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Issue 7, January 2013

The

TUNISIAN

English Language Teaching Forum The

Magazine

For

And

By

EFL

Teachers

In

Tunisia

And

Abroad

Learning to Think Democratically: Citizenship Education in Tunisia

page 29

page 13

ICT integration in language teaching: some challenges

page 05

TEACHING LITERATURE IN THE EFL CLASSROOM

page 32

How can teachers help students make learning part of themselves?

You can also read : Krashen’s Monitor Model for SLA Page 38 40 Websites for EFL Teachers PAGE 41 The Tunisian English Language Teaching Forum

Photo from http://www.morguefile.com

In This issue:

Teaching Mixed-Ablity classes Page 08 Page

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Editor’s Note

Dear readers, We propose in this seventh issue of the magazine a number of articles that, we hope, will make you enjoy spending some of your time connected to the Tunisian English Teaching Forum. Among the topics focused in this issue, we present “Teaching mixed-ability classes” as one of the important topics that so many teachers and educationists worry about. Abdessalem BOUAFIA, ELT Inspector in the region of Gafsa, shares some of his thoughts with you through the magazine and surely, reading through his article entitled “teaching mixed-ability classes” will make an addition. Two teachers from the University of Gabes ; Abdelhamid R’haiem and Sihem Drissi wrote two articles which address two issues mostly debated among teachers of English as a foreign language and educationists. Abdelhamid R’haim’s article is “Teaching literature in the EFL classroom” and Sihem Drissi’s is entitled “Citizenship Education in Tunisia”. Jalel Guesmi, from Ursinus College in the USA, finds it important to write about S. Krashen’s model for SLA and we find it beneficial to provide the readers of this issue with the opportunity to refresh their minds and recall a bit of theory. In this same issue, from the University of Casablanca, in Morocco, Abdelmajid Bouzaiene writes about the integration of ICT in language teaching. Fethi Bouguerra’s share is an article entitled “How can teachers help students to make learning part of themselves” while Tarek Brahmi presents 40 websites for the EFL teacher to inspire from. With this variety of contents, we target the satisfaction of the readers of the magazine so we invite you to make the best use of this issue. Mohamed Salah Abidi

Mohamed Salah Abidi Teacher Trainer

and ELT Inspector in the area of

Sidi Bouzid, Tunisia.

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Contents page 05 page 08

TEACHING LITERATURE IN THE EFL Abdelhamid R’HAIEM CLASSROOM Teaching Mixed-Ablity classes

page 13

Abdessalem BOUAFIA

ICT integration in language teaching: some challenges Abdelmajid Bouziane

page 29

Learning to Think Democratically: Citizenship Education in Tunisia Sihem DRISSI

page 32

How can teachers help students make learning part of themselves? Fathi Bouguerra

page 38

Krashen’s Monitor Model for SLA

page 41

BONUS: 40 Websites for EFL Teachers

Jalel GUESMI

The

TUNISIAN English Teaching Forum

Editorial Review Board

Mohamed Salah Abidi Graphic Design

Tarak Brahmi The Tunisian English Teaching Forum is a free quarterly magazine.

Any copyrighted articles appearing in The Tunisian English Teaching Forum are reprinted with permission of the copyright owners. To be considered for publication, manuscripts should be typed on a floppy disk or CD that has been

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virus-checked. Letters, floppy disks or CDs should be sent to : Mohammed Salah Abidi L’Inspecteur d’Anglais Lycee Tahar Haddad Regueb 9170 Sidi Bouzid Tunisie or e-mailed to:

med-salah@voila.fr For guidelines for writing articles and the latest news and notifications, please visit our blog here: http://tunisian-etforum. blogspot.com

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TEACHING LITERATURE IN THE EFL CLASSROOM >>

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TEACHING LITERATURE IN THE EFL CLASSROOM Abdelhamid RHAIEM University of Gabes

Introduction: This article seeks to address an important issue that is unfortunately neglected in the EFL classroom: teaching literature to secondary school pupils. By analyzing an extract from a novel written in English, the present article attempts to offer guidance and clues that are essential to interpreting literature and designing effective classroom activities. It shows how in addition to developing students’ English language skills, teaching literature also appeals to their imagination, develops cultural awareness, and encourages critical thinking about key tools such as plots, themes, and characters. This article, then, aims at helping both teachers and pupils ‘grapple with’ literary texts by suggesting an interpretation of the opening scene of A Passage to India (1924), a novel written by E. M. Forster. 1. Objectives: Beyond an ambition to share with teachers and, undoubtedly, pupils the pleasure of a literary text, there lies an endeavour to provide an easy approach to make such exercise a never-ending appreciated activity. The main objectives can be summed up as follows: - To expose pupils to a literary text to discover its beauty and value. - To familiarise pupils with literary terms and devices (setting). - To encourage critical thinking. - To recognize how language is used to accomplish meaning. - To write a descriptive essay (about a place).

In addition to developing students’ English language skills, teaching literature also appeals to their imagination, develops cultural awareness, and encourages critical thinking about key tools such as plots, themes, and characters.

2. Intended skills: Speaking, reading and writing.

3. Procedures: 3.1 A speaking activity can serve as a brainstorming stage in which the whole class are engaged in a discussion about the city where they live and whether they enjoy living there (dirty, tidy, large, small, etc.) 3.2 Pupils can move then to the text which introduces them to a description of a city. At this stage, they should focus on the use of language to find out how the narrator introduces the setting (the use of adjectives, diction, etc.) 3.3 The reading activity can be easily expanded into a writing one. The text will not only serve as a rich word bank, but also a good sample to follow in describing a setting (although this depends, of course, on the type of city they live in).

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TEXT: EXCEPT for the Marabar Caves – and they are twenty miles off – the city of Chandrapore presents nothing extraordinary. Edged rather than washed by the river Ganges, it trails for a couple of miles along the bank, scarcely distinguishable from the rubbish it deposits so freely. There are no bathing-steps on the river front, as the Ganges happens not to be holy here; indeed there is no river front, and bazaars shut out the wide and shifting panorama of the stream. The streets are mean, the temples ineffective, and though a few fine houses exist they are hidden away in gardens or down alleys whose filth deters all but the invited guest. Chandrapore was never large or beautiful, but two hundred years ago it lay on the road between Upper India, then imperial, and the sea, and the fine houses date from that period. The zest for decoration stopped in the eighteenth century, nor was it ever democratic. There is no painting and scarcely any carving in the bazaars. The very wood seems made of mud, the inhabitants of mud moving. So abased, so monotonous is everything that meets the eye, that when the Ganges comes down it might be expected to wash the excrescence back into the soil. Houses do fall, people are drowned and left rotting, but the general outline of the town persists, swelling here, shrinking there, like some low but indestructible form of life. Inland, the prospect alters. E.M. Forster, A Passage to India 1. Vocabulary: a.The river Gangs: the most sacred river to the Hindus in the Indian subcontinent. b.Temples: buildings devoted to the worship of God. c.deters: prevents d.carving: design e.indestructible: not able to be destroyed

By creating a dominant atmosphere that is dull, gloomy, dark and filthy, the setting [...] decisively contributes to the total effect of the novel in general.

Analysis: 2.1. Introduction: This text is the opening paragraph of E. M. Forster’s A Passage to India (written in 1924). It describes the setting in which the action is going to take place; the city of Chandrapore in India. 2.2. Body: -The setting (the place where the events are to take place) -Words and expressions like: ‘rubbish’, ‘edged rather than washed by the river Ganges’, ‘bazaars shut’, ‘the streets are mean’, ‘the temples ineffective’, ‘houses…hidden away’, ‘filth’: through these words and expressions we are introduced to a filthy, deserted, and dreadful place. -The use of negation in the text may add another stroke to the dullness of the place. This is clearly seen in examples such as: ‘nothing extraordinary’, ‘no bathing steps’, ‘not to be holy here’, ‘ineffective’, ‘no river front’, ‘never large or beautiful’, ‘there is no painting’… -The excessive use of ‘no’ may hint at a sense of hopelessness and the difficulty of living there. -This can help the reader comment on the effect of the place on both the action and character. By creating a dominant atmosphere that is dull, gloomy, dark and filthy, the setting in this text decisively contributes to the total effect of the novel in general. -By the same token, the character is also influenced by place. A particular

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‘locale’, like the one the text depicts, can shape the behaviour of those who dwell there/ or those who act there. 2.3. Conclusion: Place or setting is an essential factor in fiction. It is usually the first element introduced as the story opens (A Passage to India is a good example). Elizabeth Browen argues that ‘nothing can happen nowhere.’ The setting where the action takes place always colours the happening, and often shapes it. About the author: Abdelhamid RHAIEM is an assistant currently teaching literature courses in the English Department at the High Institute of Languages in Gabes, University of Gabes/ Tunisia. He is also a PhD student at the University of La Manouba. His field of interest mainly includes modern British novel, feminist writings and travel studies.

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Teaching Mixed-ability Classes Abdessalem BOUAFIA ELT Inspector, Gafsa Rinvolucri states: “We have to recognize that we are teaching a group of individuals not a single student with 25 faces.” Indeed, we-as language practitioners-should not expect our learners to be the same. In a sense, every language class in a secondary / preparatory school can be said to be mixed-ability. This is because every class is made up of a group of individuals, and each of those individuals is, to some extent, different in terms of their knowledge and ability. To be more specific, mixed-ability refers to: - Classes in which there are very clear differences in learning language level among the students. - Classes in which there are clear differences in learning style, speed and attitude among the students. - Classes in which there are clear differences in the student’s background knowledge of the world and their talents and skills in other areas. - Classes in which there are different levels and motivation.

Every class is made up of a group of individuals, and each of those individuals is, to some extent, different in terms of their knowledge and ability.

A- Why does the problem exist? The existence of mixed-ability classes is due to many factors but mainly because: a) Students come from different learning backgrounds. Some may have had private lessons. Thus, they may have spent different amounts of time studying; they may have had teachers who emphasized different skills or language areas in their teaching or they may have had teachers who -because of various factorsdidn’t finish the programmes. b) Students progress at different rates. It is due to different learning styles and the way students respond to the teacher’s style and approach. Some learners may be primarily visual, which means for example that they like to see things written down. Others are primarily auditory; they learn best and remember things best through listening. Others are kinesthetic, which mean they like to emphasize the visual element, then it is likely that the primarily visual learners will have progressed at a faster rate. c) Some students find learning a second language easy and some find it difficult. What exactly constitutes “learning aptitude” or “a gift for languages” is not clear but probably includes things like the ability to: »» Perceive and recognize new sounds. »» Recognize patterns in language forms and infer rules. »» Notice similarities and differences in meaning and language forms. »» Memorize and recall new verbal information. d) Some students may find formal study easier than others. These students pay attention and participate in class. They keep neat copy books and they do their homework conscientiously. Other students do none of these and seem to make little or no progress in their learning.

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C-Facing the challenge: It is easy for students to get frustrated in a class of mixed ability. Stronger students may feel held back; weaker students may feel pressured. We are all aware of the strains when we are faced with a wide range of ability within the same group. Should we address the less able students at the risk of boring the others or risk alienating the lower students by focusing on their able peers? Should we pitch our lessons at the basic level so that the slower students can follow, or at a more advanced level to make sure the stronger ones don’t get bored? How can we keep the weaker students from feeling underprivileged? What do we do with students who try very hard but still get bad marks, or with those who tend to dominate because they know more? Doubtless, there are no final answers to any of these questions. But what we need is approaches to mixed ability teaching based on inclusion of all levels but allowing for differences. So we have to adopt strategies that can help us find a more accommodating ground and overcome problems. 1- Before engaging in to textbooks implementation: An open class discussion about the situation is necessary to ensure the best for everyone. It is better to acknowledge the situation and for everyone to agree how to deal with it. It is certainly beneficial to stage and structure the discussion.

What we need is approaches to mixed ability teaching based on inclusion of all levels but allowing for differences.

a) Needs Analysis: Use a needs analysis to prompt the students to reflect on their learning style, learning strategies, language needs, learning motivation, language strength and weaknesses. You might include questions such as: • What kind of class activities do you enjoy /benefit from? • Which language skills do you wish to develop? • Do you prefer working individually or a partner? • Would you rather sit and listen to the teacher or participate in group work? Etc… Let them compare their answers in pairs or small groups. This will help to develop the sense of shared community in the class. Then you may collect the information and prepare a statistical representation of the questions and answers. b) Explain and Discuss: Explain the mixed level situation and give a list of possible approaches to the teaching and learning. Students might discuss and rank them according to their suitability to the situation. Following this, you should highlight the strategies you plan to use. c) A student contract: Developing a contract of behavior for activities is a useful device. It may contain things like: “I will help and support my activity partner” “I will participate in group work” “I will never forget to do my homework” etc… NB: All of the above work could be done in the mother tongue. 2-While implementing textbooks: Once this kind of reflection is carried out and the situation explained to the class, you can use various strategies while teaching. And as students know what

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to expect, you can hope that they will cooperate. a) Raising students’ self-awareness: Encourage students to develop an awareness of their own language abilities and learning needs: What their strengths and weaknesses are, how they can focus on these and how they measure their own progress. This may take the form of the learner’s diary, regular self-assessment, keeping records of mistakes, keeping a record of things learnt..etc.

Variety in the pairing is the key here and you should also be sensitive to the general relationships between different students, and learn to note who works well with whom.

b) Work grouping: Varying the way students work in class will help meet the variety of levels in the class. -Pair work: You can pair strong with strong, weak with weak or strong with weak. In a controlled activity perhaps, the strong with the weak will work well, in a free activity, perhaps strong with strong will work well. Variety in the pairing is the key here and you should also be sensitive to the general relationships between different students, and learn to note who works well with whom. -Group work: These groups should be of mixed levels or similar ones. The hope is that in a smaller group; the weaker student will feel more able to contribute. You may also consider dividing your class into groups by level for the whole lesson, enabling you to give a different level or number of tasks to each group. -Whole class mingles: A mingles activity involves students talking or interacting with many different members of the class in a short period of time in order to achieve a task. This means that any student will work with students at different levels experiencing stronger and weaker levels of communication. A classic activity is “find someone who…” In this activity the student has to survey the class to find people who for example: …have got something-or ….have done something-or …like something etc. c) Range of tasks: This simply means providing different tasks for different levels. For example, the number of comprehension questions for the text: you might have two sets of questions A and B. Perhaps, all students have to complete set A; the stronger also have to complete set B. d) Extra work/homework: Give weaker students homework which will really do consolidate the class work and give the stronger students work that will widen their knowledge or put it to the test a little more. e) Student Nomination: When asking for answers to questions, ask particular students rather than asking the whole class in an open fashion. For example “What’s the answer to question number 6?” is an open question, whereas “What’s the answer to question number 6, Sami? is a nominated question. If you ask open questions, the same old stronger students will provide the answers. This creates a poor dynamism to the class. Therefore: • Ask the question before you give the name of the student. Everyone has to listen in his case. • Consider how easy it is for the student to answer. If a weak student can

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answer, then ask him. • Nominate with variety. Be careful to avoid nominating the same selection of students. f) Error Correction: Over-correcting student’s errors can have adverse effects. Therefore, be more selective in your error correction and do this as implicitly as could be. After all never forget as a teacher that an error is a sign of learning. Conclusion It probably doesn’t work to stick our heads in the sand and pretend that the class is all of one homogeneous level, a situation which doesn’t exist anywhere. It is important, therefore, that we should be familiar with not only suitable strategies and techniques but also the rich traditions of languages methodologies to draw on its resources freely. In that way, we can cope with mixed-ability classes by selecting what is most relevant to the particular needs of learners from one existing mosaic of ideas, materials and activities available while remaining realistic about what can be achieved in different circumstances. References: Cohen E.G (1994): Designing Group Work: strategies for the Heterogeneous classroom. Prodromou, Linke: Mixed- ability classes. Atrusi, Alicia: Mixed-level management. Hadfield,Jill: Classroom dynamics. Zakia Sarwar. Adapting Individualization techniques for large classes. English Teaching Forum, April 1991. Przesmycki, Halina (1991): Pédagogie Différenciée

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ICT integration in language teaching: some challenges >>

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ICT Integration in Language Teaching: Some Challenges Abdelmajid Bouziane Associate Professor Faculty of Letters and Humanities Ben Msik, Casablanca Hassan II Mohamedia-Casablanca University, Morocco Humans are powerful and computers are powerful, and together, they are extremely powerful (Tanguay, 1997: n.p.) Abstract This paper discusses challenges, and possibilities, of integrating information and communications technology (ICT) in language classes. It describes some challenges related to research in both language teaching and computer-assisted language learning (CALL). Specifically, it raises the issues of normalisation and integration discussed in CALL paradigms. Added to these challenges are factors that hinder integration of CALL such as lack of teacher training and attitudinal constraints. Despite the aforementioned constraints, ICT is being integrated as it is gradually undergoing a process of normalization. Some major indicators that facilitate this integration are mainly the progress in hardware, software and wireless connectivity together with the students being digital natives. The risk, however, is that the integration is taking place outside CALL contexts.

The proliferation of specialized journals and the great number of books and doctoral dissertations / theses on this area testify to the determination of effective implementation of ICT in language teaching.

Introduction There has been a great enthusiasm as to implement ICT in language teaching. In early years, the implementation was related to the novelty of the area but the proliferation of specialized journals and the great number of books and doctoral dissertations / theses on this area testify to the determination of effective implementation of ICT in language teaching. It is the intent of this paper to bring to the readers of Tunisian ELT Forum some challenges that make effective implementation not as easy as it seems. Such difficulties lie in (1) the nature of language teaching itself, being a thorny area and full of controversies, (2) teacher training programs, which focus on the technical aspects only, and (3) the controversy on the integration of CALL in language teaching which is featured by being technologically led and too complicated to be within the teacher’s reach. 1. Complexity of CALL and ELT The introduction of ICT in English Language Teaching (ELT) in particular and in education in general has faced big challenges since its early days. It occurred in an era characterized by changes of paradigms. Similarly, ICT has always evolved rapidly because of technological non-stop, and even unpredictable, progress. As a result ICT and ELT combination seems too complex as it combines two multidisciplinary complex fields as described

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here: “The field of CALL is inherently multidisciplinary. It applies research from the fields of second language acquisition, sociology, linguistics, psychology, cognitive science, cultural studies, and natural language processing to second language pedagogy, and it melds these disciplines with technologyrelated fields such as computer science, artificial intelligence, and media/ communication studies.” (CALL document, 1999, p. 1)1.

There is no one method or approach that is better than the other. They are all valid as they have been piloted and their results have been evaluated.

1.1. Complexity of ELT One of the above disciplines is already problematic, namely second language acquisition (SLA). The following claims feature the area of SLA: - Research into ESL/EFL (English as Second Language / English as a Foreign Language) has resulted in diversity, rather than unity, in the seventies and eighties (Larsen-Freeman, 1987), though this was considered to be confusing and empowering at the same time. - There is no one method or approach that is better than the other. They are all valid as they have been piloted and their results have been evaluated. The appropriate choice of one depends on the teacher’s sense of plausibility (Prabhu, 1990). - There is a wide gap between researchers, who are generally academics dealing with publishing findings, and teachers, who are supposed to put such findings into practice (Crookes, 1998; see Larsen-Freeman, ibid. for suggestions of narrowing the gap) - Clarke (1994) raises the dysfunctions of the theory/practice discourse. Clarke cites that, among the reasons of such dysfunctions is the gap existing between those involved in theory development, who generally need to be more knowledgeable about language teaching issues, and practitioners who are classified far lower than theorists in the strata of expertise. Besides, theories tend to be imported from other disciplines; the discourse tends to be authoritarian and prescriptive; the advocated theories are too general and therefore do not lend themselves to be effectively applicable to specific classrooms. - “The nature of literacy is rapidly changing as new technologies emerge” (Coiro, 2003), as a result, new literacies are emerging which are featured with nonlinear hypertext, multiple-media texts, and interactive texts, and which need new processes of comprehending (ibid.). - On a broader scale, education systems are not working well even in developed countries like the US and reforms do not seem to address real problems: “what all the reformers haven’t yet understood is that it’s not the “system” that we need to get right; it’s the education that the system provides.” (Prensky, 2011: 2, italics original). Prensky claims that even if the system received substantial changes at all levels, the outcomes would be far below aspirations because the 20th century education does not work for most of the 21st century students. The above controversies are only a few examples and the rationale behind citing them is to show the complexity of the areas related to language teaching in particular and pedagogy in general. Importantly in complex areas such as second language acquisition, Larsen-Freeman (1997) has shown that there is much to inspire from chaos/complexity science. She reports that

1 “Scholarly activities in computer assisted language learning: Development, pedagogical innovations, and research” Joint policy statement of CALICO, EUROCALL, and IALLT arising from a Research Seminar at the University of Essen, Germany, 30 April – 1 May 1999 Available at: https://www.calico.org/page.php?id=506 [Accessed on 15 April 2005] The Tunisian English Language Teaching Forum

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One of the things I appreciate about chaos/complexity theory perspective is that it suggests we need to see SLA as both/and rather than either/or.

the science of chaos/complexity studies systems that are characterized with being “dynamic, complex, nonlinear, chaotic, unpredictable, sensitive to initial conditions, open, self-organizing, feedback sensitive, and adaptive” (p.142). Some SLA studies happen to bear these characteristics. She also explains that chaos/complexity scientists are interested in how disorder gives way to order and that, according to Gleick (1987: 5) “chaos is a science of process rather than state, of becoming rather than being” (quoted, ibid.: 142). To face chaotic and complex situations of SLA, Larsen-Freeman suggests that SLA researchers should change their attitudes towards dichotomies. She writes: “One lesson from chaos theory is that these may be false dichotomies [langue/parole; competence/performance; synchronic/diachronic etc.] for those interested in the whole of second language acquisition. While it may be essential that the distinctions be preserved for the purposes of linguistic description, chaos/complexity theory encourages a blurring of boundaries in SLA - to see complementarity, and to practice inconclusiveness where linguists have seen oppositions and exclusiveness. One of the things I appreciate about chaos/complexity theory perspective is that it suggests we need to see SLA as both/and rather than either/or” (ibid: 158; italics original). 1. 2. Complexity of ICT in ELT The big challenge here is how to design CALL activities taking into account not only the complexity of applied linguistic areas but also the controversies and contradictory findings that prevail in different issues related to this field (see the CALL paradigms below). Chapelle (2001), after describing the origins of her positive scepticism about CALL, CALT (computer assisted language testing), and CASLR (computer assisted second language research), claims that future CASLA authoring tools must have the following functions: Software function

Purpose

Estimate task difficulty

Select appropriate level of tasks for intended learners Provide feedback for task development

Analyse learners’ linguistic output

Assess task authenticity Assign point values and collect diagnostic data for language assessment Gather learner data for research

Analyze the language of objects (written text, audio, video) Support objects ordered in a database Gather process-oriented data

Assess task authenticity Assess linguistic complexity of input Store examples of a variety of content and genres to be used directly or as models for language tasks Assess participation in learning condition Assess learners’ characteristics in specific tasks

Support a structure for a learner model

Store learner data for intelligent tutoring assessment Explore the nature learner models for research

Author learning conditions

Develop task for instruction and research that operationalize SLA theory

(Chapelle, 2001: 171) Table 1: Functions needed in CASLA software tools and their purposes

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It should be acknowledged that all the above capabilities can be achieved through using different software programs and different approaches to designing and implementing CALL content and tasks. Alternatively, she suggests that “If SLA software tools are to be created in a way that allows them to be plugged into various applications successfully, standardization issues will need to be solved through the construction of updatable tools implemented on the Web and accessible by all standard browsers. This standardization is also needed for the accumulation of knowledge and of the education of future CASLA developers and users” (ibid.: 175)

While waiting for software with the above functions and standards, teacher trainers should assume that teachers will have to achieve the above either by using their experience or by using various teaching / learning platforms. The complexities cited so far have resulted in situations in which ICT is far from being integrated in second / foreign language learning. In most regions in the world, the ICT is not an integral part of the curriculum. It is considered a supplement, rather than a complement, of syllabi. Such a situation has triggered a debate on whether the ICT has reached the integrative stage as Warschauer (2000) claims or it is still in its preliminary stage of ‘normalisation’ as Bax (2002, 2003) counterpoints. Both views are reported in the next part.

In most regions in the world, the ICT is not an integral part of the curriculum. It is considered a supplement, rather than a complement, of syllabi.

1.3. Diversity of paradigms Like the previous issues, areas related to ICT in ELT have resulted in a variety of paradigms. Lund (2003: 73) outlines some earlier paradigms which are adapted from Timothy Koschmann’s edited volume (1996) on the “emergent paradigm” of Computer Support for Collaborative Learning (CSCL). The components of this paradigm are: computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI), Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS), Logo-as-Latin, and the CSCL paradigm (Computer Support for Collaborative Learning). Other paradigms, however, are presented subsequently in details.

Stage

1970s-1980s: Structural CALL

1980s-1990s: Communicative CALL

21st Century: Integrative CALL

Technology

Mainframe

PCs

Multimedia and Internet

EnglishTeaching Paradigm

GrammarTranslation & Audio-Lingual

Communicate Language Teaching

Content-Based, ESP/EAP

View of Language

Structural (a formal structural system)

Cognitive (a mentallyconstructed system)

Socio-cognitive (developed in social interaction)

Principal Use of Computers

Drill and Practice

Communicative Exercises

Authentic Discourse

Principal Objective

Accuracy

And Fluency

And Agency

Table 2: Warschauer’s Three Stages of CALL (2000) Bax (2002, 2003) contests the integration of ICT in ELT. He argues that The Tunisian English Language Teaching Forum

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There is a need to change technology (mobility and connectivity), attitudes, approaches, etc. in order for the technology to be integrated.

there is a need to change technology (mobility and connectivity), attitudes, approaches, etc. in order for the technology to be integrated. His major argument is that technology is not normalised to be accepted as part of the daily practices of both teachers and students. He claims that the process of normalisation should go through stages. Bax’s (2002; inspired by Rogers, 1995) stages of normalisation come as follows: 1 Early Adopters A few teachers and schools adopt the technology out of curiosity 2 Ignorance/ scepticism However, most people are sceptical, or ignorant of its existence 3 Try once People try it out but reject it because of early problems. They can’t see its value - it doesn’t appear to add anything of ‘relative advantage’ (Rogers 1995) 4 Try again Someone tells them it really works. They try again. They see it does in fact have relative advantage 5 Fear/awe More people start to use it, but still there is a) fear, alternating with b) exaggerated expectations 6 Normalising Gradually it is seen as something normal. 7 Normalisation The technology is so integrated into our lives that it becomes invisible - ‘normalised’. Bax (2003: 23-24) claims that technology is normalised when it is: “... an integral part of every lesson, like a pen or a book. Teachers and students will use them without fear or inhibition, and equally without an exaggerated respect for what they can do. They will not be the centre of any lesson but they will play a part in almost all. They will be completely integrated into all other aspects of classroom life, alongside coursebooks, teachers and notepads. They will almost go unnoticed.”

Alternatively, Bax (2003: 21) suggests that the paradigm of ICT in ELT consists of three approaches to analysis of CALL integration labelled: Restricted CALL, Open CALL, and Integrated CALL. The following table illustrates these approaches: Content

Restricted CALL Language system

Open CALL System and skills

Integrated CALL Integrated language skills work Mixed skills and system

Type of task

Closed drills Quizzes

Simulations Games CMC

CMC WP e-mail Any, as appropriate to the immediate needs

Type of student activity

Text reconstruction Answering closed questions Minimal interaction with other students

Interacting with the computer Occasional interaction with other students

Frequent interaction with other students Some interaction with computer through the lesson

Type of feedback

Correct / incorrect

Focus of linguistic skills development Open, flexible

Interpreting, evaluating, commenting, stimulating thought

Teacher roles

Monitor

Monitor/ facilitator

Facilitator / Manager

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Teacher attitudes

Exaggerated fear and/ or awe

Exaggerated fear and/or awe

Normal part of teaching— normalised

Position in curriculum

Not integrated into syllabus —optional extra Technology precedes syllabus and learner needs

Toy Not integrated into syllabus — optional extra Technology precedes syllabus and learner needs

Tool for learning Normalised integrated into syllabus, adapted to learners’ needs Analysis of needs and context precedes decisions about technology

Position in lesson

Whole CALL lesson

Whole CALL lesson

Smaller part of every lesson

Physical position of computer

Separate computer lab

Separate lab— perhaps devoted to languages

In every classroom, on every desk, in every bag

Table 3: Restricted, Open and Integrated CALL: an outline Another set of paradigms is provided by Lund (2003): Paradigm

Structural / Behaviorist

Cognitive / Communicative

Sociocultural

Time of impact

1970s-1980s

1980s-1990s

1990s-21st Century

View of language

A formal, structural system

A mentally construed system

Developed in social interaction

Language Teaching Approach

Grammartranslation, Audiolingual, Instructional ICTs

Communicative Language Teaching, Comprehensible Input, Acquisition, Interactive ICTs

Multiliteracies, Socialization, Collaborative ICTs

Didactic focus

How Method-oriented

... and What Content-oriented

... and Why-WhenWhere Relational designs

Technology

Mainframe, tutorial software

PCs, educational software

Multimedia and Internet, convergence

Principal use of computers

Drill and practice

Communicative exercises

Authentic discourses

Location of activity

Computer lab

Co-located, labs, classroom, library

Networks, local and distributed online (school and out-of-school)

Principal objective

Accuracy

Fluency

Social interaction

Research issues

Technologies, software

Learners’ use of ICTs

Information ecologies

Research focus

Efficiency and effects

Cognitive processes

Transformation through participation

Table 4: Paradigms relevant to the intersection of the EFL, ICTs, and didactics

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The state of the art of ICT can be located in-between the two views of integrated and normalizing processes. Some years ago, someone who manipulated the existing software, namely word processing or spreadsheets, was granted the status of a professional. Similarly, someone who programmed computer applications that user-friendly authoring tools can do these days had a privileged status. Over the last years, however, doing many things with computers has become common performance. This is a sign of Bax’s process of normalisation but has not reached the stage of integration in his terms. In fact, a big proportion of integrating ICT depends on teachers. The situation on the grounds seems to favour Bax’s view more than Warschauer’s. In 2005, a discussion in which participants from at least 15 countries took part for a week and in which Bax was the guest to discuss the future of CALL revealed factors that still hindered normalisation of CALL. Ioannou-Georgiou (2006), who was the moderator of this discussion, succinctly summarized the week’s discussion. Here are some raised issues: - need for software and hardware - easy access to the technology - ‘top-down decision to use computers’ - provision of support (lots of support) - technical support should be aware of EFL methodology - personalisation of technology (learners are comfortable with it / sense of ownership) - teachers should be “PC and Internet empowered” - training for teachers - involvement of teaching staff in decisions of implementation - some help with suitable material for integrating CALL into teaching (or teachers setting up their own virtual environments) As a result of the above constraints, it is clearly stated that the full integration, or normalisation (in Bax’s terms), of ICT in language teaching still needs time and a lot of efforts to be achieved. Hennessy et al. (2005) describe the situation claiming that: “In practice, established curricula and teaching methods remain in place under a thin coating of technological glitter, and available technology is often underused and poorly integrated into classroom practice.” (p. 160) (see more barriers below).

It should be acknowledged that what is described as future in many countries, particularly developing ones, is already implemented in other developed or well-off countries.

2. Classroom of the future in an era of technology progress It should be acknowledged that what is described as future in many countries, particularly developing ones, is already implemented in other developed or well-off countries. Some universities have been labelled as laptop universities because laptops are distributed to both students and faculty members. As any new change in educational systems, this new trend has triggered controversies (Kantos, 2001). Kantos (2001) explains that officials in a laptop university, referring to Zayed University, have distributed the same software and hardware to students and faculty members to give the same opportunities to all by having access to the same input anywhere and anytime. While studying in such environments has advantages such as availability of ubiquitous input and a variety of sophisticated materials for projects and learning autonomy, it has drawbacks as well such as non-conformity with some students’ learning styles, ethical issues, and overworked teachers, etc. In a questionnaire he distributed to faculty members, they tend to favor such

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programs showing positive to very positive attitudes (Kantos, ibid.). Because of rapid technological developments over a decade, technologies in classrooms have shifted, and will shift in some places, as the following table illustrates:

The introduction of web 2.0 technologies has enabled internetusers to move from mere consumers of what technical savvy people produced to active producers of online content.

Old technologies

New technologies

phone-based communication

wireless communication

dial-up connectivity

permanent connectivity (DSL and 3G)

PCs

palmtops, iPads, iPhones,

Narrowband

broadband high speed connectivity

Expensive

affordable prices of hardware and software

elitist’s form of interaction

a mass form of communication (social networks)

Text

audiovisual (multimedia)

English

multilingual

non-native users (digital immigrants)

native users (digital natives)

Lab

classroom

chalk boards (black, green,)

interactive whiteboards

complicated technology

user-friendly technology (authoring)

Web 1.0

Web 2.0 and Web 3.0 later

(Adapted from Warschauer, 2000) Table 5: Rapid changes in technologies

The growing industry of portable devices such as iPods, iPads, iPhones … will enable users to benefit from a wide range of services offered by such devices including educational ones. They are promising as to ‘normalise’ the use of ICT in learning as they will be integrated into lessons as ‘just another’ tool for learning (Becta, 2004). Similarly, the promising industry of classroom equipment will result in more integration. Interactive whiteboards, also labeled smart boards, are promising in integrating ICT in education in general and in language classes in particular. These boards are increasingly being used in different parts of the UK (Becta, 2003) and both wireless connectivity and whiteboards are increasingly becoming part of classroom equipment in the UK (Becta, 2005). The development of technologies has been accompanied by the change in the shift of technology use. The introduction of web 2.0 technologies has enabled internet-users to move from mere consumers of what technical savvy people produced to active producers of online content. It should be noted that the power of using web 2.0 is far from being only the mastery of a variety of technologies; rather, it is the synergy of sharing and constructing knowledge that generate social capital which is the cornerstone of these technologies. Here are just a few examples of such technologies:

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Pedagogical benefits

Technologies

Sharing and commenting on photos

Flickr

Online bookmarking and sharing links

Hot lists, Delicious, Furl

Creating mailing lists

Googlegroups, Yahoogroups

Socializing and sharing photos, videos, messages

Facebook, MySpace, LinkedIn

Sharing videos

Youtube,

Sharing text messages

Twitter

Receiving updates on sites

Email alerts, RSS

Publishing personal diaries and blogs

Blogging

Sharing and commenting on spoken messages

Podcasting

Publishing, editing, and modifying documents

Wiki

Learning in a game-like approach

Second Life

Video and text chatting

Skype

Table 6: Some of the web 2.0 technologies and their functions in language learning Many of the aforementioned technologies have been used in language teaching and learning and many successful stories are reported online. Needless to report the list of studies here, the use of any search engine with a combination of the name of the technology and ELT or language learning / teaching will yield access to research-based articles describing how these technologies have been successfully used for ELT. Research reports that students at various levels use these technologies anyway and that they show signs of addiction and in most cases they waste a big amount of their time on social networks for recreational more than academic purposes (Bouziane, in progress a).

Authoring software, shareware and freeware programs, such as Hot Potatoes and many online platforms these days, have also contributed to facilitating technology use for teachers who are not technical savvy.

Also, the contribution of the open source communities has helped a lot to the use of technologies. Many schools and universities in developing countries, and developed ones too, have been using the products by these communities to share and generate content. LMS such as Moodle, CMS like Joomla and Drupal, and portals such as GuppY are but a few examples of the many open source software programs used in different parts of the world. Furthermore, customizable technologies have been used by individuals and / or by groups to serve specific purposes. Some examples are Google Apps, iGoogle, Open Office (Google Documents) which are widely used for recreational, social, and academic purposes. Authoring software, shareware and freeware programs, such as Hot Potatoes and many online platforms these days, have also contributed to facilitating technology use for teachers who are not technical savvy. Another factor that has brought enthusiasm to technology use in classrooms is the growing number of digital natives. The students who enroll in high schools these days are plugged in technology and therefore it has become part of their daily practices. Such people are labeled ‘digital natives’ as opposed to the ‘digital immigrants’ (Prensky, 2001) who lived in an era in which technology was unaffordable (very expensive), complicated (not user-friendly), restrictedly accessible (no mobility and no wireless), and elitist (digital divide

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effect). These people, unfortunately, constitute the majority of teachers in schools nowadays. Ironically, these people are supposed to teach students how to use technology for their studies. “Our students have changed radically. Today’s students are no longer the people our educational system was designed to teach” (Prensky, ibid.: 1, emphasis original). 3. The teacher’s role and the need for teacher training The introduction of ICT in education dictates new paradigmatic shifts in education itself. Magyar (2003: 3) summarises the features of some of these shifts as follows:

Schools teach know-how in the form of competencies rather than a fixed content which enables candidates to execute tasks in existing jobs.

Industrial society

Knowledge based society

Instruction in facts, data, rules

Formation of abilities, competencies

Transfer of closed, definitive “textbook knowledge”

Lifelong learning process supported by knowledge networks

Learning in closed, homogeneous groups at school

Learning in flexible, heterogeneous groups

“The sage on the stage”

“Guide on the side”

Frontal teaching

Constructivist education

Table 7: Differences between industrial and knowledge-based societies

Actually, the above-cited table describes some of the real challenges of today’s education whose mission is to prepare future citizens for constantly changing situations rather than for stable life jobs. Put simply, schools teach know-how in the form of competencies rather than a fixed content which enables candidates to execute tasks in existing jobs. With such shifts and with the advances of research, the teacher’s job is becoming more and more demanding (see teachers’ changing roles, their attitudes, barriers that come in the way of introducing CALL etc. in CarballoCalero, 2001). It seems that the adage of the Murphy’s Law that says: “Those who can do, those who can’t teach” should be reversed to become: “Those who can teach, those who can’t do”. The pressure put on the teaching staff is growing. For example, they are the first to be pointed whenever there are education crises (and there are many these days!). A close look at this quotation clarifies how the teaching profession is more demanding: “Teachers should know and be able to do in their work a spectacular array of things, such as understanding how people learn and how to teach effectively, including aspects of pedagogical content knowledge that incorporate language, culture, and community contexts for learning. Teachers also need to understand the person, the spirit of every child and find a way to nurture that spirit. And they need the skills to construct and manage classroom activities efficiently, communicate well, use technology, and reflect on their practice to learn from and improve it continually.” (Darling-Hammond, 2010: 223) The above statements should not be understood as if the teaching profession became an impossible mission; rather, this profession is becoming more and more challenging. Joining the profession amid the stages of implementing

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ICT as part of the curriculum has worsened the situation. As reported by research, many teachers have shown signs of apprehension vis-à-vis the use of technology. The literature has emphasized the teachers’ enthusiastic aspirations to using ICT but this enthusiasm faces a lot of barriers. Actually, the teacher happens to be the interface between technology and pedagogy (Lund, 2003). That is, the teacher is supposed to master (1) the subject matter (English in this case), (2) the teaching methods and approaches and the areas that are related to them, and (3) the different ways of delivery, both high-tech and low-tech (ICT supported or conventional). To do all these is not an easy undertaking. Lee (2000) outlined four barriers that come in the way of English teachers using technology in their deliveries. These were financial barriers, the availability of computer hardware and software, technical and theoretical knowledge and acceptance of the technology. Egbert et al. (2002) add administrative and curricular restrictions and lack of resources. They report their findings related to this point in this table: Factor

Number (n=6)

Lack of time

6

Administrative or curricular restrictions

4

Lack of resources

3

Not currently teaching language

3

Lack of knowledge

1

Lack of confidence

0

Lack of interest

0

Table 8: Influences on lack of computer use (ibid.: 120) Additionally, Abdal-Haqq (1995) reports other researchers’ findings related to barriers such as lack of faculty training and lack of clear expectation related to incorporating technology in academic activities; and doubt about the validity of implementing technology-based activities because their appearance in the literature is fairly recent.

As reported by research, many teachers have shown signs of apprehension vis-à-vis the use of technology. The literature has emphasized the teachers’ enthusiastic aspirations to using ICT but this enthusiasm faces a lot of barriers.

The apprehension attitudes resulting from the aforementioned challenges lead to different reactions. Teachers may adopt one of the following attitudes: “don’t want it” attitude for those who are generally reluctant to change. This same attitude can be adopted by those who suffer from technophobia. Other teachers think that integrating ICT in their teaching is daunting because of the big amount input to take. Some other teachers may be self-disparaging and they are defined as being “depression-prone people and typically dwell on their failures as evidence of their personal deficiencies while attributing their successes to external factors” (Eastin and LaRose, 2000: n.p.).

The aforementioned barriers have been reiterated by Bingimlas (2009) who, in a state-of-the art article, reports teachers’ strong desire to integrate ICT in their teaching and categorizes the barriers hindering this integration as follows: Teacher-level barriers: lack of confidence, lack of competence, resistance to change and negative attitudes

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School-level barriers: lack of time, lack of effective training, lack of accessibility, lack of technical support. To face the above-cited barriers and others (see Goktas et al., 2009, for similar and other barriers but mainly for enablers of ICT integration), the need for teacher training in ICT for ELT is far from being a luxurious practice (see recommendations by the same authors, ibid.: 201-202). Rather, it has become a must because the role s/he plays in integrating ICT in learning and teaching is crucial. Hubbard and Levy (2006) call for training at any professional levels: “…both language teachers in training and practicing teachers will find themselves at a disadvantage if they are not adequately proficient in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). In-service and pre-service programs alike are recognizing the need for filling this gap, and work is being done independently by hundreds of trainers in this area.” (p. ix) In an article that overviews the advances of ICT up to the late nineties and in which paradigm shifts and other issues are discussed, Warschauer and Meskill (2000: n.p.) come to the following conclusion: “In conclusion, the key to successful use of technology in language teaching lies not in hardware or software but in “humanware”? our human capacity as teachers to plan, design, and implement effective educational activity. Language learning is an act of creativity, imagination, exploration, expression, construction, and profound social and cultural collaboration. If we use computers to fully humanize and enhance this act, rather than to try to automate it, we can help bring out the best that human and machine have to offer.”

Kessler (2006) argues for quite the same view insisting that the human factor should play the key role in using computers. He stresses that “[t]eachers and developers of teacher training programs should approach development not in terms of what a computer can do, but in terms of what a human can do” (p. 26). Other authors have gone further to claim that teacher related factors are even more important than some seemingly important factors. IoannouGeorgiou (2006) deduces from the discussion of the CALL future that “…, it soon became evident that other factors, such as enthusiasm and motivation of teachers, seemed to have the capabilities for a larger impact on promoting CALL normalization than money and equipment alone.” (p. 383). Similarly, Hubbard (2008) puts teacher education as a key factor to full integration of ICT because “... language teachers are the pivotal players: they select the tools to sup­port their teaching and determine what CALL applications language learners are exposed to and how learners use them.” (p. 176). Being so important in deliveries through technology, teachers need careful training to overcome the challenges related to both pedagogy and technology. Researchers tend to suggest different ways of training but this part will focus only on two: collective learning and communities of practice. Collective learning is one of the most popular measures called for in training. Meskill et al. (2002) collected data through interviewing eight teachers - two experts (experienced teachers and technologies users), five novice teachers (limited experience in teaching and teaching with computers) and one transitional expert (experienced teacher and non-technology user). Their findings report instances of conceptual and practical differences between those who have used technologies as powerful teaching and learning tools and others who, despite the instructional technology input they received, still hold heterogeneous, and even contrasting, views about technologies and their applications. They then call for training novice teachers through inspiration: The Tunisian English Language Teaching Forum

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“…, educating novice teachers in thoughtful technologies use needs to begin with the development of concepts - a complex process of implementation and reflection that can be greatly informed by the voices of experienced practitioners.” (ibid.: 55) A similar view which calls for training is brought by Lund (2003): “… expertise is needed when making ICTs in education conducive to learning. However, expertise is not easily defined, nor is it a timeless, universal, and abstract construct. In the short history of ICTs in education, expertise has often been understood as having superior technological skills. … technologies are fundamentally social, i.e. they bring individuals into contact with other individuals and with resources produced by others. Thus, teachers’ ICT-related expertise needs to be addressed in social and relational terms.” (p. 265).

The common features in the two previous quotations are that they both call for a kind of training which is different from providing teachers with formal instruction in technological skills. Also, they both insist on teachers learning from one another. This same view is held by Tsui (2003) in a wider context of ESL. She suggests that teachers should collectively develop two types of expertise in the professional growth. “The notions of “multiple expertise” and “distributed expertise” highlight the importance of fostering a culture of collaboration in which expertise can be pooled, and the importance of encouraging teachers to participate in professional discourse communities so that they can learn from each other.” (pp. 181-2)

CoPs boost collective learning and put virtuous professionals together to construct knowledge. Their strong point is the social capital generated by the synergy of individuals during their interactions within the group.

The second way of teacher training which is closely related to the first is community of practice (CoP). CoPs boost collective learning and put virtuous professionals together to construct knowledge. Their strong point is the social capital generated by the synergy of individuals during their interactions within the group. There are many CoPs but two are worth mentioning here. One is the Webheads in action community (http://www. webheads.info/) whose members are scattered throughout the world. This community organizes its own conferences online using cutting-edge technologies for the sake of sharing and learning. Also, it has a mailing list on which new innovations by the members of the community share their findings and how-to practices. Another is Open Source Initiative community (http://opensource.org/) whose mission is to serve the underserved communities by providing free distribution software programs that can be customized to meet the users’ needs. Both communities, and others alike, have online interfaces which link members from different backgrounds. Actually, there is a need for such communities locally and across our region through which less served countries can share contriving measures of overcoming the lack of hardware and software especially in public schools and universities. Ideally, the major actors in each country can get together in a community in order to share good practices and then create links with regional and international networks. Strategies and action plans of teacher training are beyond the scope of this paper. Teacher trainers must be aware of all the aforementioned variables, particularly when they are designing their formal training programmes.

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In this area, Bouziane (in progress b) suggests a LEAP approach (Literacy, Efficacy, Appropriation, and Proficiency). Conclusion This paper has shown how the integration of ICT in ELT is full of challenges. The first challenge is that both ELT and technology are complex and therefore they result in teachers’ negative reactions of rejecting this integration. Ironically, the nature of students who enroll in high schools and universities these days requires the use of technologies and multimedia learning. Even more ironically, teachers are the key players in the integration. Their role seems to be more important than that of other stakeholders. Their training, therefore, needs careful planning and implementation. It should be acknowledged that teacher training is a necessary, but not sufficient, measure for the integration of ICT in language teaching. Other measures are related to the general policy (economic, social, political, etc.) of ICT integration adopted by a country in its educational system and to the learners who must be trained especially in computer, media, and information literacies. Unless such measures are taken, ICT is being integrated, normalized even, in new generations’ daily lives but outside CALL and, by extension, outside the educational system. Bibliography

Abdal-Haqq, I. (1995). Infusing technology into Pre-service Teacher Education (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 389699). Bax, S. (2002) Integrating new technology into language education. In A. Bouziane (ed.) Enhancing ELT Quality through Evaluation and Information Technologies Proceedings of the XXIInd MATE Annual Conference April 8-12 2002, M’dieq, 118-124 ______ (2003) CALL-past, present and future. System. 31 (1): 13-28 Becta (2003) What the research says about interactive whiteboards. Available at: http:// partners.becta.org.uk/page_documents/research/wtrs_whiteboards.pdf [Retrieved on 15 December 2010] Becta (2004) What the research says about portable ICT devices in teaching and learning. Available at: http://partners.becta.org.uk/page_documents/research/wtrs_porticts.pdf [Retrieved on December 15 2010] Becta (2005) The Becta Review 2005: Evidence on the progress of ICT in education. Available at: http://foi.becta.org.uk/content_files/corporate/resources/policy_and_strategy/ board/0503-mar/becta_review_2005.pdf [Retrieved on December 15 2010] Bingimlas, A. K. (2009) Barriers to the Successful Integration of ICT in Teaching and Learning Environments: A Review of the Literature. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education, 5 (3), 235-245 Bouziane, A. (in progress a) Moroccan University Students’ Use of Web 2.0 Technologies. __________ (in progress b) Teacher Training in Integrating ICT in Language Teaching: the LEAP Approach. Carballo-Carelo, V. F. (2001) “The EFL Teacher and the Introduction of Multimedia in the Classroom” Computer Assisted Language Learning, 14 (1), 3-14 Available at: http://faculty. ksu.edu.sa/saad/Documents/EFL%20teachers%20and%20CALL.pdf [Accessed on 21 September 2010] Chapelle, C. A. (1997) “Call in the Year 2000: Still in Search of Research Paradigms?” Language Learning & Technology Vol. 1, No. 1, July, pp. 19-43. Available at: http://llt.msu.edu/ vol1num1/chapelle/default.html [Accessed on 22 March 2005] _______________ . 2001. Computer Applications in Second Language Acquisition: Foundations for Teaching, Testing, and Research. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Clarke, M. K. (1994) The dysfunctions of the theory/practice discourse. TESOL Quarterly, 28 (1), 9-26 Coiro, J. (2003). Reading comprehension on the Internet: Expanding our understanding of reading comprehension to encompass new literacies [Exploring Literacy on the Internet department]. The Reading Teacher, 56 (6). Available at: http://www.readingonline.org/ electronic/elec_index.asp?HREF=/electronic/RT/2-03_column/index.html [Accessed on The Tunisian English Language Teaching Forum

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October 15 2010] Crookes, G. (1998). On the relationship between second and foreign language teachers and research. TESOL Journal, 7(3), 6-11. Darling-Hammond, L. (2010) “Constructing 21st-Century teacher Education”. In HillJackson, V. And Chance, W. L. (eds.) Transforming Teacher Education, Sterling, Virginia: Stylus Publishing. Eastin, M. S. and LaRose, R. (2000) Internet Self-Efficacy and the Psychology of the Digital Divide. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 6 (1). Available at: http://jcmc. indiana.edu/vol6/issue1/eastin.html [Retrieved November 30, 2010] Egbert, J.; Paulus, T. M.; and Nakamichi, Y. (2002) The Impact of CALL Instruction on Classroom Computer Use: A Foundation for Rethinking CALL Teacher Education? Language Learning and Technology, 6 (3), 108-268 Goktas, Y., Yildirim, S., & Yildirim, Z. (2009). Main Barriers and Possible Enablers of ICTs Integration into Pre-service Teacher Education Programs. Educational Technology & Society, 12 (1), 193–204. Hennessy, S.; Ruthven, K.; and Brindley, S. (2005) Teacher perspectives on integrating ICT into subject teaching: Commitment, constraints, caution and change Journal of Curriculum Studies, 37 (2), 155-192 Hubbard, P. (2008) CALL and the Future of Language Teacher Education. CALICO Journal, 25 (2), 175-188. Hubbard, P. and Levy, M. (Eds.) (2006) Teacher Education in CALL. John Benjamins Publishing Co. Philadelphia, PA, USA Ioannou-Georgiou, S. (2006) The Future of CALL. ELT Journal, 60 (4), 382-384. Kessler, G. (2006) Assessing CALL teacher training: What are we doing and what could we do better? In Hubbard, P. and Levy, M. (Eds.) Teacher Education in CALL. John Benjamins Publishing Co. Philadelphia, PA, USA , 23-42 Kontos, G. (2001) The laptop university: A faculty perspective. AACE Journal International Forum on Information Technology in Education, 9 (1). 32-47 Larsen-Freeman, D. (1987) From Unity to Diversity: Twenty-Five Years of LanguageTeaching Methodology English Teaching Forum, 25 (4). Available at: http://www.lll.hawaii. edu/nflrc/NetWorks/NW9/ [Accessed on September 4 2007] _______________ (1997) Chaos / Complexity Science and Second Language Acquisition. Applied Linguistics, 18 (2), 141-165 Lee, Kuang-wu (2000) English Teachers‘ Barriers to the Use of Computer-assisted Language Learning. The Internet TESL Journal, VI (12). Available at: http://iteslj.org/Articles/LeeCALLbarriers.html [Retrieved on May 15 2005] Lund, A. (2003) The Teacher as Interface. Teachers of EFL in ICT-rich Environments: Beliefs, Practices, Appropriation. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. University of Oslo. Magyar, B. (2003) The eLearner in 2010. Available at: http://www.nefmi.gov.hu/letolt/ minisz/TheeLearnerIn2010HiRes.pdf [Retrieved on 3rd January 2011] Meskill, C; Mossop, J.; DiAngelo, S.; and Pasquale, R. K. (2002) Expert and novice teachers talking technology: Precepts, concepts and misconcepts. Language Learning and Technology, 6 (3), 46-57. Prabhu, N. S. (1990) There is no best Method – why? TESOL Quarterly, 24 (2), 161-176. Prensky, M. (2001) Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants. Available at: http://www. marcprensky.com/writing/Prensky%20-%20Digital%20Natives,%20Digital%20 Immigrants%20-%20Part1.pdf [retrieved March 14, 2005] __________ (2011) The Reformers Are Leaving Our Schools in the 20th Century: Why Barack Obama, Arne Duncan, Bill Gates, Jeffrey Canada, Newt Gingrich, Colin Powell, and most U.S. school reformers are on the wrong track, and how to get our kids’ education right for the future. Available at: http://www.marcprensky.com/writing/+Prensky-The_ Reformers_Are_Leaving_Our_Schools_in_the_20th_Century-please_distribute_freely.pdf [Retrieved January 20 2011] Tanguay, E. (1997) English teachers, prepare yourselves for the digital age. Available at: http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/~tanguay/english-teachers.htm [Accessed on October 15 2010] Tsui, A. B. M. (2003) Understanding Expertise in Teaching: Case Studies of ESL Teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Warschauer, M. (2000). The death of cyberspace and the rebirth of CALL. English Teachers’ Journal, 53, 61-67 Warschauer, M., & Meskill, C. (2000). “Technology and Second Language Learning”. In J. Rosenthal (Ed.), Handbook of undergraduate second language education (pp. 303-318). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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LEARNING TO THINK DEMOCRATICALLY >>

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Learning to Think Democratically:

Citizenship Education in Tunisia Sihem DRISSI University of Gabes

In societies that have experienced long-term authoritarian political system, by choosing to enroll in a citizenship education course across the curriculum, pupils are probably much more likely to become active citizens. Education has an important role at promoting the ‘proper preparation of young citizens for the roles and responsibilities they must be ready to take on when they reach maturity” [Kelly A.1995:101]. One of the main motivations in the implementation of citizenship principles and civic engagement – in Tunisian classrooms – in English language courses than the other offered disciplines is to allow learners to approach the lesson as the spread of cultural values and tolerance. One important empirical aspiration of citizenship education is the identification of ‘Self perception’ and ‘Other’ in terms of cohesion and harmony in the age of globalization. To begin with, citizenship education presents itself as the cornerstone to build national identity from the school. Citizenship is a horizon, not only pedagogical, but also cultural, religious, social and political necessity to further spur both government and educators to dig into the role of schools in educating ‘teenagers’ to be ‘engaged citizens’. Tunisian teachers, with long experience, notice the adolescent’s identity [language they use, tone, ideas, gestures…] can easily be embedded in aggression where the related contestations – to religion, racism, gender equality, family solidarity… - surface [Schiffauer & al. 2004].

One important empirical aspiration of citizenship education is the identification of ‘Self perception’ and ‘Other’ in terms of cohesion and harmony in the age of globalization.

One of the main impetuses for the democratic citizenship education has been John Dewey’s work ‘Experience and Education’ in 1938 [Hickey & Mohan, 2004]. Citizenship education was formally a pedagogical approach to democracy, by connecting the classroom to the larger principles and norms of a civil and democratic society [Putnam, R1999]. Bringing forward evidence to show that the mutually reinforcing relationship between citizenship and education. The value of direct encounter with the different ‘Other’, through social websites, media, local context, classroom…, has been hailed as a means of measuring learner’s understanding of group membership, difference and belongingness.

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The priority challenge for Tunisian educators, in this transitional democratic period, is to actively engage learners in critical thinking activities, reading, writing and discussing about citizen’s rights and responsibilities, environment, local culture, patriotic practices and religious tolerance. Today’s educational textbooks through which educator will be leading his/her pupils should primarily meet national future goals and be the motivating force for change. In this way, teachers of English language, especially in secondary schools, should develop a sense of belonging to country and community. They should select and adopt textbooks that are endemic to pupils’ culture and inspirations both in both the national atmosphere and the globalized one [Giroux H. 1989]. The key to success with this democratic citizenship education is choosing lessons that stimulate students’ national imaginary, passions, cultural practices and social integration. These experiential reflections are believed to urge young learners to actively participate in the aforementioned areas, with the help of their teachers, through the use of a wide range of active participatory methods: 1. A concentration on citizens’ rights and responsibilities, and how the political consciousness probably cannot only be obtained via textbooks, but must result from kinesthetic experience. The most important techniques in accomplishing this goal pertain to developing learner’s confidence, decisionmaking and critical thinking. Advancing open and democratic nature of classroom, where students 2. are asked to think critically and participate in the learning process via the techniques of clustering, summary, reaction and disciplinary behavior. Educators must spell out and openly discuss the democratic values 3. [equality, civic engagement, election, sharing decision-making…] of the good governance in order to encourage learners applying them as classroom dynamics: empathic listening, group-forming “game”, role play, jigsaw puzzles, excerpts from election speeches, Concept Definition Mapping .etc 4. Educators should be aware of the links between education for democratic citizenship and human rights education. They have to encourage discussion of the different political or economic systems, spread ideas of good governance and the rule of law and empower forces of moderation and toleration via activities that are valued both by students and the wider culture. They should develop a learner’s awareness about critical social issues: alcoholism, internet addiction, sexual harassment, social injustice…etc. Educators have to be interested in elevating a better sense of the diversity and difference imbedded throughout any society. They can focus, therefore, on team group working.

The priority challenge for Tunisian educators, in this transitional democratic period, is to actively engage learners in critical thinking activities, reading, writing and discussing about citizen’s rights and responsibilities, environment, local culture, patriotic practices and religious tolerance.

Developing learners’ non-stereotypical attitudes towards social groups, 5. political parties, foreigners…etc, with a focus on promoting feeling-recognition and positive self-image. This will be successfully done via activities and assignments [such as negotiation skills, problem solving,..] that might tap into national belonging, social harmony, voluntary/cooperative mentality and intercultural communication. In the face of challenges such as globalization, cultural misunderstanding and national disengagement, it has become clear that education profoundly contributes to community conformity, social harmony and participatory democratic citizenship. It becomes important to include human rights,

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personal and social values, intercultural anti-racist orientations in the Tunisian curriculum. Undoubtedly, the notion of ‘Good citizen’ is dependent upon the vital skills in overemphasizing participatory decision-making across the school [Gifford, 2004]. Nevertheless, the focus of citizenship education is to emphasize more on tolerance, inclusivity and social justice. Its impacts of positive change and democratization have increased at an unprecedented rate in the schools and societies [Australia, Japan, Finland…]. Following the paths of these democratic countries, I have found that it is the time for Tunisian teachers to actively foster a shared sense of involvement, belonging and peaceful coexistence, since they are the main ‘neutral’ participants who are able to engage learners in a joint construction of the democratic society.

In it is the time for Tunisian teachers to actively foster a shared sense of involvement, belonging and peaceful coexistence.

References:

Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and Education: The 60th Anniversary Edition. West Lafayette: Kappa Delta Pi. Enslin, P, Pendlebury, S & Tjiattas, M. 2001. Deliberative democracy, diversity and the challenges of citizenship education. Journal of the Philosophy of Education, 35(1): 115-130. Giroux, H. A. (1989). Schooling for Democracy. Critical Pedagogy in the Modern Age, New York: Routledge. Hickey, S. and Mohan, G. (eds.) (2004). Participation: From Tyranny to Transformation? - Exploring New Approaches to Participation in Development, London: Zed Books Kelly, A.V. (1995) Education and Democracy. Principles and practices, London: Paul Chapman. Kymlicka, W & Norman W. (2000). Citizenship in Culturally Diverse Societies: Issues, Contexts, Concepts. In W Kymlicka & W Norman (eds.), Citizenship in Diverse Societies. Oxford: Oxford University Press: 1-41. Putnam, R. D. (1999) Bowling alone: the Collapse and Revival of American Community, New York: Simon and Schuster.

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How can teachers help students make learning part of themselves?

Fathi Bouguerra EFL Teacher, Ben Aoun School

“Students must talk about what they are learning, Write about it, relate it to past experiences, and apply it to their daily lives” Learners nowadays think and behave differently than those from previous generations. These students were born into a world of information technology, they prefer to multitask rather than focus on one thing at a time, and they can be more attracted to the ideas of a peer or a web video than what their teachers have to offer. Evidently the old way of schooling, namely the teacher as “sage on the stage” is not effective with the Net Gen or the Generation Y – a term coined by Mc Crindle Research in 2006. Teachers who merely follow textbooks are likely to be perceived as “old hats”. What I am specifically questioning is the idea of learner-centred environment, an enjoyable lesson, learner autonomy in relation to the Tunisian official programme with the aim of having a teacher who could bring the real world into the classroom and a motivated pupil who thinks , reasons , communicates and continues her/his learning outside the class. “CLT prepares students for the linguistic challenges they encounter outside the classroom” (Savignon, 1991) Integration of Language Skills It’s often difficult for students to use their receptive reading and listening vocabulary for the productive skills of speaking and writing. The receptive and productive skills relate to each other in important ways and they can also be categorized as written skills (reading, writing) and oral skills (speaking, listening). A student can’t write without reading and can’t hold meaningful conversations without listening. (8th year: P: 22) Use the reading / listening text as a model and write the telephone conversation Imen had with Chris. This interrelationship between productive and receptive skills it crucial to adopt a four-skill approach to learning.

The old way of schooling, namely the teacher as “sage on the stage”, is not effective with the Net Gen or the Generation Y.

Process Writing In contrast to the product approach to writing, which is based on studying and replicating textual models, the process approach involves multiple and repeated steps – brainstorming, pre-writing, drafting, and asking for feedback through peer review- compel the writer to closely consider the topic, language, purpose for writing and social reality. (4th year; P: 15) 1) Develop the notes provided into sentences

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2) Use suitable connectors to link your sentences. 3) Exchange your work with a classmate for peer correction. 4) Once you get your draft back, revise it, making the necessary changes. Edit your draft and show it to your teacher for a final check. 5) Teachers should always keep in mind that writers don’t perform these stages linearly but rather like a pinball game (Camp bell, 1998) , in which the ball moves back and forth.

Teaching vocabulary It is important to expose students to a large amount of four-skill practice that contains a large percentage of high- frequency words- those words that appear most often in written and spoken texts and are therefore the most useful ones to learn. Learners should also learn low frequency words using the following strategies (1) guessing the words from context ( 1st year , P: 66) a – Try to guess the meaning of the following words : a tip ; to enhance ; fortified . b- Say what helped you guess their meaning ;( 2) analysing the parts of words (roots, prefixes, suffixes); ( 3) and using a dictionary to look up meaning ( 1st year ; P: 78) Focus on the following words – bricklayer ; roof tiler; plasterer ; and say a) Which ones you need to look up in a dictionary , b) which ones you can understand by your self and why. Effective teacher directives can optimize student autonomy and facilitate effective cooperative learning, which is at the core of a student-centred environment.

Teaching Grammar Inductive learning is the process of ‘discovering’ general principles from facts. In a language classroom an inductive approach involves getting the students to discover rules and how they are applied by looking at examples. The role of the teacher is to provide the language the learners need to discover the rules, to guide them in discovery if necessary, and then to provide more opportunities to practice. This approach which involves discovery techniques often exploits authentic material, has learners at the centre of the lesson and focuses on use rather than rule. (2nd year; P: 26) 1)“ Since then , I ‘ve become a grand mother” * Which tense is used? * What does it express? * What’s the special indicator? 2 ) Refer back to the text and find more sentences using the same tense * Do they all have the same indicators? * Do they all express the same meaning? 3) With your teacher find out other uses of the same tense. Cooperative Learning Effective teacher directives can optimize student autonomy and facilitate effective cooperative learning, which is at the core of a student-centred environment. These principles have led to the increasing use of group work in the language classroom where students work in teams to construct knowledge and accomplish tasks through collaborative interaction. (3rd year; P: 46) Think of the Tunisian context. In small groups, list the different occasions when Tunisians show generosity to their needy country men, then share the information with your other classmates. Using pair and group work allowed me to observe my students more carefully, quietly monitoring the interaction often showed me what language was problematic for my students and gave me non invasive way to assess how they were progressing.

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(9th year; P: 46) Find reasons why Kelly didn’t like her school. * Work in pairs and say whether the same things happen in your school. Group work can go beyond the classroom where students are involved in project works .In such activities both the process and the product approach are mingled. (8th year ; P: 70) a) Choose 4 English songs b) Record them on a tape or CD c) Exchange your tape with another group d) If you know the words of the songs , write them and attach them to the tape or CD e) Short of ideas you can visit the following web site: www. Lyrics.com ICT in ELT Today’s youth have never known life without computer and the internet. Therefore, they see technology as an integral part of their lives. “Today’s students are no longer the people our educational system was designed to teach” ( Persky ) The Tunisian programme has identified many useful ways to bring new technology into the classroom, including creating wikis, using web quests, implementing video-based activities through sites such as YouTube, incorporating video games and making use of instant messaging. ( 4th year ; P:123 ) Use the Google search engine. Type in the phrase “expository texts” to see samples. Select the sample that you like best. We will need to prepare well- structured, well- rationed learning tasks that incorporate technology and provide the necessary support for students to benefit from that technology. ( 4th year , P: 133 ) Access www.poetry.com to submit your poem and see lots of other poems that have won prizes. Use of Games Games are effective teaching tools and have many positive aspects , including the creation of opportunities for students to communicate in a relaxed, friendly and cooperative environment. Games reduce tensions by adding fun and humour to lessons and they can add an element of competitiveness that motivates students to participate. Games are also “ often most effective as student- centred activities , where they can make their own choices to play, or indeed to play at all.” ( Brandt , 2002 ) We can use games as warm up activities , as fillers or as practice exercises.

Games are effective teaching tools and have many positive aspects , including the creation of opportunities for students to communicate in a relaxed, friendly and cooperative environment.

Teaching English To Young Learners Story focus is seen as the first road to learning. Stories are energizers. When someone says: “ Let me tell you a story”, listeners perk up their ears and smile. Even hard truth can be taught easily through stories. According to Krashen ( 1982) stories lower the the young learners’ affective filter , allowing them to learn more easily. ( 8th year ; My dog was almost too smart , P : 135 _ 137 ). ( 9th year ; Grand ma’s corner “ fire – fire” P:122 ) The Tunisian national programme fosters linguistic accuracy as well as cross- curricular competency. Since students learn language better when

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it is connected to their real life ; it is a good idea to consider what they are learning in a school day. Most children’s lives revolve around home and school. ( 7th year ) 1. Tell about your family; P: 5 2. What are your hobbies?; P: 13 3. How do you spend your day? P: 20 4. Let’s visit Aly’s school P: 141 So we should collaborate with other teachers in the same school to find out what is relevant to students; then add English instructions on top of that. Learning sessions serve not only to teach language items but also to develop new learning skills and strategies and / or help to transform them from / to French and Arabic (1st year) a ) P: 32 * To get the information you need , ask your Arabic teacher. b ) P: 67* Ask your Biology teacher the following questions : 1. How often can we donate blood? 2. Who can’t donate blood? 3. At what age can one start donating blood? c) P: 84* Read the Tunisian constitution and ask your civic education about basic human rights.

The objective is to empower teachers to use classroom assessment to give students feedback on their learning performance that can be used to improve subsequent learning.

Assessment The pendulum has swung from an exam- driven assessment (summative) approach to one that is more student – centred (formative). The objective is to empower teachers to use classroom assessment to give students feedback on their learning performance that can be used to improve subsequent learning. The national programme also fosters self assessment that supports the use of ability or “I can statements” which can lead to greater learner empowerment and autonomy.

(7th year; P: 39) *Tick the right box ; Now I can Greet people tell the time

pronounce words correctly

(2nd year; P: 122) * What I liked most in this lesson *What I liked least in this lesson (3rd year; P: 146) * circle the alternative that applies to you. I still need to work on: Reading / listening / speaking / writing / grammar / vocabulary Students can refer back to their portfolios as part of self evaluation. (3rd year; P: 83) * Write a report based on your findings and keep it in your portfolio. (4th year; P: 96) * Use the Google or Yahoo search engine to select the most interesting information about UNICEF, and then insert it in your portfolio.

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Conclusion The need for learner- centred teaching reminds us that good teaching from the time of Plato until today has actively involved students in the process by helping them to become initiators of their own learning. “Involve me and I will learn” Efforts should be taken to enable students to progress gradually from receptive to productive knowledge. The learning habits they acquired now help them become more independent thinkers, responsible citizens and confident language learners who will continue to pursue better proficiency in English beyond the course. “The object of education is to prepare the young to educate themselves through out their lives.” If language courses in the Tunisian context become a means for learning about the world we live in, rather than just learning about language, our students will better appreciate the relevance of English to their personal learning goals and their future objectives. Thus, expanding educational, occupational and social opportunities for individual in our global society.

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<< How can teachers help students make learning part of themselves?

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Stephan Krashen’s Monitor Model for SLA Jalel Guesmi Teaching Assistant of Arabic Modern Languages Department Ursinus College, PA Language acquisition is a unique experience for speakers of a second language. Looking back to their childhood, people would certainly remember the first stage of their language acquisition. People would also tell of how their linguistic competence has developed and how much progress they have achieved in using another language in addition to their mother tongue. It is interesting because it is an aspect of their identity formation, but people often raise questions about the way they first picked up the second language, their mental abilities and their attitudes toward learning it. Likewise, interest in second language learning and use dates back many centuries and it is only since the mid-19th century that experts in the field have started to investigate the field and come up with a set of theories and models to answer such questions. The aim of this present paper is to shed light on Stephan Krashen’s Monitor Model as a theory of SLA. Later, some limitations to its validity will be put along with my development of this work .

In the eyes of behaviorists, human speech and language learning is a merely human behavior and acquiring such a language is a matter of habit formation in a process of Stimulus –ResponseReinforcement.

Before the proposal of the Monitor Model by Stephan Krashen in 1987, Behaviorism had been considered as a famous theory for the interpretation of human behavior. In the eyes of behaviorists, human speech and language learning is a merely human behavior and acquiring such a language is a matter of habit formation in a process of Stimulus –Response-Reinforcement(SR-R). Based on that theory , emerged the Audio-lingual Method as an approach to language teaching that emphasized repetition and drilling in the learning context. This approach was widely practiced in much of the world until the late of the 1980s. But the Stimulus Reinforcement (SR) model, generally, does not account for all learning by any means .Behaviorism, later on, started to be regarded as being a particularly unfruitful approach to the understanding of human behavior. Both in its emphasis on the role of the environment and in its denial of the role of the mind, it turned to be seen as being simplistic especially with the introduction of the mentalist and constructivist ideas which gave much importance to the human brain in the process of SLA. The Monitor Model for SLA has an internal focus to see what happens in the learner’s mind. Practically speaking, it is focused on the work of Noam Chomsky and his followers who believe in the speaker’s internalized underlying knowledge rather than the description of surface forms as in earlier Structuralism, the fashion of the 1950s. In her book Introducing Second Language Acquisition, Muriel Saville-Troike says that Krashen’s theory “explicitly and essentially adopts the notion of a Language Acquisition Device (or LAD), which is a metaphor Chomsky used for children’s innate knowledge of language.” By definition,The Monitor Model consists of five hypotheses. The first hypothesis is called Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis .Here, there is a distinction between acquiring a language and learning about a language .The former occurs without paying any attention to the process .whereas the latter

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According to Anderson,the difference should be between two stages in the assimilation of knowledge,rather than between learning and acquisition as two totally different forms.

is conscious. Furthermore, Krashen’s hypothesis is based on an assumption that the LAD is always available for the acquisition of a Second Language. The second hypothesis is called the Monitor Hypothesis, which means what is learned is available as a monitor,a store of conscious knowledge about L2 that is a product of learning and is available for purposes of editing or making changes in what has already been produced. Krashen believes that formal learning is only of use to the learner in certain situations, thus he writes ‘’ our fluency in production is thus hypothesized to have come from what we have ‘’picked up’’, what we have acquired in natural communicative situations. Our ’ formal knowledge’ of a second language, the rules we learned in class and from texts, is not responsible for fluency, but only has the function of checking and making repairs on the output of the acquired system’’.(The Natural Approach, Krashen and Terrell,p.30) . So the checking function is carried by what Krashen refers to as ‘Monitor’. The third hypothesis is referred to as the Natural Order Hypothesis which means that we acquire the rules of language in a predictable order. Krashen calls the fourth hypothesis the Input Hypothesis. As the naming may suggest, language acquisition takes place because there is comprehensible input. If the input is understood, and if there is enough of it, the necessary grammar is automatically provided. Finally, the fifth component of the Monitor Model for SLA is the Affective Filter Hypothesis. This means that if the filter (the mechanism that allows or restricts the processing of input) is up, input is not processed as well. Krashen points to the importance of motivation,selfconfidence and anxiety. He holds that these factors are more decisive for SL learners. According to Krashen pedagogical goals should not include supplying comprehensible input ‘’ but also creating a situation that encourages a low filter…The input hypothesis and the Affective Filter define the language teacher in a new way’’ (Krashen, Principles and Practice, p.32).Therefore the effective language teacher is someone who can provide input and help make it comprehensible in a low anxiety situation. Krashen’s Model of language learning actually has a major influence on language teaching in the USA and many countries all over the world but still his work on that lacks some clarity and accuracy. There are a number of criticisms that can be made on the basic distinction .According to Anderson,the difference should be between two stages in the assimilation of knowledge,rather than between learning and acquisition as two totally different forms. Anderson in his Model makes what appears to be a similar distinction between Declarative and Procedural Knowledge. Anderson believes that language is first of all taught, and then rehearsed, as a set of rules –that is declarative Knowledge. Then, through assimilation to already existing knowledge, the new behaviors become routinized as Procedural knowledge. Additionally, the performer of written or spoken language has to have enough time to use the Monitor to check and this may disrupt the communication. That is why over-use of the Monitor is counter -productive. In Timothy Mason’s terms, the performer also will be more concerned with what he is saying rather than how he says it’’. The question of distinction between what is learned and what is acquired is already problematic. I think that distinction should not exist at all. Concerning the input hypothesis, it is also important to talk about output of learners. Output of some kids, based on my experience in class as a teacher, is seen as a necessary element in language acquisition. When the student is called to produce language,at that time he or she feels the real need to organize and elaborate upon the knowledge of L2. So Krashen should have given much

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Teachers’ intention should be directed to the need of a varied and interesting input rather than punishing failure to use perfect grammar of the target language.

importance to output the way he did with input. Krashen seems to put much blame on learners for being or not ready for assimilating input but, to my mind,in many countries instrumental motivation can be more powerful than personal motivation and this affects L2 degree of acquisition and it influences the learner’s type of language he is seeking; whether formal or informal in terms of monitoring possibilities using grammar to create meaning and functions in communication. Likewise the teacher’s behavior can also influence the learner’s motivation and aptitude whether positively or negatively. Krashen’s hypotheses were interesting and provided some insights into the way we might present a foreign language or even understand the way we deal with languages as a human faculty. However, when he comes to make a distinction between learning and acquiring a language and between formal and informal input, they’’ suffer from under-definition and over-generalization’’(Timothy Mason Lectures on Didactics, lecture 12.p.2). All in all, the Monitor Model introduced by Stephan Krashen cannot represent the last word on language teaching. In this respect, teachers’ intention should be directed to the need of a varied and interesting input rather than punishing failure to use perfect grammar of the target language. Traditional grammar teaching which means imposing the teacher’s knowledge of grammar on students for a better comprehensible input is no longer accurate .It doesn’t have any appreciable effects on L2 acquisition. Timothy Mason believes that a fruitful teaching strategy would be to help the student construct his or her own grammar, or rather to construct a series of intermediate grammars, gradually approaching full mastery. I think that too much emphasis on formal language and grammar will work as a hindrance of language learning in informal contexts though much of our linguistic knowledge is encountered in there. References :

Saville, Troike. (2012) .Introducing Second Language Acquisition, University of Arizona, USA. Timothy, Mason.(1999) online Lectures on second Language Acquisition, Université de Paris 8, France.www.timothyjpmason.com/

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40 Websites for EFL Teachers (With a Focus on 4th Year S.E. Classes in Tunisia) Topic / skill

Level/ Website section ‘Parallelism’ 4th Year http://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/ grammar-exercise-parallelism.php th “Villain” and “hero” 4 Year http://www.librarysparks.com/pdf/ librarysparks/2012/lsp_feb12_cc_repros.pdf vocabulary , drama Arts terminology

1 2

3

4th Year Arts 4th Year

Type/ format HTML PDF

http://www.readwritethink.org/files/resources/ interactives/plot-diagram/ http://www.teachersdomain.org/asset/pj07_vid_ education/ http://www.anglais.edunet.tn/ict_exper/teach_ wr_icttools.ppt http://www.esl-lounge.com/level3/ lev3usedtowould.php http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/ vocabulary.htm

Flash

4

Plot Diagram (Interactive) Education, Science

5

Writing using ICT 4th Year

6

‘Used to’ vs. ‘Would’ Prefixes and Suffixes

4th Year

‘Affect’ vs. ‘effect’; tips for distinguishing between words Use of English / the internet

4th Year

http://grammar.quickanddirtytips.com/affectversus-effect.aspx

Audio/ HTML

4th Year

http://www.englishlearner.com/intermediate/ use-of-english-cloze-facebook-1.shtml

10

Tourism

4th Year

11

The Comparative

4th Year

HTML / online quiz Word doc. HTML

12

Writing

4th Year

13

Prep. phrases

4th Year

14

Conversation questions / Education Writing: Argumentative essays

4th Year

http://www.englishbanana.com/hotel-anagramsiv3.doc http://www.zozanga.com/grammar/ adjectivecomp.htm http://ed.ted.com/lessons/the-case-against-good- video and-bad http://www.world-english.org/ HTML prepositionalphrases.htm / online quiz http://iteslj.org/questions/education.html HTML

7

8

9

15

4th Year

4th Year

video PPT HTML HTML

http://english.knoji.com/how-to-write-oneHTML argumentative-paragraph-eslbasic-skills-writing/

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16

17

18

Grammar focus: 4th Year Despite/although/ however Collocations 4th Year (exciting game: the millionaire TV contest) Language review 4th Year

http://www.time4english.com/aamain/school/ igram_despite1.asp

HTML

http://www.tinyteflteacher.co.uk/teacher/IT/ powerpoint/millionaire_verbs.ppt

PPT

http://www.studyverbs.com/level-a-main-page/ level-a-quiz-4/

HTML /online quiz HTML

Brain Drain / Reading comprehension Holidays

4th Year

http://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/ reading_brain_drain.php

4th Year

21

English / Science and technology

4th Year

22

Previous Bac exams Unitsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; summaries (vocabulary/ grammar, etc...) Writing a simple paragraph

4th Year

http://www.eslpdf.com/esl-pdfs/holidays_ stpatricksday1.pdf http://www.english-magazine.org/index. php/english-reading/english-for-sciencetechnology/1101-science-article281 http://www.bacweb.tn/section.htm

25

Types of Writing

4th Year

26

Holidaying/ describing places Modals of Necessity, prohibition and Permission Parts of Speech

4th Year

19

20

23

24

27

28

4th Year

http://www.educationworld.com/a_lesson/ HTML worksheets/timesavers-for-teachers/6-8/write-aparagraph.shtml http://www.write.armstrong.edu/handouts/ PDF Modes.pdf http://www.lonelyplanet.com/tunisia HTML

4th Year

http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/410/ grammar/410-modals-of-necessity-prohibitionand-permission1.htm

HTML /online quiz

4th Year

http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/ resource/730/1/ http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/grammar/ tenses_table.pdf http://www.englishvocabularyexercises.com/eveexercises/EngVocEx_money_work_6-1.htm

HTML

31

Inventions

4th Year

32

Smoking / pollution Space Tourism

4th Year

Vocabulary: opposites

4th Year

33 34

PDF

http://www.edutic.edunet.tn/anglais/ressources/ PDF/ bac2011anglais/units.html HTML

4th Year

30

HTML

4th Year

English Tenses (table) Money and Work (vocabulary)

29

PDF

4th Year

4th Year

http://www.havefunwithhistory.com/movies/ dreams.html http://tiki.oneworld.net/pollution/pollution3. html#!prettyPhoto[iframes]/1/ http://www.breakingnewsenglish. com/0602/060219-spaceport.html http://film-english.com/2011/12/19/symmetry/

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Gapped lyrics

4th Year

http://www.lyricsgaps.com/exercises/ view/1571/Intermediate

36

Alfred Nobel

4th Year

37

Jobs/ careers

4th Year

http://www.sweden.se/upload/Sweden_se/ english/factsheets/SI/SI_FS15aa_Nobel_Prizein_Sweden_and_the_world/FS20-Nobel-highresolution.pdf http://esl-bits.net/interact/sets/Set5_frame.htm

38

Discoveries

4th Year

http://mrnussbaum.com/readingcomp/ silkroadcomp/

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Reading: Text Types Gap-filling task

4th Year Arts 4th Year

http://www.bbc.co.uk/skillswise/factsheet/ en03text-l1-f-different-types-of-text http://www.rhlschool.com/read6n8.htm

40

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HTML /online quiz HTML /online quiz HTML HTML

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Visit our Teaching blog: http://tunisian-etforum.blogspot.com The Tunisian English Language Forum

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The Tunisian ELT Forum Magazine, issue 7  

This is the seventh issue of The Tunisian ELT Forum, the e-magazine for teachers of English all around the world.

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