Journal of International Relations, European, Economic and Social Studies
or even increased. Although the scope of available instruments for candidate countries is slightly extended, the main focus is on optimizing the existing instruments with respect to efficiency and simplicity. According to the Commission, all pre-accession related spending, i.e., those including internal policies and thematic issues, should be streamlined into one integrated pre-accession instrument.19 While the emphasis of support remains on the adoption of the Community acquis as well as upon socio-economic development and regional cooperation, the new instrument should more strongly reflect the structural funds, the Cohesion Fund and the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD) whose focus, in turn, should be shifted towards the delivery of public goods. In this context, the financial support of the environmental infrastructure and capacity building in candidate countries should also play a bigger role. Considering that currently almost a quarter of the funds of the Instrument for Pre-Accession (IPA) is allocated to the Agriculture and Rural Development sector, this could lead to a shift towards environment and climate change measures. These currently receive 18% of the funds. In this way, Turkey could be given incentive to take further action in areas where it has so far performed poorly.20 In line with the EU 2020 targets, the European Commission wants to step up the funding for all formal, as well as informal, levels of education and training. This includes the development of a special program providing guarantees for mobile master students. As Turkey takes part in the Lifelong Learning program as well as other programs related to education, it would also profit from the increase of funds. Another Europe 2020 target that the Commission refers to is that of investing 3% of GDP into research and development. While this target can only be attained by attracting private investment and contributions from other levels, the Commission still plans to significantly extend funding in this area - both in total amounts and as a share of budget. This could be accomplished, for 19. Currently, the budget title on enlargement contains only the administration costs of the IPA while the earmarked funds for the different sectors are subsumed under the relevant headings, for example, regional or agricultural policy. 20. COM(2010) 660 final: Communication from the Commission to the Parliament and the Council: Enlargement Strategy and Main Challenges 2010-2011, 9.11.2010.
Turkey on the European doorstep
A Publication based on the International Conference organised at the European Parliament/Brussels by Dr. ELENI THEOCHAROUS, Member of the Eu...