Unit and laid weights, which are given for design purposes, are approximate and based on 3% moisture content. ** Available as Supabloc, in standard packs, and laid only at 215 mm span.

Table 11: Technical properties Floor Mean compressive strength to BS EN 771-4 (N/mm2)

3.6

3

Material dry density (kg/m )

460

Thermal conductivity (W/mK) @ 3% moisture content

0.11

Transverse strength KN

3.5

Reaction to fire

Class A1

(i) Dimensional tolerance to BS EN 771-4. Length +3/-5mm, width +3/-3mm, height +3/-5mm.

Technical services: 0870 242 1489

Floor blocks are suitable for use in suspended ground and internal floors in conjunction with precast concrete beams. They are light and quick to install, and provide effective sound and thermal insulation for ground and internal floors meeting the requirements of the Building Regulations (40RwdB). The use of Durox Floor blocks can achieve economy in the overall design of the floor. Firstly by a reduced dead load, secondly, the size of the block allows much more flexibility in beam spacing allowing fewer beams to be used.


Durox

Blockwork solutions 19

Transverse load The blocks have been tested spanning 530mm and 620mm to sustain a point load of 3.5KN transferred via a 100mm x 100mm steel plate.

Thermal insulation The use of Durox Floor blocks may reduce the amount of ground floor insulation needed compared to the use of denser floor blocks. This will be further improved when used in combination with Durox Foundation blocks. For examples refer to pages 120-122 or visit www.tarmacbuildingproducts.co.uk

Applications Durox Floor blocks are suitable for use in beam and block suspended ground and internal floors in single occupancy dwellings under domestic loading. Where high point loading is anticipated, such as in garages, a reinforced structural topping must be used. Where the floor loading dictates closer beam spacing, a 620 x 215 x 100mm Durox Supabloc block should be used, spanning its 215mm dimension only. Coursing slips to in-fill at the perimeter are available in a 40mm bedding height. For 175mm deep beams Durox Coursing bricks are available. The requirements of 40RwdB, set by Building Regulation E2 ‘Protection against sound within a dwelling house’, can be easily met using a beam and block internal floor finished with a minimum 50mm sand and cement screed and plasterboard ceiling. Acoustic tests confirm that the airborne sound reduction (Rw) for this floor construction is 51RwdB. This exceeds the minimum required value of 40RwdB. Note: An ‘internal floor’ is a floor within a house. It is not a separating floor.

Fig 5: Typical application

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20 Blockwork solutions

Durox

Durox System rapid build large format blockwork for use with thin joint mortar. Note the paint stripe system of block identification is being superseded with ink jet codes effective after September 2014. See the Block Identification section on page 184 for further details

214 or 299mm

620mm 100 or 200mm

Productivity gains Large format, thin joint, rapid construction

Robust details Available for separating walls Excellent thermal properties Achieves good U-values

Table 12: Standard units and weights Block width (mm)

100

140

200

214mm

6.3

299mm

8.8

214mm

8.6

12.1

299mm

12.1

16.8

9.3

13.0

18.5

System 500* coursing heights

System 600* coursing heights

System 700* coursing heights 214mm

Notes (i) Unit weights are approximate and calculated based on the specified dry density with a moisture content of 3% by weight added to provide equilibrium weights. (ii) Tolerance to BS EN 771-4: height +2/-2mm. * All sizes made to order subject to minimum quantities

Table 13: Technical properties System 500

System 600

System 700

Mean compressive strength to BS EN 771-4 (N/mm2)

3.6

4.2

7.3

Material dry density (kg/m3)

460

630

680

Thermal conductivity (W/mK) @ 3% moisture content

0.11

0.16

0.19

Reaction to fire

Class A1 for all products 2

2

Typical product airtightness (m (h.m ) @ 50Pa)**

0.12 for all products

Notes (i) Unit weights are approximate and calculated based on the specified dry density with a moisture content of 3% by weight added to provide equilibrium weights. (ii) Tolerance to BS EN 771-4: height +2/-2mm. (iii) Stock items. Other sizes normally available within 3 weeks, subject to minimum quantities. ** 100mm blocks, no finish

Technical services: 0870 242 1489


Durox

Blockwork solutions 21

Durox System Durox System is a fast-build method that allows rapid construction of blockwork, offering the potential for better construction and enabling early commencement of the ďŹ nishing trades. System comprises dimensionally accurate, 620mm long Durox blocks for use with quick setting Durox thin-layer mortar.

Loadbearing walls Manufactured in a range of strengths and coursing heights, System may be used for solid, inner leaf and partition walls in all types of buildings. System is particularly suitable for housing and commercial projects where long runs of blockwork yield maximum productivity gains. System 600 or 700 may be used in cavity separating walls built to various Robust Details including E-WM-10 and E-WM-13. Both of these Robust Details may have a fully ďŹ lled cavity using a mineral wool with a maximum density of 40kg/m3.

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22 Blockwork solutions

Toplite

Toplite is a versatile aircrete material which is able to provide solutions below ground in foundation walls, in suspended beam and block floors and all types of internal and external walling situations. Contents 23 Applications 24 BeneďŹ ts and attributes 26 Toplite GTi, Standard and 7â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 28 Toplite Foundation 30 Toplite Coursing Bricks 32 Toplite Floor

Technical services: 0870 242 1489


Toplite

Blockwork solutions 23

Applications

Walls Cavity inner leaves, solid external and internal walls

Toplite GTi or Standard

Toplite Coursing bricks

Separating walls

Toplite Standard Toplite ‘7’

Toplite Coursing bricks

Higher strength loadbearing walls

Toplite ‘7’ Toplite Standard

Toplite Coursing bricks

Solid walls below dpc

Toplite Foundation

Cavity walls below dpc

Toplite GTi, (inner leaf only) Standard or ‘7’

Toplite Floor

Toplite Coursing brick

Foundations

Floor Beam and block floors

For more detailed product application information, please refer to the relevant product pages 34-45.

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24 Blockwork solutions

Toplite

Toplite can be used below ground in foundation walls, in suspended beam and block floors and in all types of internal and external walls. Its use provides many benefits for specifiers and contractors, making it the natural choice where blockwork is specified.

01 Low unit weight Most sizes of Toplite blocks meet the health and safety standards for singleperson repetitive handling, helping protect construction workers from injury.

02 Fast-build blocks Toplite blocks are light and easy to handle, decreasing build times.

See also: 84 Design detailing 94 Thermal insulation 124 Meeting the Code 128 Acoustic Insulation

›››

Technical services: 0870 242 1489


Toplite

Excellent technical performance • Toplite aircrete blocks have a low thermal conductivity which aids compliance with Part L Thermal Standards as well as Code for Sustainable Homes requirements. • Toplite can be used in specifications to meet the requirements of Part E Sound Insulation for houses and flats, including compliance with Robust Detail specifications. • The environmental performance of Toplite can help to achieve compliance with the ‘Materials’ section (MAT III) of the Code for Sustainable Homes, including ratings in accordance with the Green Guide to Specification. • Compressive strengths of 2.9, 3.6 and 7.3N/mm2 cover most structural needs and meet Category 1 manufacturing control requirements of BS EN 5628-1.

On site and construction economy • Faster Toplite build-time means lower construction costs. • The lightness of Toplite means more blocks per load, resulting in lower transportation costs per m2 to site. • The excellent thermal conductivity of Toplite can result in a reduction in the amount of cavity insulation required to meet U-values compared with other blocks.

• Walls below ground constructed with Toplite Foundation blocks are not only quick to build, but when compared to conventional cavity walls, their use avoids the cost of forming cavities, concrete infill and wall ties.

Workability • Toplite products are straightforward to work with as they are light, easy to handle and quick to install. • They are easily cut, chased and fixed. • They can be finished with render*, cladding, plaster or drylining. • Toplite blocks are 440mm long and are laid at the rate of 10 blocks per m2, including the mortar joints.

Blockwork solutions 25

Authority and standards All Toplite products are BSI Kitemarked to EN 771-4, and are manufactured under a quality system complying with ISO 9001. Toplite blocks are Category 1 masonry units in accordance with BS 5628-1. This allows an enhanced partial safety factor to be used for the material strength in design calculations. Toplite blocks are covered by British Board of Agrément Certificate (BBA) 02/3896. All Toplite products have been awarded ‘Very Good’ to BES 6001. All Toplite products are CE marked in accordance with the Construction Products Regulations (CPR). Further information can be obtained from www.tarmacbuildingproducts.co.uk/ce

Sustainability All TBP manufacturing plants operate an Environmental Management System (EMS) conforming to ISO:14001. All sites are independently certified for compliance by BSI. Use of Toplite products supported by a certified ‘Very Good’ to BES 6001, provides the evidence to comply with the Responsible Sourcing element of the Code for Sustainable Homes. This, together with a responsible supply chain, allows Toplite to contribute in a number of ways towards sustainable construction. Summary Green Guide ratings applicable to Toplite constructions can be found in the BRE Green Guide to Specification. * Subject to block strength - see Table 25 on page 41 for further details

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Toplite

26 Blockwork solutions

Toplite GTi, Standard and ‘7’ Blocks combine low unit weight with high thermal insulation and acoustic performance, in strengths from 2.9 to 7.3 N/mm2. 215mm

440mm 100 - 215mm

Excellent thermal performance Toplite GTi offers a high level of thermal insulation contributing to low U-values

Table 14: Standard units and weights Block width (mm) Unit weight (kg) 2

Loadbearing option Toplite ‘7’ is suitable for more demanding loadbearing applications whilst retaining the characteristic low unit weight of aircrete

Laid weight (kg/m )

Unit weight (kg) 2

Laid weight (kg/m )

Laid weight (kg/m )

Toplite Standard can be used for all general-purpose walling applications including inner leaves, solid walls, internal partitions and walls below DPC.

Separating walls Toplite Standard is recommended for use in separating walls including those conforming to Robust Details E-WM-6, E-WM-15, E-WM-23 and E-WM-24 as well as other key applications such as the rendered outer leaf of cavity walls.

Technical services: 0870 242 1489

140

150

200

215

4.7

5.8

6.5

7.0

9.4

10.1

58

72

81

87

117

125

6.1

7.7

8.6

9.2

12.3

13.2

72

91

101

109

145

156

7.1

10.0

10.7

14.2

15.3

82

115

123

164

176

‘7’ 2

Toplite GTi offers a high level of thermal insulation and can be used to reduce the amount of additional insulation. It is ideally suited for the construction of inner leaves and solid external walls.

125

Standard

Unit weight (kg)

General purpose walling

100

GTi

Notes (i) Unit and laid weights, which are given for design purposes, are approximate and calculated based on the specified dry density with a moisture content of 3% by weight added to provide equilibrium weights. (ii) Dimensional tolerance to BS EN 771-4: Length +3/-5mm, width +3/-3mm, height +3/-5mm.

Table 15: Technical properties GTi

Standard

‘7’

Mean compressive strength to BS EN 771-4 (N/mm2)

2.9

3.6

7.3

Material dry density (kg/m3)

460

630

730

Thermal conductivity (W/mK) @ 3% moisture content

0.11

0.16

0.19

Moisture movement (mm/m) (shrinkage)

<0.70

<0.70

<0.70

Typical airtightness (m3 (h.m2) @ 50Pa)*

0.12

0.12

0.12

* 100mm blocks – all grades, no finish


Toplite

Blockwork solutions 27

Loadbearing walls Toplite ‘7’ is suitable for more demanding loadbearing applications whilst retaining the characteristic low unit weight of aircrete. Toplite ‘7’ is typically used in the ground floor of 3 storey housing in accordance with Approved Document A. It may also be used in separating walls including those conforming to Robust Details E-WM-6, E-WM-15, E-WM-25 and E-WM-24. All Toplite products are produced to Category 1 manufacturing control as defined in BS 5628-1. This can provide higher wall strength than conventional blocks of the same strength produced to less rigorous manufacturing control.

Table 16: Fire resistance of walls* (single leaf wall) No finish (hours)

1

2

4

Loadbearing width (mm)

90

130

200

Non-loadbearing width (mm)

75

100

140

Loadbearing width (mm)

90

100

190

Non-loadbearing width (mm)

75

75

100

GTi

Standard or ‘7’

Note: Check relevant product pages for the availability of these sizes. * No finishes

Table 17: Sound reduction values (single leaf wall) Weighted sound reduction index (RwdB)

No finish

Lightweight plaster

Drylining

100mm

38

41

40

140mm

41

43

43

215mm

46

48

48

100mm

40

41

42

140mm

44

46

46

215mm

49

50

50

100mm

41

44

43

140mm

45

47

47

215mm

50

51

51

GTi

Standard

‘7’

Fire Toplite blocks provide excellent periods of fire resistance which can satisfy building regulations and other imposed requirements e.g. insurers. All Toplite products conform to a fire rating of Class A1 to BS EN 13501-1: 2002. Typical fire resistance values for Toplite constructions are shown and are based on the UK National Annex to Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures (Part 1-2).

Sound insulation Toplite blocks may be used to provide acoustic insulation between internal rooms. The Building Regulations Approved Document E requires certain internal walls and floors in dwellings to meet a performance standard of 40RwdB. This can be met, for example, using 100mm Toplite GTi or Standard finished with plaster or drylining. Sound reduction values of other Toplite products are shown in table 17, opposite. For further advice including use in separating wall constructions, including Robust Details, please refer to pages 35-36 and pages 128-137.

Notes (i) Finishes to both wall faces are assumed. (ii) Values are based on technical assessment and tests to BS EN 140 Note: Check relevant product pages for the availability of these sizes.

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28 Blockwork solutions

Toplite

Toplite Foundations are produced specifically for use below DPC in solid walls. 215mm

300mm

440mm

Increased productivity One block for inner and outer leaf. No wall ties, faster construction times

Excellent thermal performance Helps improve the ground floor U-value

Range of strengths Two options available for a wide range of specifications

Foundation blocks

Table 18: Size and unit weights (kg) Block width (mm)

275

300

16.9

18.4

199

217

19.6*

21.3*

226*

246*

10

10

Foundation Unit weight (kg) 2

Laid weight (kg/m ) Foundation 7 Unit weight (kg) 2

Laid weight (kg/m ) Number of blocks required per m of walling 2

Notes * Manufactured to order (i) Unit and laid weights, which are given for design purposes, are approximate and calculated based on the specified dry density with a moisture content of 3% by weight added to provide equilibrium weights. (ii) Dimensional tolerance to BS EN 771-4. Length +3/-5mm, width +3/-3mm, height +3/-5mm. (iii) The calculations of the number of blocks per m2 of wall, assumes all joints are filled with mortar.

Technical services: 0870 242 1489

Foundation is produced specifically for use below DPC in solid walls. It replaces the inner and outer leaf, wall ties and concrete cavity fill associated with traditional construction methods. This means that construction time may be halved compared to cavity walling and that the wall becomes stable soon after laying, eliminating the risk of collapsed cavities.


Toplite

Applications

Table 19: Technical properties 2

Mean compressive strength to BS EN 771-4 (N/mm )

Foundation

Foundation 7

3.6

7.3

3

Material dry density (kg/m )

630

730

Thermal conductivity (W/mK) @ 3% moisture content

0.16

0.19

10

10

Number of blocks required per m2 of walling

Blockwork solutions 29

Notes (i) Unit and laid weights, which are given for design purposes, are approximate and calculated based on the specified dry density with a moisture content of 3% by weight added to provide equilibrium weights. (ii) Dimensional tolerance to BS EN 771-4. Length +3/-5mm, width +3/-3mm, height +3/-5mm. (iii) The calculations of the number of blocks per m2 of wall assumes all joints are filled with mortar.

Foundation can be used to support cavity or solid walls, or frame constructions. Owing to its excellent insulating properties, the product provides perimeter insulation to ground floors. U-values can be calculated upon request. Toplite Foundation and Foundation 7 are suitable for use up to and including DS-3 sulphate soil conditions as confirmed by British Board of Agrément Certificate No. 02/3896. The appropriate width of Toplite Foundation should be selected to suit the width of cavity or solid wall that requires supporting above DPC. For advice on the selection of mortar refer to page 177, Table 126.

Insulation

Installation

Screed DPC

Fig 6: Toplite Foundation blocks below DPC

Toplite Foundation

For below ground use (excluding work in retaining or basement walls), Foundation blocks can be used with unfilled vertical joints, provided the blocks are built with their ends closely butted together to restrict the passage of vermin. This advice is consistent with the guidance given in BRE information paper IP7/05.

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30 Blockwork solutions

Toplite

Coursing bricks are designed for use with the range of Toplite blocks, to avoid thermal bridging and minimise wastage. 65mm width

215mm

Reduced thermal bridging Minimises thermal bridging maximises efficiency

Less wastage Ideal for infilling over lintels and between floor joists

Application Toplite Coursing bricks should be used for general coursing work, infilling small areas of wall such as those between timber floor or roof members as well as sills and over lintels. Their use will eliminate cutting and wastage.

Fig 7: Typical application

Table 20: Size and unit weights (kg) Block width (mm) 2

GTi (2.9N/mm ) Standard (3.6N/mm ) 2

2

‘7’ (7.3N/mm )

100

125**

0.66

0.83

0.91

1.10

Notes Unit weights, which are given for design purposes, are approximate and based on 3% moisture content. (i) Dimensional tolerance to BS EN 771-4. Length +3/-5mm, width +3/-3mm, height +3/-5mm.

Table 21: Technical properties Block width (mm)

Gti

Standard

7’s

Mean compressive strength to BS EN 771-4 (N/mm2)

2.9

3.6

7.3

Material dry density (kg/m3)

460

630

730

Thermal conductivity (W/mK) @ 3% moisture content

0.11

0.16

0.19

Airtightness (m3 (m2.h) @ 50Pa)*

0.12

0.12

0.12

* 100mm blocks, no finish ** Made to order

Technical services: 0870 242 1489


Toplite

Blockwork solutions 31

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32 Blockwork solutions

Toplite

Toplite Floor blocks provide fast installation and effective thermal and acoustic insulation. 100mm

440mm

535 or 215mm

Rapid installation Lightweight and easy to handle and install

Screed

Good thermal performance

Concrete floor beam

Improves the thermal performance for ground floors and provides acoustic performance for internal floors

Toplite Floor block

Toplite Floor blocks

Timber battens

Plasterboard

Floor blocks are suitable for use in suspended floors in conjunction with precast concrete beams. They are light and quick to install, and provide effective sound and thermal insulation for ground and internal floors meeting the requirements of the Building Regulations (40RwdB). The use of Toplite Floor blocks can achieve economy in the overall design of the floor: firstly by a reduced dead load; secondly the size of the block allows much more flexibility in beam spacing, allowing fewer beams to be used when the blocks span 535mm dimension.

Fig 8: Typical internal floor application

Table 22: Size and unit weights (kg) Length x width (mm)

440 x 215*

440 x 535

Thickness

100

100

Floor

6.1

15.3

Number of blocks per pack

45

18

Notes Unit and laid weights, which are given for design purposes, are approximate and based on 3% moisture content. (i) Dimensional tolerance to BS EN 771-4. Length +3/-5mm, width +3/-3mm, height +3/-5mm. * Available as Toplite Standard, in standard packs, spanning only the 215mm dimension

Technical services: 0870 242 1489


Toplite

Blockwork solutions 33

Transverse load The blocks have been tested spanning 440 and 535mm to sustain a point load of 3.5KN transferred via a 100mm x 100mm steel plate.

Applications Toplite Floor blocks are suitable for use in beam and block suspended ground and internal floors in single occupancy dwellings under domestic loading. Where high point loading is anticipated, such as in garages, a reinforced structural topping must be used. Where the floor loading dictates closer beam spacing, a 440 x 215 x 100mm Toplite Standard block may be used, spanning its 215mm dimension only. For 175mm deep beams Toplite Coursing bricks are available to infill at the perimeter. The requirements of Building Regulation E2 ‘Protection against sound within a dwelling house’ can be easily met using a beam and block internal floor finished with a minimum 50mm sand and cement screed and plasterboard ceiling. Acoustic tests confirm that the airborne sound reduction (Rw) for a floor finished with a 50mm sand and cement screed and plasterboard ceiling is 51RwdB. This exceeds the minimum required value of 40RwdB. Note an internal floor is a floor within a dwelling and not a separating floor.

Thermal insulation

Table 23: Technical properties Floor Mean compressive strength to BS EN 771-4 (N/mm2)

3.6

Material dry density (kg/m3)

630

Thermal conductivity (W/mK) @ 3% moisture content

0.16

Reaction to fire

The use of Toplite Floor blocks may reduce the amount of ground floor insulation needed compared to the use of denser floor blocks. This will befurther improved when used in combination with Toplite Foundation blocks. For examples, refer to pages 120-122, Tables 104-107, or view on www.tarmacbuilingproducts.co.uk

Class 1

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34 Blockwork solutions

Aircrete block applications

Aircrete block applications TBP aircrete blocks are suitable for a wide range of applications.

Technical services: 0870 242 1489


Blockwork solutions 35

Aircrete block applications

Separating walls The Building Regulations require separating walls to provide reasonable resistance to sound transmission.

Guidance on suitable Durox and Toplite constructions capable of meeting the specified performance given in Approved Document E is shown on pages 36-39. This includes constructions that can be built to satisfy Robust Details E-WM-6, E-WM-10, E-WM-13, E-WM-15, E-WM-23 and E-WM-24. The use of Robust Details provides an alternative to pre-completion testing for demonstrating compliance with Part E for new build dwellings. Robust Details should be used in accordance with the scheme requirements including plot registration. The performance of separating walls is highly dependent on the design, detailing and workmanship of the associated flanking construction. Further guidance on use of Aircrete in flats and the design and detailing of separating walls is given in ‘Acoustic Insulation’ page 128.

Pre-completion testing Constructions requiring pre-completion testing in accordance with Approved Document E or other technical guidance (e.g. BBA certification or field test data). 1

13mm plaster (10kg/m2 min.) or 13mm drylining on dabs

2

75mm min. cavity 2

3 2x 100mm Durox Supabloc 4, 7 or 8

2x 100mm Durox System 600 or 700 2x 100mm Toplite Standard 2x 100mm Toplite 7

1

3

Fig 9: TBP cavity separating walls.

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36 Blockwork solutions

Aircrete block applications

Separating walls The Building Regulations require separating walls to provide reasonable resistance to sound transmission.

New dwellings – Robust Details E-WM-6* (conventional mortar) 2 x 100mm Durox Supabloc 4, 7 or 8, or Toplite Standard or 7, minimum 75mm cavity, plasterboard (nominal 8kg/m2) on dabs on cement/sand render with scratch finish.

2 x 100mm Durox Supabloc 4, 7, 8 or Toplite Standard or 7 minimum 75mm cavity incorporating 35mm Saint Gobain Isover RD35 acoustic batt, plasterboard (nominal 9.8kg/m2) on dabs.

E-WM-10* (thin joint mortar)

E-WM-23 (conventional and thin joint mortar)

2 x 100mm Durox System 600 or 700 minimum 75mm cavity (using Ancon Staifix HRT4 or Clan PWT4 wall ties), plasterboard (nominal 8kg/m2) on dabs on cement/sand render with scratch finish.

E-WM-24 (conventional mortar)

E-WM-13* (thin joint mortar) 2 x 100mm Durox System 600 or 700 minimum 75mm cavity (built without wall ties) plasterboard (nominal 8kg/m2) on dabs on cement/ sand render with scratch finish.

no site testing required

E-WM-15 (conventional mortar)

2 x 100mm Durox Supabloc 4, 7 or 8, or Toplite Standard or 7 minimum 100mm cavity incorporating Superglass party wall roll (gypsum based board).

2 x 100mm Durox Supabloc 4, 7 or 8, or Toplite Standard or 7 minimum 100mm cavity incorporating Saint Gobain-Isover RD party wall roll (gypsum based board).

* The cavity may be fully filled with mineral wool (max. density 40kg/m3) to provide a ‘zero U-value’ separating wall.

2 1

3

1

Drylining on dabs

2

75mm min. cavity

3

Nominal 8mm parging

Fig 10

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Blockwork solutions 37

Aircrete block applications

New build rooms for residential purposes Any of the recommended solutions shown for the New Build Dwellings, page 36 can be specified for separating walls for use in rooms for residential purpose. In addition, the solutions shown below may be used. 1

13mm plaster (10kg/m2 min.)

2

13mm plaster (10kg/m2 min.)

3

215mm Toplite Standard 215mm Toplite 7

Constructions requiring pre-completion testing in accordance with Approved Document E or other technical guidance e.g. BBA certification or field test data.

2

Rooms for residential purposes include hotels, hostels, boarding houses, halls of residence and residential houses but exclude hospitals or similar establishments used for patient accommodation.

1

3

Fig 11

Parge coat Pozament Parge Coat provides an economical means of achieving increased sound insulation for wall constructions in accordance with Robust Detail specifications. Parge coat can be applied directly to the wall surface prior to drylining to seal any air paths, forming an effective sound coat. In addition, Pozament Parge Coat provides improved airtightness of the building contributing to improved energy efficiency and lower heating costs. Available in 25kg bags. Visit the Pozament website at: www.pozament.co.uk

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38 Blockwork solutions

Aircrete block applications

Internal walls* Any grade of Durox or Toplite can be used for the construction of internal walls.

For partitions in dwellings, these products can be used to provide good levels of airborne sound insulation as well as a suitable background for fixings and finishes. For commercial and industrial applications, Durox and Toplite may be used to provide sound insulation, fire resistance and structural strength. Certain internal walls are required to provide a level of sound insulation as required by the Building Regulations E2. Walls between bedrooms, or a room containing a water closet, and other rooms, need to provide the minimum sound insulation of 40RwdB. The constructions on pages 38-39 have been assessed and/or laboratory tested to demonstrate the performance level required by Approved Document E.

Approved Document E solution Approved Document E prescriptive solutions or TBP constructions which have been shown by testing to meet the regulations. 1

Plaster or drylining

2

Wall blocks comprising 100mm Durox Supabloc 100mm Durox Supabloc 4, 7 or 8 100mm Durox System 500, 600 or 700 100mm Toplite GTi 100mm Toplite Standard 100mm Toplite 7

Fig 12 * Internal walls and floors are elements within a dwelling and are not separating elements.

Technical services: 0870 242 1489

no site testing required 1

2


Aircrete block applications

Blockwork solutions 39

Internal floors* Approved Document ‘E’ prescriptive solutions or TBP constructions which have been shown by testing to meet the regulations.

Approved Document E requires that internal floors in dwellings provide the minimum sound insulation of 40RwdB. Durox and Toplite Floor floors have been shown to exceed this standard.

Approved Document E solution 1

50mm min. sand-cement screed

2

Any ceiling finish

3

Infill blocks comprising 100mm Durox or Toplite Floor

no site testing required

1

3 2

Fig 13 * Internal walls and floors are elements within a dwelling and are not separating elements.

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40 Blockwork solutions

Aircrete block applications

Walls below DPC Durox and Toplite products can be used to construct walls below ground.

TBP products can be used in sulphate soil conditions as shown in Table 24 and as confirmed by British Board of Agrément Certificate No. 00/3776 and 12/3896. In addition, they are resistant to the freeze/thaw conditions likely to occur below the DPC, as confirmed by tests to MOAT 12. Durox or Toplite Foundation blocks should be specified to construct 200-350mm solid walls below ground. They are intended to support cavity or solid walls of equivalent thickness above ground. All Durox Supabloc and Toplite Standard or Toplite 7 products can be used to construct internal and external walls below ground, depending on the sulphate soil conditions. Toplite GTi should only be used for the inner leaf of cavity walls or internal walls below DPC.

Table 24: Sulphate soil conditions Aircrete blocks Durox Foundation Durox Foundation 7 Durox Supabloc Durox Supabloc 4 Durox Supabloc 7 Durox Supabloc 8 Toplite Foundation and Foundation 7 Toplite GTi* Toplite Standard Toplite 7 * Inner leaf cavity walls or internal walls

Technical services: 0870 242 1489

DS-1

DS-2

DS-3

        

     

   


Aircrete block applications

Blockwork solutions 41

External walls Durox and Toplite blocks may be used to construct cavity and solid external walls.

For cavity construction, the minimum leaf thickness will normally be 90mm. Durox or Toplite blocks are suitable for a range of external finishes as shown in Table 25, below. In a single leaf wall, the minimum thickness of Durox or Toplite, with or without rendering, may be selected from BS 5628-3.

Table 25: Guidance for the use in external cavity walls External finish

Cavity wall construction

Comments

Any external cladding material such as timber boarding or hanging tiles on battens.

Clear cavity, Partial cavity fill, Full fill

Both leaves may be any grade of Durox or Toplite blocks. Additional insulation will be required.

Two coats of designation (iii) sand/cement render

Clear cavity

The inner leaf may be any grade of Durox or Toplite block. The outer leaf should be a Durox Supabloc 4, 7, 8 or Toplite Standard or 7’s.

Two coats of designation (iii) sand/cement render

Partial cavity fill

The inner leaf may be any grade of Durox or Toplite block. The outer leaf should be a Durox Supabloc 4, 7, 8 or Toplite Standard or 7’s.

Two coats of designation (iii) sand/cement render

Full fill

The inner leaf may be any grade of Durox or Toplite block. The outer leaf should be a TBP Hemelite or Topcrete block.

Facing brick

Clear cavity, Partial cavity fill Full fill

The inner leaf may be any grade of Durox or Toplite block.

Notes Any grade of Durox includes Supabloc, Supabloc 4, 7 or 8. Any grade of Toplite includes Toplite GTi, Standard or 7’s. For advice on Durox System or solid walls, contact technical services.


42 Blockwork solutions

Aircrete block applications

Structural elements The Tarmac Building Products aircrete block range provides a combination of strength, coupled with excellent thermal and acoustic performance which makes them ideal for house building. The strength of the blockwork for many domestic and other small buildings can be determined using the simple rules given in the Building Regulations Approved Document A: Structural Safety. Using the minimum block strengths indicated in Figures 15-16, the correct block strength may be selected without the need for a structural design calculation. Therefore, in most cases either Supabloc or Toplite GTi would be adequate for the inner leaf and internal walls of two storey dwellings. For three storey housing the ground floor inner leaf and load bearing internal walls can be constructed using either Supabloc 7 or Toplite 7. The inner leaf and internal walls on the upper floors could revert to either Supabloc or Toplite GTi. In cases where a structural design is carried out, it may be possible to justify a block strength of 3.6 or 4.2N/mm2 on the ground floor of a three storey dwelling rather than the 7.3 N/mm2 indicated in Figure 16. Note that, where there are separating walls within attached dwellings, the minimum block strength will be dictated by the density requirements that are necessary for acoustic purposes. For further details, see the Acoustic insulation section on page 128. Additional guidance on the use of BS 5628 and Euro Code 6 (BS EN 1996) is given in the Design and Detailing section, on page 93.

Table 26: Durox and Toplite block strengths Aircrete blocks

Technical services: 0870 242 1489

Compressive strength (N/mm2)

Supabloc and System 500

3.6

Supabloc 4 and System 600

4.2

Supabloc 7 and System 700

7.3

Supabloc 8

8.7

Toplite GTi

2.9

Toplite Standard

3.6

Toplite 7

7.3


Aircrete block applications

Condition A 2.9 N/mm² blocks min. Underside of Hs structural roof

Blockwork solutions 43

Condition B 7.3 N/mm² blocks min.

Condition C 7.3 N/mm² blocks min. Where Hf less than equal to 1m, Condition A 2.9 N/mm² blocks min.

Topside of structural floor

Where Hf greater than 1m, Condition B 7.3 N/mm² blocks min.

Fig 14

Underside of Hs structural roof

Underside of Hs structural roof

Cavity wall

Topside of structural floor

Internal wall

Underside of Hs structural roof

Internal wall

Underside of Hs structural roof

Underside Hs of structural roof

Hf

Cavity wall

This wall to be at least 140mm thick blockwork or 215mm thick brickwork below ground floor level if height Hf exceeds 1m

This wall to be at least 140mm thick blockwork or 215mm thick brickwork

Topside of structural floor

Fig 15

Fig 16

Notes 1 If Hs is not greater than 2.7m, the minimum compressive strength of bricks or blocks should be used in walls as indicated by the key. 2 If Hs is greater than 2.7m, the compressive strength of bricks or blocks used in the wall should be at least Condition B, or as indicated by the key, whichever is the greater.

3 If the external wall is solid construction, the masonry units should have a compressive strength of at least that shown for the internal leaf of a cavity wall in the same position. 4 The guidance given in the diagram for walls of two and three storey buildings should only be used to determine the compressive strength of the masonry units where the roof construction is of timber.

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44 Blockwork solutions

Aircrete block applications

Thermal performance The suite of Building Regulations Approved Documents L1A and B and L2A and B (2013) gives detailed guidance on how a building may be designed to meet the requirements for the conservation of energy. The overall thermal design of a building, in simple terms, depends on many factors including the U-value of the exposed elements, the air tightness of the structure, the efficiency of the heating and hot water system and the lighting. Further U-values and a more detailed explanation of the requirements of the Approved Documents is given in the Design and detailing section ‘Thermal insulation’ on page 94. The thermal efficiency of the building fabric for new dwellings is set out in Approved Document L1A and will be determined by carrying out a calculation to SAP 2012. However, there are two key U-values for the external walls depending on how the SAP calculation is performed. When adopting the ‘Elemental recipe’ approach, the U-value will be 0.18W/m2K. Alternatively, the U-value can be relaxed if compensating measures are taken elsewhere (see the Thermal section on page 94), to a value approaching the limiting U-value of a external wall of 0.30W/m2K. In this case, the U-value could be in the order of 0.26W/m2K depending upon what compensating measures are employed. Extensions to existing houses are treated in a much simpler way by assigning maximum ‘elemental’ U-values of various elements. The maximum U-value for the external walls is 0.28W/m2/K. Tables 27-29 are intended to provide some typical wall U-values but are not exhaustive. For further examples, see Tables 80 to 107, pages 112-122 in the Thermal Solutions section. Alternatively, for specific U-values using your preferred insulation material, please contact our Technical Services Team.

Table 27: U-values for clear cavity walls with thermal laminates and 100mm blocks Internal finish Thermal laminate

Supabloc Supabloc 4 Supabloc 7 Toplite GTi Toplite Standard Toplite 7

Supabloc 8

60mm ThermaLine Super (R-value = 2.56m2K/W)

0.26

0.27

0.28

0.28

70mm ThermaLine Super (R-value = 3.06m2K/W)

0.23

0.24

0.24

0.24

Note: Thermal laminates are assumed to be fixed using adhesive dabs. All U-values calculated in accordance with BR 443.

Table 28: U-values for partial fill cavity walls and 100mm blocks Insulation Internal finish

Supabloc Supabloc 4 Supabloc 7 Toplite GTi Toplite Standard Toplite 7

Supabloc 8

40mm Kingspan TW50 or similar (k= 0.022 W/mK) 13mm Lightweight plaster

0.28

0.30

0.30

0.30

13mm Plasterboard on dabs

0.27

0.29

0.29

0.29

50mm Kingspan TW50 or similar (k= 0.022 W/mK) 13mm Lightweight plaster

0.25

0.26

0.27

0.27

13mm Plasterboard on dabs

0.24

0.25

0.26

0.26

70mm Kingspan K8 or similar (k= 0.02 W/mK) 13mm Lightweight plaster

0.20

0.21

0.21

0.21

13mm Plasterboard on dabs

0.19

0.20

0.20

0.20

Note: Similar materials include Celotex and Xtratherm, etc. The resistance of the Low-E cavity taken as 0.674m2W/K. All U-values calculated in accordance with BR 443.

Table 29: U-values for full fill cavity walls and 100mm blocks Insulation Internal finish

Supabloc Supabloc 4 Supabloc 7 Toplite GTi Toplite Standard Toplite 7

Supabloc 8

100mm Crown DriTherm 37 or similar (k= 0.037 W/mK) 13mm Lightweight plaster

0.27

0.29

0.29

0.29

13mm Plasterboard on dabs

0.26

0.28

0.28

0.28

100mm Earthwool DriTherm 32 or similar (k= 0.032 W/mK) 13mm Lightweight plaster

0.24

0.26

0.26

0.26

13mm Plasterboard on dabs

0.24

0.25

0.25

0.25

100mm XtraTherm CavityTherm* (R= 4.52 m2 W/K) 13mm Lightweight plaster

0.17

0.18

0.18

0.18

13mm Plasterboard on dabs

0.17

0.18

0.18

0.18

* includes a 5mm air gap r= 0.11m W/K. All U-values calculated in accordance with BR 443. 2

Technical services: 0870 242 1489


Aircrete block applications

Blockwork solutions 45

www.tarmacbuildingproducts.co.uk


46 Blockwork solutions

Hemelite

Hemelite is a range of lightweight aggregate blocks available in a variety of formats and suited to a number of loadbearing applications. Contents 47 Applications 48 BeneďŹ ts and attributes 50 Hemelite Standard and Paint Quality 54 Hemelite Foundation 56 Hemelite Coursing

Technical services: 0870 242 1489


Hemelite

Blockwork solutions 47

Applications

Walls Walls above and below ground including separating walls (ideal for ďŹ nishing with with render, cladding, plaster or dry lining)

Hemelite Standard

Commercial and leisure buildings that require direct decoration

Hemelite PQ

Solid and cavity masonry separating walls in residential buildings such as hotels and student accommodation

Hemelite Standard

Hemelite Coursing bricks

Foundations Solid and cavity walls below DPC

Hemelite Standard

Hemelite Foundation

Hemelite Standard

Hemelite Coursing brick

Floor Beam and block ďŹ&#x201A;oors

For more detailed product applications, please see pages 70 to 78.

www.tarmacbuildingproducts.co.uk


48 Blockwork solutions

Hemelite

Hemelite lightweight aggregate blocks are suitable for use in walls above and below ground and in block and beam floors. They have a proven high level of technical performance.

01 Loadbearing A range of strengths caters for the requirements of general housing and other buildings.

02 easy to decorate Ideal background for drylining, plaster, rendering and fixings.

03 Sound insulation Excellent sound insulation properties that comply with Robust Detail specifications and the Building Regulations.

See also: 58 Topcrete 84 Design detailing 94 Thermal insulation 124 Meeting the Code 128 Acoustic Insulation

›››

Technical services: 0870 242 1489


Hemelite

Excellent technical performance • Hemelite aggregate blocks have a medium thermal conductivity which aids compliance with Part L Thermal Standards as well as Code for Sustainable Homes requirements. • Standard cavity width of 75mm or 100mm can be built to meet U-values of 0.30W/m2K or better. • Hemelite can be used in specifications to meet the requirements of Part E Sound Insulation for houses and flats, including compliance with Robust Detail specifications. • The environmental performance of Hemelite can help to achieve compliance with the Code for Sustainable Homes including ratings in accordance with the Green Guide to Specification.

Loadbearing capacity • Hemelite aggregate blocks are extremely durable and robust and have excellent loadbearing properties. • Compressive strengths of 3.6, 7.3 and 10.4N/mm2 cover virtually all structural needs and meet Category 1 manufacturing control requirements of BS EN 5628:1. • Available in solid, hollow and cellular formats. • The benefits of ease of handling will assist contractors and specifiers in meeting the obligations of the Construction (Design and Management) Regulations.

Blockwork solutions 49

Easy to work

Authority and standards

• Hemelite aggregate blocks have excellent working characteristics. They are straightforward to install following conventional block laying practice.

Hemelite blocks are BSI Kitemarked to BS EN 771-3 and are manufactured under a Quality System complying with BS EN ISO 9001.

• Hemelite blocks provide a strong background for the application of wet and dry finishes as well as a good substrate into which to secure fixings.

They conform to the ‘Special Category of Manufacturing Control’ requirements specified in BS 5628-1.

Appearance • Standard grade blocks are light to dark grey and have a textured surface suitable for plastering or rendering. • Paint Quality grade blocks are light to dark grey and have a close textured surface. The colour and texture of blocks may differ according to factory of origin. Samples are available on request.

Hemelite blocks have been awarded ‘Very Good’ to BES 6001: Responsible sourcing of Construction Products. All Hemelite products are CE marked in accordance with the Construction Products Regulations (CPR). Further information can be obtained from www.tarmacbuildingproducts.co.uk/ce

Sustainability All TBP manufacturing plants operate an Environmental Management System (EMS) conforming to ISO:14001. All sites are independently certified for compliance by BSI. Use of Hemelite products, supported by a certified ‘Very Good’ to BES 6001, provides the evidence to comply with the Responsible Sourcing element of the Code for Sustainable Homes. This, together with a responsible supply chain, allows Hemelite to maximise the credits available within the Code. Summary Green Guide ratings applicable to Hemelite constructions can be found in the BRE Green Guide to Specification.

www.tarmacbuildingproducts.co.uk


50 Blockwork solutions

Hemelite

Hemelite Standard and Paint Quality For general use in walls above and below ground and in beam and block floors, or close textured blocks for walls in commercial and leisure buildings which are to receive direct decoration. 215mm

215mm

440mm 75 140mm

440mm 90 140mm

Hemelite Standard

Low unit weight Easy to handle, high strength to weight, lower overall build weight

Excellent acoustic and thermal performance Good U-values and high Rw values, as well as Robust details

Range of strengths 4 options available for wide range of specifications

Hemelite Paint Quality

Table 30: Hemelite Standard sizes and weights Face size 440 x 215 mm Block width (mm)

75*

90*

100

140

Solid: 3.6N/mm Block weight Laid weight

9.9 106

– –

13.1 142

18.4 198

Solid: 7.3N/m2 Block weight Laid weight

10.6 113

12.6 135

14.0 150

19.5 210

Solid: 10.4N/mm2 Block weight Laid weight

– –

– –

14.7 157

20.5 219

Cellular: 3.6N/mm2 Block weight Laid weight

– –

– –

11.0 121

– –

Hollow: 3.6N/mm2 Block weight Laid weight

– –

– –

– –

– –

2

Unit and laid weights, which are given for design purposes, are approximate only and based on 3% moisture content. Tolerance to BS EN771-3, Tolerance category D1 * Made to order.

Table 31: Hemelite Paint Quality sizes and weights Face size 440 x 215 mm Block width (mm)

90*

100

140

Solid: 3.6, 7.3N/mm Block weight Laid weight

12.2 131

13.5 145

18.9 203

Solid: 10.4N/m2 Block weight Laid weight

– –

14.5 155

20.2 217

Cellular: 3.6, 7.3N/m2 Block weight Laid weight

– –

– –

12.0 134

2

Unit and laid weights, which are given for design purposes, are approximate only and based on 3% moisture content. Tolerance to BS EN771-3, Tolerance category D1 * Made to order.

Technical services: 0870 242 1489


Hemelite

Blockwork solutions 51

Hemelite Standard For general use in walls above and below ground** and in beam and block floors. They are ideal for finishing with render, cladding, plaster or drylining.

Hemelite Paint Quality Close textured blocks ideally suited for walls in commercial and leisure buildings which are to receive direct decoration. It is recommended that Hemelite Paint Quality blocks are painted as there may be variations in colour and texture depending on the factory of origin. As a general rule, only one side of a block may be considered ‘fair’ as any dimensional tolerance will be reflected in the other face.

Table 32: Material properties Standard

Paint Quality

3.6, 7.3 & 10.4*

3.6, 7.3 & 10.4*

3.6

3.6 & 7.3*

Solid, cellular or hollow 3.6N/mm2

1360

1400

Solid 7.3N/mm2

1450

1400

Solid 10.4N/mm2

1520

1500

Solid, cellular or hollow 3.6N/mm2

0.45

0.46

Solid 7.3N/mm

0.47

0.46

Solid 10.4N/mm2

0.49

0.48

< 0.80

< 0.80

100mm solid blocks – emulsion paint finish

0.12 - 0.57

140mm solid blocks – emulsion paint finish

< 0.10 - 0.63

Compressive strength to BS EN771-3 (N/mm2) Solid blocks Cellular and hollow blocks Material dry density (kg/m ) 3

Thermal conductivity (W/mk) @ 3% moisture content

2

Moisture movement (mm/m) (shrinkage and expansion)

Typical airtightness (m3/[h.m2] @ 50Pa)

* Made to order

Where a 215 or 200mm wide wall is required, is recommended that the wall is constructed from 2 x 100mm blocks laid as a collar jointed wall. This has the benefit of providing a ‘fair face’ to both sides and reduces the unit weight during construction. Samples are available on request.

Separating walls The range of Hemelite solid blocks can be used with a number of Robust Detail Constructions, including those with fully filled cavities, avoiding the need for pre-completion testing. In addition, these constructions may be used with various Robust Detail separating floors. For further details, see the Applications section on pages 70-83.

Loadbearing walls Hemelite is available in a range of strengths from 3.6 to 10.4 N/mm2 which make them suitable for a variety of structural applications from domestic to commercial building. Hemelite blocks are produced to comply with ‘Category 1’ manufacturing control to BS EN 5628-1 and BS EN 771-1 to 16. ** Subject to soil sulphate conditions (see Table 43 on page 76 for further guidance).

www.tarmacbuildingproducts.co.uk


52 Blockwork solutions

Hemelite

Hemelite Standard and Paint Quality (continued) Table 33: Performance summary Standard

Fire resistance, no finish (hrs)

Sound reduction, (RwdB)

Single leaf wall

Nonloadbearing

Loadbearing

Lightweight plaster

Drylining

3.6 N/mm2

7.3 N/mm2

10.4 N/mm2

75mm solid

2

-

45

43

0.17

-

-

90mm solid

2

1

45

45

0.20

0.19

-

100mm solid

2

2

46

46

0.22

0.21

0.20

140mm solid

4

3

48

48

0.31

0.30

0.29

100mm cellular

2

2

44

46

0.28

-

-

140mm cellular or hollow

3

2

48

47

0.33

-

Sound reduction, (RwdB)

Block thermal resistance (m2k/w)

-

Block thermal resistance (m k/w)

Paint Quality

Fire resistance, no finish (hrs)

Single leaf wall

Nonloadbearing

Loadbearing

Paint finish only

3.6 N/mm2 7.3 N/mm2

10.4 N/mm2

90mm solid

2

1

44

0.20

-

100mm solid

2

2

46

0.22

0.21

140mm solid

4

3

48

0.30

0.29

Notes The values for fire resistance and sound insulation apply to Hemelite blocks of any strength Fire resistance - the application of plaster or drylining finishes will generally increase the period of fire resistance Sound reduction - values are based on technical assessment and test to BS EN 140

Fire

Sound insulation

Hemelite blocks provide excellent periods of fire resistance which can satisfy building regulations and other imposed requirements e.g. those of insurers.

Hemelite blocks may be used to provide acoustic insulation between internal rooms. The Building Regulations Approved Document E requires certain internal walls and floors in dwellings to meet a performance standard of 40RwdB.

All Hemelite products conform to a fire rating of Class A1 to BS EN 13501-1: 2002. Typical fire resistance values for Hemelite constructions are shown and are based on the UK National Annex to Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures (Part 1-2).

This can be met, for example, using 100mm Hemelite Standard finished with plaster or drylining. Sound reduction values of other Hemelite products are shown in the Table 33. For further advice including use in separating wall constructions, including Robust Details, see the Applications section on pages 70-83.

Technical services: 0870 242 1489

2


Hemelite

Blockwork solutions 53

www.tarmacbuildingproducts.co.uk


54 Blockwork solutions

Hemelite

Hemelite Foundation blocks are produced specifically for use below DPC in solid walls. 140mm

290 mm

255mm

Increased productivity Replaces traditional inner and outer leaf with one block, potentially halving construction time.

Insulation Screed

Easy to handle

Fig 17: Hemelite Foundation blocks below DPC

Each block has recessed groves to ease handling.

Foundation blocks Foundation block is produced specifically for use below DPC in solid walls.

290mm

It replaces the inner and outer leaf, wall ties and concrete cavity fill associated with traditional construction methods. This means that construction time may be halved compared to cavity walling and that the wall becomes stable soon after laying, eliminating the risk of collapsed cavities.

Fig 18: Corner bonding of Hemelite Foundation walls (290mm wall)

Cut blocks

They are formed with recessed grooves in each short edge to facilitate lifting and are available in a coursing height of 140mm. 255mm

These blocks are produced at our factory in Newark for supply into the Midlands area.

275mm

Quantities For estimating purposes, the following number of blocks are required per m2 of laid wall, based on 10mm mortar joints:

Filled joints

Fig 19: Corner bonding of Hemelite Foundation walls (255mm wall)

• 255mm width – 22.2 blocks • 290mm width – 25 blocks

Technical services: 0870 242 1489

cks

Cut blocks


Hemelite

Applications

Table 34: Material properties Block size 255 x 290 x 140mm Compressive strength to BS EN 771-3 (N/mm2)

7.3

Material dry density (kg/m )

1400

Thermal conductivity (W/mK)

0.51

Unit weight (kg)

15.0

3

Laid weight (kg/m ) 255mm width

380

Laid weight (kg/m2) 290mm width

420

2

Unit and laid weights are approximate and taken at 3% moisture content.

Blockwork solutions 55

Foundation blocks can be used to support cavity walls of 250mm â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 300mm above DPC, or solid walling of equivalent size. Foundation blocks may be laid with either 255mm or 290mm as the wall width.

Installation They would usually be laid in a GM6 (formally Designation II) mortar depending on the individual site requirements. The blockwork should be set out to achieve adequate block bonding at corners. Typical solutions are shown on page 54. Foundation Blocks are below the 20kg manual handling weight.

www.tarmacbuildingproducts.co.uk


56 Blockwork solutions

Hemelite

Hemelite Coursing bricks Coursing bricks are designed for use with the range of Hemelite blocks. 65mm 100mm

215mm

Less wastage Ideal for infilling over lintels and between floor joists

Consistent background Provides a uniform background to receive render or plaster.

Application Coursing bricks should be used for general coursing work, in-filling small areas of wall such as between timber floor or roof members as well as maintaining the coursing over lintels and at sills. Their use can eliminate cutting and wastage.

Fig 20: Typical application

Table 35: Material properties Block size 215 x 100 x 65mm Compressive strength to BS EN 771-3 (N/mm2) Normal dry density (kg/m ) 3

Unit weight (kg) Unit weight is approximate and taken at 3% moisture content

Technical services: 0870 242 1489

3.6, 7.3 1400 2.0


Hemelite

Blockwork solutions 57

www.tarmacbuildingproducts.co.uk


58 Blockwork solutions

Topcrete

Topcrete is a range of dense aggregate blocks available in a variety of formats and suited to a number of high loadbearing applications. Topcrete 59 Applications 60 BeneďŹ ts and attributes 62 Topcrete Standard and Paint Quality 66 Topcrete Foundation 68 Topcrete RPW blocks 69 Topcrete Coursing bricks

Technical services: 0870 242 1489


Topcrete

Blockwork solutions 59

Applications

Walls Walls above and below ground including separating walls (ideal for ďŹ nishing with with render, cladding, plaster or dry lining)

Topcrete Standard

Commercial and leisure buildings that require direct decoration

Topcrete PQ

Solid and cavity masonry separating walls in residential buildings such as hotels and student accommodation

Topcrete RPW

Topcrete Midi

Topcrete Coursing bricks

Foundations Solid and cavity walls below DPC

Topcrete Standard

Topcrete Foundation

Topcrete Standard

Topcrete Coursing brick

Floor Beam and block ďŹ&#x201A;oors

For more detailed product applications, please see pages 70 to 78.

www.tarmacbuildingproducts.co.uk

www.tarmacbuildingproducts.co.uk


60 Blockwork solutions

Topcrete

Topcrete dense aggregate blocks are suitable for use in walls above and below ground and in block and beam floors. They have a proven high level of technical performance.

01 Loadbearing A range of strengths offers high load bearing potential for a range of applications.

02 easy to decorate Ideal background for drylining, plaster, rendering and fixings.

03 Sound insulation Excellent sound insulation properties that comply with Robust Detail specifications and the Building Regulations.

See also: 46 Hemelite 84 Design detailing 94 Thermal insulation 124 Meeting the Code 128 Acoustic Insulation

›››

Technical services: 0870 242 1489


Topcrete

Excellent technical performance • Standard cavity widths of 75mm can be built to meet U-values of 0.30W/m2K or better. • Topcrete can be used in specifications to meet the requirements of Part E Sound Insulation for houses and flats, including compliance with Robust Detail specifications. • The environmental performance of Topcrete can help to achieve compliance with the Code for Sustainable Homes including ratings in accordance with the Green Guide to Specification.

Loadbearing capacity • Compressive strengths of 3.6, 7.3 10.4, 17.5 and 22.5N/mm2 cover virtually all structural needs and meet Category 1 manufacturing control requirements. • Topcrete aggregate blocks are extremely durable and robust and have excellent loadbearing properties. • Recent developments have seen the introduction of Multicore and Midi blocks as well as RPW party wall blocks. These products have been designed to make them convenient to handle on site, whilst retaining their excellent technical properties. • The benefits of ease of handling will assist contractors and specifiers in meeting the obligations of the Construction (Design and Management) Regulations.

Blockwork solutions 61

Easy to work

Authority and standards

• Topcrete aggregate blocks have excellent working characteristics. They are straightforward to install following conventional block laying practice.

Topcrete products are BSI Kitemarked to BS EN 771-3 and are manufactured under a Quality System complying with BS EN ISO 9001.

• Topcrete blocks provide a strong background for the application of wet and dry finishes as well as a good substrate into which to secure fixings.

Appearance • Standard grade blocks are light to dark grey and have a textured surface suitable for plastering or rendering. • Paint Quality grade blocks are light to dark grey and have a close textured surface. The colour and texture of blocks may differ according to factory of origin. Samples are available on request.

They conform to the ‘Special Category of Manufacturing Control’ requirements specified in BS 5628-1. Topcrete blocks have been awarded ‘Very Good’ to BES 6001: Responsible Sourcing of Construction Products. All Topcrete products are CE marked in accordance with the Construction Products Regulations (CPR). Further information can be obtained from www.tarmacbuildingproducts.co.uk/ce

Sustainability All TBP manufacturing plants operate an Environmental Management System (EMS) conforming to ISO:14001. All sites are independently certified for compliance by BSI. Use of Topcrete products, supported by a certified ‘Very Good’ to BES 6001, provides the evidence to comply with the Responsible Sourcing element of the Code for Sustainable Homes. This, together with a responsible supply chain, allows Topcrete to maximise the credits available in the Code. Summary Green Guide ratings applicable to Topcrete constructions can be found in the BRE Green Guide to Specification.

www.tarmacbuildingproducts.co.uk


62 Blockwork solutions

Topcrete

Topcrete Standard and Paint Quality For general use in walls above and below ground and in beam and block floors. Or close textured blocks for walls in commercial and leisure buildings which are to receive direct decoration. Topcrete Standard

Topcrete Paint Quality 215mm

215mm

440mm 75 215mm

440mm 75 215mm

Robust and durable Suitable for use in all types of buildings.

Excellent acoustic performance Complies with Robust Details and has good Rw values.

Range of strengths 4 options available for wide range of specifications

Table 36: Topcrete Standard sizes and weights Face size 440 x 215mm (Midi 290 x 215mm) Block width (mm) 75* 90*

100

140

215

Solid: 7.3, 10.4, 17.5 & 22.5N/mm Block weight 14.0 Laid weight 148

17.0 177

18.5 198

26.0 275

– –

Solid Midi: 7.3, 10.4, 17.5 & 22.5N/mm2 Block weight – Laid weight –

– –

– –

17.3 276

– –

Cellular: 3.6 & 7.3N/mm2 Block weight Laid weight

– –

– –

14.5 155

18.4 194

– –

Cellular Multicore: 3.6N/mm2 Block weight Laid weight

– –

– –

– –

18.5 199

– –

Hollow: 3.6N/mm2 Block weight Laid weight

– –

– –

– –

17.0 202

27.0 285

2

Unit and laid weights, which are given for design purposes, are approximate only and based on 3% moisture content. Tolerance to BS EN771-3, Tolerance category 1 * Made to order.

Technical services: 0870 242 1489


Topcrete

Table 37: Topcrete Paint Quality sizes and weights Face size 440 x 215mm (Midi 290 x 215mm) Block width (mm) 90* 100

140

215

Solid: 7.3 & 10.4N/mm2 Block weight Laid weight

16.0 168

17.8 187

24.9 262

– –

Solid Midi: 7.3, 10.4N/mm2 Block weight Laid weight

– –

– –

16.4 262

– –

Cellular: 3.6, 7.3 N/mm2 Block weight Laid weight

– –

– –

18.0 197

– –

Cellular Multicore: 3.6, 7.3 N/mm Block weight – Laid weight –

– –

18.4 199

– –

Hollow: 3.6, 7.3 N/mm2 Block weight Laid weight

– –

18.0 197

25.6 237

Topcrete Standard For general use in walls above and below ground** and in beam and block floors. They offer high loadbearing potential, excellent sound insulation and are extremely robust and durable. They are ideal for finishing with render, cladding, plaster or drylining.

Topcrete Paint Quality Close textured blocks ideally suited for walls in commercial and leisure buildings which are to receive direct decoration. The colour and texture of blocks may differ according to factory of origin.

2

– –

Unit and laid weights, which are given for design purposes, are approximate only and based on 3% moisture content. Tolerance to BS EN771-3, Tolerance category 1 * Made to order.

Table 38: Material properties Standard

Paint Quality

Compressive strength to BS EN771-3 (N/mm ) 2

Solid blocks Cellular and hollow blocks

7.3, 10.4, 17.5 &22.5

7.3 & 10.4*

3.6, 7.3 & 10.4*

3.6, 7.3 & 10.4*

1900-2000

1800-1900

Material dry density (kg/m ) 3

It is recommended that Topcrete Paint Quality blocks are painted as there may be variations in colour and texture depending on the factory of origin. As a general rule, only one side of a block may be considered ‘fair’ as any dimensional tolerance will be reflected in the other face. Where a 215 or 200mm wide wall is required, is recommended that the wall is constructed from 2 x 100mm blocks laid as a collar jointed wall. This has the benefit of providing a ‘fair face’ to both sides and reduces the unit weight during construction. Samples are available on request.

Thermal conductivity (W/mk) @ 3% moisture content 1.28

1.18

< 0.5

< 0.5

100mm solid blocks - emulsion paint finish

-

0.13 - 1.16

140mm solid blocks - emulsion paint finish

-

0.36

Moisture movement (mm/m) (shrinkage and expansion)

Typical airtightness (m3/[h.m2] @ 50Pa)

* Made to order

Blockwork solutions 63

Separating walls The range of Topcrete solid blocks can be used with a number of Robust Detail Constructions, including those with fully filled cavities, avoiding the need for pre-completion testing. In addition, these constructions may be used with various Robust Detail separating floors. For further details, see the Applications section on page 71 and the Acoustic insulation section on page 128.

Loadbearing walls Topcrete blocks are available in a range of strengths from 3.6 to 22.5 N/mm2 which make them suitable for a variety of structural applications from domestic to commercial building. Topcrete blocks are produced to comply with ‘Category 1’ manufacturing control to BS EN 5628-1 and BS EN 771-1 to 16. ** Subject to soil sulphate conditions. See Table 43 on page 76 for further guidance.

www.tarmacbuildingproducts.co.uk


64 Blockwork solutions

Topcrete

Topcrete Standard and Paint Quality (continued) Table 39: Performance summary Standard Single leaf wall

Fire resistance, no finish (hrs)

Sound reduction, (RwdB)

Block thermal resistance (m2K/W)

Non- loadbearing

Loadbearing

Lightweight plaster

Drylining

3.6 , 7.3, 10.4 N/mm2

75mm solid*

1 (2)

-

47

46

0.06

90mm solid*

1.5 (2)

1

48

47

0.07

100mm solid

2

2

50

49

0.08

3 (4)

2 (3)

53

52

0.11

100mm cellular

2

2

46

46

0.12

140mm cellular or hollow inc.cellular Multicore

3

3

51

51

0.17

21mm hollow

6

(2)

53

53

0.22

140mm solid/solid Midi

Paint quality Single leaf wall

Fire resistance, no finish (hrs)

Sound reduction, (RwdB)

Block thermal resistance (m2K/W)

Non- loadbearing

Loadbearing

Paint finish only

3.6 , 7.3, 10.4 N/mm2

90mm solid*

1.5 (2)

1

45

0.08

100mm solid

2

2

48

0.08

140mm solid

3 (4)

2 (3)

51

0.12

3

2

51

0.18

140mm cellular or hollow inc. cellular Multicore

Notes The values for fire resistance and sound insulation apply to Topcrete blocks of any strength Fire resistance - figures in brackets denote blocks manufactured using limestone. These are available from a number of factories and should be specified where their use is essential in meeting the required fire resistance. The application of plaster or drylining finishes will generally increase the period of the resistance Sound reduction - values are based on technical assessment and testing to BS EN 140 * Made to order.

Fire

Sound insulation

Topcrete blocks provide excellent periods of fire resistance which can satisfy building regulations and other imposed requirements e.g. insurers.

Topcrete blocks may be used to provide acoustic insulation between internal rooms. The Building Regulations Approved Document E requires certain internal walls and floors in dwellings to meet a performance standard of 40RwdB.

All Topcrete products conform to a fire rating of Class A1 to BS EN 13501-1: 2002. Typical fire resistance values for Topcrete constructions are shown and are based on the UK National Annex to Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures (Part 1-2).

This can be met, for example, using 100mm Topcrete Standard finished with plaster or drylining. Sound reduction values of other Topcrete products are shown in Table 39, opposite. For further advice including use in separating wall constructions, including Robust Details, please refer to ‘Applications’ on page 71 and the ‘Acoustic insulation’ section on page 128.

Technical services: 0870 242 1489


Topcrete

Blockwork solutions 65

www.tarmacbuildingproducts.co.uk


66 Blockwork solutions

Topcrete

Topcrete Foundation blocks are produced specifically for use below DPC in solid walls. 140mm

300 mm

275mm

Increased productivity Replaces traditional inner and outer leaf with one layer, potentially halving construction time.

Insulation Screed

Easy to handle

Fig 21: Topcrete Foundation blocks below DPC

Each block has recessed grooves to ease handling.

Foundation blocks Topcrete Foundation is produced specifically for use below DPC in solid walls.

300mm

It replaces the inner and outer leaf, wall ties and concrete cavity fill associated with traditional construction methods. This means that construction time may be halved compared to cavity walling and that the wall becomes stable soon after laying, eliminating the risk of collapsed cavities.

Fig 22: Corner bonding of Topcrete Foundation walls (300mm wall)

The blocks are formed with recessed grooves in each short edge to facilitate lifting, and are available in a size of 275 x 300 x 140mm. These blocks are produced at our factory in Newark for supply into the Midlands area.

275mm 275mm

Quantities Filled joints

For estimating purposes, the following number of blocks are required per m2 of laid wall, based on 10mm mortar joints: • 275mm width – 21.5 blocks • 300mm width – 23.4 blocks

Technical services: 0870 242 1489

Cut blocks

Fig 23: Corner bonding of Topcrete Foundation walls (275mm wall) cks

Cut blocks


Topcrete

Applications

Table 40: Material properties Block size 300 x 275 x 140 mm Compressive strength to BS EN 771-3 (N/mm2)

7.3

Material dry density (kg/m )

1600

Thermal conductivity (W/mK)

0.95

Unit weight (kg)

18.8

3

Laid weight (kg/m ) 275mm width

453

Laid weight (kg/m2) 300mm width

454

2

Unit and laid weights are approximate and taken at 3% moisture content.

Blockwork solutions 67

Foundation blocks can be used to support cavity walls of 250mm â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 300mm above DPC, or solid walling of equivalent size. Foundation blocks may be laid with either 275mm or 300mm as the wall width.

Installation For below ground use (excluding work in retaining or basement walls), they would usually be laid in GM6 (formally Designation II) mortar depending upon the individual site requirements. The blockwork should be set out to achieve adequate block bonding at corners. A typical solution is shown on page 66. Foundation Blocks are below the 20kg manual handling weight.

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68 Blockwork solutions

Topcrete

Topcrete RPW blocks Residential Party Wall blocks are designed for the construction of solid masonry separating walls in residential buildings such as hotels and student accommodation. 140mm 190mm

290mm

RPW blocks offer an alternative ‘slimline solution’ to established sizes of cavity and solid separating walls.

Separating wall

Size

Corridor wall

RPW blocks are 290mm long x 190mm width x 140mm high. They should be used to construct a 190mm thick wall.

190mm

Application RPW blocks are intended for the construction of separating walls in residential buildings. Subject to adequate flanking conditions and good standards of workmanship (see pages 132-137), the walls are capable of meeting the specified performance standard of 43DnT,w+Ctr dB, with a plaster or drylined finish. The performance of RPW has been evaluated based on tests to BS EN ISO 140-3 and BS EN ISO 717-1. Walls can be finished with 13mm dense or lightweight plaster, or 12.5mm plasterboard on dabs. It is essential that good standards of workmanship are maintained, particularly the full filling of all mortar joints, to enable the acoustic potential of the separating wall to be realised.

290mm

190mm

290mm

140mm

Cut block Separating wall Cut block

Corridor wall

190mm

290mm

240mm

Fig 24: Typical junction details for Topcrete RPW

Table 41: Material properties and weights Block size 290 x 140 x 190 mm Equivalent strength to BS EN 771-3 (N/mm2)

7.3

Quantities

Material dry density (kg/m )

For estimating purposes, the following number of blocks are required per m2 of laid wall, based on 10mm mortar joints:

Thermal conductivity (W/mK)

1.28

Unit weight (kg)

15.2

• 190mm width – 22.2 blocks.

Installation The design and construction of walls should be in accordance with BS 5628-1 and 3.

Technical services: 0870 242 1489

3

Laid weight (kg/m ) 190 mm width 2

Unit and laid weights are approximate and taken at 3% moisture content.

1900-2000

373


Topcrete

Blockwork solutions 69

Topcrete Coursing bricks Coursing bricks are designed for use with the range of Topcrete blocks. 65mm 100mm

215mm

Less wastage Ideal for infilling over lintels and between floor joists.

Consistent background Provides a uniform background for render and plaster.

Application Coursing bricks should be used for general coursing work, in-filling small areas of wall such as between timber floor or roof members, as well as maintaining the coursing over lintels and at sills.

Fig 25: Typical application

Their use can eliminate cutting and wastage.

Table 42: Material properties and weights Block size 215 x 100 x 65 mm Compressive strength to BS EN 771-3 (N/mm2) Material dry density (kg/m ) 3

7.3, 10.4, 22.5 1900-2000

Thermal conductivity (W/mK)

1.28

Unit weight (kg)

2.7

Unit weight is approximate and taken at 3% moisture content

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70 Blockwork solutions

Aggregate block applications

Aggregate block applications TBP aggregate blocks are suitable for a wide range of applications.

Technical services: 0870 242 1489


Aggregate block applications

Blockwork solutions 71

Separating walls The Building Regulations require separating walls to provide reasonable resistance to sound transmission.

Guidance on suitable Hemelite and Topcrete constructions capable of meeting the specified performance given in Approved Document E is shown on pages 72 and 73. This includes constructions that can be built to satisfy Robust Details – see page 72 for details. The use of Robust Details provides an alternative to precompletion testing for demonstrating compliance with Part E for new build dwellings. Robust Details should be used in accordance with the scheme requirements including plot registration.

Pre-completion testing Constructions requiring pre-completion testing in accordance with Approved Document E or other technical guidance (e.g. BBA certification or field test data).

1

13mm plaster (10kg/m2 min.)

2

50mm cavity

3

2x 100mm Topcrete Standard blocks

It is recommended that Hemelite and Topcrete separating wall types should not be used where there is a timber separating floor. All Hemelite and Topcrete should be specified as solid blocks

OR: 1

13mm plaster (10kg/m2 min.)

Where there is a step or stagger of at least 300mm in the Hemelite separating wall, a drylined finish may be used.

2

75mm cavity

3

2x 100mm Hemelite Standard blocks

The performance of separating walls is highly dependent on design, detailing and the good workmanship of the associated flanking construction.

Fig 26: Hemelite and Topcrete cavity separating walls

Residential buildings RPW (Residential Party Wall) blocks are designed for the construction of solid masonry separating walls in residential buildings such as hotels and student accommodation.

2 1

The performance of RPW has been evaluated based on tests to BS EN ISO 140-3 and BS EN ISO 717-1.

3

Walls can be finished with 13mm dense or lightweight plaster, or 12.5mm plasterboard on dabs. It is essential that good standards of workmanship are maintained, particularly the full filling of all mortar joints, to enable the acoustic potential of the separating wall to be realised.

4

13mm plaster (10kg/m2 min.)

5

215mm Topcrete Standard (100mm blocks laid flat)

4

5

Fig 27: Topcrete separating wall

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72 Blockwork solutions

Aggregate block applications

Separating walls (continued)

New dwellings – Robust Details E-WM-1*, E-WM-2* (dense and lightweight aggregate blocks with wet plaster)

E-WM-18* (dense and lightweight aggregate blocks with wet plaster)

2 x 100mm Topcrete or Hemelite blocks, minimum 75mm cavity, 13mm plaster or cement - sand render with plaster skim (min 10kg/m2) both sides.

2 x 100mm Topcrete or Hemelite blocks, minimum 100mm cavity, 13mm plaster or cement - sand render with plaster skim (min 10kg/m2) both sides.

E-WM-3*, E-WM-4* (dense and lightweight aggregate blocks with gypsum-based board on dabs)

It is recommended that Hemelite and Topcrete separating wall types should not be used where there is a timber separating floor. All Hemelite and Topcrete should be specified as solid blocks.

no site testing required

2 x 100mm Topcrete or Hemelite blocks, minimum 75mm cavity, gypsum-based board (nominal 8kg/m2) mounted on dabs on cement:sand render (nominal 8mm) with scratch finish.

E-WM-16* (dense and lightweight aggregate blocks with gypsum-based board on dabs) 2 x 100mm Topcrete or Hemelite blocks, minimum 100mm cavity, gypsum-based board (nominal 9.8kg/m2) mounted on dabs on cement:sand render (nominal 8mm) with scratch finish. * The cavity may be fully filled with mineral wool (max. density 40kg/m3) to provide a ‘zero U-value’ separating wall.

1

2 1

13mm plaster (10kg/m2 min.) or plasterboard (8.0kg/m2 nominal) on 8mm nominal parging

2

75 or 100mm cavity

3

2x 100mm Topcrete or Hemelite Standard blocks

Technical services: 0870 242 1489

Fig 28

3


Blockwork solutions 73

Aggregate block applications

New build rooms for residential purposes Any of the recommended solutions shown for the New Build Dwellings can be specified for separating walls for use in rooms for residential purpose. In addition, the solutions shown below may be used.

1

4

13mm plaster (10kg/m2 min.)

OR:

OR:

2

13mm plasterboard (10kg/m min.)

5

13mm plasterboard (10kg/m2 min.)

3

215mm Topcrete blocks laid flat

6

190mm Topcrete RPW blocks laid flat

Constructions requiring pre-completion testing in accordance with Approved Document E or other technical guidance e.g. BBA certification or field test data.

2

2

Fig 29

Rooms for residential purposes include hotels, hostels, boarding houses, halls of residence and residential houses but exclude hospitals or similar establishments used for patient accommodation.

1

3

Movement joint

Joint carried through plaster finish

Fig 30

5 4

6

Outer skin of masonry

Suitable ties across movement joint at 450mm vertical centres

13mm plaster (10kg/m2 min.)

Movement joint

Suitable ties across movement joint at 450mm vertical centres

Internal partition block 215mm high

Topcrete RPW Topcrete RPW

Fig 31: Typical junction with external wall

Fig 32: Typical junction with partition wall

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74 Blockwork solutions

Aggregate block applications

Internal walls* Any grade of Hemelite or Topcrete can be used for the construction of internal walls.

For partitions in dwellings, these products can be used to provide good levels of airborne sound insulation as well as a suitable background for fixings and finishes. For commercial and industrial applications, Hemelite and Topcrete may be used to provide sound insulation, fire resistance and structural strength. Certain internal walls are required to provide a level of sound insulation as required by the Building Regulations E2. Walls between bedrooms, or a room containing a water closet, and other rooms, need to provide the minimum sound insulation of 40RwdB. The constructions shown in Figure 33 have been assessed and/or laboratory tested to demonstrate the performance level required by Approved Document E.

Approved Document E solution Approved Document ‘E’ prescriptive solutions or TBP constructions which have been shown by testing to meet the regulations. 1

Plaster or drylining

2

Wall blocks comprising 100mm Hemelite Standard 75mm Topcrete Standard

1

Fig 33 * Internal walls and floors are elements within a dwelling and are not separating elements.

Technical services: 0870 242 1489

no site testing required

2


Aggregate block applications

Blockwork solutions 75

Internal floors* Approved Document ‘E’ prescriptive solutions or TBP constructions which have been shown by testing to meet the regulations.

Approved Document E requires that internal floors in dwellings provide the minimum sound insulation of 40RwdB. Hemelite and Topcrete blocks, when used in beam and block floors, can exceed this.

Approved Document E solution 1

50mm min. sand-cement screed

2

Any ceiling finish

3

Infill blocks comprising 100mm Hemelite** or Topcrete Standard blocks

no site testing required

1

3 2

Fig 34 * Internal walls and floors are elements within a dwelling and are not separating elements. ** Hemelite 3.6N/mm2 blocks must be specified as ‘flooring grade’.

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76 Blockwork solutions

Aggregate block applications

Walls below DPC Hemelite and Topcrete Standard blocks are suitable for constructing internal and external walls below ground.

For the outer leaf of external cavity walls, or solid external walls below ground, any Topcrete product can be used, or Hemelite Standard blocks of 7.3N/mm2 strength. However, for protected locations, such as the inner leaf of a cavity wall or internal walls, Hemelite Standard 3.6N/mm2 solid or cellular blocks may be used. These products are suitable for use in sulphate soil conditions Class DS-1 to DS3, as defined in BRE Special Digest No. 1 and shown in Table 43, and their use is supported by research conducted by the Concrete Block Association.

Hemelite or Topcrete Standard

Hemelite or Topcrete Foundation block

Fig 35: Hemelite and Topcrete blocks below DPC

Table 43: Sulphate soil conditions Hemelite or Topcrete aggregate blocks Hemelite Standard* 3.6N/mm

2

Hemelite Standard 7.3N/mm2 or Foundation block Topcrete Standard – any strength or Foundation block

DS-1

DS-2

DS-3

* Hemelite Standard 3.6N/mm2 solid or cellular blocks are suitable for use as the inner leaf of cavity walls and internal walls below dpc.

Technical services: 0870 242 1489


Aggregate block applications

Blockwork solutions 77

External walls In cavity walls, Hemelite or Topcrete may be used for either or both leaves, normally with a minimum width of 90mm.

When used for the outer leaf, the blockwork should normally be rendered or clad. When the cavity is not to be fully ďŹ lled with insulation, a clear residual cavity of 50mm minimum width should be maintained depending on the type of insulation being used. The residual cavity width excludes partial ďŹ ll insulation. In a single leaf wall, the minimum width of blockwork, with or without rendering, may be selected from BS 5628-3.

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78 Blockwork solutions

Aggregate block applications

Beam and block floors Hemelite or Topcrete Standard blocks are suitable for use in suspended floors in conjunction with precast concrete beams.

Hemelite or Topcrete Standard blocks are suitable for use in beam and block suspended ground and internal floors in single occupancy dwellings under domestic loading. Where high point loadings are anticipated, such as in garages, a reinforced structural topping must be used.

Screed

Concrete floor beam

Where floor loadings dictate closer beam spacing, blocks should be used spanning the 215mm direction. They are quick to install and provide effective sound insulation for internal floors.

Hemelite or Topcrete floor blocks

Coursing bricks to in-fill between beamends are available in 65mm bedding height.

Plasterboard

For the suitability of cellular blocks, contact Technical Services. When tested under transverse load the blocks are designed to support a point load of 3.5kN over a 420mm clear span.

Building Regulation E2 The requirements of Building Regulation E2 ‘Protection against sound within a dwellinghouse’ can be easily met using a beam and block internal floor using Hemelite or Topcrete infill blocks, finished with a minimum 50mm sand and cement screed and plasterboard ceiling. Independent tests confirm that the airborne sound reduction (RW) of these finished floor constructions was 51RwdB. This exceeds the minimum required value of 40RwdB.

Technical services: 0870 242 1489

Timber battens

Fig 36: Typical beam and block internal floor

Table 44: Block specification Topcrete or Hemelite Standard 440 x 100 x 215mm Hemelite Standard – either 3.6N/mm2 or 7.3N/mm2 strength solid blocks may be used but when 3.6N/mm2 are required they should be specified as ‘flooring grade’ or 440 x 100 x 215mm Topcrete Standard – 7.3N/mm2 strength solid blocks may be used.


Aggregate block applications

Blockwork solutions 79

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80 Blockwork solutions

Aggregate block applications

Structural elements The Tarmac Building Products medium dense and dense block range provides a combination of strength coupled with excellent thermal and acoustic performance, which makes them ideal for house building.

The strength of the blockwork for many domestic and other small buildings can be determined using the simple rules given in the Building Regulations Approved Document A: Structural Safety. Using the minimum block strengths indicated in Figures 37-38, the correct block strength may be selected without the need for a structural design calculation. Therefore, in most cases either Hemelite or Topcrete would be adequate for the inner leaf and internal walls of two storey dwellings. For three storey housing, the ground floor inner leaf and load bearing internal walls can be constructed using either Hemelite or Topcrete 7.3N/mm2. The inner leaf and internal walls on the upper floors could revert to Hemelite 3.6N/mm2. Note that, where there are separating walls within attached dwellings, the minimum block strength will be dictated by the density requirements that are necessary for acoustic purposes. For further details, see the Acoustic insulation section on page 128.

Technical services: 0870 242 1489

In cases where a structural design is carried out, it may be possible to justify a block strength of 3.6N/mm2 on the ground floor of three storey housing rather than 7.3N/mm2 as indicated in Figure 39.

Additional guidance is on the use of BS 5628 and Euro Code 6 (BS EN 1996) is given in the ‘Structural Design’ section, Structural, on page 93.

Table 45: Hemelite and Topcrete block strengths Block type Hemelite Standard Hemelite Paint Quality Topcrete Standard Topcrete Paint Quality

Compressive strength (N/mm2) 3.6, 7.3, 10.4 3.6, 7.3 7.3, 10.4, 17.5, 22.5 7.3, 10.4


Aggregate block applications

Condition A 2.9 N/mm² blocks min. Underside of Hs structural roof

Blockwork solutions 81

Condition B 7.3 N/mm² blocks min.

Condition C 7.3 N/mm² blocks min. Where Hf less than equal to 1m, Condition A 2.9 N/mm² blocks min.

Topside of structural floor

Where Hf greater than 1m, Condition B 7.3 N/mm² blocks min.

Fig 37

Underside of Hs structural roof

Underside of Hs structural roof

Cavity wall

Topside of structural floor

Internal wall

Underside of Hs structural roof

Internal wall

Underside of Hs structural roof

Underside Hs of structural roof

Hf

Cavity wall

This wall to be at least 140mm thick blockwork or 215mm thick brickwork below ground floor level if height Hf exceeds 1m

This wall to be at least 140mm thick blockwork or 215mm thick brickwork

Topside of structural floor

Fig 38

Fig 39

Notes 1 If Hs is not greater than 2.7m, the minimum compressive strength of bricks or blocks should be used in walls as indicated by the key. 2 If Hs is greater than 2.7m, the compressive strength of bricks or blocks used in the wall should be at least Condition B, or as indicated by the key, whichever is the greater.

3 If the external wall is solid construction, the masonry units should have a compressive strength of at least that shown for the internal leaf of a cavity wall in the same position. 4 The guidance given in the diagram for walls of two and three storey buildings should only be used to determine the compressive strength of the masonry units where the roof construction is of timber.

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82 Blockwork solutions

Aggregate block applications

Thermal performance The suite of Building Regulations Approved Documents L1A and B and L2A and B (2013) gives detailed guidance on how a building may be designed to meet the requirements for the conservation of energy. The overall thermal design of a building, in simple terms, depends on many factors including the U-value of the exposed elements, the air tightness of the structure, the efficiency of the heating and hot water system and the lighting. The thermal efficiency of the building fabric for new dwellings is set out in Approved Document L1A and will be determined by carrying out a calculation to SAP 2012. However, there are two key U-values for the external walls, depending on how the SAP calculation is performed. When adopting the ‘Elemental recipe’ approach the U-value will be 0.18W/m2K. Alternatively, the U-value can be relaxed, if compensating measures are taken elsewhere (see ‘Thermal Insulation’ on page 94), to a value approaching the limiting U-value of a external wall of 0.30W/m2K. In this case the U-value could be in the order of 0.26W/m2K depending upon what compensating measures are employed. Extensions to existing houses are treated in a much simpler way by assigning maximum ‘elemental’ U-values to various elements. The maximum U-value for the external wall is 0.28W/m2/K. Tables 46-48 are intended to provide some typical wall U-values but are not exhaustive. For specific U-values using your preferred insulation material please contact our Technical Services Team. Further U-values and a more detailed explanation of the requirements of the Approved Documents is given in the Thermal Insulation section on page 94.

Table 46: U-values for clear cavity walls with thermal laminates and 100mm blocks Internal finish Thermal laminate

Hemelite Standard

Topcrete Standard

70mm ThermaLine Super (R-value = 3.06m2K/W)

0.26

0.27

80mm ThermaLine Super (R-value = 3.56m2K/W)

0.23

0.24

Note Thermal laminates are assumed to be fixed using adhesive dabs All U-values calculated in accordance with BR 443.

Table 47: U-values for partial fill cavity walls and 100mm blocks Insulation

Internal finish

Hemelite Standard

Topcrete Standard

50mm Kingspan TW50 or similar k = 0.022W/mK)

13mm lightweight plaster 13mm plasterboard on dabs

0.29 0.28

0.30 0.29

65mm Kingspan TW50 or similar k = 0.022W/mK)

13mm lightweight plaster 13mm plasterboard on dabs

0.25 0.24

0.26 0.25

70mm Kingspan TW50 or similar k = 0.022W/mK)

13mm lightweight plaster 13mm plasterboard on dabs

0.22 0.22

0.23 0.22

Note Similar materials include Celotex and Xtratherm etc All U-values calculated in accordance with BR 443. The resistance of the Low-E cavity taken as 0.64m2K/W

Table 48: U-values for fully fill cavity walls and 100mm blocks Insulation

Internal finish

Hemelite Standard

Topcrete Standard

100mm Earthwool DriTherm 32 13mm lightweight plaster or similar (k = 0.032W/mK) 13mm plasterboard on dabs

0.28 0.27

0.29 0.28

125mm Earthwool DriTherm 32 13mm lightweight plaster or similar (k = 0.032W/mK) 13mm plasterboard on dabs

0.24 0.24

0.24 0.24

100mm XtraTherm CavityTherm* (R = 4.52m2K/W)

0.19 0.19

0.20 0.19

13mm lightweight plaster 13mm plasterboard on dabs

* Includes a 5mm air gap r = 0.11m2K/W All U-values calculated in accordance with BR 443.

Technical services: 0870 242 1489


Aggregate block applications

Blockwork solutions 83

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84 Blockwork solutions

Design and detailing

Technical services: 0870 242 1489


Design and detailing

Blockwork solutions 85

Design and detailing 86 94 124 128 138 142 150

Structural design Thermal insulation The Code for Sustainable Homes Acoustic insulation Durability Movement control Internal and external ďŹ nishes

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86 Blockwork solutions

Structural design

Structural design Blockwork can be used below ground in foundation walls, in suspended beam and block floors and in all types of internal and external walls to meet the full range of Building Regulationsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; requirements.

Technical services: 0870 242 1489


Structural design

Design principles Building Regulation A11 requires buildings to be constructed so the combined dead, imposed and wind loads are sustained and transmitted safely, without causing deflection or deformation in any part of the building. Many masonry structures can be designed to meet those requirements by using prescriptive rules in Building Regulations and British Standards, without the need for detailed structural calculations. Those rules apply to: • Houses and other small buildings up to three storeys in height; see Approved Document A2 (2004 edition including the 2010 and 2013 amendments) and BS 8103-2: Part 2: ‘Structural design of low-rise buildings’ • Non-loadbearing partitions: determination of thickness according to panel length, height and degree of fixity is contained in BS 5628-3. For structures outside the scope of those rules, design methods are contained in BS 5628: ‘Code of practice for use of masonry’ which consists of the following parts:

i) BS 5628-1 Structural use of unreinforced masonry ii) BS 5628-2 Structural use of reinforced and prestressed masonry iii)BS 5628-3 Materials and components, design and workmanship 1 For Scotland refer to Section 1 of The Building (Scotland) Regulations 2 For Scotland refer to the Small Buildings Guide.

Blockwork solutions 87

• Lay 290 x 140 x 215mm Topcrete Midi blocks (aspect ratio 1.54) to construct 140mm walls. This block may also be laid flat to give a wall 215mm thick (aspect ratio 0.65). The use of heavy units can also be avoided by using a double leaf, collar jointed wall. This is particularly suited to constructing 190mm or 215mm wide walls with both faces built fair.

These solutions are summarised below. In addition to good loadbearing potential, these constructions can also provide very good levels of fire resistance and sound insulation.

These walls can be designed as a cavity or single leaf wall. Characteristic compressive strengths for both of these conditions can be obtained from BS 5628-1. When designing as a single leaf wall, the leaves may be tied together using suitable metal ties or bed joint reinforcement. For blockwork, bed joint reinforcement can also be used to enhance its lateral load resistance, as well as increasing the spacing of movement joints. It is not practical to fully fill the collar joint with mortar and BS 5628-1 does not stipulate this as a requirement as it once did.

• Lay 440 x 100 x 215mm Topcrete Standard blocks flat (aspect ratio 0.46) to construct 215mm wide walls

For other situations, the use of heavy units e.g. those exceeding 20kg, can be avoided as follows:

• Use 290 x 190 x 140mm Topcrete RPW blocks (aspect ratio* 0.74) to construct 190mm wide walls

• Change the block specification.

Blockwork construction options To avoid designing with heavy masonry units, a number of construction and product options are available for constructing 190-215mm width solid walls.

• Select an alternative face size solid unit such as Topcrete Midi or RPW, or • Select a Hemelite or Topcrete cellular or hollow unit instead of a solid block, without compromising essential requirement. * The ratio of height to thickness

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88 Blockwork solutions

Structural design

Structural design (continued) width

For the convenience of designers, the characteristic compressive strength of blockwork (fk) can be used in conjunction with TBP blocks.

215mm

Characteristic compressive strength of blockwork

Table 49: Blockwork characteristic compressive strength – solid blocks (Group 1 units) Block width

Compressive strength fk (N/mm2) 4.2 7.3 8.7 10.4

2.9

3.6

17.5

22.5

75mm

-

3.5

-

6.4

-

-

-

-

90mm

-

3.5

-

6.4

-

8.2

10.1

12.0

TBP products are shown in Tables 49-50. It includes fk values for walls incorporating solid and voided units, as well as for walls to be built using blocks laid flat or laid back to back.

100mm

2.8

3.5

4.1

6.4

6.9

8.2

10.1

12.0

115mm

2.7

3.3

3.9

6.1

-

-

-

-

125mm

2.5

3.1

3.6

5.8

-

-

-

-

130mm

2.4

3.0

-

5.6

-

-

-

-

Solid blocks

140mm

2.3

2.9

-

5.3

5.8

6.8

8.4

10.0

150mm

2.2

2.8

-

5.1

-

6.5

8.1

9.6

190mm

1.9

2.4

-

4.4

-

5.7

7.0

8.3

200mm

1.9

2.3

-

4.3

-

5.5

6.8

8.0

215mm

1.8

2.2

2.6

4.1

-

5.3

6.5

7.7

260mm

1.6

2.0

-

3.7

-

-

-

-

275mm

1.6

1.9

-

3.6

-

-

-

-

280mm

1.6

1.9

-

3.6

-

-

-

-

300mm

1.5

1.8

-

3.5

-

-

-

-

The aspect of ratio of a block – the ratio of height to thickness – affects the characteristic compressive strength of the blockwork masonry, termed fk. The values for fk given in Table 49 apply to TBP products laid in normal aspect. Where 100mm solid blocks are laid flat (aspect ratio 0.46), the fk values in Table 52 should be used.

1 Blocks have a height of 215mm and are laid in normal aspect 2 This table is applicable to aircrete and aggregate blocks from the TBP range 3 All values shown are for blockwork built with designation (iii) or M4 mortar. Values for blockwork built with mortar of other designations may be determined from BS 5628-1 4 Check the relevant product pages for size availability

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Structural design

Blockwork solutions 89

width 215mm

Table 50: Blockwork characteristic compressive strength – cellular or hollow blocks (Group 2 units) Block width

Compressive strength fk (N/mm2) 3.6 7.3 10.4

100mm

3.5

6.1

7.1

140mm

2.9

5.1

5.9

190mm

2.4

4.2

4.9

215mm

2.2

3.9

4.6

Cellular or hollow blocks The compressive strength of cellular or hollow blocks is based on their gross area; no allowance need be made for the voids. Where the voids will be completely filled with concrete in-situ, the compressive strength should be calculated on the net area of the block, provided the 28 day cube strength of the infilling concrete is not less than the net strength of the block.

1 This table is applicable to units in the Hemelite and Topcrete ranges 2 Blocks have a height of 215mm and are laid in normal aspect 3 All values shown are for blockwork built with designation (iii) mortar. Values for blockwork built with mortar of other designations may be determined from BS 5628-1 4 Check the relevant product pages for size availability

Characteristic compressive values can be obtained from Table 50.

width 215mm

Table 51: Characteristic compressive strength of collar jointed walls built with aggregate blocks (block height/wall thickness ratio: 1.0 to 1.2) Block width

Compressive strength fk (N/mm2) 3.6 7.3 10.4 17.5

22.5

Mortar group (iii)

2.4

4.0

5.1

7.0

8.3

Mortar group (ii)

2.8

4.5

5.7

7.9

9.4

Mortar group (i)

3.4

5.5

7.0

9.7

11.6

Double-leaf collar jointed walls For double-leaf collar jointed walls designed as a single leaf wall, the fk values in Table 51 should be used. These are applicable to walls in a thickness range of 190-215mm.

Blocks laid flat/alternative unit aspect ratios When designing walls using blocks laid flat, the fk values in Table 52 should be used.

1 This table is applicable to units in the Hemelite and Topcrete ranges 2 Blocks have a height of 215mm and are laid in normal aspect 3 Suitable ties or bed joint reinforcement should be used to connect the leaves together 215mm 100mm

Table 52: Characteristic compressive strength of walls built with aggregate blocks laid flat (as laid height/wall thickness ratio: 0.4 to <0.6) Block width

Compressive strength fk (N/mm2) 3.6 7.3 10.4 17.5

22.5

Mortar group (iii)

2.5

4.1

5.2

7.0

8.1

Mortar group (ii)

2.9

4.6

5.9

7.9

9.1

Mortar group (i)

3.5

5.5

7.2

9.7

11.3

For walls constructed of 140mm height units, such as Hemelite Foundation blocks and Topcrete RPW blocks, the fk values in Table 53 should be used.

1 This table is applicable to units in the Hemelite and Topcrete ranges 2 Values shown would normally be applicable to 100mm thickness blocks laid flat used to construct a 215mm width wall 3 Unit strengths are those for units tested in the normal aspect width

Block width 190mm (RPW)

140mm

Table 53: Characteristic compressive strength of walls built 140mm high blocks Compressive strength fk (N/mm2) 2.9 3.6 4.2 7.3 8.7

10.4

17.5

22.5

-

-

-

3.5

-

-

-

-

1.5

1.8

2.1

3.3

3.6

4.2

5.3

6.2

255mm (Hemelite Foundation)

-

-

-

4.1

-

-

-

-

275mm (Topcrete Foundation)

-

-

-

4.1

-

-

-

-

215mm (any 140mm block laid flat)

All values shown are for blockwork built with designation (iii) mortar. Values for blockwork built with mortar of other designations may be determined from BS 5628-1

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90 Blockwork solutions

Structural design

Unreinforced walls Partial safety factors

Table 54: Partial safety factors (TBP material strength)

TBP products are manufactured under an ISO 9001:2000 quality assurance system. All units conform to Category 1 manufacturing control allowing enhanced safety factors to be adopted in the design of masonry walls. Consequently, the partial safety factors for material strength given in Table 54 may be employed.

Laterally loaded walls Recommendations for walls subject to lateral loading are given in BS 5628-1. Such loading must be taken into account when the lateral load is predominant and when the wall must be designed to resist accidental damage.

Category of masonry units Compression (ϒm) Flexure (ϒm)

Category of construction control Special Normal

Category I Category II

2.5 2.8

3.1 3.5

Category I and II

2.5

3.0

Table 55: Section properties of blockwork Block width (mm)

Section modulus (Z), per metre length (cm3/m)

Block width (mm)

Section modulus (Z), per metre length (cm3/m)

90

1350

150

3750

100

1667

190

6017

125

2604

200

6667

140

3267

215

7704

The characteristic flexural strength of blockwork, fkx, is given in BS 5628-1: Table 3 and relates broadly to the compressive strength of the units (water absorption is not a relevant factor). The values apply to walls built with solid, cellular and hollow blocks. The section properties of blockwork are shown in Table 55.

Non-loadbearing internal walls Unless internal walls or partitions are designed to be freestanding they should be laterally restrained. Horizontal or vertical supports may be either continuous or intermittent. The length and height of the wall in relation to its thickness should fall below the relevant line on the graphs opposite. Where it is known that an internal wall is to be plastered, a maximum of 13mm of plaster to one or both sides may be included when determining the wall thickness, e.g. for 100mm width blockwork plastered both sides the overall wall thickness is 126mm, therefore, it would be appropriate to use the 125mm line on the graph. In such cases, consideration should be given to the need for temporary support prior to plastering. Consideration should also be given to the

following factors, which may affect the stability of the wall: a) accommodation of movement b) openings c) the likelihood of exceptional lateral loading owing to the nature of the building d) wind load (see BS 6399-2).

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In addition, increased thickness may be required to take account of other performance requirements such as sound insulation or fire resistance.


Structural design

Blockwork solutions 91

Fig 40: Wall restrained at top only 9

Unrestrained height (m)

8 7 6

Wall thickness (mm) 215 190 150 140 125 115 100 90 75

5 4 3 2 1 0

2

3

4

5

6 7 8 Unrestrained length (m)

9

10

11

12

Fig 41: Wall restrained at both ends only 9

Unrestrained height (m)

8 7 6

Wall thickness (mm) 215 190 150 140 125 115 100 90 75

5 4 3 2 1 0

2

3

4

5

6 7 8 Unrestrained length (m)

9

10

11

12

Fig 42: Wall restrained at both ends and top 9

Unrestrained height (m)

8 7 6

Wall thickness (mm) 190 150 140 125 115 100 90 75

5 4 3 2 1 0

2

3

4

5

6 7 8 Unrestrained length (m)

9

10

11

12

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92 Blockwork solutions

Structural design

Reinforced walls Adding reinforcement to blockwork improves both the vertical loadbearing capacity and the bending resistance of the masonry. Fig 43: Reinforcement using Topcrete hollow blockwork

Reinforced blockwork should be constructed in accordance with the recommendations of BS 5628-2. Further guidance for reinforced freestanding walls is given in BRE Good Building Guide (GBG) 19, and for reinforced retaining walls in GBG 27. Guidance on the design and construction of masonry retaining walls suitable for basements is given in the Approved Document ‘Basements for Dwellings’. There are two common methods of forming reinforced blockwork: • Placing reinforcement and concrete in the cores of hollow blocks. Typically 215mm Topcrete hollow blocks can be considered for this application • Placing reinforcement and concrete in the cavity between two leaves of blockwork. This construction is known as grouted-cavity masonry. Mortar mixes for reinforced blockwork should be designation (i) or (ii) according to BS 5628-2. However, designation (iii) mixes may be used if the lateral load resistance is enhanced by bed joint reinforcement. Concrete infill should be a minimum of grade 25 as described in BS 5328. Alternatively the following volume proportions may be used: 1:1/4:3:2 cement: lime: sand: aggregate, using aggregate not greater than 10mm.

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Cover to reinforcement When determining fire resistance, the block may be considered as forming part of the cover to the reinforcement, in accordance with BS 8110-2. However, when the durability of the reinforcement is being assessed, only the thickness of the concrete infill can be considered as forming the cover to the reinforcement (see Fig. 45). The minimum concrete cover required for durability under a range of exposure conditions is given in BS 5628-2 Table 12. Design of walls with Durox System is thin jointed blockwork using 23mm mortar joints. Characteristic compressive strength values are given in BS 5628-1, and may be taken as the values given for mortar strength class M12 (mortar designation (i) in Table 2 of the Standard.

Design of walls with Durox System

Fig 44: Reinforcement with grouted masonry cavity

450mm

Fig 45: Determination of cover for fire resistance and durability 1) Thickness of cover for determination of fire resistance 2) Thickness of cover for determination of durability Concrete infill

Similarly, the characteristic flexural strength may be taken as the values given for mortar strength class M12 (mortar designation (i) in Table 3 of the Standard. For further advice refer to our Technical Services Team.

Grouted cavity at least 100mm wide

(1)

(2)


Blockwork solutions 93

Structural design

Table 56: Shape Factor δ (BS EN 772-1) Unit height (mm)

115

Block width (mm) 125

100

140

200

215

215

1.38

1.35

1.33

1.30

1.18

1.16

140

-

-

-

-

0.95*

100

-

-

-

-

0.79*

0.98** -

* Applies to 100 or 140mm wide blocks x 215m height when laid flat. ** Applies to Topcrete Midi blocks (190mm wide x 140mm height). The figures above have been interpolated from Table A1, BS EN 772-1 and apply to TBP’s aircrete and aggregate blocks.

Table 57: Normalised strength for 215mm height blocks Block strength (N/mm2) 100

115

Block width (mm) 125

140

200

215

2.9

4.0

3.9

3.9

3.8

3.4

3.4

3.6

5.0

4.9

4.8

4.7

4.2

-

4.2

5.8

5.7

5.6

5.5

5.0

-

7.3

10.1

9.9

9.7

9.5

8.6

8.5

8.7

12.0

11.7

11.6

11.3

10.3

-

10.4

14.4

14.0

13.8

13.5

12.3

-

17.5

24.2

23.6

23.3

22.8

20.7

-

22.5

31.1

30.4

29.9

29.3

26.6

-

Note, these figures relate to any TBP block laid in its normal aspect. Check the relevant product pages for size availability.

Table 58: Normalised strength for blocks laid flat Block strength (N/mm2)

Block height when laid flat (mm) 100 140

2.9

2.3

2.8

3.6

2.8

3.4

4.2

3.3

4.0

7.3

5.8

6.9

8.7

6.9

8.3

10.4

8.2

9.9

17.5

13.8

16.6

22.5

17.8

21.4

Eurocode 6 Design of Masonry Structures (BS EN 1996) Eurocode 6 or EC 6 (BS EN 1996) replaced BS 5628 as the UK masonry design Standard in April 2010, at which time BS 5628 was withdrawn. However, it is still permitted to continue designing to a withdrawn code and it is anticipated that BS 5628 will remain in use for some time to come. It is of course likely, that over time, EC 6 will become increasingly more commonly used. The relevant parts of EC 6 are shown in Table 59. An essential difference between EC 6 and BS 5628 is that EC 6 uses ‘Normalised strength’ of masonry units which are derived from a ‘Shape Factor’ rather than the characteristic strength. The Shape Factor for commonly available UK block dimensions is given in Table 56. These values have been interpolated from the values given in Table A1 of BS EN 772-1. BS EN 771- 3 & 4 requires manufacturers to give the normalised ‘air dried’ strengths of masonry units, derived from physical testing, which is known as the ‘Declared strength’. To obtain the normalised strength for a particular block size, the ‘Declared strength’ is multiplied by the appropriate Shape Factor. Tables 57 and 58 show the normalised strength of TBP's aircrete and aggregate block range for blocks used in their normal aspect (i.e. width x 215mm height) and when the blocks are laid flat to form a 215mm wide wall.

Check the relevant product pages for size availability.

Table 59: Eurocode 6 – Design of Masonry Structures Eurocode Part

Full title

Publication date

Supersession details

BS EN 1996-1-1

Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures Common rules for reinforced and unreinforced masonry structures

30/12/2005

BS 5628-1 BS 5628-2

BS EN 1996-1-2

Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures Structural fire design

30/06/2005

Parts of BS 5628-3

BS EN 1996-2

Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures Design considerations, selection of materials and execution of masonry

15/02/2006

BS 5628-3

BS EN 1996-3

Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures Simplified calculation methods for unreinforced masonry structures

15/03/2006

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94 Blockwork solutions

Thermal insulation

Thermal insulation This section has been prepared to give designers and users a concise overview of the changes to the 2013 Part L Approved Documents for the conservation of fuel and power in buildings and offers guidance on potential solutions. Contents 95 Introduction 96 Approved Document L1A New Dwellings 98

Party Wall bypass

101 Thermal mass of dwellings 102 Linear thermal bridging 103 Domestic case studies

106 Approved Document L1B Work on Existing Dwellings

108 Approved Document L2A New Buildings other than Dwellings 110 Approved Document L2B Work on Existing Buildings other than Dwellings 112 U-values for cavity walls using aircrete blocks 114 U-values for cavity walls using aggregate blocks 120 Ground floor U-Values 123 Insulation manufacturers

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Thermal insulation

Introduction

Blockwork solutions 95

New Part L Approved Documents

Other useful reference documents

In common with the previous version of Part L, there is a suite of Approved Documents covering conservation of fuel and power in new buildings and the extension or alteration to existing buildings:

The Approved Documents refer to a number of compliance guides and reference documents that designers will need to familiarise themselves with. Some of these are listed below.

The main purpose here is to highlight the major changes to Approved Document L, and give guidance on the revised methods of compliance and the design tools required to calculate the overall energy efficiency of buildings.

• Approved Document L1A: New dwellings*

• The Government’s Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) For the Energy Rating of Dwellings (2012 Edition)

For any building, the cost effective design of external walls and floors is paramount, and is usually one of the first areas considered to establish compliance. A number of wall and floor constructions are presented using our products. Such constructions are practical to build and based on tried and tested concepts that offer designers and end users peace of mind.

• Approved Document L2B: Work on existing buildings – other than dwellings*

This information is intended to give designers and housebuilders an overview of the new Part L standards for the conservation of fuel and power in buildings which came into effect on the 6th April 2014. However, for more comprehensive guidance, the relevant Approved Documents should be used.

The case studies shown on pages 104 and 105, have been compiled using SAP 2012 and illustrate the range of measures required to satisfy the latest changes to Approved Document L. A selection of wall and floor U-values are shown but it should be remembered that each dwelling type needs to be assessed in order to determine a common specification across a range of house types. These latest standards of energy efficiency support the Government’s commitment to reduce CO2 emissions, eventually leading to near zero carbon homes in 2016.

• Approved Document L1B: Work on existing dwellings* • Approved Document L2A: New buildings – other than dwellings*

The new requirements took effect on the 6th April 2014. However, there are transitional provisions that apply allowing building work to be carried out to the previous edition of the Approved Documents. These are as follows:

• National Calculation Methodology (NCM) – (iSBEM 2013 v 5.2a) • Domestic Building Services Compliance Guide** (2013) • Non-domestic Building Services Compliance Guide** (2013) ** These documents are marked as ‘for use in England’ but will be adopted by the Welsh Government for use with their parallel Approved Documents.

1 Where building work started before 6th April 2014. 2 Where a building notice, initial notice, combined initial notice and plans certificate or amendment notice have been given, or a full plans application has been deposited, before 6th April 2014, provided in each case that the building work has commenced before 6th April 2015. (For full details see Communities and Local Government Circular 04/2013 – 15th November 2013). *

These Approved Documents are intended for use in England. The Welsh Government are issuing their own set of Approved Documents which became mandatory in July 2014. The requirements are broadly similar to the English documents but contain lower back stop U-values for all types of buildings and extensions to buildings.

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96 Blockwork solutions

Thermal insulation

Approved Document L1A: New dwellings Whilst there are a number of changes that have been introduced, compliance is still achieved by demonstrating that the Dwelling Emission Rate (DER) is equal to or less than the Target Emission Rate (TER). However, a new metric, the ‘Target Fabric Energy Efficiency’ or TFEE, has been added and is explained. It should be recognised that the TER for a particular dwelling type is on average 6% lower than that set by the 2010 version of Part L1A.

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Thermal insulation

Blockwork solutions 97

Target Fabric Energy Efficiency (TFEE) rate The TFEE has been introduced as an additional target based on limiting the demand for space heating and cooling. It assesses the performance of passive measures such as thermal insulation and air tightness ensuring that ‘zero carbon’ is based on a high standard of fabric energy efficiency.

Providing SAP calculations Before work starts on site, the Building Control Body must be provided with a ‘design stage’ calculation that shows the TER, TFEE, DER, DFEE and the specification (key features) to which the building is to be constructed. After the work has been completed, the builder must demonstrate that the as-built specification meets the design stage calculation incorporating any changes that were made to the original design stage specification. The TFEE has been introduced as an additional target based on limiting the demand for space heating and2cooling. It assesses the performance of passive measures as thermal insulation The TER such is reduced by a further 6%and aircompared tightness to ensuring that “zero carbon” that which applied in the is2010 based on a of high fabric that edition ADstandard L1A. Thisofmeans energy efficiency. there will be a comparable improvement in

Target Fabric Energy Efficiency (TFEE) rate Reduction in CO emissions

Table 60: Limiting fabric parameter – Dwellings Value (W/m2K) Roof

0.20

Wall

0.30

Floor

0.25

Party wall

0.20

Swimming pool basins

0.25

Windows, roof windows, glazed roof lights, curtain walling and pedestrian doors

2.00

Air permeability (m3/h.m2 @ 50Pa)

10.00

the energy efficiency of new homes.

Providing SAP calculations Before work starts on site, the Building Limiting fabric Control Body must be provided with a performance “design stage” calculation that shows the TER, DER,values DFEE and specification TheTFEE, backstop thatthe limit the (key features) toof which the building is to be performance the fabric are unaltered constructed. as shown in Table 60. It should also be

remembered thatbeen the completed, use of all ofthe After the work has thesemust values will not achieve a DER builder demonstrate that the as-built specification meets design which is equal or the lower thanstage the TER. calculation incorporating any changes A significant improvement in these that were made the original stage values willtonormally be design required. specification.

Reduction in CO2 emissions The TER is reduced by a further 6% compared to that which applied in the 2010 edition of AD L1A. This means that there will be a comparable improvement in the energy efficiency of new homes.

Limiting fabric performance The backstop values that limit the performance of the fabric are unaltered as shown in Table 1. It should also be remembered that the use of all of these values will not achieve a DER which is www.tarmacbuildingproducts.co.uk


98 Blockwork solutions

Thermal insulation

Model designs The TER and TFEE rates are based on a dwelling of the same physical size and shape as the actual dwelling but constructed to a concurrent specification or ‘Elemental recipe’. If the actual dwelling is constructed entirely to this specification, including the orientation, it should meet the TER and TFEE targets (i.e. the DER and the DFEE should be equal to or less than the TER and the TFEE respectively. Table 61 gives a summary of some of the concurrent notional specification but further details can be found in Appendix R of the SAP 2012 methodology. Some builders may prefer to use the full concurrent specification for the actual dwelling rather than engage in more complex design calculations. However, in many cases there may the scope to use a more relaxed specification for some of the elements of the actual dwelling by installing a compensating measure such as triple glazing, waste water heat recovery (WWHR), solar hot water or solar PV. The use of one or a combination of these systems may provide the scope to increase some, or all, of the U-values of the external elements towards the limiting values. Examples of some of the options available are shown in case studies on pages 104 and 105 and show that, in some cases, the U-value of the external walls could be increased to somewhere in the region of 0.26 W/m2K.

Party Wall thermal bypass Where there is a Party Wall, a U-value is ascribed to allow for the thermal bypass effect (air movement causing heat loss) which has been found to occur in un-filled cavity Party Walls. If the cavity of the Party Wall is fully filled with insulation and effectively edge sealed the U-value may be taken as zero.

Table 61: Summary of concurrent notional specification Element or System

Value

Opening areas (windows and doors)

Same as the actual dwelling up to a maximum of 25% of the total floor area

External walls (Inc. opaque elements of curtain walls)

0.18W/m2K

Party walls

0.00W/m2K

Floor

0.13W/m2K

Roof

0.13W/m2K

Windows, roof windows, glazed roof lights and glazed doors

1.40W/m2K whole window U-value g-value = 0.63

Opaque doors

1.0W/m2K

Semi glazed doors

1.2W/m2K

Air permeability

5.00m3/h.m2 @ 50Pa

Linear thermal transmittance

Standardised psi-values – see SAP Appendix R (Table R2), except use y- = 0.05W/m2K if the default value of 0.15W/m2K is used in the actual dwelling

Ventilation type

Natural (with extract fans)

Thermal mass parameter

Medium (TMP 250kJ/m2K)

Note: as this is a summary of criteria given in Appendix R of SAP 2012, the reader is advised to read the SAP document.

Fig. 46: Thermal bypass mechanism Cold air leakage into the cavity of the Party Wall from the external walls.

Convection of air, causing heat loss into the loft space.

Heat loss from the dwelling into the cavity.

Cold air leakage into the cavity of the Party Wall from below the ground floor.

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Cold air leakage into the cavity of the Party Wall from the external walls.


Thermal insulation

Table 62: Allowable full fill Party Walls RDL Ref No.

Block product

Cavity width allowed

E-WM-1

2x 100mm Topcrete

75mm min

E-WM-2

2x 100mm Hemelite

75mm min

E-WM-3

2x 100mm Topcrete

75mm min

E-WM-4

2x 100mm Hemelite

75mm min

E-WM-6

2 x 100mm Durox Supabloc 4 or 7 and Toplite Standard or 7s

75mm min 75mm min

4

E-WM-10

2 x 100mm Durox System 600 or 7001.

75mm min

4

E-WM-13

2 x 100mm Durox System 600 or 7002.

75mm min

4

E-WM-16

2 x 100mm Topcrete

75mm min

E-WM-17

2 x 100mm Hemelite

75mm min

E-WM-18

2 x 100mm Topcrete

100mm min

E-WM-19

100mm min 2 x 100mm Hemelite3 or 2 x 100mm Topcrete3

E-WM-20 E-WM-22 E-WM-23

2x 100mm Hemelite

E-WM-21

2x 100mm Hemelite

100 mm min

E-WM-24

2x 100mm Durox Supabloc 4 or 7 and Toplite Standard or 7s

100mm min

4

E-WM-27

2x 100mm Hemelite

75mm min

5

100mm min

Full fill

Internal finish

13mm plaster

5 4

13mm plaster Plasterboard on dabs and parging Plasterboard on dabs and parging Plasterboard on dabs and parging Plasterboard on dabs and parging Plasterboard on dabs and parging Plasterboard on dabs and parging Plasterboard on dabs 13mm plaster Plasterboard on dabs and parging Plasterboard on dabs

Blockwork solutions 99

Typical Robust Detail Party Walls Recent work undertaken by the manufacturing industry and Robust Details Ltd (RDL) has shown that the acoustic performance of commonly used masonry party walls is not compromised by the use of full fill mineral wool insulation (maximum density of 40kg/m3). As a result, the RDL Patten Book has been amended to allow full fill insulation with party wall constructions as shown in Table 62. It should be noted that E-WM-8 and 14 using 2 leaves of Hemelite Standard with 35mm of Isover RD35 partial fill acoustic insulation in 75mm and 100mm cavities respectively - are also available but do not fulfil the criteria for a zero U-value separating wall and would accrue a U-value of 0.20W/m2K provided effective edge insulation is used.

Party Wall U-values When calculating the TER the separating wall is automatically given a U-value of zero (see SAP Appendix R) – this may not be the case when calculating the DER. See Table 63 for further details on the appropriate U-values of Party Walls.

13mm plaster Plasterboard on dabs

Plasterboard on dabs

Notes: 1 Thin jointed blockwork with tied cavity. 2 Thin jointed blockwork with un-tied cavity. 3 Used in conjunction with Monofloor Bridgestop system. 4 Maximum density of 40kg/m3 for the full fill mineral wool. 5 Check the requirement for a proprietary full fill insulation material.

Table 63: U-values for Party Walls Party wall construction

Fig. 47: Typical Party Wall

U-value W/m2K

Solid

0.00

Unfilled cavity and no effective edge seal

0.50*

Unfilled cavity with effective edge seal around all exposed edges and in line with the insulation in abutting elements

0.20

A fully filled cavity with effective edge seal around all exposed edges and in line with the insulation in abutting elements

0.00

Note: *this value exceeds the limiting value given in Table 1, page 5

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100 Blockwork solutions

Thermal insulation

Solid block Party Walls Table 63 shows that solid Party Walls are taken as zero U-value as there is no cavity to allow convection losses.

Secondary heating systems Any secondary heating system is taken as contributing to the main heating system. There is no penalty in situations where there is no secondary system.

Low energy lighting The requirement for low-energy lighting is given in the Domestic Building Services Compliance Guide. Where more than the minimum number of low E lights are fitted, they become tradable against other elements of the dwelling.

Limiting the effects of heat gains in the summer Whilst solar gains can be helpful in the winter periods by reducing the demand for heating, care should be taken to ensure that there is an appropriate combination of window size, orientation, solar shading or other form of solar control in the summer months. The provision of day and night ventilation along with high thermal capacity will also be useful. As with previous versions of SAP there is a requirement to check whether a dwelling is liable to overheat in the summer due to the effects of solar gains. Appendix P of SAP 2012 allows the designer to check that the dwelling doesn’t have the potential to overheat in the summer months. Generally, dwellings that can be naturally cross ventilated and that have windows that can be fully opened will not have a tendency to overheat. It is also necessary to insulate the primary circulation pipework of domestic hot water system throughout their length, as well as the primary pipework of the heating system. The Domestic Building Services Compliance Guide gives guidance on the performance of the pipe insulation.

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Table 64: Solid block Party Walls Block product

Internal finish

100mm Topcrete Standard laid flat

Plasterboard on dabs and parging

* These are Standard 100mm blocks laid flat and the wall will require pre-completion testing for compliance with Approved Document E

Table 65: Calculation of the Thermal Capacity (K-value) Layer

Lightweight plaster 2

Hemelite (3.6N/mm )

A. Thickness (mm)

B. Density (kg/m3)

C. Specific Heat capacity (J/kgK)

(A x B x C)10-6 (kJ/m2K)

13

720

1000

9.36

87*

1360

1000

118.32

∑ total

127.68

* As only the first 100mm of the thickness of the element is considered the thickness of the Hemelite block is reduced by the thickness of the plaster.

Table 66: Calculation of the Thermal Capacity (K-value) Layer

A. Thickness (mm)

B. Density (kg/m3)

C. Specific Heat capacity (J/kgK)

(A x B x C)10-6 (kJ/m2K)

Plasterboard

13

700

1000

9.10

Air space

10

0

0

0.00

Hemelite (3.6N/mm2)

77*

1360

1000

104.72

∑ total

113.82

* As only the first 100mm of the thickness of the element is considered the thickness of the Hemelite block is reduced by the thickness of the plasterboard and the dabs air space.

Table 67: Beam and block ground floors In-fill block 150mm deep beams with any block in-fill, 65mm screed on insulation Note: the type of infill blocks do not contribute to the TMP as they are below an insulation layer.

Fig 48: Beam and block floor

K-value (kJ/m2K) 78


Thermal insulation

Table 68: Aircrete and Aggregate block – Inner leaves 100mm block Durox Supabloc / Toplite GTi Durox Supabloc 4 / Toplite Standard Durox Supabloc 7 / Toplite 7s

Finish

K-value (kJ/m2K)

Lightweight plaster

48

Plasterboard on dabs

58

Lightweight plaster

67

Toplite 7s

Plasterboard on dabs

65

Hemelite Standard

Plasterboard on dabs

113

Hemelite Standard

Lightweight plaster

127

Topcrete Standard

Plasterboard on dabs

159

Topcrete Standard

Lightweight plaster

177

Table 69: Aircrete and Aggregate block – Internal walls 100mm block

Finish

K-value (kJ/m2K)

Durox Supabloc

Lightweight plaster

31

Toplite Standard

Plasterboard on dabs

41

Hemelite Standard

Plasterboard on dabs

77

none

79

Lightweight plaster

107

none

102

Hemelite PQ Topcrete Standard Topcrete PQ

Blockwork solutions 101

Thermal mass of dwellings SAP 2012 takes account of the thermal mass of the construction elements. The user can select the appropriate default value (Low = 100, Medium = 250 or High = 450) for the Thermal mass Parameter (TMP) of the dwelling having consideration for the construction form. Alternatively, the heat capacity for each element may be entered. Table 1e of SAP 2012 gives typical values for the thermal capacity of various elements of the dwelling. When using masonry construction there is often a beneficial reduction in CO2 emissions if the individual heat capacity of each element is entered into the SAP software particularly where the actual TMP is lower than the Medium value of 250kJ/m2K. By doing this, the actual TMP of the dwelling will be calculated. The procedure for calculating the Heat Capacity (ĸ) of each element is shown in Tables 65 and 66. Tables 67 to 70 give the heat capacity of various elements using our products and have been calculated using the following procedure: ĸ = 10-6 x ∑ (dj ρj cj)*

* dj is the thickness of the layer (mm) ρj is the density of the layer (kg/m3) cj is the specific heat capacity of the layer (J/kgK).

Where: The summation is over all layers

Table 70: Party Wall constructions TBP block

in the element, starting at the inside surface and stopping at whichever of the following conditions occurs first (which may be part way through a layer):

RDL ref No

K-value (kJ/m2K)*

Durox

E-WM-6, 10 & 13

52

Toplite

E-WM-6

52

Hemelite

E-WM-4, 17 & 19

102

• An insulation layer (thermal conductivity ≤ 0.08W/mK)

Topcrete

E-WM-3, 16 & 19

140

• Total thickness of 100mm

Tables 68 to 70, above show a selection of our blocks and finishes. For other combinations contact our Technical Services Team on 0870 242 1489 or e-mail technical.services@tarmacbp.co.uk

Fig 49: External cavity wall

Fig 50: Internal wall

• Half way through the element

The thermal capacity of an element reduces when there is an air space included within the first 100mm of the element. A typical case is where the internal finish to an external wall is plasterboard on dabs, as shown in Table 66. Having determined the heat capacity of the individual elements, the TMP that characterises the Thermal Mass of the dwelling can be calculated by the software: TMP = ∑ ĸ x A/ TFA

Where: The summation is over all walls, floors and roof bounding the dwelling (including Party Walls and floor and ceilings) together with both sides of all internal walls and floors/ceilings.

Fig 51: Cavity party wall

ĸ = is the Heat Capacity of each element A = is the area of each element TFA = total floor area of the dwelling.

Note: The calculation shown above will be automatically performed by the SAP software once the individual K-values have been entered.

The calculation of the TMP for a particular dwelling includes the external walls and all the internal elements such as party walls, partitions, ground floors and any internal floors (in the case of internal floors the K-value of both the ceiling and the floor are included). Tables 67 to 70 give the K-values of external walls, internal partitions, party walls and floors containing our block products. www.tarmacbuildingproducts.co.uk


102 Blockwork solutions

Thermal insulation

Linear thermal bridging

Air permeability

In addition to the heat loss through the exposed elements, expressed as U-values, it is necessary quantify the heat loss that occurs at the junction of elements, thermal bridges, such as external walls and floors. The thermal transmittance at these points is termed as a psi-value (Ψ, W/m2K). The effect of linear thermal bridging becomes more significant as the overall fabric performance of the building is lowered (i.e. lower fabric U-values are used). Whereas previously the designer was able to specify a global y-value for all of the thermal bridges in the dwelling, it is now necessary to calculate the heat loss from each thermal bridge by multiplying the bridged length by the relevant psi-value in order to determine the total heat loss (HTB) from all of the bridges.

Since the introduction of pressure testing of completed dwellings, there has been a steady improvement in the performance of masonry houses. It is not uncommon to design and consistently achieve a figure of 5.0m3/(h.m2) or better. It should be noted that when following the concurrent specification or ‘elemental recipe’, mentioned previously in Model Designs, the required air permeability is 5.0m3/(h.m2).

HTB = ∑ (L x Ψ)

Where:

HTB = the total heat loss that occurs from all the linear thermal bridges for a dwelling L = the length of the individual junction

Ψ = the linear thermal transmittance of the junction. In order to input the required psi-values into the compliance software the designer may adopt one of the following methods: a) Use approved designs as detailed in the DCLG Approved Construction Details or those formally recognised by the DCLG;

Fig 52: Typical heat flow pattern through an external corner b) Use psi-values calculated by a suitably qualified person following the guidance set out in BRE Report BR 479: Conventions for calculating linear thermal transmittance and temperature factors. The associated temperature factors should achieve a performance no worse than those given in BRE IP/06: assessing the effects of thermal bridging at junctions and around openings in external elements of buildings c) Use the psi-values given in Appendix K, Table 1, or SAP 2012 d) Use a conservative default y-value of 0.15W/m2K rather than individual psi-values. It should be appreciated that, if this method is adopted, the builder will need to significantly improve the specification elsewhere in the dwelling to compensate for the conservative value used. e) Use psi-values given in the Constructive Details Ltd (CDL) handbooks. CDL have provided details that provide reliable and beneficial psi-values for use in SAP and SBEM (www.constructivedetails.co.uk). It should be noted that the designer may use a selection of psi-values taken form either option a), b) or c) above. However, if the values used in the actual dwelling are worse than those used in the notional dwelling (i.e. the psi-values from SAP 2012 Appendix R, Table R1 used in the concurrent specification), then compensating measures will need to be taken elsewhere in the design so that the TER and TFEE are achieved.

Technical services: 0870 242 1489

The previous revision to L1A introduced changes to the number of pressure tests that are required and the way the test results are applied across a particular site. The backstop value for the air permeability remains at 10.0m3/(h.m2) at 50Pa. Tests should be performed on 3 units of each dwelling type or 50% of that dwelling type, whichever is the lower. On small sites of no more than 2 dwellings, there is still the option to avoid air testing by adopting one of the following options: a) Provide evidence that a dwelling of the same type, constructed by the same builder, was tested and achieved an appropriate level of air tightness b) Use a value of 15.0m3/(h.m2) at 50Pa. However, this will lead to a particularly onerous specification in other parts of the dwelling. Where a dwelling has been pressure tested, the reported value should be used as the measured air permeability in the final SAP calculation. Those dwellings that are not tested should use the average tested air permeability obtained from other dwellings of the same type which is increased by a margin of +2.0m3/(h.m2). This means that the maximum design air permeability for a site should be no greater than 8.0m3/(h.m2) so that the limiting value of 10.0m3/(h.m2) is not exceeded. From a practical point of view, particularly on larger sites, it would prudent to design to 7 or 8 in the knowledge that 5 or 6 will be confirmed by site testing, so that when the +2 margin is added to the untested dwellings, the design assumption will not be exceeded. Alternatively, it may be necessary to consider testing all the dwellings on the site.


Thermal insulation

Fig 53: Mid or end-terrace houses

Blockwork solutions 103

Fig 54: Detached houses

Domestic case studies As with the previous requirements of Approved Document L, there is no single solution that will suit all dwelling types. Detached house types with larger exposed areas will benefit from improved fabric performance whilst smaller units such as mid-terraced houses and mid-floor flats will benefit from improved specification for services and renewable technologies. It is possible to design dwellings to comply with the requirements of L1A without the use of renewable technologies. This means using the specification given in SAP 2012 Appendix R, Table R1 (i.e. the concurrent notional specification or ‘elemental recipe’) where the external walls will need to achieve a U-value of 0.18W/m2K. Builders preferring to use this approach, rather than model a particular house type with SAP software, will find some typical external wall U-values in Tables 83 and 84 on page 113. The ‘model designs’ shown in the following examples are not exhaustive but are intended to illustrate a range of measures that could achieve a costeffective solution to the challenges set by Approved Document L1A by using improved glazing, waste water heat recovery or renewable technology. Such measures will permit some of the fabric Uvalues to be increased whilst still being within the limiting values given in Table 60 on page 97.

Mid or end-terrace 2-story houses

Detached house

A mid-terrace house has smaller exposed surface area than a semi-detached or endterraced house of the same type but it has the same energy demand for hot water as the end-terraced unit. For this reason, the overall specification for the mid-terrace will need to be slightly better than the endterrace unit. This is illustrated by the fact that the TER and TFEE for each unit will be different (see Table 71). This effectively means that when improving the design - by adding triple glazing or fixed performance of solar photovoltaic panels, for instance - the relaxation that is achievable in the fabric specification will be different. However, for practicality, the fabric specification for all units on a site will be dictated by specification in the mid-terrace house. For a development with a range of different house types the general fabric specification for the whole site will be dictated by the smaller units to ensure a consistent construction method across all the dwellings.

Table 71: Typical target values Dwelling type

TER

TFEE

End terrace or semi detached

17.60

51.30

Mid terrace

17.37

55.55

Detached

16.14

38.61

Tables 72 and 73 page 104, evaluate some the possible changes to the overall fabric performance, for a typical end terrace and detached house, by the introduction of improved specifications elsewhere. The options shown are not exhaustive as it is possible to consider other technologies such as Flue Gas Heat Recovery (FGHR) or micro CHP (combined heat and power). Another option would be to install a combination of modifications, triple glazing and WWHR for instance, which would offer some additional flexibility. All the options shown in Table 72 and 73 above assume that the houses have a default value for the Thermal Mass Parameter (TMP) of Medium i.e. 250kJ/m2K. Within the SAP software the designer can calculate the actual TMP for the dwelling by inserting the Kappa U-value for each element, including the non-heat loss elements such as internal partitions, intermediate floors and ceilings. Whilst this involves some additional take off of areas and input into the software there is some benefit that can be gained, as demonstrated by comparing Tables 73 and 74 (pages 104 and 105).

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104 Blockwork solutions

Thermal insulation

Table 72: Case study 1 - Allowable specification modifications for an end-terrace house End-terraced house Total floor area 95.0 m2

Reference values SAP 2012(1) Appendix R

Element

Modified specification Triple glazing

WWHR(2)

1 kW peak Solar PV

Solar hot water(4)

TER

17.60

17.60

17.60

17.60

17.18

DER

17.60

17.60

16.56

15.28

16.41

TFEE

51.30

51.30

51.30

51.30

51.30

DFEE

46.10

44.18

51.17

51.17

51.17

External walls

0.18

0.22

0.26

0.26

0.26

Party wall

Zero

Zero

Zero

Zero

Zero

Ground floor

0.13

0.13

0.22

0.21

0.21

Roof

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.14

0.14

1.4 & g = 0.63

0.9 & g = 0.57

1.4 & g = 0.63

1.4 & g = 0.63

1.4 & g = 0.63

Opaque doors

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Semi glazed doors

1.20

1.20

1.20

1.20

1.20

5

5

5

5

5

Accredited Details(3)

Accredited Details(3)

Accredited Details(3)

Accredited Details(3)

Accredited Details(3)

Natural ventilation

3 Fans

3 Fans

3 Fans

3 Fans

3 Fans

Low E lighting (%)

100

100

100

100

100

Thermal Mass Parameter

250

250

250

250

250

Element U-value (W/m2K)

Windows & glazed doors etc.

Air tightness (m3/hr/m2 @ 50Pa) Other elements Linear thermal bridging

Table 73: Case study 2 - Allowable specification modifications for a detached house Detached house Total floor area 117.8 m2

Reference values SAP 2012(1) Appendix R

Element

Modified specification Triple glazing

WWHR(2)

1 kW peak Solar PV

Solar hot water(4)

TER

17.37

17.37

17.37

17.37

16.99

DER

17.37

17.37

17.36

15.90

16.72

TFEE

55.55

58.87

58.87

58.87

55.55

48.31

48.22

50.26

55.50

55.50

External walls

0.18

0.21

0.20

0.26

0.26

Party wall

Zero

Zero

Zero

Zero

Zero

Ground floor

0.13

0.14

0.14

0.18

0.19

Roof

0.13

0.14

0.14

0.14

0.13

1.4 & g = 0.63

0.9 & g = 0.57

1.4 & g = 0.63

1.4 & g = 0.63

1.4 & g = 0.63

Opaque doors

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Semi glazed doors

1.20

1.20

1.20

1.20

1.20

5

5

5

5

5

Accredited Details(3)

Accredited Details(3)

Accredited Details(3)

Accredited Details(3)

Accredited Details(3)

Natural ventilation

4 Fans

4 Fans

4 Fans

4 Fans

4 Fans

Low E lighting (%)

100

100

100

100

100

Thermal Mass Parameter

250

250

250

250

250

DFEE Element U-value (W/m K) 2

Windows & glazed doors etc.

Air tightness (m3/hr/m2 @ 50Pa) Other elements Linear thermal bridging

Notes: (1) Concurrent specification from Appendix R SAP 2012. All other features not shown are as Appendix R. (2) Waste Water Heat Recovery system. (3) All Psi values for the junctions taken as the reference values given in SAP 2012 Appendix R Table R2. (4) Note the concurrent specification for the hot water system changes due to the need for a hot water storage tank. The figures shown as 17.6 indicate that the DER or DFEE is equal to or less than the respective TER or TFEE. The figures shown as 0.24 indicate the element U-value has been increased above the concurrent value as a result of the modified specification item being applied.

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Blockwork solutions 105

Thermal insulation

Table 74: Allowable specification modifications for an aircrete end-terrace house End-terrace house Total floor area 95.0 m2

Reference values SAP 2012(1) Appendix R

Element

Modified specification

Aircrete (TMP)

Triple glazing

WWHR(2)

1 kW peak Solar PV

Solar hot water(4)

TER

17.60

17.60

17.60

17.60

17.60

17.18

DER

17.60

17.53

17.53

17.59

15.08

16.31

TFEE

51.30

51.30

51.30

51.30

51.30

51.30

44.61

44.61

44.18

49.10

50.97

50.95

External walls

0.18

0.22

0.26

0.26

0.26

0.26

Party wall

Zero

Zero

Zero

Zero

Zero

Zero

Ground floor

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.22

0.24

0.22

Roof

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.14

0.14

0.14

1.4 & g = 0.63

1.4 & g = 0.63

0.9 & g = 0.57

1.4 & g = 0.63

1.4 & g = 0.63

1.4 & g = 0.63

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.20

1.20

1.20

1.20

1.20

1.20

5

5

5

5

6.5

7

Accredited Details(3)

Accredited Details(3)

Accredited Details(3)

Accredited Details(3)

Accredited Details(3)

Accredited Details(3)

Natural ventilation

3 Fans

3 Fans

3 Fans

3 Fans

3 Fans

3 Fans

Low E lighting (%)

100

100

100

100

100

100

Thermal Mass Parameter

250

145

145

145

145

145

DFEE Element U-value (W/m K) 2

Windows & glazed doors etc. Opaque doors Semi glazed doors Air tightness (m /hr/m @ 50Pa) 3

2

Other elements Linear thermal bridging

Notes: Concurrent specification from Appendix R SAP 2012. All other features not shown are as Appendix R. Waste Water Heat Recovery system. (3) All Psi values for the junctions taken as the reference values given in SAP 2012 Appendix R Table R2. (4) Note the concurrent specification for the hot water system changes due to the need for a hot water storage tank. The figures shown as 17.6 indicate that the DER or DFEE is equal to or less than the respective TER or TFEE. The figures shown as 0.24 indicate the element U-value has been increased above the concurrent value as a result of the modified specification item being applied. (1)

(2)

A selection of typical constructions that meet the U-values illustrated in the table above is shown on pages 110-122.

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106 Blockwork solutions

Thermal insulation

Approved Document L1B: Work on existing dwellings The energy standards required for work on existing dwellings has not changed from the guidance given in Approved Document L1B 2010, including the amendments which were published in November 2013. In general, the amendments update the reference to third party documents and correct some typographical errors. As with L1A, the amendments to L1B come into force on the 6th April 2014 and are for use in England only. For many years, the requirements for extensions to dwellings have followed a prescriptive approach whereby the performance of the fabric, ďŹ ttings and services should not be worse than that set out in the Approved Document. For example, the main fabric elements of the extension have been set maximum U-values which should not be exceeded. It is necessary to understand some terminology (p 107) that refers to these groups and which differs from the way we think about new dwellings.

Technical services: 0870 242 1489


Thermal insulation

Blockwork solutions 107

Thermal Elements This term is used to describe the main construction elements of the extension such as the external walls, floor and roof. Table 75 sets out the maximum U-values for each of these elements. In addition, the same standard of performance would apply where an existing element is being replaced by a new construction. However, a different performance standard applies where an existing element is being renovated i.e. it is being modified and not rebuilt. Note the renovation of existing dwellings is not covered in the brochure. Some typical external wall and floor constructions achieving U-values of 0.28 and 0.22W/m2K respectively are shown on pages 112 to 123.

Controlled fittings Table 75: Thermal performance of new Thermal Elementsa Standard Value (W/m2K)

In terms of the regulation windows, roof windows, roof-lights and doors including the frame are described as controlled fittings. Therefore, installing new glazing into existing frames is not notifiable work. The standard required for new controlled fittings is shown in the Table 76.

Wallb

0.28

Pitched roof – insulation at ceiling level

0.16

Pitched roof – insulation at rafter level

0.18

The allowable area of windows, roof windows and doors in an extension is limited to:

Flat roof or roof with integrated insulation

0.18

a) 25% of the floor area of the extension

Floors

0.22

Plus

Swimming pool basins

0.25

b) The total area of any openings which no longer exist or are no longer exposed.

c

d

Roof includes the roof parts of dormer windows, and wall includes the cheeks of the dormer b Area-weighted average U-value c, d Check the Approved Document for flexibility on floor U-value a

Table 76: Standard for controlled fittings Fitting

Standard

Window, roof window or roof-light

Window Energy Rating (WER) band C or better, or U-value 1.6W/m2K

Doors with > 60% of internal surface

Door Set Energy Rating (DSER) band E or better, or glazed U-value 1.8W/m2K

Other doors

Door Set Energy Rating (DSER) band E or better, or U-value 1.8W/m2K

Check with the Approved Document for the method of calculating the WER & DSER

It is advisable that the total area of the openings in an extension is not less than 20% of the floor area of the extension, as poor day lighting levels will result in greater use of artificial lights. Where the area of openings is greater than 25% of the floor area of the extension, compensating measures need to be taken elsewhere. This can be achieved by demonstrating that the area-weighted average U-value of all the fabric elements is no worse than set out in the proceeding tables. If more flexibility is required, a CO2 calculation may be produced to show that the emission rate for the dwelling and the extension is no worse than the dwelling plus a notional extension conforming to the fabric standards shown above.

Other points to consider As with new dwellings, there is a need to ensure the continuity of insulation and to minimise heat loss through the junctions of elements by taking reasonable measures to avoid thermal bridges. The guidance given in the Accredited Construction Details should be followed but there is no need to calculate Psi-values or temperature factors. The Accredited Details are available at www.planningportal.gov.uk

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108 Blockwork solutions

Thermal insulation

Approved Document L2A: New buildings other than dwellings The intended impact of the new requirements contained in Approved Document L2A is to achieve a 9% reduction in CO2 emissions, compared to the 2010 levels, across the mix of non-domestic new buildings. As with domestic construction, the actual and target emissions are determined by comparing a notional building with the actual building. The notional building must be of the same size and shape as the actual building but assessed to a concurrent speciďŹ cation. If the actual building is constructed to entirely to the concurrent speciďŹ cation it will meet the requirements in terms of CO2 emissions.

Technical services: 0870 242 1489


Thermal insulation

Table 77: Summary of the NCM concurrent specification (Fabric) Element

Side lit or unlit (where HVAC specification is heating only)

Side lit or unlit (where HVAC specification includes cooling)

Top lit

Roof U-value (W/m2K)

0.18

0.18

0.18

Wall (W/m2K)

0.26

0.26

0.26

Floor (W/m K)

0.22

0.22

0.22

1.6 (10% FF*)

1.6 (10% FF)

N/A

40%

40%

N/A

71%

71%

N/A

Roof Lights U-value (W/m K)

N/A

N/A

1.8 (15% FF)

G-value (%)

N/A

N/A

55%

N/A

N/A

60%

Air permeability (m /(h.m ) at 50Pa) Gross internal Area less than or equal to 250m2

5

5

7

Air permeability (m3/(h.m2) at 50Pa) Gross internal Area greater than 250m2 and less than 3,500m2

3

3

7

Air permeability (m3/(h.m2) at 50Pa) Gross internal Area greater than or equal to 3,500m2 and less than 10,000m2

3

Air permeability (m3/(h.m2) at 50Pa) Gross internal Area greater than 10,000m2

3

2

Window (W/m2K) G-value (%) Light transmittance (%) 2

Light transmittance (%) 3

2

3

5

3

3

Note: This is only a summary of the fabric requirements * FF = Frame factor

Standard Value (W/m2K) Roof

0.25

Wall

0.35

Floor

0.25

Swimming pool basin

2.20

Windows, roof windows, roof-lights, curtain walling and pedestrian doors

1.50

High usage entrance doors

3.50

Roof ventilators (inc. smoke vents).

3.50

Air permeability (m /(h.m ) at 50Pa)

10.00

2

Notes: Check with ADL2A for any limitations or exclusions

To allow for different lighting and cooling arrangements, a wider set of buildings have been defined. A summary of the fabric elements of the requirements of the concurrent specification is shown in Table 77, however the full specification can be found in the NCM Modelling Guide 2013 (National Calculation Methodology). Using the Simplified Building Energy Model (SBEM) software, the designer needs to demonstrate that the Building CO2 Emission Rate (BER) is equal to or less than Target CO2 Emission Rate (TER). Applying the concurrent notional specification to the actual building will achieve the TER. However, this may not be the most cost-effective solution and the designer may be able to demonstrate that the fabric performance can be relaxed provided compensating measures are made elsewhere. When adopting this approach the limiting values given in Table 78 must not be exceeded. As non-residential buildings tend to be

very variedFabric in design and size, and are Target Energy likely to employ the expertise of an M&E Efficiency (TFEE) rateto consultant, we have not attempted show anyhas case study examples. The TFEE been introduced as Various an potential target U-values are on given on pages additional based limiting the 112-122, shouldand youcooling. require us demand forhowever, space heating confirmthe anyperformance additional values, please It to assesses of passive contact our technical services team.and measures such as thermal insulation air tightness ensuring that “zero carbon” is based on a high standard of fabric energy efficiency.

Providing SAP calculations

Table 78: Limiting fabric performance

3

Blockwork solutions 109

Before work starts on site, the Building Control Body must be provided with a “design stage” calculation that shows the TER, TFEE, DER, DFEE and the specification (key features) to which the building is to be constructed. After the work has been completed, the builder must demonstrate that the as-built specification meets the design stage calculation incorporating any changes that were made to the original design stage specification.

Reduction in CO2 emissions The TER is reduced by a further 6% compared to that which applied in the 2010 edition of AD L1A. This means that there will be a comparable improvement in the energy efficiency of new homes.

Limiting fabric performance The backstop values that limit the performance of the fabric are unaltered as shown in Table 1. It should also be remembered that the use of all of these values will not achieve a DER which is www.tarmacbuildingproducts.co.uk


110 Blockwork solutions

Thermal insulation

Approved Document L2B: Work on existing buildings other than dwellings When considering the potential to extend an existing non-domestic building, two factors need to be considered: consequential improvements and the size of the proposed extension.

Technical services: 0870 242 1489


Thermal insulation

Table 79: Standard for new Thermal Elementsa Standard Value (W/m2K) Wallb

0.28

Pitched roof – insulation at ceiling level

0.16

Pitched roof – insulation at rafter level

0.18

Flat roof or roof with integrated insulation

0.18

Floorsc

0.22d

Swimming pool basins

0.25

Notes: a Roof includes the roof parts of dormer windows, and wall includes the cheeks of the dormer. b Area-weighted average U-value c, d Check the Approved Document for flexibility on floor U-value.

Blockwork solutions 111

Firstly, there will be a requirement to make consequential improvements to the original building when the useful floor area is greater than 1,000 m2. Such improvements need to be proven to be both economical and feasible. These measures could include, but not exclusively, upgrading the existing heating/cooling systems or upgrading the fabric elements such as the external walls and glazing. Secondly, for large extensions with a floor area greater than 100m2 and 25% greater than the floor area of the existing building the work is considered to be a ‘new building’ and therefore the requirements of Approved Document L2A apply. The need for consequential improvements should also be met where appropriate. In most general cases, extensions can be designed using a prescriptive approach for both the external fabric elements (thermal elements) and the area of glazed elements (controlled fittings). The standard for new thermal elements is given in Table 79.

Target Fabric Energy In cases where greater design flexibility is Efficiency (TFEE) rate required there are alternative approaches

The TFEE has been introduced as an that will allow the performance of some additional target based on limiting the elements to be relaxed provided that there demand for space heating and cooling. are compensating measures elsewhere. It assesses the performance of passive This may be achieved by using the area measures such as thermal insulation and average U-value method or by using air tightness ensuring that “zero carbon” approved software to demonstrate that the is based on a high standard of fabric CO2 emissions of the proposed extension energy efficiency. plus the existing building are no greater than those from the existing building plus a notional extension complying with Approved Document L2B. If either of these Before work starts on site, the Building alternative approaches is adopted, further Control Body must be provided with a guidance can be found in the Approved “design stage” calculation that shows the Document. TER, TFEE, DER, DFEE and the specification (key features) to which the building is to be constructed.

Providing SAP calculations

After the work has been completed, the builder must demonstrate that the as-built specification meets the design stage calculation incorporating any changes that were made to the original design stage specification.

Reduction in CO2 emissions The TER is reduced by a further 6% compared to that which applied in the 2010 edition of AD L1A. This means that there will be a comparable improvement in the energy efficiency of new homes.

Limiting fabric performance The backstop values that limit the performance of the fabric are unaltered as shown in Table 1. It should also be remembered that the use of all of these values will not achieve a DER which is www.tarmacbuildingproducts.co.uk


112 Blockwork solutions

Thermal insulation

U-values for cavity walls using aircrete blocks Table 80: U-value of 0.28 or better using Durox and Toplite blocks and full-fill insulation U-value and insulation thickness for 100mm inner leaf Supabloc or Supabloc 4 or Supabloc 7 or 8 Toplite Gti Toplite Standard or Toplite 7 Internal finish

Insulation specification: full fill with conductivity of 0.032 W/mK*

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

13mm dense plaster

0.28

85

0.26

100

0.26

100

13mm lightweight plaster

0.27

85

0.26

100

0.26

100

12.5mm plasterboard on dabs

0.27

85

0.28

85

0.25

100

* Typical insulation Earthwool DriTherm 32 or similar. Check with the insulation manufacturer for available sizes.

Table 81: U-value of 0.26 or better using Durox and Toplite blocks and full-fill insulation U-value and insulation thickness for 100mm inner leaf Supabloc or Supabloc 4 or Supabloc 7 or 8 Toplite Gti Toplite Standard or Toplite 7 Internal finish

Insulation specification: full fill with conductivity of 0.032 W/mK*

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

13mm dense plaster

0.25

100

0.26

100

0.25

105

13mm lightweight plaster

0.26

90

0.26

100

0.25

100

12.5mm plasterboard on dabs

0.26

90

0.25

95

0.26

95

* Typical insulation Earthwool DriTherm 32 or similar. Check with the insulation manufacturer for available sizes.

Table 82: U-value of 0.22 or better using Durox and Toplite blocks and full-fill insulation U-value and insulation thickness for 100mm inner leaf Supabloc or Supabloc 4 or Supabloc 7 or 8 Toplite Gti Toplite Standard or Toplite 7 Internal finish

Insulation specification: full fill with conductivity of 0.032 W/mK*

Technical services: 0870 242 1489

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

13mm dense plaster

0.22

115

0.22

125

0.22

125

13mm lightweight plaster

0.22

115

0.22

120

0.22

125

12.5mm plasterboard on dabs

0.22

110

0.22

120

0.22

125

* Typical insulation Earthwool DriTherm 32 or similar. Check with the insulation manufacturer for available sizes.


Blockwork solutions 113

Thermal insulation

Table 83: U-value of 0.18 or better using Durox and Toplite blocks and full-fill insulation U-value and insulation thickness for 100mm inner leaf Supabloc or Supabloc 4 or Supabloc 7 or 8 Toplite Gti Toplite Standard or Toplite 7 Internal finish

Insulation specification: full fill with conductivity of 0.032 W/mK*

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

13mm dense plaster

0.18

150

0.18

180

0.18

180

13mm lightweight plaster

0.18

150

0.18

175

0.18

180

12.5mm plasterboard on dabs

0.18

145

0.18

170

0.18

175

* Typical insulation Earthwool DriTherm 32 or similar. Check with the insulation manufacturer for available sizes.

Table 84: U-value of 0.28 or better using Durox and Toplite blocks and partial-fill insulation U-value and insulation thickness for 100mm inner leaf Supabloc or Supabloc 4 or Supabloc 7 or 8 Toplite Gti Toplite Standard or Toplite 7 Internal finish

Insulation specification: partial fill with conductivity of 0.022 W/mK*, low-E cavity R=0.644 m2W/K

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

13mm dense plaster

0.28

40

0.28

45

0.27

50

13mm lightweight plaster

0.28

40

0.28

45

0.28

45

12.5mm plasterboard on dabs

0.27

40

0.27

45

0.27

45

* Typical insulation Celotex CW or similar. Check with the insulation manufacturer for available sizes.

Table 85: U-value of 0.26 or better using Durox and Toplite blocks and partial-fill insulation U-value and insulation thickness for 100mm inner leaf Supabloc or Supabloc 4 or Supabloc 7 or 8 Toplite Gti Toplite Standard or Toplite 7 Internal finish

Insulation specification: partial fill with conductivity of 0.022 W/mK*, low-E cavity R=0.644 m2W/K

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

13mm dense plaster

0.25

50

0.26

50

0.25

55

13mm lightweight plaster

0.26

45

0.26

50

0.25

55

12.5mm plasterboard on dabs

0.26

45

0.25

50

0.26

50

* Typical insulation Celotex CW or similar. Check with the insulation manufacturer for available sizes.

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114 Blockwork solutions

Thermal insulation

U-values for cavity walls using aircrete and aggregate blocks Table 86: U-value of 0.22 or better using Durox and Toplite blocks and partial-fill insulation U-value and insulation thickness for 100mm inner leaf Supabloc or Supabloc 4 or Supabloc 7 or 8 Toplite Gti Toplite Standard or Toplite 7 Internal finish

Insulation specification: partial fill with conductivity of 0.022 W/mK*, low-E cavity R=0.644 m2W/K

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

13mm dense plaster

0.22

65

0.22

70

0.22

70

13mm lightweight plaster

0.22

65

0.22

70

0.22

70

12.5mm plasterboard on dabs

0.22

60

0.22

65

0.22

70

* Typical insulation Celotex CW or similar. Check with the insulation manufacturer for available sizes.

Table 87: U-value of 0.18 or better using Durox and Toplite blocks and partial-fill insulation U-value and insulation thickness for 100mm inner leaf Supabloc or Supabloc 4 or Supabloc 7 or 8 Toplite Gti Toplite Standard or Toplite 7 Internal finish

Insulation specification: partial fill with conductivity of 0.022 W/mK*, low-E cavity R=0.644 m2W/K

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

13mm dense plaster

0.18

90

0.18

95

0.18

95

13mm lightweight plaster

0.18

90

0.18

95

0.18

95

12.5mm plasterboard on dabs

0.18

85

0.18

90

0.18

90

* Typical insulation Celotex CW or similar. Check with the insulation manufacturer for available sizes.

Table 88: U-value of 0.28 or better using Hemelite blocks and full-fill insulation U-value and insulation thickness for 100mm inner leaf Hemelite Standard Hemelite Standard Hemelite Standard (3.6 N/mm2) (7.3 N/mm2) (10.4 N/mm2) Internal finish

Insulation specification: full fill with conductivity of 0.032 W/mK*

Technical services: 0870 242 1489

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

13mm dense plaster

0.28

100

0.28

100

0.28

100

13mm lightweight plaster

0.28

100

0.28

100

0.28

100

12.5mm plasterboard on dabs

0.27

100

0.27

100

0.27

100

* Typical insulation Earthwool DriTherm 32 or similar. Check with the insulation manufacturer for available sizes.


Blockwork solutions 115

Thermal insulation

Table 89: U-value of 0.26 or better using Hemelite blocks and full-fill insulation U-value and insulation thickness for 100mm inner leaf Hemelite Standard Hemelite Standard Hemelite Standard (3.6 N/mm2) (7.3 N/mm2) (10.4 N/mm2) Internal finish

Insulation specification: full fill with conductivity of 0.032 W/mK*

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

13mm dense plaster

0.26

100

0.26

110

0.26

110

13mm lightweight plaster

0.26

100

0.26

110

0.26

110

12.5mm plasterboard on dabs

0.26

105

0.26

105

0.26

110

* Typical insulation Earthwool DriTherm 32 or similar. Check with the insulation manufacturer for available sizes.

Table 90: U-value of 0.22 or better using Hemelite blocks and full-fill insulation U-value and insulation thickness for 100mm inner leaf Hemelite Standard Hemelite Standard Hemelite Standard (3.6 N/mm2) (7.3 N/mm2) (10.4 N/mm2) Internal finish

Insulation specification: full fill with conductivity of 0.032 W/mK*

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

13mm dense plaster

0.22

135

0.22

135

0.22

135

13mm lightweight plaster

0.22

135

0.22

135

0.22

135

12.5mm plasterboard on dabs

0.22

130

0.18

130

0.18

130

* Typical insulation Earthwool DriTherm 32 or similar. Check with the insulation manufacturer for available sizes.

Table 91: U-value of 0.18 or better using Hemelite blocks and full-fill insulation U-value and insulation thickness for 100mm inner leaf Hemelite Standard Hemelite Standard Hemelite Standard (3.6 N/mm2) (7.3 N/mm2) (10.4 N/mm2) Internal finish

Insulation specification: full fill with conductivity of 0.032 W/mK*

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

13mm dense plaster

0.18

190

0.18

190

0.18

190

13mm lightweight plaster

0.18

190

0.18

190

0.18

190

12.5mm plasterboard on dabs

0.18

185

0.18

190

0.18

185

* Typical insulation Earthwool DriTherm 32 or similar. Check with the insulation manufacturer for available sizes.

www.tarmacbuildingproducts.co.uk


116 Blockwork solutions

Thermal insulation

U-values for cavity walls using aggregate blocks Table 92: U-value of 0.28 or better using Hemelite blocks and partial-fill insulation U-value and insulation thickness for 100mm inner leaf Hemelite Standard Hemelite Standard Hemelite Standard (3.6 N/mm2) (7.3 N/mm2) (10.4 N/mm2) Internal finish

Insulation specification: partial fill with conductivity of 0.022 W/mK*, low-E cavity R=0.644 m2W/K

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

13mm dense plaster

0.27

55

0.27

55

0.27

55

13mm lightweight plaster

0.27

55

0.27

55

0.27

55

12.5mm plasterboard on dabs

0.28

50

0.27

50

0.27

50

* Typical insulation Celotex CW or similar. Check with the insulation manufacturer for available sizes.

Table 93: U-value of 0.26 or better using Hemelite blocks and partial-fill insulation U-value and insulation thickness for 100mm inner leaf Hemelite Standard Hemelite Standard Hemelite Standard (3.6 N/mm2) (7.3 N/mm2) (10.4 N/mm2) Internal finish

Insulation specification: partial fill with conductivity of 0.022 W/mK*, low-E cavity R=0.644 m2W/K

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

13mm dense plaster

0.26

60

0.26

60

0.26

60

13mm lightweight plaster

0.26

60

0.26

60

0.26

60

12.5mm plasterboard on dabs

0.26

55

0.26

55

0.26

55

* Typical insulation Celotex CW or similar. Check with the insulation manufacturer for available sizes.

Table 94: U-value of 0.22 or better using Hemelite blocks and partial-fill insulation U-value and insulation thickness for 100mm inner leaf Hemelite Standard Hemelite Standard Hemelite Standard (3.6 N/mm2) (7.3 N/mm2) (10.4 N/mm2) Internal finish

Insulation specification: partial fill with conductivity of 0.022 W/mK*, low-E cavity R=0.644 m2W/K

Technical services: 0870 242 1489

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

13mm dense plaster

0.22

80

0.22

80

0.22

80

13mm lightweight plaster

0.22

75

0.22

75

0.22

75

12.5mm plasterboard on dabs

0.22

75

0.22

75

0.22

75

* Typical insulation Celotex CW or similar. Check with the insulation manufacturer for available sizes.


Blockwork solutions 117

Thermal insulation

Table 95: U-value of 0.18 or better using Hemelite blocks and partial-fill insulation U-value and insulation thickness for 100mm inner leaf Hemelite Standard Hemelite Standard Hemelite Standard (3.6 N/mm2) (7.3 N/mm2) (10.4 N/mm2) Internal finish

Insulation specification: partial fill with conductivity of 0.022 W/mK*, low-E cavity R=0.644 m2W/K

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

13mm dense plaster

0.18

100

0.18

100

0.18

100

13mm lightweight plaster

0.18

100

0.18

100

0.18

100

12.5mm plasterboard on dabs

0.18

100

0.18

100

0.18

100

* Typical insulation Celotex CW or similar. Check with the insulation manufacturer for available sizes.

Table 96: U-value of 0.28 or better using Topcrete blocks and full-fill insulation U-value and insulation thickness for 100mm inner leaf Topcrete Standard any strength grade Internal finish

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

13mm dense plaster

0.27

110

13mm lightweight plaster

0.28

110

12.5mm plasterboard on dabs

0.27

100

* Typical insulation Earthwool DriTherm 32 or similar. Check with the insulation manufacturer for available sizes.

Insulation specification: full fill with conductivity of 0.032 W/mK*

Table 97: U-value of 0.26 or better using Topcrete blocks and full-fill insulation U-value and insulation thickness for 100mm inner leaf Topcrete Standard any strength grade Internal finish

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

13mm dense plaster

0.26

115

13mm lightweight plaster

0.26

115

12.5mm plasterboard on dabs

0.26

110

* Typical insulation Earthwool DriTherm 32 or similar. Check with the insulation manufacturer for available sizes.

Insulation specification: full fill with conductivity of 0.032 W/mK*

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118 Blockwork solutions

Thermal insulation

U-values for cavity walls using aggregate blocks Table 98: U-value of 0.22 or better using Topcrete blocks and full-fill insulation U-value and insulation thickness for 100mm inner leaf Topcrete Standard any strength grade U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

13mm dense plaster

0.22

140

13mm lightweight plaster

0.22

140

12.5mm plasterboard on dabs

0.22

140

Internal finish

Note: * Typical insulation Earthwool DriTherm 32 or similar. Check with the insulation manufacturer for available sizes.

Insulation specification: full fill with conductivity of 0.032 W/mK*

Table 99: U-value of 0.18 or better using Topcrete blocks and full-fill insulation U-value and insulation thickness for 100mm inner leaf Topcrete Standard any strength grade Internal finish

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

13mm dense plaster

0.18

195

13mm lightweight plaster

0.18

195

12.5mm plasterboard on dabs

0.18

190

Note: * Typical insulation Earthwool DriTherm 32 or similar. Check with the insulation manufacturer for available sizes.

Insulation specification: full fill with conductivity of 0.032 W/mK*

Table 100: U-value of 0.28 or better using Topcrete blocks and partial-fill insulation U-value and insulation thickness for 100mm inner leaf Topcrete Standard any strength grade Internal finish

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

13mm dense plaster

0.28

55

13mm lightweight plaster

0.28

55

12.5mm plasterboard on dabs

0.27

55

Note: * Typical insulation Celotex CW or similar. Check with the insulation manufacturer for available sizes.

Insulation specification: partial fill with conductivity of 0.022 W/mK*, low-E cavity R=0.644 m2W/K

Technical services: 0870 242 1489


Blockwork solutions 119

Thermal insulation

Table 101: U-value of 0.26 or better using Topcrete blocks and partial-fill insulation U-value and insulation thickness for 100mm inner leaf Topcrete Standard any strength grade Internal finish

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

13mm dense plaster

0.26

65

13mm lightweight plaster

0.26

65

12.5mm plasterboard on dabs

0.26

60

Note: * Typical insulation Celotex CW or similar. Check with the insulation manufacturer for available sizes.

Insulation specification: partial fill with conductivity of 0.022 W/mK*, low-E cavity R=0.644 m2W/K

Table 102: U-value of 0.22 or better using Topcrete blocks and partial-fill insulation U-value and insulation thickness for 100mm inner leaf Topcrete Standard any strength grade Internal finish

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

13mm dense plaster

0.22

80

13mm lightweight plaster

0.22

80

12.5mm plasterboard on dabs

0.22

80

Note: * Typical insulation Celotex CW or similar. Check with the insulation manufacturer for available sizes.

Insulation specification: partial fill with conductivity of 0.022 W/mK*, low-E cavity R=0.644 m2W/K

Table 103: U-value of 0.18 or better using Topcrete blocks and partial-fill insulation U-value and insulation thickness for 100mm inner leaf Topcrete Standard any strength grade Internal finish

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation thickness (mm)

13mm dense plaster

0.18

120

13mm lightweight plaster

0.18

120

12.5mm plasterboard on dabs

0.18

115

Note: * Typical insulation Celotex CW or similar. Check with the insulation manufacturer for available sizes.

Insulation specification: partial fill with conductivity of 0.022 W/mK*, low-E cavity R=0.644 m2W/K

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120 Blockwork solutions

Thermal insulation

Ground floor U-values The U-value of a ground floor is dependent upon the ratio of its exposed perimeter length and the internal area (P/A). This ratio will range between 0.1 for large floors and 1.0 for small floors but typically, will be around 0.6 for many domestic properties. When considering attached dwellings the floor U-value may be calculated either for a single dwelling or the complete footprint of the building. When considering a terrace of houses it would be usual to determine the P/A ratio from the footprint of the complete terrace. Tables 104 to 107 show a range of U-values for, suspended beam and block ground floors, with a P/A ratio between 0.5 and 0.7 using the range of TBP’s infill blocks. The use of our Durox or Toplite Foundation blocks will provide a degree of vertical perimeter insulation which will give an improved U-value. However, in many cases these Foundation blocks will be selected for the economic benefit they provide rather than to lower the floor U-value.

Whilst we have attempted to show a spread of U-values for external walls and ground floors they are not exhaustive. Should you require any intermediate values not shown or using a different form of insulation material, please contact our Technical Services Team.

Table 104: Beam and block ground floors – Durox Floor blocks* P/A ratio

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation type (k = W/mK)

0.50

0.13

Polystyrene (0.038) Extruded polystyrene (0.031) PIR (0.023)

210 175 130

200 165 130

0.60

0.13

Polystyrene (0.038) Extruded polystyrene (0.031) PIR (0.023)

215 175 130

205 170 125

0.70

0.13

Polystyrene (0.038) Extruded polystyrene (0.031) PIR (0.023)

220 180 135

210 175 130

0.50

0.22

Polystyrene (0.038) Extruded polystyrene (0.031) PIR (0.023)

100 75 60

90 70 55

0.60

0.22

Polystyrene (0.038) Extruded polystyrene (0.031) PIR (0.023)

105 80 65

95 75 60

0.70

0.22

Polystyrene (0.038) Extruded polystyrene (0.031) PIR (0.023)

105 80 65

100 75 60

0.50

0.25

Polystyrene (0.038) Extruded polystyrene (0.031) PIR (0.023)

80 60 50

70 55 45

0.60

0.25

Polystyrene (0.038) Extruded polystyrene (0.031) PIR (0.023)

85 65 50

75 60 45

0.70

0.25

Polystyrene (0.038) Extruded polystyrene (0.031) PIR (0.023)

85 65 55

80 60 50

* These blocks are spanning the 620mm dimension – block size 620 x 530 x 100

Technical services: 0870 242 1489

Insulation thickness (mm) Without Foundation blocks With Foundation blocks**

** Depth of Durox or Toplite Foundation blocks = 900mm


Thermal insulation

Blockwork solutions 121

Table 105: Beam and block ground floors – Toplite Floor blocks* P/A ratio

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation type (k = W/mK)

0.50

0.13

Polystyrene (0.038) Extruded polystyrene (0.031) PIR (0.023)

215 175 130

205 170 125

0.60

0.13

Polystyrene (0.038) Extruded polystyrene (0.031) PIR (0.023)

220 180 135

210 175 130

0.70

0.13

Polystyrene (0.038) Extruded polystyrene (0.031) PIR (0.023)

225 185 135

215 175 130

0.50

0.22

Polystyrene (0.038) Extruded polystyrene (0.031) PIR (0.023)

105 80 65

95 75 60

0.60

0.22

Polystyrene (0.038) Extruded polystyrene (0.031) PIR (0.023)

110 85 65

100 75 60

0.70

0.22

Polystyrene (0.038) Extruded polystyrene (0.031) PIR (0.023)

115 85 70

105 80 65

0.50

0.25

Polystyrene (0.038) Extruded polystyrene (0.031) PIR (0.023)

85 65 50

75 55 45

0.60

0.25

Polystyrene (0.038) Extruded polystyrene (0.031) PIR (0.023)

90 70 55

80 60 50

0.70

0.25

Polystyrene (0.038) Extruded polystyrene (0.031) PIR (0.023)

90 70 55

85 65 50

* These blocks are spanning the 535mm dimension – block size 535 x 440 x 100

Insulation thickness (mm) Without Foundation blocks With Foundation blocks**

** Depth of Durox or Toplite Foundation blocks = 900mm

Table 106: Beam and block ground floors – Hemelite Floor blocks* P/A ratio

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation type (k = W/mK)

0.50

0.13

Polystyrene (0.038) Extruded polystyrene (0.031) PIR (0.023)

225 185 140

215 175 130

0.60

0.13

Polystyrene (0.038) Extruded polystyrene (0.031) PIR (0.023)

230 190 140

220 180 135

0.70

0.13

Polystyrene (0.038) Extruded polystyrene (0.031) PIR (0.023)

235 190 145

225 185 140

0.50

0.22

Polystyrene (0.038) Extruded polystyrene (0.031) PIR (0.023)

115 85 70

105 80 65

0.60

0.22

Polystyrene (0.038) Extruded polystyrene (0.031) PIR (0.023)

120 90 70

110 85 65

0.70

0.22

Polystyrene (0.038) Extruded polystyrene (0.031) PIR (0.023)

120 95 75

115 85 70

0.50

0.25

Polystyrene (0.038) Extruded polystyrene (0.031) PIR (0.023)

95 70 55

85 65 50

0.60

0.25

Polystyrene (0.038) Extruded polystyrene (0.031) PIR (0.023)

100 75 60

90 70 55

0.70

0.25

Polystyrene (0.038) Extruded polystyrene (0.031) PIR (0.023)

100 80 60

95 70 55

* These blocks are spanning the 440mm dimension – block size 440 x 215 x 100

Insulation thickness (mm) Without Foundation blocks With Foundation blocks**

** Depth of Durox or Toplite Foundation blocks = 900mm

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122 Blockwork solutions

Thermal insulation

Ground floor U-values (continued) Table 107: Beam and block ground floors – Topcrete Floor blocks* P/A ratio

U-value (W/m2K)

Insulation type (k = W/mK)

0.50

0.13

Polystyrene (0.038) Extruded polystyrene (0.031) PIR (0.023)

230 200 140

220 180 135

0.60

0.13

Polystyrene (0.038) Extruded polystyrene (0.031) PIR (0.023)

235 190 145

225 185 135

0.70

0.13

Polystyrene (0.038) Extruded polystyrene (0.031) PIR (0.023)

235 195 145

230 185 140

0.50

0.22

Polystyrene (0.038) Extruded polystyrene (0.031) PIR (0.023)

115 90 70

105 80 65

0.60

0.22

Polystyrene (0.038) Extruded polystyrene (0.031) PIR (0.023)

120 95 75

110 85 70

0.70

0.22

Polystyrene (0.038) Extruded polystyrene (0.031) PIR (0.023)

125 95 75

115 90 70

0.50

0.25

Polystyrene (0.038) Extruded polystyrene (0.031) PIR (0.023)

100 75 60

85 65 55

0.60

0.25

Polystyrene (0.038) Extruded polystyrene (0.031) PIR (0.023)

100 80 60

90 70 55

0.70

0.25

Polystyrene (0.038) Extruded polystyrene (0.031) PIR (0.023)

105 80 65

95 75 60

Notes: * These blocks are spanning the 440mm dimension – block size 440 x 215 x 100 ** Depth of Durox or Toplite Foundation blocks = 900mm

Technical services: 0870 242 1489

Insulation thickness (mm) Without Foundation blocks With Foundation blocks**


Thermal insulation

Blockwork solutions 123

Insulation manufacturers Our block products are compatible with a range of insulation materials commonly available for use as full fill, partial fill and internal or external insulation systems. The U-values given in this brochure are correct at the time of going to press and are based on manufacturers’ literature available at that time.

Celotex Celotex Ltd Lady Lane Industrial Estate Hadleigh Ipswich Suffolk IP7 6BA Tel: 01473 822093

Dritherm and Polyfoam Floorboard Knauf Insulation Ltd PO Box 10 Stafford Road St Helens Merseyside WA10 3LZ

Floorboard 220 Dow Construction Products Ltd 2 Heathrow Boulevard 284 Bath Road West Drayton Middlesex UB7 ODQ Tel: 020 8917 5050

Tel: 01744 693885

Jablite

Kingspan

Rockwool

Vencel Resil Ltd Infinity House Anderson Way Belvedere Kent DA17 6BG

Kingspan Insulation Ltd Shobdon Industrial Estate Pembridge Leominster Herefordshire HR6 9LA

Rockwool Ltd Pencoed Bridgend CF35 6NY

Tel: 020 8320 9100

Tel: 01656 862621

Tel: 01544 388601

Thermal Laminates

Supaglass Ltd

Xtratherm UK Ltd

British Gypsum Ltd East Leake Loughborough Leicestershire LE12 6JT

Thistle Industrial Estate Kerse Road Stirling Scotland FK7 7QQ

Park Road Holmwood Chesterfield Derbyshire S42 5UY

Tel: 01786 4511701

Tel: 0371 2221033

Tel: 01150 945 1000

www.tarmacbuildingproducts.co.uk


124 Blockwork solutions

The Code for Sustainable Homes

The Code for Sustainable Homes was first published in December 2006 and since then has been revised to accommodate changes to the Building Regulations, in particular Approved Document L1A, and other legislation. The Code for Sustainable Homes was introduced to give guidance to designers, housebuilders and home buyers by providing a single national standard for the design and construction of sustainable housing. A new edition of Approved Document L1A was published in April 2014, reducing the CO2 emissions from new housing by 6% across the board compared to the 2010 edition of L1A upon which some parts of the Code are based. At the time of going to print there has been no indication that the Code will be amended to take these changes into account. The following pages are intended to give the reader an insight into how the Code works and demonstrate those areas that beneďŹ t from the use of our products. For more detailed information, a Technical Guide is available on the following website www.gov.uk/government/publications

Technical services: 0870 242 1489


The Code for Sustainable Homes

Blockwork solutions 125

Overview of the Code In order to measure the sustainability of a particular house design, the Code contains 9 environmental impact categories as shown below. Credits are awarded in each category – some which are mandatory and others optional – for specified design criteria from which an overall whole-house rating can be determined. A final Code rating is given on a scale of 1 to 6 Stars. • Category 1: Energy and CO2 emissions • Category 2: Water • Category 3: Materials

• Category 4: Surface water run-off • Category 5: Waste • Category 6: Pollution • Category 7: Health and well-being • Category 8: Management • Category 9: Ecology Looking at the 9 categories, some relate directly to the materials used and others are more dependent on the site and its surroundings. Three in particular, Categories 1, 3 and 7, relate directly to the use of our products.

Category 1:

Category 3:

Category 7:

Energy and CO2 emissions

Materials

Health and Well-being

This section of the Code assesses the impact that the construction materials used have on the sustainability of the dwelling. Credits are available in two sections Mat 1: Environmental impact of Materials and Mat 2: Responsible Sourcing – Basic Building Elements.

This category looks at how the home performs for the occupants in terms of the provision of natural daylighting, sound insulation, access to external private space and the design of the internal layout to Lifetime Homes.

This category comprises of 9 separate sections. Of these, two - Ene1: Dwelling emission rate (DER) and Ene2: Fabric Energy Efficiency (FEE) - are strongly influenced by the thermal design of the dwelling. The DER and the FEE are obtained directly from appropriate SAP software. In November 2010, the Code Levels were recast against an improvement in Target Emissions Rate (TER) set by the 2010 version of Approved Document L1A. Effectively, Code levels1, 2 & 3 no longer technically exist as the reduction in CO2 is less than the minimum 8% required to achieve one credit, see Table 108 on page 126. The Fabric Energy Efficiency (FEE) has been introduced to underpin the ‘fabric first approach’ and to future-proof the dwelling energy efficiency, and avoid an over reliance on renewable technologies. The FEE for a dwelling is defined within SAP and is measured in kWh/m2/year. The number of credits available in Ene 2 for improving the FEE are shown in Table 109. The level of the FEE for a particular dwelling type is adjusted depending on whether the unit is an apartment or midterraced house, or an end terrace, semidetached or detached house. This is because apartments and mid-terraced houses have a relatively small external surface area and therefore fabric improvements become less effective.

Mat 1 is designed to encourage the use of construction materials that have low environmental impact over the life cycle of the dwelling. Using the BRE’s Green Guide, the main construction elements can be assessed. All of the commonly used cavity wall constructions will achieve an A+ rating using any of our aircrete or aggregate blocks allowing maximum credits to be gained. Mat 2 is aimed at encouraging the use of construction materials that are responsibly sourced. For many years, all of our block manufacturing facilities have operated a Certified Management System (CMS) which combines the management of the environment, quality and health and safety. When BRE developed BES 6001, we were able to gain a ‘Very Good’ rating for all of our aircrete and aggregate block factories and other products in our portfolio such as mortars, screeds, grouts and cementitious mixtures, pre-stressed and precast concrete products, packed products, soils and special sands.

Hea 2 awards credits for the level of sound insulation through party walls using constructions that are either Robust Detail or pre-completion compliant. Most of the Robust Detail separating walls shown in Tables 114 to 115 (page 134) in the Acoustics section of this manual, will attract Code credits. For details of the exact number of credits that are available, visit the Robust Details website www.robustdetails.co.uk Suitable constructions using our aircrete or aggregate blocks will usually consist of two 100mm leaves with a 75 or 100 mm cavity which may be filled with mineral wool insulation to achieve the zero U-value required by Approved Document L1A (see the Thermal Insulation section on pages 94-123).

This means that our block products will achieve maximum credits within the Materials Category of the Code. A copy of the BES 6001 rating can be downloaded from our website.

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126 Blockwork solutions

The Code for Sustainable Homes

The Code for Sustainable Homes (continued) Table 108: Ene 1 Credits Improvement over 2010 TER

Table 109: Ene 2 Credits

November 2010 Credits awarded

Mandatory requirement

Part L 2010 Compliance

0

Level 1

Part L 2010 Compliance

0

Level 2

Part L 2010 Compliance

0

Level 3

8%

1

16%

2

25%

3

36%

4

47%

5

59%

6

72%

7

85%

8

100%

9

Level 5

Net zero CO2 emissions

10

Level 6

Apartment blocks, mid terrace

Level 4

End of terrace, semi-detached and detached

Credits

≤ 48

≤ 60

3

≤ 45

≤ 55

4

≤ 43

≤ 52

5

≤ 41

≤ 49

6

≤ 39

≤ 46

7

≤ 35

≤ 42

8

≤ 32

≤ 38

9

Mandatory levels

Levels 5 & 6

Case study 1 Using the end terraced house modelled in the Thermal section, page 103, with a total floor area of 95.0m2 the specification needs modifying to achieve Code 4 compliance. It is difficult to reach a 25% reduction in CO2 without the introduction of some form of renewable technology. Table 110 shows the specification required to reach Code 4 based on the concurrent recipe given in Approved Document L1A 2014 with the introduction of a photovoltaic array. As it is economically practical to install a minimum of 1 kW peak of PV, approximately 7m2, it is possible to increase the air tightness to 8m3/hr/m2 @ 50Pa whilst leaving the rest of the fabric specification unchanged. This example represents one way to obtain Code level 4. The introduction of other measures such as solar hot water, waste water heat recovery, and triple glazing would allow some changes in the fabric specification. Examples of suitable wall and floor U-values can be found in the Thermal Solutions section, pages 94 to 123.

Technical services: 0870 242 1489

Table 110: Code 4 Specification End terrace house Total floor area 95.0 m2

Reference values SAP 2012(1) Appendix R

Code 4 specification

External walls

0.18

0.18

Party wall

Zero

Zero

Ground floor

0.13

0.13

Roof

0.13

0.13

1.4 & g = 0.63

1.4 & g = 0.63

1.00

1.00

1.20

1.20

5

8

Element U-value (W/m2K)

Windows and glazed doors etc. Opaque doors Semi glazed doors Air tightness (m /(hr/m @ 50Pa) 3

2)

Other elements Linear thermal bridging

Accredited Details*

Accredited Details*

Natural ventilation

3 Fans

3 Fans

Low E lighting (%)

100

100

Thermal Mass Parameter

250

250

% CO2 reduction

3.2

25

FEE

47

47

Notes * Concurrent specification from Appendix R SAP 2012. All other features not shown are as Appendix R.


The Code for Sustainable Homes

Blockwork solutions 127

Case study 2 In 2009, we designed and constructed a pair of Code homes at the Nottingham University Creative Homes Project. The project was aimed at assessing the feasibility of various construction forms and technologies that could provide potential solutions to the relatively new Code for Sustainable Homes. All the houses in the project are now occupied by the families of some of the University staff. Our involvement in this project was to demonstrate to the wider house building market that masonry was a viable method of constructing new homes to the higher levels of the Code. The houses were a pair of semi-detached 3 bedroomed, 5 person homes with one being built to Code level 4 and the other to level 6. The Code 6 house was, at the time, one of the very first houses built to be ‘zero carbon’.

Table 111: Design information Item

Code 4

Code 6

Total heated floor area (m )

88.70

88.70

External wall U-value (W/m K)

0.19

0.15

Ground floor U-value (W/m K)

0.14

0.14

Roof U-value (W/m K)

0.11

0.11

Low E glazing U-value (W/m K)

1.50

1.50

Solar hot water (m2)

3.00

3.00

-

3.75

Party wall E-WM-11 (dB Dntw + Ctr)

53

53

Low E lighting (%)

100

100

2

2

2

2

2

Photovoltaic array (kW peak)

Whilst the Code levels and credits in, Ene 1 & 2, were recast in November 2010 these houses would still achieve the required number of credits to remain as Code 4 & 6 within the current energy category.

Whilst the Code and the concept of zero carbon have been revised since the construction of these houses, they still demonstrate the sustainable attributes of masonry construction and proved to be a useful test bed for new technologies. The main design information is shown in Table 111.

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128 Blockwork solutions

Acoustic insulation

Acoustic insulation This information demonstrates how our products can be used to meet the requirements for sound insulation specified in Approved Document E (2003 Edition*) of the Building Regulations for England and Wales using pre-completion testing or Robust Details.

* Including the 2004, 2010 and 2013 amendments

Technical services: 0870 242 1489


Acoustic insulation

Blockwork solutions 129

Performance requirements Introduction To meet the performance requirements for separating walls and floors, and for certain internal walls and intermediate floors, the specified levels of sound insulation in Table 112 should be met. Achieving the specified performance is highly dependent upon good detailing, design and workmanship in separating walls and floors, and also in the associated flanking construction.

Table 112:

Approved Document E performance requirements

Element

Airborne requirement

Impact requirement

Solutions

Separating Walls

min 45dB DnT,w+Ctr

Use either an RD with no requirement for pre-completion testing (see Tables 114 and 115, page 135), or any other solution which will require pre-completion testing, see Table 72. page 104 .

Separating Floors

min 45dB DnT,w+Ctr

max 62dB L'nT,w

Consult the flooring manufacturer for details

Internal Walls* and Internal Floors

min 40dB Rw

Use prescriptive solutions from Approved Document E or lab-tested constructions (no requirement for pre-completion testing, see Figures 12, 13, 22 and 34, pages 38, 39,66 and 75.

Dwellings: New Build

Rooms for Residential Purposes: New Build** Separating Walls

min 43dB DnT,w+Ctr

Use any solution which will require pre-completion testing (see Figures 11 and 29, pages 37 and 73.

Separating Floors

min 45dB DnT,w+Ctr

max 62dB L'nT,w

Consult the flooring manufacturer for details

Internal Walls* and Internal Floors

min 40dB Rw

Use prescriptive solutions from Approved Document E or lab-tested constructions (no requirement for pre-completion testing, see Figures 12, 13, 22 and 34, pages 38, 39,66 and 75.

Schools: New Build Internal Walls

Consult Building Bulletin 93

Internal Floors

Consult Building Bulletin 93

* This refers to walls between a bedroom or a room containing a w/c and other room and the internal floor ** Rooms for residential purposes means a room, or a suite of rooms (not including a dwelling house or flat), which is occupied by one or more persons to live or sleep in but not including rooms in hospitals, or similar establishments, used for patient care. Terminology: dB: The unit used for many acoustic quantities to indicate the level with respect to a reference level

L’nT,w: Site measurement for impact sound level (lower figure = better performance)

DnT,w+Ctr: Site measurement of airborne sound insulation with low-frequency correction factor (Ctr) applied (higher figure = better performance)

Rw: Laboratory-derived measurement of airborne sound insulation (higher figure = better performance)

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130 Blockwork solutions

Acoustic insulation

Performance requirements (continued) Construction solutions An extensive range of solutions for new build constructions is given in Tables 114 to 115, page 135. These cover constructions using the range of Tarmac Building Product’s aircrete and aggregate block products in separating walls, internal walls and beam and block internal floors.

Separating walls in new dwellings – pre-completion testing

The solutions presented are by no means exhaustive and the Technical Services Team will be pleased to discuss the suitability of any construction not featured. The solutions provided are based, where appropriate, on the guidance published in Approved Document E, The Robust Details Handbook, together with sound tests commissioned by TBP. Since the 2010 changes to Approved Document L1A, there has been a significant benefit to the thermal design (zero U-value) if the cavity in a separating wall is filled with mineral wool. Testing carried out to justify fully filled cavities in Robust Detail separating walls has shown that there is not a reduction in the acoustic performance of the wall, provided that the mineral wool has a maximum density of 40kg/m3. It would be reasonable to assume that the performance of a separating wall which is pre-completion tested would not be compromised, provided the detailing in the Robust Detail Handbook is followed where appropriate.

1

1

3

2

2

3 1

13mm plaster (10kg/m2 min.)

1

13mm plaster (10kg/m2 min.)

2

215mm Topcrete Standard (100mm blocks laid flat)

2

2 x 100mm Topcrete Standard

3

50mm min. cavity

3

215mm min. width

1

3

1

3

2

1 13mm plaster (10kg/m2 min.)

or plasterboard drylining on an 8mm parge coat 2 Durox Supabloc 4, 7 or 8

2

1 13mm plaster (10kg/m2 min.) 2 2 x 100mm Hemelite Standard 3 50mm min. cavity

or 2 x 100mm Toplite Standard or 7 or 2 x 100mm Durox System 600 or 700 3 75mm min. cavity

1 Durox System 600 and 700 is thin jointed blockwork using a 2-3mm bed joint 2 All Hemelite and Topcrete should be specified as solid blocks in accordance with BS EN 771-3 3 Where there is a step or stagger of at least 300mm in a Hemelite separating wall, a drylined finish may be used

Fig 55: Separating wall constructions for PCT

Technical services: 0870 242 1489


Acoustic insulation

Compliance using pre-completion testing Pre-completion testing (PCT) is a requirement permitted, under Regulation 20A of the Building Regulations, to improve as-built compliance with the requirements of Part E1. Some typical separating wall constructions suitable for pre-completion testing are shown in Figure 55. PCT is not applicable to internal walls and floors. The normal frequency of testing on a site will be at least 1 in 10 houses, flats or rooms for residential purposes. However, a building control will ask for one set of tests to be carried out between the first properties scheduled for completion. A site comprising only one pair of properties will therefore, require a test to be completed. Where there are significant differences in construction, the testing regime will include 1 in 10 of each type. For instance, houses - including bungalows - flats and rooms for residential purposes should be grouped separately. Similarly, sub-groups should be formed where there are variations in the construction of separating floors and walls, as well as any significant differences in the flanking construction. Sound tests are normally carried out at the developer’s or builder’s expense. Testing should be carried out when rooms on either side of the separating floor or wall are completed, but prior to decoration. Testing should not normally be carried out between living spaces and corridors, stairwells or hallways. Approved Document E advises that testing organisations with UKAS accreditation should preferably carry out testing. Such companies are listed on the UKAS web site: www.ukas.org. Members of The Association of Noise Consultants (ANC) are also regarded as suitably qualified to undertake precompletion testing. Registered organisations are listed on the ANC website: www.association-of-noise consultants.co.uk

Solutions Correct specification of flanking walls is essential to enable the separating walls and floors to fulfil their function. Select flanking walls from Tables 116 and 117, page 136, for use in conjunction with or without separating floors. They are suitable for buildings that are subject to precompletion testing, and are intended to complement the separating elements in meeting the performance standards for new build dwellings Further details on acoustic performance are given in the respective BBA Certificates for Durox and Toplite products. We do not currently have a solid wall Robust Detail solution, therefore the flanking construction guidance is based on Approved Document E and BBA Certificates. The most common form of solid separating wall is formed using a 100mm Topcrete Standard block laid flat to form a 215mm wide wall.

Junctions with timber floors Generally, Approved Document E requires that, if floor joists for intermediate floors, are to be supported on the separating wall, they should be supported on hangers see Figure 61, page 133. However, some practical difficulties with using hangers have already been acknowledged, particularly as a result of the changes to Approved Document L. In situations where it is genuinely unavoidable to build joists into separating walls, it is recommended that Building Regulation approval is sought prior to commencing on site. In these situations, it would be advisable to follow the guidance given in the Robust Details.

Blockwork solutions 131

Junctions with concrete floors Concrete floors should generally be built into the separating wall and, in the case of a cavity wall, carried through to the cavity face of the leaf. When concrete floors are used at ground floor, they should not be continuous under a cavity separating wall.

Junctions with ceiling and roof The separating wall should be continuous to the underside of the roof. The junction between the separating wall and roof should be filled with a flexible closer which is also suitable as a fire stop. Similarly, the external wall should be closed at eaves level with a suitable flexible material such as mineral wool (see Figure 62, page 137).

Wall ties Wall ties to connect the separating wall leaves should be 'Type A' butterfly pattern (or ties of equivalent acoustic performance).

Electric sockets The position of sockets on opposite sides of the separating wall should be staggered.

Minimising flanking sound transmission Flanking sound transmission occurs indirectly via paths such as windows, external walls, ceilings and internal corridors. It is defined as sound transferred from a source room but not via a single common building element. It is essential that flanking transmission is considered at the design stage and that the construction detailing specified will minimise the effect on the overall acoustic performance. Typical solutions for key junctions with the separating wall are shown in Figure 55.

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132 Blockwork solutions

Acoustic insulation

Performance requirements (continued) Cavity and solid separating walls The junction of the inner leaf of an external cavity wall and a cavity or solid separating wall should be formed as follows: • The external wall cavity should be stopped with a flexible closer at the junction with the separating wall (see Figs 56 and 57), unless the cavity is fully filled using polystyrene beads or mineral wool. • The separating wall should be connected to the inner leaf by block bonding or a tied junction. Where structural considerations allow, the use of a tied junction is recommended, as it is likely to improve the acoustic performance (see Figs 59 and 60). • Where there is a separating floor which is subject to pre-completion testing, the mass of the inner leaf should be at least 120kg/m2. Hemelite and Topcrete products can meet this requirement using a minimum inner leaf width of 100mm.

Separating walls in new dwellings – pre-completion testing Note for clarity any insulation within the separating wall cavity has been omitted.

External leaf

lnner leaf

Cavity stop

Cavity stop Cavity separating wall

Fig 56: External cavity wall with blockwork inner leaf

lnner leaf

Cavity separating wall

Fig 57: External cavity wall with blockwork inner leaf – stagger

Not more than 700mm from the separating wall Not less than 1m high

Durox or Toplight flanking wall

Technical services: 0870 242 1489

Fig 58: Window positions for solid separating wall with aircrete inner leaf

Separating wall - 100mm Topcrete laid flat


Blockwork solutions 133

Acoustic insulation

Fig 59: Junction of solid separating wall and inner leaf of cavity wall Solid separating wall

Solid separating wall

Inner leaf of cavity wall

Note the junction details shown above would also apply to separating wall constructions where Robust Details are being used.

Inner leaf of cavity wall

Bonded junction

Tied junction

Fig 60: Junction of cavity separating wall and inner leaf of cavity wall Cavity separating wal

Cavity separating wall

Inner leaf of cavity wall

Bonded junction

Fig 61: Timber floor

Inner leaf of cavity wall

Tied junction

Fig 62: External cavity wall at eaves level

Cavity separating wall Flexible closer

Note the junction details shown above would also apply to separating wall constructions where Robust Details are being used.

Flue blocks Flue blocks that do not adversely affect sound insulation should be specified. A suitable finish must be used over the flue blocks. If in doubt, refer to BS 1289-1:1986 and seek manufacturer’s advice.

Separating floors We recommend that the manufacturer of the separating floor is contacted for advice on the specification of precast concrete floors to comply with Building Regulations. Generally, we would not recommend the use of timber separating floors with any of our aircrete or aggregate blocks as the measures to limit flanking sound transmission are not particularly practical or economic.

Hanger

Solid separating wall

Hanger

Note for clarity any insulation within the separating wall cavity has been omitted.

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134 Blockwork solutions

Acoustic insulation

Flanking walls Construction of flanking walls, given in Approved Document E, is dependent on the construction of the separating wall and floor (see Table 113) and in some cases, the position and size of openings adjacent to the party wall, see Figure 58 on page 132. However, other constructions may be suitable. Table 113: TBP flanking wall constructions for pre-completion testing Separating wall type

Construction of inner leaf adjoining separating wall*

Solid – Topcrete

100mm Durox – any grade** 100mm Toplite – any grade

215mm

Cavity – Topcrete 50mm

Cavity – Hemelite 75mm

Cavity – Durox Supabloc 4 or 7 or Toplite Standard or 7 75mm

Housing  

Flats - ie with a separating floor -

100mm Hemelite Standard 100mm Topcrete Standard

 

 

100mm Durox – any grade** 100mm Toplite – any grade

 

-

Comments Windows required on both sides of the separating wall - see Fig 58 Achieves 120kg/m2 wall weight

100mm Hemelite Standard 100mm Topcrete Standard

 

 

Achieves 120kg/m2 wall weight

100mm Durox – any grade** 100mm Toplite – any grade

 

-

In accordance with BBA certificate†

100mm Hemelite Standard 100mm Topcrete Standard

 

 

100mm Durox – any grade** 100mm Toplite – any grade

 

-

100mm Hemelite Standard 100mm Topcrete Standard

 

 

Achieves 120kg/m2 wall weight

In accordance with BBA certificate† Achieves 120kg/m2 wall weight

* All flanking constructions can be finished with plaster or plasterboard on dabs (10kg/m2 min) * If Durox Supabloc 4 is specified, the minimum thickness should be 115mm. † The BBA has assessed these constructions and has confirmed that they may be used with aircrete separating walls with or without a step and/or stagger – refer to Technical Services for details

Technical services: 0870 242 1489


Acoustic insulation

Blockwork solutions 135

Compliance using Robust Details Since their introduction in 2006, the range of constructions included in the Robust Details Handbook has increased considerably. Tables 114 to 115 show the current range of Robust Details for both aircrete and aggregate block separating walls.

In addition, Tables 116 and 117, page 136 show the combinations of separating walls and separating floors that may be used. Recent developments have seen the introduction of full fill cavity insulation in the separating wall to meet the requirement of Approved Document L1A for a ‘zero U-value’.

Table 114: Durox and Toplite Robust Detail separating walls Robust detail ref.

Separating wall block type

E-WM-6

Durox Supabloc 4, 7 or 8 Toplite Standard or 7’s

E-WM-10

Durox Supabloc ** 600 or 700 (Tied cavity)

E-WM-13

Durox System ** 600 or 700 (Un-tied cavity)

E-WM-15

Durox Supabloc 4, 7 or 8 Toplite Standard or 7’s with Isover RD35

E-WM-23

Durox Supabloc 4, 7 or 8 Toplite Standard or 7’s with Supaglass Party Wall Roll

E-WM-24

Durox Supabloc 4, 7 or 8 Toplite Standard or 7’s with Isover RD Party Wall Roll

Full fill *   

Cavity width (mm)

Internal finish

75 min

Plasterboard on dabs on 8mm parging coat

75 min

Plasterboard on dabs on 8mm parging coat

75 min

Plasterboard on dabs on 8mm parging coat

Partial fill

Plasterboard on dabs

100

Plasterboard on dabs

100

Plasterboard on dabs

* Unless a proprietary product is specified the optional full fill must have a density not exceeding 40 kg/m3. ** Durox System is a Thin Layer Mortar system of blockwork

Table 115: Hemelite and Topcrete Robust Detail separating walls Robust detail ref.

Separating wall block type

E-WM-1

Topcrete Standard

E-WM-2

Hemelite Standard

E-WM-3

Topcrete Standard

E-WM-4

Hemelite Standard

E-WM-8

Hemelite Standard with Isover RD35

E-WM-11

Hemelite Standard

E-WM-14

Hemelite Standard with Isover RD35

E-WM-16

Topcrete Standard

E-WM-17

Hemelite Standard with Isover RD Party Wall Roll

E-WM-18

Topcrete Standard

E-WM-19

Hemelite Standard or Topcrete Standard with Monofloor Bridgestop

E-WM-20

Hemelite Standard with Isover RD Party Wall Roll

E-WM-21

Hemelite Standard

E-WM-22

Hemelite Standard with Knauf Earthwool Party Wall slab or Supaglass Party Wall Roll

Full fill *     Partial fill

Cavity width (mm)

Internal finish

75 min

Wet plaster

75 min

Wet plaster

75 min

Plasterboard on dabs on 8mm parging coat

75 min

Plasterboard on dabs on 8mm parging coat

75

Plasterboard on dabs

100

Plasterboard on dabs on 8mm parging coat

Partial fill

100

Plasterboard on dabs

100

Plasterboard on dabs on 8mm parging coat

75

Plasterboard on dabs

100

Wet plaster

100

Plasterboard on dabs on 8mm parging coat

100

Plasterboard on dabs

  

100 min 100

Wet plaster Plasterboard on dabs

* Unless a proprietary product is specified the full fill (optional) must have a density not exceeding 40 kg/m3.

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136 Blockwork solutions

Acoustic insulation

Aircrete and aggregate blocks in flats Separating walls The Robust Detail handbook describes aircrete and aggregate block separating wall specifications and includes details of critical junctions within the building. As a result of many years of site testing, Table 3a of the Robust Details handbook shows the Durox, Toplite, Hemelite and Topcrete cavity separating walls that can be used in combination with a range of Robust Detail separating floor constructions. This allows the blocks to be used in both flanking and separating walls without the need for precompletion testing. Tables 116 and 117 show the combinations of Robust Details separating walls and floors that can be used without precompletion testing. In situations where a Robust Detail separating wall is used in combination with a non-Robust Detail separating floor, only the floor will need to be pre-completion tested – see the Robust Details Handbook, Table 4. As development continues, it is advisable to refer to TBP Technical Services, our web site or www.robustdetails.co.uk for the most up-to-date specifications. Some Robust Detail separating wall and floor combinations require that the floor is precompletion tested. See the Robust Details Handbook Table 3a for further information.

Table 116: Durox and Toplite separating and flanking walls in flats Robust Detail separating wall

Separating wall

Flanking wall

Robust Detail separating floor

RD ref. No.

2 x 100mm blocks Inner leaf with 75mm min. cavity 100mm min.

RD ref. No.

E-WM-6 Conventional mortar

Supabloc 4, 7, 8 Toplite Standard 7

Supabloc Supabloc 4, 7, 8 Toplite GTi, Standard 7

E-FC-4, E-FC-5*, E-FC-8/9/10

E-WM-10, E-WM-13 Thin layer mortar

System 600 and 700

System 500, 600, and 700

E-FC-4, E-FC-5*, E-FC-8/9/10

E-WM-15 Conventional mortar

Supabloc 4, 7 and 8

Supabloc Supabloc 4, 7 and 8 Toplite GTi, Standard 7

E-FC-4 E-FC-5* E-FC-8/9/10

E-WM-23 Conventional mortar

Supabloc 4, 7, 8 Toplite Standard 7

Supabloc 4, 7 and 8 Toplite GTi, Standard 7

E-FC-5* E-FC-8/9/10

E-WM-24 Conventional mortar

Supabloc 4, 7, 8 Toplite Standard 7

Supabloc 4, 7 and 8 Toplite GTi, Standard 7

E-FC-5* E-FC-8/9/10

* In accordance with Table 3a of the Robust Details handbook, a 200mm (min.) thickness pre-cast concrete slab and ceiling treatment CTS must be used.

Table 117: Hemelite and Topcrete separating and flanking walls in flats Robust Detail separating wall

Flanking walls TBP Aircrete and aggregate blocks can be used for the inner leaf of external walls in accordance with some Robust Details without the need to undertake routine precompletion testing. For this application, Durox, Toplite, Hemelite or Topcrete, of minimum 100mm thickness, can be used as shown in Table 116 and 117.

Separating wall

Flanking wall

Robust Detail separating floor

RD ref. No.

2 x 100mm blocks Full fill** with 75mm or 100mm min. cavity

Inner leaf block

RD ref. No. 100mm min

E-WM-1 & 3

Topcrete Standard (75mm min cavity)

Hemelite or Topcrete Standard

E-FC-1, 4, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16

Topcrete Standard

E-FC-6, 7

Hemelite or Topcrete Standard

E-FC-1, 4, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16

Topcrete Standard

E-FC-6F, 7F

E-WM-16.18

E-WM- 2, 4, 8 & 17

Topcrete Standard (100mm min cavity)

Hemelite Standard (75mm min cavity)

 Hemelite or Topcrete (excluding Standard E-WM-8) Topcrete Standard

E-WM- 11, 14, 20,21 & 22

Hemelite Standard (100mm min cavity)

 Hemelite or Topcrete (excluding Standard E-WM-14) Topcrete Standard

E-FC-1, 4, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16 E-FC-6F, 7F E-FC-1, 4, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16 E-FC-6F, 7F

* Some of these Robust Detail floors will permit aircrete in the flanking walls. ** Unless a proprietary product is specified, the full fill (optional) must have a density not exceeding 40kg/m3. F

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Only the floor requires pre-completion testing


Acoustic insulation

Blockwork solutions 137

Flanking sound When using Robust Detail constructions, no restrictions are specified regarding the positioning of openings in the flanking wall. Within the Robust Detail Handbook, each Detail has a number of illustrations showing how the junctions of various elements should be treated.

Steps

In addition, the appendix to the Handbook contains some more general guidance, such has how to correctly ‘build-in’ floor joists. For solid timber joists, the mortar joints around each joist perimeter should be recessed or struck (pressed in at the lower edges) and the joint between the blockwork and the timber should be carefully pointed with silicone sealant. The sealant should be applied after the building is weatherproofed so that the blockwork and joists are reasonably dry. If timber-engineered joists are used, they should be fitted with proprietary filler pieces fitted on both sides of the web, between the top and bottom flanges. The depth of the filler pieces should be slightly less than the dimension between the joist flanges to achieve a loose fit. All joints and air gaps should be pointed with silicone sealant as detailed above. Alternatively, proprietary joist cap-ends may be used. In either case, the joists must not be continuous between dwellings and if the wall finish is dry-lining, the pre-requisite render coat need not be carried into the floor zone.

Building layout: houses/flats When designing dwellings, it is preferable that rooms of similar use should be located adjacent to each other across the separating wall. Reducing the common areas of walls and floors can result in improved sound insulation. This can be achieved by the use of steps and staggers. Good design should ensure that bedrooms of one flat are directly below the bedrooms of the flat above. Services such as refuse chutes, vertical ducts and lifts should not adjoin bedrooms or living rooms.

Staggers

Fig 62: Introducing steps and staggers to improve acoustic design

Movement joints should be avoided in separating walls. Mechanical equipment (such as boilers and cooker hoods) should never be mounted on a separating wall, unless secured on acoustic mountings.

Building layout: residential accommodation This covers hotels, nursing and student accommodation, etc. The construction for the separating wall should also be specified for the corridor wall in order to control flanking transmission, and to provide the required sound insulation between the residential room and the corridor. It is essential that any door has good perimeter sealing (including the threshold, where practical) and have a minimum mass of 25kg/m2.

Alternatively, a doorset may be used, providing it achieves a minimum sound reduction index, Rw, of 29dB (based on laboratory measurements to BS EN ISO 140-3). It is also helpful to design the room layout to maximise the distance between adjacent doors. Noisy parts of the building (e.g. function rooms, bars) should preferably have a lobby, double doors or a highperformance doorset to contain the noise. Where this is not possible, nearby rooms for residential purposes should have similar protection. Particular attention should be paid to the specification of doors along corridors in multi-occupancy buildings.

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138 Blockwork solutions

Durability

Durability The complete range of TBP products is inherently durable and is suitable for a variety of exposure conditions. The guidance presented includes recommendations for the use of products to resist frost, moisture and sulphate attack.

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Durability

Frost resistance Extensive use of TBP’s products has confirmed their ability to achieve good frost resistance in practice, making them ideal for use below dampproof course (DPC) level. Generally, products will be selected on the basis of the recommendations of BS 5628-3. In addition, the assessment procedure for BBA Certificates covering Durox and Toplite aircrete blocks includes tests to confirm the resistance of these blocks to the freeze/thaw conditions likely to occur below DPC. The ‘Code of Best Practice for the use of Aircrete Products’ also confirms their suitability.

The external wall should be selected to resist the anticipated exposure conditions. This may be done in accordance with BS 8104 ‘Code of practice for assessing exposure of walls to wind-driven rain’. This will result in the determination of the local spell index that will allow the designer to select an appropriate construction. To provide adequate resistance to rain penetration, the specification, design, detailing and construction of the total wall element should take account of local exposure conditions.

• externally, above DPC when walls are protected by cladding or render. Any TBP’s product is suitable for use in the above situations.

Sulphate resistance

• internally, above or below DPC

For guidance on the selection of blocks for other applications, such as in unprotected walls above DPC, free-standing walls, and parapets, refer to BS 5628-3 or contact our Technical Services Team. The mortar properties should be appropriate to the degree of frost resistance required.

Moisture resistance Moisture in block walls does not adversely affect their strength. Provision must be made against rising damp by the introduction of DPCs at suitable locations. These will provide a barrier to the passage of water from the exterior of the building to the interior, or from the ground to the structure. In every external wall, a horizontal DPC should be provided at least 150mm above the finished level of the external ground or paving. To prevent the transfer of moisture from external walls into solid floors, the damp proof membrane in the floor, and the DPC in the wall, should overlap a minimum of 100mm or be sealed. DPCs should not be bridged by rendering and should extend through the full thickness of the wall or leaf, and preferably project slightly beyond the external face.

Insulation Screed DPC

Guidance on the resistance to rain penetration of solid and cavity wall construction is given in BS 5628-3. When any of our block range is used as the outer leaf of a cavity wall or as a solid wall, they should be rendered or clad to provide protection from the elements. In the case of Durox and Toplite, further guidance on the suitability of their use externally can be found in Table 25 on page 41.

There is little or no risk of frost attack when blocks are used:

The environment below ground level should be assessed in accordance with BRE Special Digest 1, 'Concrete in aggressive ground'. There are five classes of sulphate level, DS-1 to DS-5, for soils and ground waters, with DS-1 having little or no sulphate and DS-5 having high sulphate content. BRE Special Digest 1, Part 4: 'Design guides for specific precast products' gives guidance on the specification of precast products for such conditions. For the use of TBP blocks in various sulphate solid conditions see Table 118 on page 140.

Hemelite and Topcrete aggregate blocks In practice, aggregate blocks have been used below ground in all kinds of sulphate conditions for many years before a potential problem with sulphates was identified.

Blockwork solutions 139

Durox, Toplite, Hemelite or Topcrete Foundation

Fig 63: Foundation blocks below DPC

Further research2 has demonstrated that the cement matrices of aggregate blocks and wet concrete mixes are very similar. These findings support and explain the high durability of aggregate blocks in terms of both frost and sulphate resistance.

Durox and Toplite aircrete blocks The recommendations for use in sulphate soils are based on BRE Special Digest 1, Part 4, and are endorsed by the BBA Certificates covering Durox and Toplite aircrete. Notes: 1 Sulphate resistance of aggregate concrete blocks: Pettit G, Harrison W, Littleton I. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress of the Precast Concrete Industry July 1996 Understanding the durability of aggregate concrete masonry units through a comparison of cement matrices of wet and semi-dry mix concrete: Pettit G, Harrison W. Proceedings of the 16th International Congress of the Precast Concrete Industry 1999.

2

Recent research1 supports the long-term empirical evidence and suggests the guidance in BRE Special Digest 1 is too conservative. The research supports the BRE view that carbonation imparts sulphate resistance to concrete; aggregate blocks have a more open texture than concrete cast in-situ and are more able to surface carbonate.

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140 Blockwork solutions

Durability

Specification guidance When specifying blocks for sites where sulphates are present, always determine whether: • the conditions found relate to the depth at which the concrete units are to be used. Relatively few sites have sulphate concentrations greater than DS-1 in the first metre of soil • ground water is likely to be present at the depths at which units are to be used. The risk of sulphate attack in dry conditions is minimal. The following recommendations are made on the basis of BRE Special Digest 1 and long-term research: Internally, above or below DPC: • No risk of sulphate attack. Externally above DPC, protected by render or cladding: • No risk of sulphate attack. Externally above DPC and unprotected by render or cladding: • Levels of sulphates in the atmosphere or precipitation are not usually sufficient to present a risk of sulphate attack for any TBP product. Externally, below DPC: • Guidance on the use of products in class DS-1, DS-2 and DS-3 sulphate conditions is given in Table 118.

Table 118: Use of TBP products in sulphate soil DS-1 Hemelite or Topcrete aggregate blocks Hemelite 3.6N/mm2 * Hemelite 7.3N/mm

Hemelite Foundation 2

Topcrete Cellular 3.6N/mm 2

Topcrete 7.3N/mm or greater Durox or Toplite aircrete blocks Durox Foundation Durox Foundation 7 Durox Supabloc Durox Supabloc 4 Durox Supabloc 7 & 8 Toplite GTi* Toplite Foundation & Foundation 7 Toplite Standard Toplite ‘7’ * Suitable for use as the inner leaf of cavity walls and internal walls below DPC

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2

DS-2

DS-3

   


Durability

Blockwork solutions 141

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142 Blockwork solutions

Movement control

Movement control All buildings, regardless of construction and form, will be prone to some degree of shrinkage movement as the building dries out for the first time during occupation. This section sets out some simple, practical measures that will help control this movement and avoid remedial work after the building has been completed.

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Blockwork solutions 143

Movement control

The causes of movement All buildings undergo small movements and dimensional changes from various causes. Those which most affect concrete masonry are: • changes in moisture content of the blockwork (reversible) • changes in temperature (reversible) • carbonation of the concrete (non-reversible) • movement of the adjoining structure (reversible or non-reversible). There is a general tendency for concrete masonry to contract as it dries to equilibrium moisture content and the concrete carbonates. Clay masonry, by contrast, expands as the masonry matures and adsorbs water. Unless proper provision is made to allow such movements to take place in a controlled manner, cracking may occur. Such cracking presents little hazard, but can be unsightly. The advice given here is based upon the recommendations of BS 5628-3 and long-term experience.

Provision for movement

Movement joints

The amount of movement to be expected is related to the moisture content of the materials, the ability of the masonry to carbonate after construction, and the ambient temperature during construction.

Movement joint spacings for TBP’s products in walling are given in Table 119, page 144.

Unless slip planes are provided, longitudinal movement in loadbearing masonry is likely to be less than that in non-loadbearing masonry because of the restraint provided by the structure. Whilst it is possible to calculate the likely level of movement and then to design for it, the number of variables involved make calculation complex; it is more usual to: • divide masonry into a series of discrete panels, separated by joints which allow movement of the panels, and/or • restrict movement by using bed joint reinforcement. Internal walls in single occupancy dwellings do not normally require movement joints. Any small movement cracks are made good after the building has dried out. However, if the length of internal walls exceeds three times their height, then provision for movement becomes a sensible precaution.

Where end restraint is provided, such as at bonded corners, the recommended spacings should be halved. Long, low panels – those with length to height ratios greater than 3:1 – should have joints at reduced spacings. In such cases, bed reinforcement may be a better solution as this will avoid an excessive number of movement joints. The movement joint spacings given in Table 119, page 144 apply to plain runs of walling (i.e. without openings). The effect of restrained corners and window and door openings should also be considered. The bonding of blockwork around internal or external corners causes restraint preventing the wall accommodating any horizontal movement. Therefore a movement joint should be located at 1/2 the nominal spacing from the corner. Openings in masonry walls reduce the height of the blockwork forming spandrel panels creating localised stress points. The use of bed joint reinforcement, as shown in Figures 70 and 71 on page 145, will help reduce movement at these points.

Joints to accommodate horizontal movement Movement joints should be considered at the following locations:

At regular spacings in long runs of walling

At junctions with dissimilar materials

At changes in wall thickness

At changes in wall height

Half nominal centres

Above and below openings

To coincide with movement joints in other parts of the construction

At bonded corners in blockwork

Fig 64: Movement joint locations www.tarmacbuildingproducts.co.uk


144 Blockwork solutions

Movement control

Movement control (continued) Movement joint formation Typically, movement joints to accommodate horizontal movement should be straight, 10mm wide butt joints built in as work proceeds. They should be filled with a suitable compressible material and sealed as required. Wider joints may be required where they pass through the whole structure. In some situations, for example internal walls, a simple butt joint may be used without filler. Suitable joint fillers include flexible cellular polyethylene, cellular polyurethane or foam rubber. Internal joints, which generally only need to allow for contraction, may be filled with fibreboard and carried through plasterwork. Structural continuity across movement joints, and at junctions of masonry with the structural frame, is achieved by using flat metal ties with one end de-bonded (for example by a plastic sleeve) at 450mm maximum vertical centres (see Fig 65). Movement joints must be continuous through applied rigid finishes such as plaster or render (see Fig 66). The use of a proprietary plaster/render stop bead will give the best results. Further construction details for movement joints are given in Figures 75-81, pages 147-149.

Table 119: Recommended movement joint spacings Product

Joint spacing (m)

Hemelite

7.0 - 8.0

Topcrete

7.0 - 8.0

Toplite

6.0

Durox

6.0

Flat section metal tie wiith one end de-bonded to alternate courses Joint filler Sealant where required

Sealant where required

Fig 65. Movement joint with flat-strip metal ties

Fig 66. Movement joint continued through rigid finishes

Half nominal centres

Vertical and lateral movement In non-loadbearing walls, a gap, usually packed with soft filler, is left at the soffit to allow for vertical movement of the structure above. Lateral restraint can be provided by lengths of steel angle fixed to the soffit on either side of the masonry after the wall has been constructed (see Fig 68). Alternatively, sliding ties may be built into masonry perpend joints and fixed to the soffit; the use of ties which do not permit movement may cause dislodgement of the top course of masonry.

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Stop bead

Fig 67. Setting out movement joints from corners


Movement control

Blockwork solutions 145

Bed joint reinforcement Movement may also be controlled using prefabricated wire reinforcement in mortar bed joints to distribute stresses throughout the immediate area of the wall (see Fig 69). This will prevent major cracking. For use in conjunction with Durox System, thin joint block work, polymer movement control fabric, can be considered as an alternative to steel composition reinforcement. Tests conducted by John Moores University have shown this material to be effective when incorporated in the bed joints to reduce the occurrence of shrinkage cracks and minimise crack width.

Reinforcement

Steel angle providing lateral support

Soft filler

Fig 68. Lateral restraint of non-loadbearing walls

Fig 69. Bed joint reinforcement

Further details on application are given in the Durox System thin joint guide. Bed joint reinforcement may be used: • At stress concentrations around door and window openings (see Fig 70) • In long panels where movement joints are impractical (see Fig 71) • To increase the spacing of movement joints beyond that recommended for unreinforced masonry.

Mortar Bed joint reinforcement

Bed joint reinforcement should extend a minimum of 600mm past opening

Fig 70. Bed joint reinforcement at openings

A significant proportion of the overall shrinkage of masonry is owing to the mortar. The effect of the shrinkage can be reduced by ensuring mortar joints are weaker than the masonry units; this reduces the stresses by allowing redistribution of forces within the wall. However, the mortar must still be compatible with the strength and durability requirements of the masonry.

Bed joint reinforcement

Fig 71. Bed joint reinforcement in low height panels

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146 Blockwork solutions

Movement control

Movement control (continued) Render outer leaves

Differential movement

Site practice

Where the outer leaf of a cavity wall is to be rendered, it is important that the provisions to accommodate movement are adequately considered. Any movement joints in the blockwork must be carried through the render to avoid cracking in the ďŹ nish.

Differential movement may occur when designs combine materials with differing physical characteristics. This is not usually a problem when various types of concrete masonry are combined; for example only a small amount of differential movement will be produced between a Topcrete dense aggregate outer leaf and a Durox or Toplite inner leaf.

Protecting blocks from rain and snow will help minimise excessive movement caused as the blockwork dries out.

Experience has shown that some proprietary monocouche through-coloured renders are prone to cracking. We therefore recommend that a combination of movement joints and bed joint reinforcement is adopted and that the design, detailing and application guidance provided by the render manufacturer is strictly followed.

Packs of blocks should be covered with weatherproof sheeting. Blocks can be supplied shrinkwrapped but these should also be covered once the wrapping has been opened. It is equally important to provide weather protection to blockwork under construction. Loaded-out blocks should be covered with a spot board and partially completed walls should be covered with a scaffold board or waterproof sheeting.

However, allowance must be made for differential movement when concrete and clay masonry are used in adjoining leaves and the use of rigid wall ties should be avoided where possible. When concrete and clay units are built into the same panels, slip planes and/or more closely spaced movement joints may be necessary to allow for the differential movement.

During periods of very hot weather, blockwork should not be allowed to dry out too quickly.

The following design details are the most common movement joint details likely to be encountered in the design of concrete blockwork. They are generally applicable to all TBP products but the designer is also referred to the Durox System guide for details of movement joints and bed joint reinforcement when designing with Durox thin joint blocks.

Flat section metal tie with one end bonded at450mm centres

Joint filler (and sealant where required)

Voids filled with stiff mortar to support tie Flat section metal tie with one end bonded at450mm centres

10mm Joint filler (and sealant where required)

Fig 72. Movement joints to walls incorporating solid blocks

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Fig 73. Movement joints to walls incorporating hollow blocks


Movement control

Blockwork solutions 147

Summary • Internal walls in single occupancy dwellings do not normally require movement joints • Movement joints in unreinforced masonry should normally be 6-8m apart, depending on block type, for normal storey height walls, see Table 119, page 144 • A movement joint should be provided at half the normal spacing where there is end restraint such as at bonded corners

• Unrestrained or lightly loaded walls with length/height ratios greater than 3:1, such as low horizontal panels or parapet walls, require more frequent movement joints or the introduction of bed joint reinforcement • Bed joint reinforcement should be used to control movement at stress concentrations such as window and door openings, or to extend the spacing of movement joints

• Where appropriate, suitable provision for movement should be allowed at the tops of walls • Over-strong mortars should be avoided • Suitable precautions should be taken when mixing materials of different compositions, such as clay and concrete, in the same wall. Movement joints and slip planes should be introduced as appropriate.

The following design details are the most common movement joint details likely to be encountered in the design of concrete blockwork. They are generally applicable to all TBP products but the designer is also referred to the Durox System guide for details of movement joints and bed joint reinforcement when designing with Durox thin joint blocks. Vertical movement joint continued up to top of wall

Flat section metal tie with one end de-bonded at 450mm vertical centres

Sealant where rquired Joint filler

Lintel

Flat section metal tie with one end bonded at450mm centres Lintel bearing bedded and jointed on DPC or two layers of DPM

Joint filler

Fig 74. Movement joints at an intersecting wall

Fig 75. Movement joint and slip plane to the side of door openings

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148 Blockwork solutions

Movement control

Movement control (continued) The following design details are the most common movement joint details likely to be encountered in the design of concrete blockwork. They are generally applicable to all TBP products but the designer is also referred to the Durox System guide for details of movement joints and bed joint reinforcement when designing with Durox thin joint blocks.

Wall ties at maximum 300mm vertical centres

Flat section metal tie with one end de-bonded at 450mm vertical centres

Sealant where required Joint filler

25mm clear

Joint filler

225mm max

225mm max

Outer leaf Outer leaf

Fig 76. Movement joint to the inner leaf of a cavity wall

Wall ties at maximum 300mm vertical centres

Inner leaf

Sealant where required Wall ties at maximum 300mm vertical centres

Fig 77. Movement joint at external wall junction to separating wall

Sealant where required Joint filler 75mm min 225mm max

225mm max

Flexible ties at Max 300mm vertical centres Joint filter Column Render

Render stop beads

Fire protection to column

Sealant

Fig 78. Movement joint to a rendered outer leaf

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Fig 79. Movement joint to blockwork at internal steel column


Movement control

Blockwork solutions 149

The following design details are the most common movement joint details likely to be encountered in the design of concrete blockwork. They are generally applicable to all TBP products but the designer is also referred to the Durox System guide for details of movement joints and bed joint reinforcement when designing with Durox thin joint blocks.

Concrete column

Column

Fire protection to column

Sealant where required

Joint filler

Flat section metal ties with de-bonding sleeves at 450mm vertical centres. Allow a minimum 100mm embedment. Ties fixed to column (e.g. shot fired).

225mm max. 40mm min.

Wall ties at maximum 300mm vertical centres

Concrete column Dovetail channel cast into column

Outer leaf

Joint filler

Fig 80. Movement joint to blockwork at internal steel column

Joint filler

Flat section metal ties with de-bonding sleeves at 450mm vertical centres.

Fig 81. Movement joint at reinforced concrete column

Sealant where required

Flexible ties at Max 300mm vertical centres

Joint filler

Fig 82. Movement joint to blockwork supported on a steel frame with internal pier

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150 Blockwork solutions

Internal and external ďŹ nishes

Internal and external finishes Our range of Aircrete and Aggregate blocks provides a suitable background for the application of most internal and external finishes.

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Blockwork solutions 151

Internal and external finishes

Rendering Concrete blocks provide a durable background for the application of external renders. The constituent materials, and design and method of application of renders on to any background, are described in BS 5262, ‘Code of practice for external renderings’. The recommendations and guidelines of this code should be followed at all times. Materials Sands should comply with the requirements of BS 1199 and BS 1200, ‘Specification of sand from natural sources’. The importance of using properly graded sand cannot be overemphasised, as it will affect the quality and performance of the finished render. For undercoats, the coarsest and sharpest sand that can be conveniently handled should be used. For finish coats, sands with excessive proportions of very fine material should be avoided. Lime should comply with the requirements of BS 890 ‘Specification for building limes’. Only hydrated limes should be used.

Mixes Renders should not be stronger than the background to which they are applied. Similarly, the finishing coat should be weaker than the undercoat. Cement-based mixes are normally specified. Generally mixes containing lime should be used wherever possible as it improves workability and tends to help seal initial hairline cracks that sometimes appear as the render sets. Render mixes should normally consist of a 1:1:6 cement:lime:sand or similar designation (iii) or Class M4 mix – see Table 120. Where stronger mixes are required, their use is only recommended in conjunction with Topcrete dense blockwork.

Table 120: Mix proportions for renders Undercoat

Finishing coat

Mortar strength Class Designation

1:1:6 cement:lime:sand

1:1:6 cement:lime:sand

M4

(iii)

1:6 cement:sand+plasticiser

1:6 cement:sand+plasticiser

M4

(iii)

1:5 masonry cement:sand

1:5 masonry cement:sand

M4

(iii)

Notes All mix proportions are by volume and no allowance has been made for the bulking effect of wet sand

Background preparation Walls should be clean, dry and free from dust, efflorescence and all loose particles. Concrete blocks can normally provide a satisfactory key for rendering but mortar joints should be raked out to enhance this. For the purposes of selecting suitable render (and plaster) mixes, the following background characteristics apply under normal conditions of use. • Durox and Toplite: moderate to high suction, moderate key • Hemelite Standard: moderate suction, good key • Topcrete Standard: low to moderate suction, moderate to good key. In very dry conditions, high rates of initial suction can be experienced, particularly with Durox or Toplite blockwork.

Unless controlled, this may have an adverse effect on hydration and adhesion of the applied finish. Suitable measures to combat this condition include applying water, or a mixture of a suitable bonding agent and water, using a stock brush or fine spray immediately prior to rendering. Under these conditions, work should be carried out on relatively small areas and care should be taken not to saturate the blockwork. The nature of Topcrete dense blocks results in a surface texture that ranges from close to open depending on manufacturing location. As such, the application of cement plasters or renders to close-textured blocks may require an adhesive slurry, SBR bonding agent, spatterdash or stipple coat applied to the block surface prior to the application of the first undercoat.

Proprietary render systems, including renders on external insulation, should be used strictly in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

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152 Blockwork solutions

Internal and external finishes

Rendering (continued) Application Generally, the render should be applied in two coats. The first coat should be trowelled on to a thickness of 8-16mm and scratched. The final coat should be applied to a thickness of about 6–10mm, depending on the texture required. In all cases, successive render coats should not be stronger than the previous coat or the background. One way of achieving this is to ensure that successive coats are appreciably thinner than the previous coat. Three-coat systems may be required for very severe exposure conditions. The undercoat should have a scratched finish and adequate drying time should be allowed between successive render coats. Freshly applied render should be protected from rapid drying out, for example during hot weather. If conditions dictate, both coats should be kept damp for the first few days. When the outer leaf of a cavity wall is constructed in Supabloc or Toplite GTi, it is recommended that a render reinforcement/separating membrane is fixed to the outer leaf. Proprietary anti-crack render systems are available and should be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Alternatively, the specification of the outer leaf should be changed to a higher density aircrete product. In situations where a fully filled cavity is to be used, it is recommended that either Hemelite or Topcrete is used in the outer leaf. It is not recommended to apply render directly to Durox System when it is used as an outer leaf of a cavity wall or a solid external wall. Proprietary external insulation and render systems are available, for further information refer to the Durox System brochure.

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Movement joints It is important that any movement joints that are provided in the blockwork outer leaf are carried through the render finish. Further detail on the requirements for movement joints and bed joint reinforcement can be found in the Design and Detailing section – Movement Control.

Proprietary one coat renders Experience has shown that some proprietary monocouche, through-coloured renders are prone to cracking. We, therefore, recommend that a combination of movement joints and bed joint reinforcement are adopted and that the design, detailing and application guidance provided by the render manufacturer are strictly followed. Some of these render systems incorporate a mesh cloth reinforcement, over the complete facade, within the render. Such renders tend to provide better long term performance.


Blockwork solutions 153

Internal and external finishes

Plastering Concrete blockwork provides a durable background for the application of most types of plaster. In common with all plastering work, regardless of the background material, the advice and recommendations of BS 5492 ‘Code of practice for internal plastering’ should be followed at all times. Materials

Table 121: Internal pre-mixed plasters for use with TBP’s products

Sand aggregate used should comply with the requirements of BS 1199 and BS 1200, ‘Specification for building sands from natural sources’.

Undercoat Finishing coat

It is important that the sand used is suitable, as it will affect the setting time, water demand and behaviour of the finished product. Sand with excessive quantities of very fine material should be avoided. The use of lime-based plasters is encouraged as this will improve the water retentivity, workability and plasticity of the mix. Lime conforming to BS 890, ‘Specification of building limes’ should be used. Where proprietary plasters are being considered, advice on their suitability should be obtained from the plaster manufacturer.

Mixes Plasters may be cement based, or of proprietary gypsum. Some typical mixes, for guidance only, are shown in the table above, and are suitable for use with all TBP products. Cement and gypsum plasters should not be used in the same mix, or allowed to contaminate each other.

Thistle Plaster Finish

Thistle Multi-Finish

1:1:6 cement:lime:sand

P

S

1:6 cement:sand+plasticiser

P

S

1:5 masonry cement:sand

P

S

Thistle Browning*

P

S

Thistle Hardwall

P

S

Thistle Tough Coat

P

S

Thistle Bonding (Topcrete only)

P

S

Notes: * Thistle Browning is not suitable for use with Topcrete P indicates preferred choice relating to the background suction under normal site conditions S indicates also suitable, the background may need dampening if left overnight All mix proportions are by volume and no allowance has been made for the bulking of wet sand. The use of pre-mixed plasters should be carried out in accordance with the plaster manufacturer’s instructions

Background preparation

Application

It is important that surfaces to be plastered should be clean and dry and free of efflorescence and any loose particles.

Apply proprietary plasters in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

All mix proportions are by volume and no allowance has been made for the bulking of wet sand. The use of pre-mixed plasters should be carried out in accordance with the plaster manufacturer’s instructions.

It may be necessary to control the background suction in dry conditions. This can be achieved by applying a fine water spray prior to the application of the plaster. However, the blockwork should not be saturated. Alternatively, a proprietary bonding agent such as Unibond may be used.

Where a cement/sand undercoat is preferred, it should not be stronger than the mix proportions given in Table 121 and will normally be finished with a 2mm lightweight finishing coat.

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154 Blockwork solutions

Internal and external finishes

Plastering (continued) Dry lining

Glazed tiling

Dry lining of blockwork is a popular form of internal finish using gypsum plasterboard.

All tiling work should conform to the recommendations of BS 5385-1 ‘Internal ceramic wall tiling’.

The boards can be fixed to the blockwork using gypsum adhesive dabs. The recommendations of the plasterboard manufacturer should be followed. Insulated dry linings are fixed in a similar manner but require secondary mechanical fixings to maintain the fire integrity of the wall lining. Alternatively, insulation, and ordinary plasterboard, can be fixed to timber battens, or to metal channels that are secured to the blockwork surface using either a mechanical fixing or a gypsum adhesive. Any resulting airspace behind the board will improve the thermal performance of the wall. Where metal channels are used on separating walls with plasterboard linings to enhance the acoustic performance, the channels are often fixed independently from the separating wall. Guidance should be sought from the manufacturer of the channel system. Similarly, where a separating wall is to be constructed with plasterboard dry lining, and in accordance with a Robust Detail, a sand/cement parging coat may be required before the wall is lined. For further details regarding suitable separating wall constructions refer to the Design and Detailing section of this brochure - Acoustic Insulation or the Robust Details handbook. It is a requirement of Approved Document L that new dwellings are post-construction tested for airtightness. In this respect, it is important to seal gaps between the dry lining and masonry walls at openings in the wall and at junctions of walls, floors and ceilings. This may be achieved using continuous bands of plaster or bonding compound. Any service penetration through the dry lining should be adequately sealed to minimise air leakage.

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Tiling onto rendered walls A 10mm render should be applied to the blockwork and allowed to dry for at least two weeks. However, tiling should not commence until the render is thoroughly dry. Hemelite and Topcrete blockwork requires a 1:4 masonry cement:sand render mix and Durox and Toplite require a 1:5 masonry cement:sand mix. Both of these renders are Class M4 or Designation (iii) mixes. In dry areas, the tiles may be fixed using a suitable thin bed adhesive. A suitable water-resistant adhesive and grout are required for tiling in wet areas.

Tiling onto unrendered walls In order to tile directly, walls must be built to a high level of accuracy. The blockwork should be allowed to dry out for at least four weeks before tiling, which may then be applied directly using a thick bed adhesive.

Direct painting Where a good standard of finish is required, it is recommended that the blockwork is built using Hemelite or Topcrete Paint Quality grade blocks. It is recommended that Hemelite and Topcrete Paint Quality block walls are painted as there may be variations in colour and texture depending upon the factory of origin. A range of proprietary paints may be applied to internal blockwork by following the manufacturer’s instructions. For an economical finish, a mist (or sealer) coat and two full coats of trade emulsion paint is recommended. The paint can be applied by using a brush, roller or spray. Coverage will be affected by excessive thinning.


Internal and external ďŹ nishes

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Sustainability Introduction

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Sustainability Introduction

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What sustainability means to us 158 Introduction 160 People 162 Planet 164 Performance 168 Solutions

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Sustainability

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TBP is part of Lafarge Tarmac and as such adopts the sustainability approach of the wider business.

Our new sustainability strategy emphasises the importance of adopting a whole life approach and embedding sustainability into everything we do, from the goods we purchase, our operations and logistics but also the performance of our products in use and their reuse and recycling at the end of their life. Achieving our 2020 milestones will be challenging and it will need the commitment and support of all our employees, contractors, suppliers, customers, communities and investors. I’m confident that we’ll continue to grow and evolve to meet the challenges ahead and I’ll certainly keep you updated on our progress towards the delivery of our commitments.

Cyrille Ragoucy, Chief Executive Officer, Lafarge Tarmac

People

Planet

Performance

Solutions

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Sustainability

People

Commitment ›› Zero harm

Commitment ›› Employer of choice

Commitment ›› Net positive community contribution

Safety and health

Our people

Community involvement

Protecting the safety, health and well-being of our employees, contractors and those around us is the core value of our business. We work in potentially hazardous environments so it’s important that everyone understands how to go about their jobs safely.

We are focused on being an employer of choice by providing a great place to work, with a culture that promotes equal opportunities for all and encourages flexibility and innovation. By fostering a fair culture and a supportive working environment, everyone can feel involved, respected and connected. This is reinforced through frequent, open and honest communication with employees and listening to their views.

Lafarge Tarmac is a large employer, connected to communities in many ways. As an integral and long-standing member of our local communities, our commitment is to make a positive contribution to them. Our operations provide economic benefit through jobs, taxes and the goods and services we buy. We also contribute positively through our involvement in and support of community programmes and local projects, especially those involving education, young people and the environment.

Our role is zero harm to anyone working for, or with, Lafarge Tarmac. Creating a consistent, proactive safety culture through engagement, training and behaviour change, will support us in achieving our goal. We are passionate that all tasks are done safely and through measurement and learning we can continuously improve our performance. Everyone working at Lafarge Tarmac is expected to work in a safe, responsible manner and to challenge unsafe behaviour.

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We want to attract and retain a motivated, talented and diverse workforce and believe this is vital for the long-term success of our business and customers. We aim to enable everyone to realise their full potential through learning, development and progression and our business is committed to supporting young people into the workplace through graduate and apprenticeship programmes.

Conducting our operations in a considerate and responsible way at all times is the basis of being a good neighbour. We will seek to build trust and understanding through open communication, collaboration, listening to positive and challenging feedback and hosting site visits, open days, exhibitions and liaison groups.


Sustainability

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Keeping people safe and healthy is of paramount importance to us. We also recognise that our long-term success depends on our ability to attract and develop a talented and diverse workforce and build strong relationships with our communities.

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â&#x20AC;&#x153;

Sustainability

Our products, services and solutions are needed to build and maintain homes, schools, workplaces, roads and the utility services we all rely on in our daily lives. It is important we meet this demand in a responsible way, by helping to tackle climate change, using resources efficiently and making a positive contribution through the stewardship of our sites.

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Planet

Commitment ›› Design out CO2

Climate change Buildings and infrastructure account for over half of the UK’s greenhouse gas emissions and a target has been set in the Government’s Industrial Strategy Construction 2025 to reduce emissions in the built environment by 50%. As well as reducing the carbon footprint of our products, we provide solutions to help customers design and build more sustainable, low carbon buildings and infrastructure. By using whole life thinking, our solutions can also reduce the need for maintenance and support the re-use and recycling of materials at the end of their life. We have set ourselves tough targets to deliver on our long term commitment to design out CO2 from our products and services. This means raising awareness and changing behaviours within our company and with suppliers, customers and stakeholders. It means investing in energy efficiency, designing for durability, using renewable energy sources like biomass, innovating low carbon products and optimising the distribution of our goods.

Commitment ›› Net positive biodiversity Environmental stewardship With 66,000 acres of land under our stewardship, we recognise our duty to manage these assets responsibly and to ensure positive outcomes for our business, the community and future generations. Every quarry has a restoration plan and by working in collaboration with regulators, wildlife bodies and community groups, we are able to deliver high quality restoration, while promoting biodiversity and respecting archaeological heritage. By working with stakeholders and local government, our sites are often returned to their original use but where circumstances allow, we create nature reserves, wetland habitats or the land might be returned to the community for amenity or recreational use. In other circumstances, our sites may be used to support local jobs through industrial or retail use or to provide much needed housing.

Commitment ›› Contribute to ‘circular’ economy Resource efficiency We have an important role to play in meeting society’s demand for our products, services and solutions, while ensuring that our resources are used in the most efficient and sustainable way. To do this, we have adopted the concept of the circular economy which focuses on designing out waste from every stage of the product life cycle and extending its useful life. Our strategy to accelerate the transition to a circular economy means eliminating waste from our operations, recycling materials from other industries (as raw materials and fuels) and developing sustainable opportunities to conserve water. We will also support the transition by extending the life of the things built with our products through enhanced durability, designing for re-use and facilitating recycling into new products.

Guided by our Biodiversity Management Plans, opportunities to support, enhance and create local biodiversity are taken throughout the operational life of a site, as well as during restoration. www.tarmacbuildingproducts.co.uk


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Sustainability

Performance

Commitment ›› Sustainable value

Commitment ›› Ethical standards

Commitment ›› Communicate openly

Economic value

Governance and ethics

Communication

Financial success is essential for operating a sustainable business, one that can continue to invest in employees, low carbon technologies, a more energy efficient plant and product innovation. Creating economic value enables our business to fulfil its responsibilities to customers, employees, suppliers, communities, authorities and investors.

A strong culture of corporate governance, compliance and business ethics is essential to operate a sustainable, successful business. Lafarge Tarmac works to leading international corporate governance standards and we conduct our business dealings in a transparent and accountable way. Acting with trust, integrity and honesty are integral to the way we do business and we expect everyone working with or for our business to uphold the highest ethical and professional standards at all times.

It is important that our many stakeholders understand and feel informed about our business and the contribution it makes through clear, concise and accurate communication. We will do this by using a wide range of internal and external channels, including social media.

We create economic value by providing direct employment and work for contractors, by purchasing goods and services and through the taxes we contribute. The homes, workplaces and infrastructure produced using our products also create economic value for society. Our vision focuses our business on contributing further to this by innovating new construction solutions to help our customers build more sustainably, efficiently and profitably.

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At Lafarge Tarmac, nothing is more important than doing the right thing. Compliance with the law is a basic principle underlying all our policies. All employees and those acting on our behalf are appropriately trained and expected to embrace our values, behaviours, policies and work in a professional and ethical way. We have a robust reporting structure, with risk management assessments, audit and reporting to ensure compliance.

When reporting on sustainability, we will align with good practice reporting guidelines such as the Global Reporting Initiative. We will regularly report and provide updates on our progress towards meeting our sustainability strategy, our key priorities and our targets. We will also ensure up-to-date sustainability performance information is available for independent review and verification, as required.


Sustainability

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By transforming our business into a sustainable construction solutions provider and upholding the highest standards of governance and ethics, we can create the best value for our customers, employees,communities and investors.

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Sustainability

We adopt a whole life approach to provide innovative construction products, services and solutions that support our customersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; needs and contribute positively to the development of sustainable communities and a low carbon built environment.

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Sustainability

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Solutions

Commitment ›› Responsible procurement Sustainable supply chain Lafarge Tarmac spends over £1.5 billion each year on products and services, so it is important to ensure they are sourced, manufactured and traded legally, ethically and with careful consideration of their environmental, social and economic impacts. Our supply chain is essential in supporting the delivery of our ambitious sustainability targets. We therefore seek to form close partnerships with trusted companies that operate in a way consistent with our values, are committed to continuous improvement and will support us in delivering our goals. Our commitment to responsibly procure all our goods and services and to monitor performance through independent audit and certification helps us to minimise supply chain risk for our customers and their clients and meet their demand for responsibly sourced products.

Commitment ›› Innovation and quality

Commitment ›› Sustainable construction

Develop next-generation sustainable solutions

Enable sustainability through innovation

Meeting our customers’ needs for product innovation and quality are the cornerstones of our business. It’s why our customers rely on us and trust us with their projects. Our company focus is therefore aimed at developing innovative products and solutions that add value and enhance whole life sustainability performance. Our research orientation is driven by customers’ needs.

Our approach to construction encompasses innovative sustainable products, efficient building systems and practical solutions. We recognise the important role we have in promoting sustainable construction by optimising our products, their use and whole life performance. We make an important contribution to a better built environment through the provision of systems, solutions and guidance for the materials we provide.

Understanding how customers use our products and anticipating their future needs, enables us to develop innovative, high performance solutions. Lafarge Tarmac operates robust quality management systems to ensure product performance and offers expert technical knowledge and support to help our customers select and use the best solution for their project.

Sustainable construction considers issues such as building design, the responsible sourcing of materials, material technology and performance benefits, processes and methods of construction, energy and resource efficiency, Building Information Modelling (BIM) and the long term operation and maintenance of the built environment. By providing sustainable construction materials, systems, solutions and guidance to optimise the use and whole life performance of our products we are able to support our customers in delivering a positive contribution to a sustainable built environment.

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Safety and sitework

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Safety and sitework

Blockwork solutions 169

Safety and sitework Safety 170 Health and safety 175 CDM

Block identification and sizes 186 Durox 190 Toplite

Sitework

192 Hemelite

177 Mortar and materials

193 Topcrete

182 Durox System 184 Fixings 194 SafetyDeck www.tarmacbuildingproducts.co.uk


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Safety and sitework

Safety Increased awareness of Health and Safety issues has focused attention on building materials, including consideration of manual handling. The over-riding need is to ensure a safe environment and good working conditions for the construction team.

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Safety and sitework

Regulations and guidance Two items of legislation are relevant to the manual handling of blocks: • Manual Handling Operations Regulations (1992), placed duties on employers to carry out a risk assessment on all manual handling tasks • Construction (Design and Management) Regulations (2007), imposes mandatory Health and Safety requirements on clients, designers and contractors.

Design considerations Health and Safety Executive (HSE) Construction Sheet 37 ‘Handling Building Blocks’ gives guidance on meeting the requirements of those regulations. It advises there is a high risk of injury in the single-person repetitive handling of units heavier than 20kg. Units heavier than 20kg should be handled mechanically or by two man teams. Single-person handling of a small number of heavier units ,such as quoins and reveal blocks, is not identified as posing a high risk of injury.

Table 122: Aggregate blocks (alternative to full width blocks exceeding 20kg) Wall Width

Material

Block or Construction Solution

140mm

Hemelite

140mm Hemelite solid (3.6 or 7.3N/mm2) 140mm Hemelite cellular (3.6N/mm2 only)

Topcrete

140mm Topcrete Midi (7.3, 10.4, 17.5 or 22.5N/mm2) 140mm cellular, cellular Multicore or hollow (3.6 or 7.3N/mm2)

Hemelite

2x90mm Hemelite solid, collar jointed (3.6 or 7.3N/mm2)

Topcrete

190mm Topcrete RPW (7.3N/mm2 only) 2x90mm Topcrete solid, collar jointed (7.3N/mm2 only)

Hemelite

100mm Hemelite solid, units laid flat (3.6, 7.3 or 10.4N/mm2) 140mm Hemelite solid, units laid flat (3.6 or 7.3N/mm2) 2x100mm Hemelite solid, collar jointed (3.6, 7.3 or 10.4N/mm2)

Topcrete

100mm Topcrete solid, units laid flat (7.3, 10.4 or 22.5N/mm2) 2x100mm Topcrete solid, collar jointed (7.3, 10.4, 17.5 or 22.5N/mm2)

190mm

215mm

Blockwork solutions 171

Notes • The availability of products should be checked with the TBP’s sales office. The above list is not exhaustive – please discuss your project requirements with our Technical Services team • Refer to the product brochures for the technical specification of each product, or consult Technical Services for advice • Wall constructions consisting of hollow blocks, cellular block, solid blocks laid flat or of collar jointed blockwork, will have a characteristic compressive strength slightly less than an equivalent thickness of wall built using solid blockwork (see pages 88 and 89). The use of these forms of construction should therefore be subject to the approval of the project engineer

The extensive range of products from TBP ensures the maximum choice possible in the specification of building blocks for any construction project.

Hemelite or Topcrete aggregate blocks It is possible to design with Hemelite and Topcrete aggregate blocks to satisfy the essential technical requirements for a project, using units meeting recommended handling guidelines. In some cases, regular blocks can be laid flat, or constructed back to back, to achieve the required wall width. In other cases purpose-designed blocks such as the Midi or RPW block can be specified safe in the knowledge that their design encompasses the manual handling requirements. Table 122 provides the core solutions for using Hemelite and Topcrete, using units that fall within the guidance given in Construction Sheet 37. Using blocks in different aspect ratios will affect the characteristic compressive strength (fk) of the blockwork. To aid designers in their assessment values that are applicable to the entire range of our products is given in the Structural Design section of this Guide, pages 86-93.

Durox or Toplite aircrete blocks Aircrete is an inherently lightweight material which ensures that the majority of Durox and Toplite aircrete blocks in 100-215mm widths fall within the guidance for single-person repetitive handling. Foundation blocks are available in a range of widths from 275mm to 300mm. Some of these sizes at 215mm coursing height will exceed the nominal 20kg guidance. The Durox Foundation and Foundation 7 blocks are available in a 310 x 215 ht x 350mm format which can be laid in either the 310 or 350mm direction. These blocks are under the 20kg manual handling guide. The designer should refer to the relevant product brochures for approximate unit weights of specific products.

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172 Blockwork solutions

Health and safety

Health and safety Full details of recommendations for the safe use of our products are given in the TBP Health and Safety Data Sheet.

Site handling

Site practice

Handling by crane

Good site practice requires planning and this is a management responsibility.

Do not lift packs of blocks over the workforce when using crane off-load vehicles and low level cranes. Packs to be raised by tower crane and high level crane should be netted or placed in cages before lifting.

Packaging TBP offers a range of packaging options to suit individual site requirements.

By doing so, the efficient and safe use of our products from receipt of delivery to installation should be ensured. The following points form part of best site practice:

Site organisation:

Block laying: • Use eye protection whilst cutting the banding on packs • Ensure blocks do not fall when packaging is removed • Load blocks out to above knee height • Handle blocks close to the body • Raise scaffolding to keep blockwork below shoulder height

• Packs on pallets

• Minimise manual handling by delivering units as close to the point of laying as safety considerations permit

• Raise mortar spot boards to a convenient working height to avoid bending

• Packs with voids for fork-lift handling (not available for Paint Quality products)

• Move blocks in packs and by mechanical means wherever possible

• Use eye protection and dust suppression or extraction measures when cutting

• Packs for handling by grab

• Store blocks on a clean, level and firm base clear of standing water

• Durox and Toplite are shrink wrapped • Hemelite and Topcrete cam be shrink wrapped on request at additional cost.

• Avoid stacking blocks above head height, unless they are to be moved by mechanical means • Provide protective equipment – including safety helmets, safety footwear and suitable gloves – and ensure it is used • Ensure the blocklayer’s work area is clear of obstruction and properly organised.

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Health and safety

Health and Safety data The following information is provided by TBP under the Control of Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSSH) and the Consumer Protection Act which require that we provide the relevant information regarding our products in respect of their properties, correct us, storage/handling and disposal without risk to health. The following information is a summary of the main points considered in our Safety Data Sheet SD1.01, a copy of which is available on request.

Supplier TBP Ltd.

Table 123: TBP products and composition Material

Brand

Product names

Composition

Autoclaved Aerated concrete (Aircrete) blocks

Durox

Supabloc, Supabloc 4, 7 , and 8, Foundation blocks, Floor blocks, Coursing bricks, System 500, 600 & 700 blocks

Sand, Cement, Lime Anhydrite, Paper Ash, Aluminium powder and water

Toplite

Toplite, Toplite Standard, Toplite 7, Foundation blocks and Coursing bricks

Aggregate blocks

Hemelite

Hemelite Standard, Hemelite Paint Quality, Foundation blocks and Coursing bricks

Cement, Lime, Sand and aggregates

Dense concrete blocks

Topcrete

Topcrete Standard, Topcrete Paint Quality, Foundation blocks and Coursing bricks

Cement, Lime, Sand and aggregates

Applications TBP’s range of aircrete and aggregate blocks is manufactured for use in the building and construction industry in various sizes, densities and strengths. They should be used in accordance with TBP’s technical literature and national standards and codes of practice.

First aid measures

Handling and storage

In normal use the routes to exposure would be as follows:

Please refer to the relevant section in the Construction Design and Management (CDM) regulations section.

Health hazards

Remove to fresh air

Inhalation (dust)

These products are not classified as hazardous when used correctly for their intended purpose and provided good standards of building practice are followed. The main hazards in use are:

Eye contact (dust)

Eye contact

Wash with soap and water, apply a sterile dressing.

If dust is generated, dust will cause irritation and discomfort by abrasion, as with ‘grit in eye’.

Skin contact Prolonged or repeat contact with dust or rough surfaces may cause dryness and abrade the skin.

Manual handling Blocks may vary in weight and size. Assess manual handling risk to minimise injury. Poor posture when bending or twisting may cause strain.

Irrigate with plenty of water, seek medical attention if symptoms persist.

Skin contact

Ingestion Not applicable.

Firefighting measures The products are non-combustible and inhibit the spread of flame. No special firefighting procedure, extinguishing media or explosion hazard is identified.

Exposure controls and personal protection Airborne dust may be generated when the blocks are mechanically worked i.e. cutting and grinding. The following Workplace Exposure Limits (WEL) for airborne dust are given in the HSE Guidance Note EH40 for reference. Under normal use dust will not be generated. However, where the user generates large volumes of dust there should be process enclosure, local exhaust ventilation or other means to keep the dust below the recommended exposure limits.

Table 124: recommended exposure limits

Accidental release measures There are no known environmental hazards. Block waste can be recycled or disposed of with normal builders waste in accordance with local authority regulations. If dust is created, it should be cleaned up using a vacuum system fitted with a HEPA (High efficiency particulate air) filter. Minimise the generation of dust by dampening down with water and avoid sweeping as this creates dust.

Workplace Time Exposure Weighted Limit (WEL) Average (TWA)

Total dust

10mg/m3

8 Hrs

Respirable dust

4mg/m

8 Hrs

Crystalline Silica (Respirable)

0.1mg/m3

8 Hrs

3

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Health and safety

Health and Safety (continued) Individual protection measures As the material may have a rough surface texture, and loose particles and dust may arise due to handling, appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) should be used by all persons involved in the operations.

Occupational hygiene Avoid inhalation if large volumes of dust are generated or contact with skin and eyes. General occupational hygiene measures are required to ensure safe handling of the product. These measures involve good personal and housekeeping practices (i.e. regular cleaning with suitable cleaning devices), no drinking, eating and smoking at the workplace.

Disposal considerations Any surplus material or packaging should be disposed of via an authorised waste contractor in accordance with local authority regulations.

Other information The information given above does not constitute or serve as a substitute for the userâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s own risk assessment when using this product in the workplace. It is the purchaserâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s responsibility to ensure the information given above is made available to anyone in their employ who will handle or use this product. Copies of our full Safety Data Sheet SDS 1.01 are available on request. There is a higher risk of injury when singlehanded, repetitive lifting involves units with a weight exceeding 20kg. Table 122 on page 171 gives some alternative wall construction to avoid the use of heavy blocks. Where units exceeding 20kg are required lifting by mechanical means should be used.

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Table 125: Health and Safety symbols Eye/face protection:

If dust is generated, wear safety glasses or goggles.

Skin protection:

Wear gloves to avoid prolonged skin exposure if physically handling the product to avoid abrasion and provide grip on the block when handling.

Respiratory protection:

Wear suitable respiratory protection equipment when mechanical treatment (i.e. cutting, grinding or surface treatment if exposure to atmospheric dust levels above the workplace exposure standard is likely.) Use approved dust respirators to EN149 category FFP3, or air-stream helmet for heavy exposure.


Health and safety

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Construction (design and management) regulations The following information is provided to allow all individuals who can contribute to the Health and Safety of a construction project to discharge their responsibilities. In all forms of construction works (commercial, domestic, industrial etc.) particular attention should be paid to: • Site clearance • New build, alteration, conversion and fit out • Renovation and repair • Maintenance • Demolition All TBP blocks are delivered by road transport for which suitable access and egress should be available.

Block weights The Construction Industry Advisory Committee (CONIAC) advises that the manual handling of heavy blocks may cause injury. The heavier the block, the greater the risk of injury. Research conducted by CONIAC concluded that there is a higher risk of injury when single-handed, repetitive lifting involves units with a weight exceeding 20kg. Table 122 on page 171 gives some alternative wall construction to avoid the use of heavy blocks. Units exceeding 20kg require lifting by mechanical means.

Storage

Handling

• Blocks should remain in the packs until required and covered to prevent moisture ingress from rain.

• Where possible, use appropriate engineering controls and work practices to minimise dust generation if cutting, sawing or grinding. Where dust occurs, use suitable respiratory protection

• When manually handling blocks, to prevent the risk of injury from loose blocks falling or manual handling risks, avoid stacking packs of blocks above normal head height.

• When handling, regard should be paid to the risks outlined in the latest Manual Handling Operations Regulations

• When lifted by grab, crane or fork truck, no personnel should be permitted beneath the load or in close proximity to moving vehicles.

• Where blocks are banded or strapped, take care to avoid injury as band tension is released and beware of loose blocks falling from the pack

• When vehicles are offloading, any overhead power lines or cables should be isolated or otherwise adequately protected.

• Suitable gloves should be worn to prevent skin abrasion which could be caused by the rough edges of the blocks. Suitable head and foot protection should be worn where there’s a risk of products falling from a height

• All block packs (palletised or not) should always be stacked on a clean, firm, level base to avoid collapse and clear of standing water. • Palletised product should be stacked, using the pallets supplied, no more than three packs high. The pallet for the second and third pack must be positioned such that the load bearers are supported by the pack below. The lower tie slats must also be supported by the pack below. • Where customer’s own supply pallets are used it is strongly recommended that packs are only stored one high. • Un-palletised packs should not be stacked more than three high. Packs must be positioned such that all blocks in the lowest layer, of the higher pack, are supported by the top layer of the pack below. • Ensure suitable stack heights are maintained according to ground conditions – reduce stack heights where conditions are deemed unsuitable.

• Blocks should be stacked close to the place they will be used, with handling kept to a minimum and with access to all sides of the stack • Blocks should remain in the packs until required and covered to prevent moisture ingress from rain • Always ensure that the landing area of scaffolding is adequate for the temporary loading of blocks • Avoid over-reaching or twisting and ensure good grip and secure foot placement in the working area when handling blocks • If blocks are to be carried, avoid obstacles or tripping hazards and uneven, slippery or unstable ground conditions • Take particular care or avoid using the type of wall ties that have exposed sharp edges

• Reduce stacking height to no more than two packs where packs are positioned near pedestrian access routes.

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Sitework

Sitework The following pages offer guidance on the selection and mixing of mortar, laying out and working with blocks, and various other aspects of sitework.

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Sitework

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Mortar, fixings and materials Mortars The designer should specify the mortar. Detailed guidance on the selection of mortars is given in BS 5628-3 and BS 8000-3. The following mixes are for general guidance only. Stronger mixes, which may be required for structural reasons, are not recommended for use with our aircrete products. All mix proportions are given by volume. The sand should conform to BS 1200. Factory-produced mortars or carefully gauged site-mixed mortars should be used.

Wall ties Use wire butterfly or double triangle ties complying with BS 1243, or other ties complying with DD140-2 at the density and positioning required by the Building Regulations and BS 5628-1 and 3. The use of vertical twist ties should generally be avoided when using aircrete blocks unless the cavity width exceeds 75mm.

Table 126: Recommended mortar mixes Mortar type

Proportions by volume

mortar strength Class

Designation

Application

Cement: lime: sand

1:1:5 to 6

M4

(iii)

Above d.p.c

Cement: sand with or without air entertainer

1:5 to 6

M4

(iii)

Above d.p.c

Masonry cement: sand

1:4 to 5

M4

(iii)

Above d.p.c

Cement: lime: sand

1:1/2:4 to 41/2

M6

(ii)

Below d.p.c

Durox Thin joint mortar*

-

M12

(i)

Above d.p.c

* Only for use with Durox System blocks Note: Where the sand proportion is given as, for example, 5 to 6, the lower figure should be used with sands containing a high proportion of fines whilst the high figure should be used with sands containing a lower proportion of fines.

For separating walls, butterfly ties or ties conforming with Type A as specified in Approved Document E, or the Robust Details handbook should be used.

Cavity insulation Durox, Toplite, Hemelite and Topcrete products are compatible with commonly available insulation materials. Such products should be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Examples of the U-values that can be achieved using TBPs blocks and a range of insulation materials can be found in the Product sections or in the Design and Detailing section – Thermal Insulation, pages 94-123.

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Sitework

Mortar, fixings and materials (continued) Laying blocks

290mm Hemelite 300mm Topcrete

Detailed requirements for laying blocks are given in BS 5628-3 and BS 8000-3. The principal points applicable to all types of blocks are: • Protect blocks from rain. Blocks should not be wetted before laying. Where necessary, adjust the consistency of the mortar to suit the suction rate of the blocks • Set out the blockwork to maintain a regular bond pattern, with a minimum bond of 1/4 of a block but in no case less than 75mm. Similarly, blockwork should be coursed to provide a full block under lintel bearings whenever possible • Lay cellular blocks with the closed bedding face uppermost to provide support for the next bed of mortar • Fill all mortar joints as work proceeds

Filled joints

Fig 82. Corner bonding of Hemelite and Topcrete Foundation walls • Use coursing bricks of the same material as the main wall in small areas such as in-filling between beams and joists or to complete coursing heights

• Shell bedding of hollow blocks should only be used with the designer’s permission

• Coursing bricks are available for use with our aircrete and aggregate products

• Do not rake back the corners and other advanced work higher than 1.2m above the general level

Walls built fair or directly painted

• Do not build any blockwork more than 1.5m high in one day unless using Durox System (thin jointed blockwork)

A number of TBP’s products may be used in these situations – these are Hemelite and Topcrete Paint Quality.

• Remove excess mortar cleanly as the work proceeds

In these situations, a good standard of finish is required without creating excessive wastage.

• Tool the mortar joints to the required profile when thumbprint hard

The following points should be followed for the best results:

• Ensure proper curing of the mortar by protecting new walling against rapid drying using damp hessian and/or polythene sheeting in windy or hot weather

• A sample panel of randomly selected units should be constructed so that the standard of workmanship and joint finish can be agreed

• Protect work against rain and frost until the mortar is fully cured

• This will also serve to allow variations in surface texture and colour to be assessed

• Lay Durox, Toplite, Hemelite and Topcrete Foundation blocks on a mortar bed starting from the strip footings with mortar joints of approximately 10mm

• These blocks are intended to have a painted finish. If left un-decorated, the finish should be agreed at the sample panel stage

• For Hemelite and Topcrete Foundation blocks, form corner bonding according to the diagrams shown in Fig 82

Technical services: 0870 242 1489

255mm Hemelite 275mm Topcrete

Cut blocks

As some variation in surface texture, and possibly colour, can occur, the quality of the finish prior to painting should be assessed at a distance of 3m from the wall in good natural light conditions

Cut blocks

• Arrange the work to avoid multiple handling of the product. Where appropriate handle blocks in packs by mechanical means, taking care to avoid damaging the units • Walling should be designed to minimise block cutting and set out to maintain the specified bond pattern • Do not build damaged blocks into the wall • Ensure all joints are consistent in width and profile with perpends in vertical alignment • The joint profile should be selected to take account of the required appearance and, if applicable, exposure conditions. For internal work a concave (bucket handle) joint is recommended • When 190–215mm wide solid walls are required to be built fair on both sides, a double-leaf wall comprising two leaves of 90 or 100mm blocks laid back to-back and suitably tied should be considered. (The term double-leaf wall is also known as collar jointed wall.) • The use of 100 or 140mm wide Paint Quality blocks, laid flat to give a 215mm wall width, will not achieve the same surface finish compared to when the blocks are laid in their normal aspect.


Sitework

Blockwork solutions 179

Bed joint reinforcement When specified, embed reinforcement in the mortar to provide a full even bed. The reinforcement should be kept at least 20mm from external and internal mortar faces. Reinforcement should be lapped a minimum of 225mm in length and fully lapped at corners. A proprietary nylon mesh is available for use with Durox System; for further details of this product refer to the System brochure or contact our Technical Services Department.

Cutting Durox or Toplite aircrete blocks When being laid in conventional mortar, these blocks may be cut with a hammer and bolster. The use of a handsaw, however, will significantly reduce site wastage. For Durox System (thin joint blockwork) either a handsaw or a mechanical saw must be used. Coursing bricks are available for both products, greatly reducing the need for cutting and avoiding thermal bridging.

Hemelite or Topcrete aggregate blocks

Fig 83. Double-leaf (collar jointed) wall

Reinforcement

Blocks can be cut with a hammer and bolster, but mechanical cutting with a hydraulic block splitter or power-driven saw is recommended as it improves the quality of the finished blockwork and reduces waste. When blocks are wet cut they should be allowed to dry before being built into the wall. Packs of hollow and cellular blocks, of 140mm width and above, include a proportion of blocks with pre-formed slots to facilitate the cutting of half length units. Coursing bricks are available for both products, greatly reducing on-site cutting and waste.

Collar joint

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180 Blockwork solutions

Sitework

Mortar, fixings and materials (continued) Chasing The depth of chases must be limited. Vertical chases must not exceed one third, and horizontal chases one sixth, of the wall thickness. Avoid placing electrical sockets and chases back-to-back. Walls built in Durox or Toplite aircrete blockwork can be chased using wood chisels or similar hand tools. Walls built in Hemelite or Topcrete aggregate blockwork must be carefully chased using a rotary chasing machine or mechanical disc cutter. A batten may be used as a temporary guide. Avoid the use of heavy impact tools, as the blows may fracture joints and jeopardise the stability of the walling. If hollow and cellular units are to be chased, care should be taken to maintain the structural integrity of the wall. The use of hollow blocks enables services to be concealed within the walling without the need to cut chases; this can be a very cost-effective solution.

Table 127: Recommended mortar mixes Description

Size (mm)

Span (mm)

Location

Beam and block floors

Aircrete products

A number of TBP’s products are suitable for use in beam and block floors see Table 127 for details. The respective product brochure should be consulted for the technical specification, although a summary is given below.

Durox Floor

620 x 530 x 100

530 or 620

Between beams

Durox Supabloc

620 x 215 x 100

215 only

Between beams

Durox Coursing slip

215 x 100 x 40

-

Flanking wall & beam ends

Toplite Floor

440 x 535 x 100

535 or 440

Between beams

Toplite Standard

440 x 215 x 100

215 only

Between beams

Toplite Coursing brick

215 x 100 x 65

-

Flanking wall & beam ends

Hemelite Standard *

440 x 215 x 100

440 or 215

Between beams

Topcrete Standard

440 x 215 x 100

440 or 215

Between beams

Block types Hemelite Standard solid blocks at 3.6N/mm2 (flooring grade) or 7.3N/mm2 and Topcrete Standard solid or cellular blocks at 7.3N/mm2 with a face size of 440mm x 215mm will usually be laid across the beams in their 440mm dimension, but may also span 215mm where the floor loading dictates. Durox and Toplite Floor blocks have been specifically designed to provide economies through longer clear spans and increased beam spacing. Durox Floor blocks are manufactured at a face size of 530mm x 620mm and may be laid to span across either dimension. Cutting individual blocks with a block saw or splitter can accommodate non-standard spacing.

Technical services: 0870 242 1489

Aggregate products

*Hemelite Standard Flooring grade if 3.6 N/mm2 compressive strength block selected.

Alternatively where the beam layout requires a 215mm wide block or less, a 620mm x 100mm x 215mm Durox Supabloc should be used. 40mm Durox Coursing slips are available to in-fill the void at the beam bearings or to maintain the coursing where the floor blocks span directly on to the inner leaf.

Toplite Floor blocks are produced in a face size of 535 x 440mm, and may be laid to span in either direction. Toplite Coursing bricks are also available for in-filling at the beam ends.


Sitework

Where a closer beam spacing is required, either a 620 x 100 x 215mm Durox Supabloc or a 440 x 100 x 440mm Toplite Standard may be used provided the blocks are laid to span between the beams in the 215mm direction. Precast concrete floor beams should be stored and installed in accordance with the beam manufacturer’s instructions. When laying out the beams, a block should be laid at each bearing to achieve the correct spacing. The complete joist layout can then be ‘tightened’ to ensure that the remaining blocks can be laid. Before grouting, the floor should be swept to remove any debris and then wetted to promote an effective seal. The grout should be a 1:4 cement/coarse sand mix, which must be well brushed into the joints to provide a monolithic construction.

The grout must not be a slurry that only coats the blocks – it is important that any gaps between the blocks or the blocks and the beams are fully filled with grout. A correctly applied grout will considerably improve the temporary performance of the floor prior to the finishes being laid. Services passing through the floor may be accommodated by leaving out a whole block, or by inserting part blocks that have been fully cut across their width. In-situ concrete may be used for some small areas of in-filling. Care must be taken to ensure that the floor is not overloaded during the subsequent construction. For temporary storage, materials should be placed on scaffold boards or suitable decking, which can be laid across the beams.

Blockwork solutions 181

These materials should be located as close to the beam bearings as practical. Barrow runs should be formed in the same manner. Partitions may be supported directly off the floor, provided they have been allowed for in the beam design layout. Ventilation of the void beneath the floor should meet the requirements of the Building Regulations Approved Document C (4). Proprietary stepped ventilators may be used and positioned to ensure through draughts to avoid pockets of ‘dead’ air. Where any of the TBP floor blocks are used in a situation where a high point load is anticipated, such as domestic garages, a reinforced structural topping should be used.

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182 Blockwork solutions

Sitework

Durox System is a flexible building technique that allows walls to be built more quickly than using conventional mortar. Durox System is a flexible building technique that allows walls to be built more quickly than using conventional mortar. The use of a rapid-setting proprietary thin joint mortar allows the blockwork to be built in advance of the brickwork, and in the case of housing means the roof can be installed and made weathertight at a much earlier stage. Durox System may be used in both housing and commercial buildings as the inner leaf of cavity walls, solid external walls, separating walls and for internal loadbearing and nonloadbearing partitions. These blocks are available in three grades, System 500, 600 and 700, all of which are manufactured to exacting dimensional tolerances. These products are manufactured in coursing heights of 214mm and 299mm and in a range of thicknesses. For a full technical specification, size, availability and detailed guidance on the design and applications of these blocks, refer to the Durox System brochure.

Thin joint mortar TBP has specifically developed Durox Thin Joint Mortar for use with Durox System blocks. It is normally supplied in 25kg bags and is a dry packed, 1:3 blended mix of cement/sand, containing admixtures to aid workability and water retention. The bags are moisture resistant and as with all cementitious materials, they should be stored in a dry environment. The mortar should be mixed in a suitable container using a powered whisk to achieve a creamy consistency. A full bag of mortar should be poured onto and fully mixed with 5.0–6.0 litres of clean water. There is no requirement for admixtures as these are already incorporated in the dry mix. Small batches of mortar may be mixed by hand trowel in a standard builder’s bucket, adding a reduced amount of water. The consumption of mortar is dependent on the coursing height and width of Durox System blocks being used. For guidance, the consumption rates are shown in Table 127, page 180, which is based on a 3mm mortar joint thickness.

Technical services: 0870 242 1489

The mixed mortar will stay workable for around four hours, depending upon the ambient conditions on site and, as with any mortar, it should not be re-tempered by adding additional water. Once the mortar is applied to the bedding faces of the blocks it will remain workable for 6-9 minutes, allowing time for the blocks to be placed in their final position. Within a further 10 minutes the mortar will set. At this point the blockwork becomes very stable, enabling storey height lifts to be built without compression of the mortar joints.

Mortar application The mortar is spread on the blocks using a serrated applicator. The purpose of this tool is to lay the mortar on the bedding surface in a series of ribbons, similar to the process of applying tiling adhesive, which controls the amount of mortar, giving a consistent bed depth. This not only ensures that the joints are fully filled, but means that less levelling of individual blocks is required.

Cold weather working As with all cementitious mortars, Durox Thin Joint Mortar should only be used when the outside air temperature is 3°C and rising. However, TBP has developed a cold weather additive for use when the air temperature is between 1 and 5°C. Supplied in 500g bags, the additive is

mixed in with the Thin Joint Mortar as necessary. Some additional water and mixing time may be required to achieve the right consistency of the mortar. For further details contact our Technical team.

Cutting blocks Normally, it is only necessary to cut blocks vertically in order to maintain the bonding at corners and around openings. To maintain the required accuracy of perpend, blocks should be cut square using either a handsaw, electric alligator saw, bench saw or a band saw, depending on which is most suited to the project in question. The off-cuts from blocks should be put to one side as they can often be reused when a smaller cut is required, helping to reduce wastage. In all cases, the operatives must use the correct personal protective equipment (PPE) when using cutting equipment.

Wall ties As the bed joints in the blockwork do not coincide with those in the outer leaf of brickwork, conventional wall ties cannot be used with Durox System. A range of wall ties is available that can be face fixed into the blocks and embedded into the brickwork in the normal way. These ties are driven directly into the blockwork, or fixed with expanding nylon anchors, as the


Blockwork solutions 183

Sitework

brickwork proceeds. The wall ties are positioned at nominal centres, depending upon site conditions, i.e. to give a tie density of 2.5 ties/m2 based upon the coursing height of the blocks. At free edges, such as openings or movement joints, ties should be positioned at a maximum of 300mm centres. Where partial fill cavity insulation is built into the cavity, plastic retaining clips should be used.

Movement control mesh The use of movement control mesh or bed joint reinforcement is an integral part of thin joint blockwork. Its purpose is to compensate for the strength of the mortar and distribute any movement stresses that may build up within the blockwork. In recent years, nylon mesh has become a popular material for this purpose, as it is more cost effective and easier to use on site than traditional steel reinforcement. It is a large, open-weave mesh, which is laid on the bed joint prior to placing the blocks.

Movement ties In long runs of blockwork, with or without openings, it will be appropriate to introduce vertical movement joints. These joints are formed in the same way as those used in conventional brick and blockwork. Stainless steel ‘in line’ movement ties are inserted across the joints at every block course and the joint is filled with a suitable material.

Abutment ties Short runs of blockwork and internal partitions can often be butt jointed. This means that the inner leaf can be built without bonding in partitions, leaving the area clear for access. An ‘abutment’ tie is face fixed to one wall and embedded into the bed joints of the other.

Installing Durox System To avoid having to make a horizontal cut all round the building, typically at the bearing of built-in joists or to the underside of floor slabs, a combination of block heights may be used. Usually, the first course of blocks, at DPC level, will be 214mm or 299mm in height and be bedded in conventional mortar and adjusted to the required level. The subsequent courses may be either 214mm or 299mm coursing height, or 214mm in the case of solid walls, with 3mm bed joints, finishing at the bearing height for the joists or floor. It should be noted that where floor joists are spanning onto separating walls, care should be taken to ensure that the acoustic performance of the wall is not impaired. In the case of joist hangers the blockwork will be coursed to coincide with the underside of the hanger support.

If split courses are genuinely unavoidable, then cut courses should be introduced at either the base course or wall plate course where any discrepancies arising from the cuts can be accommodated in the conventional mortar beds.

Table 128: Consumption rates of mortar per 25 kg* bag of mortar m2 of walling built per width (mm) of blocks Coursing height (mm)

100

200

214

8.3

3.9

299

10.5

Notes * Excludes any allowance for wastage

The blockwork to subsequent floors should be coursed in a similar manner. At eaves level, the wall plate should be bedded in conventional mortar, as is normal practice.

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184 Blockwork solutions

Sitework

Typical aircrete fixings Fig 84. Lightweight

General notes There are numerous fixings available for use with masonry. The most commonly accepted generalpurpose fixings are suitable for use with all TBP products. Details of typical pullout resistances for the main types of fixings can be supplied. However, for specialist applications, consult the Technical Services Department of the fixing manufacturer for advice. For general guidance the following fixings may be used:

Mediumweight

Hemelite or Topcrete aggregate blocks These products provide an excellent background and good pull-out strength for most types of fixings, enabling heavy equipment to be supported without difficulty. The fixing strength is determined by the diameter, size and type of fixing. Hemelite blocks can be nailed directly with masonry nails.

Heavyweight

Fixings and technical advice can be obtained from a number of reputable suppliers. Some are listed below.

Loden Anchors Tackburn Ltd, 22 Pebworth Close, Redditch, B98 8LG Tel: 01527 68559 www.tackburn.co.uk

Fischer Plugs

Strong fixings can be obtained using screws with plastic plugs.

Artur Fischer (UK) Ltd, Hithercroft Road Wallingford, Oxon, OX10 9AT Tel: 01491 827920 www.fischer.co.uk

Durox or Toplite aircrete blocks

Fixing into all types of blockwork

Helix

Most of the commonly accepted generalpurpose fixings are suitable for use in our aircrete products along with those that are specifically manufactured to complement this type of blockwork. These range from direct nail fixings through to those that require a pre-drilled pilot hole. Where a pilot hole is necessary, there is no need to use a percussion drill.

For screw and plugged or nailed fixings, the minimum penetration of any fixing should generally be not less than 50mm into the blocks. Where possible, fixings should not be positioned closer than 50mm from a free edge of a block or from adjacent fixings.

Technical services: 0870 242 1489

The efficiency of a fixing increases with the depth of penetration. Where fire resistance is important, consult the fixing manufacturer. As a general rule, for aircrete, the pilot hole for plastic plugs should be formed using a drill bit that is one size smaller than the plug. In addition, it is not necessary to use a hammer action when drilling into aircrete.

Helix Fixings Ltd, PO Box 242, Ware. Herts. SG12 0WD www.helixfixing.co.uk

Helifix Helifix Ltd, 21 Warple Way, London, W3 0RX Tel: 020 8735 5200

HG Anchors Hilti (GB) Ltd, Hilti House, Trafford Wharf Road, Trafford Park, Manchester, M17 1BY Tel: 0800 083 0858 www.hilti.co.uk

System accessories Gilmore Building Supplies Ltd, Ashmore Lakes Way, Willenhall West Midlands, WV12 4LF Tel: 01902 366620 www.gilmorebuildingsupplies.co.uk


Block identiďŹ cation and pack sizes

Blockwork solutions 185

Block identification and pack sizes The range of TBP's aircrete and aggregate blocks is delivered in a number of different formats, depending upon the factory of origin and the product type. The following pages are intended to give our customers essential information relating the pack sizes.

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186 Blockwork solutions

Block identification and pack sizes

Durox pack sizes

All packs of Durox blocks are double banded horizontally before wrapping in polythene. They are supplied either with or without a pallet. The 5 row pallets are returnable and the 4 row pallets for Minipacks, Floor and System blocks are non-returnable.

Table 129: Durox Supablocs (standard packs) Block Thickness (mm)

100

115

125

140

200

Coverage per pack* (m )

10

8.57

7.86

7.14

5.0

Number of blocks per pack

70

60

55

50

35

Pack width (mm)

1400

1380

1375

1400

1400

Supabloc pack weight (kg)

600

600

600

600

600

Supabloc 4 pack weight (kg)

800

800*

Supabloc 7 pack weight (kg)

870

870**

870**

870

870

Supabloc 8 pack weight (kg)

920

920*

2

620mm

Pa

ck

wi

dt

h

m 5m

(5

x ws

m)

5m

21

ro

7

10

Notes * Area of built wall including 10mm mortar joints ** Made to order The pallet has not been shown for clarity. The pallet weighs approximately 20kg

Table 130: Durox Supabloc (minipacks) Block Thickness (mm)

100

125**

Coverage per pack* (m )

8

6.29

Number of blocks per pack

56

44

Pack width (mm)

1400

1375

Supabloc pack weight (kg)

480

480

2

620mm

Pa

ck

wi

dt

h

sx

m

0m

86

w ro (4

Technical services: 0870 242 1489

m)

2

m 15

Notes * Area of built wall including 10mm mortar joints ** Made to order The pallet has not been shown for clarity. The pallet weighs approximately 20kg


Block identiďŹ cation and pack sizes

Blockwork solutions 187

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188 Blockwork solutions

Block identification and pack sizes

Durox pack sizes (continued) Table 131: Durox Foundation (standard packs)

620mm (2 x 310mm)

Pa

ck

wi

dt

h

mm

5 07

1

s ow 5r

) mm

15

x2

Block Thickness (mm)

310**

350**

Coverage per pack* (m2)

3.42

2.86

40

40

Pack width (mm)

1400

1400

Foundation pack weight (kg)

600

600

Foundation 7 pack weight (kg)

870

870

Number of blocks per pack

Notes * Area of built wall including 10mm mortar joints ** Foundation blocks can be laid at either 310 or 350mm wide The pallet has not been shown for clarity. The pallet weighs approximately 25kg

(

Table 132: Durox System thin joint blockwork (standard packs) Block Coursing height (mm)

214

299

214

214

100**

100**

140**

200**

7.57

7.90

5.41

3.75

56

42

40

28

Pack width (mm)

1400

1400

1400

1400

System 500 pack weight (kg)

480

500

System 600 pack weight (kg)

640

667

System 700 pack weight (kg)

695

695

695

Block Thickness (mm) 620mm

Coverage per pack* (m ) 2

Number of blocks per pack Pa

ck

wi

dt

h

)

mm

4 21

)

x m 9m ws ro r 29 o sx m w ro 6m (4 85 mm 7 89 (4

Notes * Area of built wall including 3mm mortar joints ** Made to order The pallet has not been shown for clarity. The pallet weighs approximately 20kg

Table 133: Durox Floor (standard packs) Block Thickness (mm) Coverage per pack* (Linear m) 620mm

Pa

ck

wi

dt

h 60

mm

10

(2

s

w ro

Technical services: 0870 242 1489

m)

0m

3 x5

Number of blocks per pack

100** 14.841 / 17.362 28

Pack width (mm)

1400

Supabloc pack weight (kg)

600

Notes * Area of floor excluding beams ** Floor blocks have a face size of 620 x 530mm and can be laid to span in either direction 1 laid at 620mm span 2 laid at 530mm span The pallet has not been shown for clarity. The pallet weighs approximately 20kg


Blockwork solutions 189

Block identification and pack sizes

Table 134: Durox Coursing bricks (standard packs) Block Thickness (mm)

100

115

Coverage per pack (m2) Pack height 14

00

mm

(20

ro w

sx

70

mm

)

m

0m

86

(4

sx

w ro

)

mm

5 21

Number of blocks per pack

480

400

320

320

Pack height (mm)

600

575

500

560

Coursing brick (3.6N/mm ) pack weight (kg)

432

414

359

400

Coursing brick (7.3N/mm ) pack weight (kg)

625

600

520

583

Coursing brick (8.7N/mm ) pack weight (kg)

683

837

2 2 2

Notes The pallet has not been shown for clarity. The pallet weighs approximately 25kg

a brick cutters. These Coursing bricks will have a label on the packaging giving the relevant information.

Table 135: Block identification Product

Block code

Other

Supabloc

S

None

Supabloc Minipacks

S

None

Supabloc 4

S4

Zig-zag marking on both working faces

Supabloc 7

S7

None

S8

None

Coursing bricks (3.6N/mm )

B

None

Coursing bricks (7.3N/mm )

B7

None

Foundation

F

None

Foundation 7

F7

None

Floor blocks

FL

Unique size 620 x 530 x100mm

Floor slips

FS

Unique size 215 x 100 x40mm

System 500

T5

None

System 600

T6

Zig-zag marking on both working faces

System 700

T7

None

Supabloc 8 2 2

From September 2014, the coloured paint stripe that appears on the top end of the blocks is phased out. It has been be replaced with an ink jet block code on one block per pack. The block code shown in Table 135 will appear with two sets of dates from which we will be able to identify production batches. In addition to this, the packaging will be ink jetted with the product name, block size and the number of blocks in the pack.

140

sold in packs

Coursing bricks are either made in the factory, in which case they will be identified as shown in Table 134, or cut externally at

New Supabloc identification system

125

Once a wall has been built, the face marks on Supabloc 4 and System 600 will be clearly visible.

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190 Blockwork solutions

Block identification and pack sizes

Toplite pack sizes

All packs of Toplite blocks are supplied wrapped in polythene in standard or voided fork lift packs. The standard packs are double banded horizontally and are supplied either with or without a pallet. The voided packs are supplied without a pallet and are banded vertically. Table 136: Toplite (standard packs) 440mm

Pa

ck

wi

dt

h

mm

1

5 07

(5

row

)

mm

15

2 sx

Block Thickness (mm)

100

125

140

150

200

215

Coverage per pack* (m )

4.5

3.5

3.0

3.0

2.0

2.0

Number of blocks per pack

45

35

30

30

20

20

2

Pack width (mm)

900

875

840

900

800

860

Toplite GTi pack weight (kg)

211

203

195

210

188

202

Toplite Standard pack weight (kg)

276

275

258

276

246

264

Toplite 7 pack weight (kg)

315

-

300

321

284

306

Notes The pallet has not been shown for clarity. The pallet weighs approximately 25kg * Area of built wall including 10mm mortar joints On all Toplite packs the material is identified as Gti, Standard or 7’s on the shrink wrapping

Table 137: Toplite (forklift packs) Block Thickness (mm)

100

Coverage per pack* (m )

8.4

2

1075mm

90

0m

m

m

0m

90

Voids for the fork lift

Number of blocks per pack

84

Pack width (mm)

900

Toplite Standard FL pack weight (kg)

513

Toplite 7 FL pack weight (kg)

597

Notes On all Toplite packs the material is identified as Gti, Standard or 7’s on the shrink wrapping * Area of built wall including 10mm mortar joints

On all Toplite packs, the material is identified as Gti, Standard or 7's on the shrink wrapping. Once blocks have been taken out of the packs it is the users'

Technical services: 0870 242 1489

responsibility to ensure that there is sufficient site supervision to ensure that blocks of different strength are not mixed and are used in the correct application.


Block identiďŹ cation and pack sizes

Blockwork solutions 191

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192 Blockwork solutions

Block identification and pack sizes

Hemelite pack sizes All packs of Hemelite blocks are supplied without wrapping (unless requested at additional cost), in standard packs. The packs are double banded horizontally and are supplied either with or without a pallet. Table 138: Hemelite (standard packs) Block Thickness (mm)

75*

90*

100

140

140**

Coverage per pack (m )

10

8.57

7.2

4.8

6

Number of blocks per pack

96

100

72

48

60

Pack width (mm)

900

900

900

880

880

Standard Solid 3.6N/mm pack weight (kg)

951

-

944

884

1104

Standard Solid 7.3N/mm pack weight (kg)

1018

1260

1008

936

1170

Standard Solid 10.4N/mm pack weight (kg)

-

-

1059

984

1230

2 a

X

2

90

0m

m

0m

m

90

2

2

Standard Cellular 3.6N/mm pack weight (kg)

-

-

792

-

-

Paint Quality Solid 3.6N/mm2 pack weight (kg)

-

1220

972

908

-

Paint Quality Solid 7.3N/mm2 pack weight (kg)

-

1220

972

908

1134

Identification codes

Paint Quality Solid 10.4N/mm2 pack weight (kg)

-

-

1450

970

-

An identification code is sprayed on the side of every pack. From this the pack contents can be determined.

Paint Quality Cellular 3.6N/mm2 pack weight (kg)

-

-

-

576

-

Paint Quality Cellular 7.3N/mm pack weight (kg)

-

-

-

576

-

X = 4 layers x 215mm = 860mm or 5** layers x 215mm = 1075mm

Typical Hemelite coding: BH 100 SSF 10/14 7.3N 02 Where in this case: BH Block Hemelite

2

2

Notes * Made to order

** 5 layers high

a

Area of built wall including 10mm mortar joints

Table 139: Hemelite block types SSB Standard Solid 3.6N

SSF Standard Solid 7.3N

Standard Solid 7.3N – see other block types in Table 139

SSG Standard Solid 10.4N

CSB Standard Cellular 3.6N

SPB Solid Paint Quality 3.6N

SPF Solid Paint Quality 7.3N

10/14

Production code

SPG Solid Paint Quality 10.4N

CPB Paint Quality Cellular 3.6N

7.3N

The block strength (N/mm2)

02

Plant of manufacture

100

Thickness of block (mm)

SSF

Technical services: 0870 242 1489

CPF Paint Quality Cellular 7.3N


Blockwork solutions 193

Block identification and pack sizes

Topcrete pack sizes All packs of Topcrete blocks are supplied without wrapping (unless requested at additional cost), in standard packs. The packs are double banded horizontally and are supplied either with or without a pallet. Table 140: Topcrete (standard packs) Block Thickness (mm)

75*

90*

100

100**

140

140***

215

Coverage per pack (m )

10

8.0

7.2

9.0

4.8

4.8

3.2

Number of blocks per pack

96

80

72

90

48

72

32

900

900

900

900

880

880

880

1344

1360

1332

1248

1246

Standard Solid 17.5 & 22.5N/mm2 pack weight (kg)

1332

1248

1246

Standard Cellular 3.6 & 7.3N/mm2 pack weight (kg)

1305

1248

Standard Cellular Multicore 3.6N/mm2 pack weight (kg)

888

Standard Hollow 3.6 & 7.3N/mm2 pack weight (kg)

864

864 1080†

Paint Quality Solid 7.3 & 10.4N/mm2 pack weight (kg)

1280

1282

1196

1181

Typical Topcrete coding: BH 100 SSF 10/14 7.3N 02

Paint Quality Cellular 3.6 & 7.3N/mm2 pack weight (kg)

864 1080‡

Where in this case: BT Block Topcrete

Paint Quality Cellular Multicore 3.6N/mm2 pack weight (kg)

884

100

Thickness of block (mm)

820

SPG

Standard Paint Quality 10.4N – see other block types in Table 141

Paint Quality Hollow 3.6 & 7.3N/mm2 pack weight (kg)

2 a

X

Pack width (mm)

90

0m

m

ck

Pa

dth

wi

X = 4 layers x 215mm = 860mm or 5** layers x 215mm = 1075mm

Identification codes An identification code is sprayed on the side of every pack. From this the pack contents can be determined.

10/14

Production code

10.4N

The block strength (N/mm2)

02

Plant of manufacture

Standard Solid 7.3 & 10.4N/mm pack weight (kg)

2

Notes * Made to order ** 5 layers high *** Midi block face size 290 x 215mm † 4.0m2 with 40 block pack ‡ 6.0m2 with 60 block pack a Area of built wall including 10mm mortar joints

Table 141: Topcrete block types SSF Standard Solid 7.3N (also applies to RPW)

SSG Standard Solid 10.4N (also applies to Midi)

SSM Standard Solid 17.5N

SSP Standard Solid 22.5N

CSB Standard Cellular 3.6N

CSF Standard Cellular 7.3N (also applies to Multicore)

HSB Hollow Standard 3.6N

HSF Hollow Standard 7.3N

SPF Solid Paint Quality 7.3N

SPG Solid Paint Quality 10.4N

CPB Paint Quality Cellular 3.6N

CPF Paint Quality Cellular 7.3N

HPB Hollow Paint Quality 3.6N

HPF Hollow Paint Quality 7.3N

www.tarmacbuildingproducts.co.uk


194 Blockwork solutions

Safetydeck

Stay safe with Safetydeck

The fast, low-cost fall prevention system SafetyDeck is a fall prevention system and lightweight access platform that protects site workers from falls from height. It is designed to meet the current HSE working at height regulations.

The use of SafetyDeck will increase the installation rate of precast ďŹ&#x201A;ooring systems, timber joists or roof trusses, as it provides a full, safe and unobtrusive working area, giving maximum freedom of movement.

SafetyDeck can be adapted to suit most buildings irrespective of size or conďŹ guration and creates a temporary platform just below the working area.

SafetyDeck has been used successfully on sites nationwide for many years and it is currently the system of choice for many major developers and contractors.

Technical services: 0870 242 1489

Tel: 08456 007702 Fax: 01298 768 174 Email: safetydeck@tarmacbp.co.uk www.safetydeck.net


2

Blockwork solutions

Introduction

Blockwork can, literally, be the foundation and structural heart of your building and we regard our block products as integrated and flexible systems that can be adapted and configured to suit your building and its specific criteria. Tarmac Building Products (TBP) offer a complete range of building blocks including lightweight aircrete blocks, medium and dense aggregate blocks. As a UK market leader, our blocks meet the most demanding of building requirements and will help you meet your project criteria.

Contact us

Blockwork solutions 195

To contact us: ››› ››› ››› ›››

Technical telephone number: 0870 242 1489 Technical email address: technical.services@tarmacbp.co.uk Sales telephone number: 0845 606 2428 Address: Salisbury House, 2a Tettenhall Road, Wolverhampton, West Midlands, WV1 4SA

For block orders please contact your local builders merchant.

Technical services: 0870 242 1489

www.tarmacbuildingproducts.co.uk


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Blockwork solutions

Blockwork solutions


Tarmac Building Products Blocks Manual