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AFAB  INSTRUCTIONS  TO  AUTHORS   MANUSCRIPT  SUBMISSION   Authors must submit their papers electronically ( According to instructions provided online at our site: Authors who are unable to submit electronically should contact the editorial office for assistance by email at

CONTENT  OF  MANUSCRIPT We invite you to consider submitting your research and review manuscripts to AFAB. The journal serves as a peer reviewed scientific forum for to the latest advancements in bacteriology research on Agricultural and Food Systems which includes the following fields: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Aerobic microbiology Aerobiology Anaerobic microbiology Analytical microbiology Animal microbiology Antibiotics Antimicrobials Bacteriophage Bioremediation Biotechnology Detection Environmental microbiology Feed microbiology Fermentation Food bacteriology Food control Food microbiology Food quality Food Safety

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •


Foodborne pathogens Gastrointestinal microbiology Microbial education Microbial genetics Microbial physiology Modeling and microbial kinetics Natural products Phytoceuticals Quantitative microbiology Plant microbiology Plant pathogens Prebiotics Probiotics Rumen microbiology Rapid methods Toxins Veterinary microbiology Waste microbiology Water microbiology

With an open access publication model of this journal, all interested readers around the world can freely access articles online. AFAB publishes original papers including, but not limited to the types of manuscripts described in the following sections. Papers that have been, or are scheduled to be, published elsewhere should not be submitted and will not be reviewed. Opinions or views expressed in papers published by AFAB are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the opinion of the AFAB or the editorial board.

MANUSCRIPT TYPES Full-Length Research Manuscripts AFAB accepts full-length research articles containing four (4) figures and/or tables or more. AFAB emphasizes the importance of sound scientific experimentation on any of the topics listed in the focus areas followed by clear concise writing that describes the research in its entirety. The results of experiments published in AFAB must be replicated, with appropriate statistical assessment of experimental variation and assignment of significant difference. Major headings to include are: Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion (or Results and Discussion), Acknowledgements (optional), Appendix for abbreviations (optional), and References. Manuscripts clearly lacking in language will be returned to author without review, with a suggestion that English editing be sought before the paper is reconsidered. AFAB offers a fee based language service upon request. Please contact for more information about our fees and services. Rapid Communications Under normal circumstances, AFAB aims for receipt-to-decision times of approximately one month or less. Accepted papers will have priority for publication in the next available issue of AFAB. However, if an author chooses or requires a much more rapid peer review, the journal editorial office has the capability to shorten the review timing to one week or less. Any type of manuscript whether it be a full length manuscript, brief communication or review paper can be submitted as a rapid communication. There will be additional costs for processing and page charges will be double the normal rate. Authors who choose this option must select Rapid Communications as the paper type when submitting the paper and the editors will judge whether a rapid review is possible and let the author know immediately. Brief Communications Brief communications are short research notes giving the results of complete experiments but are considered less comprehensive than full-length articles with three (3) figures and/or tables or less. Manuscripts should be prepared with the same subheadings as full length research papers. The running head above the title of the paper is “Brief Communications”.


Unsolicited Review Papers Review papers are welcome on any topic listed in the focus section and have no page limits. Reviews are assessed the same pages charges as all other manuscripts. All AFAB guidelines for style and form apply. Major headings to include are: Abstract, Introduction, Main discussion topics and appropriate subheadings, Conclusions, Acknowledgements (optional) and References. Review papers shorter than 20 pages of double spaced text and references will be considered mini reviews with the subheading above the title on the first page. The running head above the title of the paper is either “Review” or “Minireview”. Solicited Review Papers Solicited reviews will have no page limits. The editor-in-chief will send invitations to the authors and then review these contributions when they are submitted. Nominations or suggestions for potential timely reviews are welcomed by the editors or editorial board members and should be sent to There will be no page charges for solicited review papers but the solicitation must originate from the editor-in-chief or one of the editors. Requests from authors will automatically be classified as unsolicited review papers. The running head above the title of the paper will be “Invited Review”. Conference and Special Issues Reviews AFAB welcomes opportunities to publish papers from symposia, scientific conference, and/or meetings in their entirety. Conference organizers need simply to contact AFAB at and a rapid decision is guaranteed. If in agreement, the conference organizers must guarantee delivery of a set number of peer reviewed manuscripts within a specified time and submitted in the same format as that described for unsolicited review papers. Conference papers must be prepared in accordance with the guidelines for review articles and are subject to peer review. The conference chair must decide whether or not they wish to serve as Special Issue Editor and conduct the editorial review process. If the conference chair/organizer chooses to serve as special issue editor, this will involve review of the papers and, if necessary, returning them to the authors for revision. The conference organizer then submits the revised manuscripts to the journal editorial office for further editorial examination. Final revisions by the author and recommendations for acceptance or rejection by the chair must be completed by a mutually agreed upon date between the editor and the conference organizer. Manuscripts not meeting this deadline will not be included in the published symposium proceedings but if submitted later can still be considered as unsolicited review papers. Although offprints and costs of pages are the same as for all other papers, the symposium chair may be asked to guarantee an agreed upon number of hard copies to be purchased by conference attendees. If the decision is not to publish the symposium as a special issue, the individual authors retain the right to submit their papers for consideration for the journal as ordinary unsolicited review manuscripts.


Book Reviews. AFAB publishes reviews of books considered to be of interest to the readers. The editorin-chief ordinarily solicits reviews. Book reviews shall be prepared in accordance to the style and form requirements of the journal, and they are subject to editorial revision. No page charges will be assessed solicited reviews while unsolicited book reviews will be assigned the regular page charge rate. Opinions and Current Viewpoints The purpose of this section will be to discuss, critique, or expand on scientific points made in articles recently published in AFAB. Drafts must be received within 6 months of an article’s publication. Opinions and current perspectives do not have page limits. They shall have a title followed by the body of the text and references. Author name(s) and affiliation(s) shall be placed between the end of the text and list of references. If this document pertains to a particular manuscript then the author(s) of the original paper(s) will be provided a copy of the letter and offered the opportunity to submit for consideration a reply within 30 days. Responses will have the same page restrictions and format as the original opinion and current viewpoint, and the titles shall end with “—Opinions.” They will be published together. Letters and replies shall follow appropriate AFAB format and may be edited by the editor-in-chief and a technical editor. If multiple letters on the same topic are received, a representative set of opinions concerning a specific article will be published. A disclaimer will be added by the editorial staff that the opinion expressed in this viewpoint is the authors alone and does not necessarily represent the opinion of AFAB or the editorial board.

COPYRIGHT AGREEMENT     The copyright form is published in AFAB as space permits and is available online ( AFAB grants to the author the right of re-publication in any book of which he or she is the author or editor, subject only to giving proper credit to the original journal publication of the article by AFAB. AFAB retains the copyright to all materials accepted for publication in the journal. If an author desires to reprint a table or figure published from a nonAFAB source, written evidence of copyright permission from an authority representing that source must be obtained by the author and forwarded to the AFAB editorial office.

PEER REVIEW  PROCESS   Authors will be requested to provide the names and complete addresses including emails of five (5) potential reviewers who have expertise in the research area and no conflict of interest with any of the authors. Except for manuscripts designated as Rapid Communication each reviewer has two (2) weeks to review the manuscript, and submit comments electronically to the editorial office. Authors have three (3) weeks to complete the revision, which shall be returned 4  

to the editorial office within six (6) weeks after which the authors risk having their manuscript removed from AFAB files if they fail to ask the editorial office for an extension by email. Deleted manuscripts will be reconsidered, but they will have to be processed as new manuscripts with an additional processing fee assessed upon submission. Once reviewed, the author will be notified of the outcome and advised accordingly. Editors handle all initial correspondence with authors during the review process. The editor-in chief will notify the author of the final decision to accept or reject. Rejected manuscripts can be resubmitted only with an invitation from the editor or editor-in chief. Revised versions of previously rejected manuscripts are treated as new submissions.

PRODUCTION OF  PROOFS   Accepted manuscripts are forwarded to the editorial office for technical editing and layout. The manuscript is then formatted, figures are reproduced, and author proofs are prepared as PDFs. Author proofs of all manuscripts will be provided to the corresponding author. Author proofs should be read carefully and checked against the typed manuscript, because the responsibility for proofreading is with the author(s). Corrections must be returned by e-mail. Changes sent by e-mail to the technical editor must indicate page, column, and line numbers for each correction to be made on the proof. Corrections can also be marked using “track changes” in Microsoft Word or using e-annotation tools for electronic proof correction in Adobe Acrobat to indicate necessary changes. Author alterations to proofs exceeding 5% of the original proof content will be charged to the author. All correspondence of proofs must be agreed to by the editorial office and the author within 48 hours or proof will be published as is and AFAB will assume no responsibility for errors that result in the final publication.

PUBLICATION CHARGES   AFAB has two publication charge options: conventional page charges and rapid communication. The current charge for conventional publication is $25 per printed page in the journal. There is no additional charge for the publication of pages containing color images, micrographs or pictures. For authors who wish to have their papers processed as a rapid communication, authors will pay the rapid communication fee when proofs are returned to the editorial office in addition to twice the conventional page charges. Charges for rapid communications are $1000 per manuscript for guaranteed peer review within one week and $100 per journal page.

HARD COPY  OFFPRINTS   If you are wishing to obtain a physical hard copy of the AFAB journal, offprints are available in any quantity at an additional charge: $100/page for black-white and $150/page for color prints. You may order your offprints at any time after publication on our website. Scientific conference organizers may be expected to agree to a set number of offprints as a part of their agreement with AFAB. 5  

MANUSCRIPT CONTENT  REQUIREMENTS:   Preparing the Manuscript File Manuscripts must be written in grammatically correct English. AFAB offers a fee based language service upon request ( Manuscripts should be typed double-spaced, with lines and pages numbered consecutively, using Times New Roman font at 12 points. All documents must be submitted in Microsoft Word (.doc or .docx, PC or Mac). All special characters (e.g., Greek, math, symbols) should be inserted using the symbols palette available in this font. Tables and figures should be placed in separate sections at the end of the manuscript (not placed in the text). Section headings (Abstract, Introduction, etc.) should be formatted using in Times New Roman font at 14 points, bold, aligned left. Failure to follow these instructions will cause delays of the processing and review of the manuscript. Title Page At the very top of the title page, include a title of not more than 100 characters. Format the title in 14pt, bold, aligned to center, with the first letter of each word capitalized. No abbreviations should be used. Under the title, the authors names are listed, 12 pt. font, regular weight (not bold) and aligned to center. Use the author’s initials for both first and middle names with a period (full-stop) between initials (e.g., W.A. Afab). Underneath the authors, a list affiliations must be listed. Please use numerical superscripts after the author’s names to designate affiliation. The affiliation list should start with a number (corresponding to the author or authors) and be formatted as 12 pt. font, regular weight (not bold) and aligned to center. If an authors address has changed since the research was completed, this new information must be designated as “Current address:”. Other acknowledgment of grants, and experiment station or journal series number are to be provided in the acknowledgement section. The corresponding author should be indicated with an asterisk e.g., * Corresponding author. The title page shall include the name and full address of the corresponding author. Telephone and e-mail address must also be provided for the corresponding author, and email addresses must be provided for all authors.

Editing Author-derived abbreviations should be defined at first use in the abstract and again in the body of the manuscript. If abbreviations are extensive authors may need to provide a list of abbreviations at the beginning of the manuscript. In vivo, in vitro and bacterial names must be italicized (obligatory). Authors must avoid single sentence paragraphs and merge such paragraphs appropriately. Authors must not begin sentences with “Figure or Table shows…” as these are inanimate objects and cannot “show” anything. When number are reported in text or in tables, always put a zero in front of decimal numbers: “0.10” instead of “.10”.


Manuscript Sections   Abstract The abstract provides an abridged version of the manuscript. Please submit your abstract on a separate page after the title page with a bold 14pt. heading of Abstract. Format your abstract using Times New Roman font at 12 points. The abstract should provide a justification of your work, objectives, methods, results, discussion and implications of study or review findings . Your abstract must consist of complete sentences without references to other work or footnotes and must not exceed 250 words. On the same page as your abstract, please provide at least ten (10) keywords to be used for linking and indexing. Label these keywords with the bold 14 pt. heading of Keywords. Ideally, these keywords should include significant words from the title. Introduction The introduction should clearly present the foundation of the manuscript topic and what makes the research or the review unique. The introduction should validate why this topic is important based on previously published literature, and the relevance of the current research. Overall goals and project objectives must be clearly stated in the final sentence of the last paragraphs of the introduction. Materials and Methods Information on equipment and chemicals used must include the full company name, city, and state (or country if outside the US) [i.e., (Model 123, ACME Inc., Afab, AR)]. Variability, Replication, and Statistical Analysis To properly assess biological systems independent replication of experiments and quantification of variation among replicates is required by AFAB. Reviewers and/or editors may request additional statistical analysis depending on the nature of the data and it will be the responsibility of the authors to respond appropriately. Statistical methods commonly used in the bacteriology do not need to be described in detail, but an adequate description and/or appropriate references should be provided. The statistical model and experimental unit must be designated when appropriate. The experimental unit is the smallest unit to which an individual treatment is imposed. For bacterial growth studies, the average of replicate tubes per single study per treatment is the experimental unit; therefore, individual studies must be replicated. Repeated time analyses of the same sample usually do not constitute independent experimental units. Measurements on the same experimental unit over time are also not independent and must not be considered as independent experimental units. For analysis of time effects, assess as a rate of change over time. Standard deviation refers to the variability in the biological response being measured and is presented as standard deviation or standard error according to the definitions described in statistical references or textbooks. 7  

Results and Discussion Results represent the presentation of data in words and all data should be described in same fashion. No discussion of literature is included in the results section. The discussion section involves comparing the current data outcomes with previously published work in this area without repeating the text in the results section. Critical and in-depth dialogue is encouraged. Results and discussion can be under combined or separate headings. Acknowledgments Acknowledgments of individuals should include institution, city, and state; city and country if not U.S.; and City or Province if in Canada. Copies being reviewed shall have authors’ institutions omitted to retain anonymity. References a) In Text Authors of cited papers in the text are to be presented as follows: Adams and Harry (1992) or Smith and Jones (1990, 1992). If more than two authors of one article, the first author’s name is followed by the abbreviation et al. in italics. If the sentence structure requires that the authors’ names be included in parentheses, the proper format is (Adams and Harry, 1982; Harry, 1988a,b; Harry et al., 1993). Citations to a group of references should be listed first chronologically then alphabetically. Work that has not been submitted or accepted for publication shall be listed in the text as: “G.C. Jay (institution, city, and state, personal communication).” The author’s own unpublished work should be listed in the text as “(J. Adams, unpublished data).” Personal communications and unsubmitted unpublished data must not be included in the References section. Two or more publications by the same authors in the same year must be made distinct with lowercase letters after the year (2010a,b). Likewise when multiple author citations designated by et al. in the text have the same first author, then even if the other authors are different these references in the text and the references section must be identified by a letter. For example “(James et al. 2010a,b)” in text, refers to “James, Smith, and Elliot. 2010a” and “James, West, and Adams. 2010b” in the reference section. b) In Reference Section In the References section, references are listed in alphabetical order by author(s)’ last name(s), and then chronologically. List only those references cited in the text. Manuscripts submitted for publication, accepted for publication or in press can be given in the reference section followed by the designation: “(submitted)”, “(accepted)’, or “(In Press), respectively. If the DOI number of unpublished references is available, you must give the number. The year of publication follows the authors’ names. All authors’ names must be included in the citation in the Reference section. Journals must be abbreviated. First and last page numbers must be provided. Sample references are given below. Consult recent issues of AFAB for examples not included in the following section.


Journal manuscript: Author(s). Year. Article title. Journal title[abbreviated]. Volume number: inclusive pages. Examples: Chase, G. and L. Erlandsen. 1976. Evidence for a complex life cycle in the attached, filamentous, segmented bacterium from murine ileum. J. Bacteriol., 127: 572-583. Jiang, Bo, A.-M. Henstra, L. Paulo, M. Balk, W. van Doesburg, A. J.M. Stams. 2009. A typical one-carbon metabolism of an acetogenic and hydrogenogenic Moorella thermioacetica strain. Arch. Microbiol. 191:123-131. Book: Author(s) [or editor(s)]. Year. Title. Edition or volume (if relevant). Publisher name, Place of publication. Number of pages. Examples: Hungate, R.E. 1966. The rumen and its microbes. Academic Press, Inc., New York, NY. 533 p. Book Chapter: Author(s) of the chapter. Year. Title of the chapter. In: author(s) or editor(s). Title of the book. Edition or volume, if relevant. Publisher name, Place of publication. Inclusive pages of chapter. Examples: O’Bryan, C.A., P.G. Crandall, C. Bruhn. 2010. Assessing consumer concerns and perceptions of food safety risks and practices: Methodologies and outcomes. In: S. C. Ricke and F. T. Jones. Ed. Perspectives on Food Safety Issues of Food Animal Derived Foods. Univ. Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, AR. p 273-288. Dissertation and thesis: Author. Date of degree. Title. Type of publication, such as Ph.D. Diss or M.S. thesis. Institution, Place of institution. Total number of pages. Maciorowski, K.G. 2000. Rapid detection of Salmonella spp. and indicators of fecal contamination in animal feed. Ph.D. Diss. Texas A&M University, College Station, TX. Donalson, L.M. 2005. The in vivo and in vitro effect of a fructooligosacharide prebiotic combined with alfalfa molt diets on egg production and Salmonella in laying hens. M.S. thesis. Texas A&M University, College Station, TX. Van Loo, E. 2009. Consumer perception of ready-to-eat deli foods and organic meat. M.S. thesis. University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR. 202 p. 9  

Web sites, patents: Examples: Davis, C. 2010. Salmonella. /article.htm Accessed July, 2010. Afab, F. 2010, Development of a novel process. U.S. Patent #_____

Abstracts and Symposia Proceedings: Fischer, J.R. 2007. Building a prosperous future in which agriculture uses and produces energy efficiently and effectively. NABC report 19, Agricultural Biofuels: Tech., Sustainability, and Profitability. p.27 Musgrove, M.T., and M.E. Berrang. 2008. Presence of aerobic microorganisms, Enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella in the shell egg processing environment. IAFP 95th Annual Meeting. p. 47 (Abstr. #T6-10) Vianna, M.E., H.P. Horz, G. Conrads. 2006. Options and risks by using diagnostic gene chips. Program and abstracts book , The 8th Biennieal Congress of the Anaerobe Society of the Americas. p. 86 (Abstr.) Data Presentation in Tables and Figures Figures and tables to be published in AFAB must be constructed in such a fashion that they are able to “stand alone” in the published manuscript. This means that the reader should be able to look at the figure or table independently of the rest of the manuscript and be able to comprehend the experimental approach sufficiently to interpret the data. Consequently, all statistical analyses should be very carefully presented along with variation estimates and what constitutes an independent replication and the number of replicates used to calculate the averages presented in the table or figure. Each table must be on a separate page in the submitted paper. As the final formatted version of the AFAB journal will be in a double column layout, your tables may be oriented either horizontally or vertically and prepared to fit one column (8.5 cm wide) or 2 columns (17.6 cm wide). The table number and title must be on the same line above the table. The table title should be formatted with a period (full-stop) after the title number and the first letter of the title capitalized and the title ending in period. [ie: Table 1. Composition of bacterial culture media used in study.] Like tables, figures must be located at the end of the submitted manuscript, each on an individual page. All figures should be clearly presented with well defined axis and units of measurement. Use bold Times New Roman font for text on the figure. Symbols, lines, and bars 10

must be made distinct as “stand alone� black and white presentations. Stippling, dashed lines etc. are encouraged for multiple comparison but shades of gray are discouraged. If the authors fail to provide figures or tables that are reasonably easy to work with by the publishing office the authors may be assessed additional processing fees. Color images, micrographs, pictures are recommended and there is no additional fee for their submission. However, for hard copies, there is a difference for black-white offprints ($100/page) and color offprints ($150/page).

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