DEATH IN VENICE STAGE 3 ACADEMIC PORTFOLIO TANYA HALDIPUR
“If the architecture is any good, a person who looks and listens will feel its good effects without noticing.” ~ Carlo Scarpa
BA ARCHITECTURE AT NEWCASTLE UNIVERSITY TANYA HALDIPUR STAGE 3 150268626
New Work Revised Work Group Work
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank a few people who have made this journey possible. Firstly, I would like to thank my tutors, Andy Campbell and Rachel Armstrong for their constant support throughout the year as well as Kelly Weightman for getting me through a difficult period. Additionally, I want to give my warmest thanks to Kiran Basi whoâ€™s dissertation that she kindly shared with me was an integral part of the research for my graduation project. Thank you to Jordan Ince and Bahram Yaradanguliyev for always being there throughout this degree and also to my housemates, whose kindness and support this year I could not have gone without. Finally, I want to give my biggest thanks to my parents for always supporting me throughout my life and working hard every day to ensure I have the best opportunities and education possible. Without their support, I would not be here.
This year has been a challenging year for a number of reasons but I have enjoyed being able to have more freedom with the research undertaken during the graduation project as well as dissertation. I have always wanted to explore the social and humanitarian sides of architecture and this year has been intrinsic in helping me to better understand the many ways in which I may be able to achieve this goal. PRIMER Primer, for me, was a challenging experience because it was, unlike my work in the past, very hands-on. I was apprehensive at first about going out of my comfort zone and experimenting with new techniques. While I found the project enjoyable overall, it was difficult at times to understand how it would fit into the larger picture and this led to a slightly unfinished result due to a lack of confidence in my own abilities. GRADUATION PROJECT The ability to write our own briefs has been the most enjoyable aspect of the graduation project for me as it allowed me to explore aspects that I am truly interested in. However, during the early phase of the project, I did struggle to translate my initial interests surrounding our site into a cohesive programme. This was a stressful time but after re-analysing my initial work, I was able to produce a much more suitable design that was more aligned with my personal interests. Nevertheless, although I like my project brief, I wish that I could have been more experimental with materials and model making and it would have also been quite exciting to use the lab facilities mentioned in the studio brief, which unfortunately couldn’t happen.
THE YEAR AND DEGREE AS A WHOLE This degree has been a whirlwind of emotions and experiences. I am proud that I have made it this far because it hasn’t been easy and it is something that I constantly remind myself of whenever I feel less confident about my work. As architecture isn’t generally a subject that is taught before university, it was intimidating at first, given all the new techniques taught in first year but I am glad that I didn’t give up and happy that second year was a lot more confortable and gave me a chance to be a bit more daring with my designs. This year has been exceptionally challenging, understandably as it is the last year, but I have enjoyed being given more choice and independence in design. Academically, in the future, whether I choose to carry on with architecture or not, I know that I need to learn to work smarter and manage my time better. I can be very slow at working and I need to learn to prioritise tasks in order to achieve the best outputs. I have to learn to accept when something is not working in a design quicker so that I can critically analyse and improve upon it. In my graduation project, in particular, I have found it difficult to translate the information that I have gathered that is in my head, into a coherent explanation for others to understand. Even though I know that the research behind the ‘what’ and ‘why’ of my project is thorough, I feel that I need to learn to explain my thought process more rigorously. But I also know that I need to gain confidence in my work so that I can challenge any questions that may arise.
Charrette 8 - 9 Studio 10 - 11 Primer 12 - 33 Staging 36 - 61 Realisation and refinement
62 - 116
Tech integration part 2 114 - 115 Tech integration part 1 116 - 133 Thinking through making workshops 134 - 135 Appendix A 136 Appendix B 137 Appendix C 138 Bibliography 139
CHARRETTE WEEK ‘Monument to the Utopian Vision of Pets’ This week was about exploring the relationships between people, pets and space. In groups, we were asked to create statues acting as monuments to the everyday pet. Our group decided to design for alternatives pets, those that many don’t normally associate with the topic, but that are just as important to those that have them. With a concept that was slightly The final statue was that of a giant spider perched on top of a human sized cage, with a skeleton inside. The aim was for the installation to act as a metaphor for ‘irrational’ fears that humans possess.
â€œThe survival strategies of the natural realm... offer us a design portfolio.â€? ~ Palace of Ecologies Brief, Rachel Armstrong and Andrew Campbell
STUDIO BRIEF Palace of Ecologies This years experimental architecture studio focuses on establishing relationships between architecture and nature, looking at how we can be inspired by the latter’s successful survival strategies to create designs that can be inhabited by a range of species. The graduation project is based in Venice, a city which is a canvas for a variety of life, but which is slowly becoming uninhabitable for human beings due to environmental pressures. Thus, a key focus of this project was looking at how to build for a future that is, at present, unknown. Emphasis was put on the types of materials chosen and who the client is NOW and in the FUTURE.
Graduation Project Death in Venice My graduation project focuses on solving the issue of how Venetians deal with their dead, which is currently neither environmentally friendly, nor sustainably viable. I propose an ‘eco-crematorium’ as an alternative to this. Following on from primer, where we were encouraged to put ourselves into the mindset of the ‘client’ in order to fully understand their needs and design approporiately, my graduation project is heavily influenced by the stages of grief that mourners experience during a funeral. Thus, while the overall design may not seem monumental, each space has been designed to enhance the rituals in funerals, to guide mourners through their grief and help them to move on. The complexity lies within the details and the processes that run the building, rather than the building itself.
PRIMER PHASE ‘Palace of Ecologies’ The primer phase was a 6-week long project, based at the Washington Wetland Centre, which explored the “relationship between space, structure, materials and modes of inhabitation”. Each person chose a bird or animal species, around which our investigations into the co-existence of ecologies was based and which led to the final outcome of a house designed for the species chosen.
THE SITE - WASHINGTON WETLAND CENTRE Our primer research was based at the Washington Wetland Centre, where we were able to study the various ecologies present and each chose a specific ‘animal client’ to design for. I chose to research the ‘Asian Small-clawed otter’, whose area of inhabitation is indicated in red on the map. The wetlands is also an occasional home for wild river otters who can be found along the banks of River Wear.
GREATER FIELD OF VISION.
VIEWING DEVICE #1 Prior to the field trip and choosing an animal client, I designed an avian viewing device that would allow me to view the Wetlands through the eyes of a bird. Through research into avian vision, I designed a prototype that would allow the viewer to see the world from their perspective. They have a greater field of vision than humans, enhanced colour and magnified vision.
THE CLIENT: THE ASIAN SMALLCLAWED OTTER Amidst a landscape of green, pop out six furry brown blobs, playfully fighting with each other and gliding effortlessly into the water to search for fish. They move as gracefully on land as they do on water but it is within the latter that one can witness a truly spectacular show. Their slender figures move through the water like ribbons twirling in the wind, gracefully and with ease, creating intriguing patterns on the surfaceâ€Ś At the centre I was fascinated by the playful fluidity of these creatures and their fast but graceful movements. This child-like behaviour inspired me to design a playing apparatus that can be installed in their existing enclosure.
LESS SATURATED COLOUR.
Head above water
VIEWING DEVICE #2 After choosing the otters as my client, I designed a new viewing device which allowed me to record the site from their viewpoint, to better understand their needs and requirements. The device attempted to achieve the aspects of underwater vision, by sealing water into a glass shell that forms the lens of the viewing device. Furthermore, otters see slightly less saturated colours caused by the presence of more rods and less cones in their eye. They have dichromatic vision meaning that they can only identify blues and greens as their original colours and all other colours appear grey, This was attempted using blue and green markers to change the hue of the glass.
MOVEMENT The way the otters move on land and water was a key inspiration for my primer design, both for form and function.
HOMES IN THE WILD The complexity of natural otter â€˜holtsâ€™, which include bedrooms and toilets, was an aspect that I wanted to reflect in my design.
LAYERING The different layers that make up the wetlands, from the large scale of how it fits in the local area, to the smaller scale of the otter encosure design, was an interesting aspect that influenced my design.
PLAYFUL FLUIDITY - FORM-FINDING USING LIQUIDS
OIL IN WATER
WASHING UP LIQUID IN WATER
ACETONE ON STYROFOAM
Link to video of liquid experiments
I experimented with paper and card to try and recreate the patterns seen in the liquid experiments, looking to see how they could potentially inform my holt design. I began exploring the idea of a tunnel with different layers, that portray the playful and curious nature of the otters.
Illustration of box in situ
Due to the size of otters, it was not feasible to construct the final model at 1:1 scale. Therefore, I built a section of it at 1:2 scale. This has made the box feel prototypial but the version put on site would be carved out of layers of wood, rather than styrofoam, as this is not a sustainable or safe material to use on site.
IN SITU The play apparatus can be implemented within the existing enclosure and bridges the gap between land and water - a metaphor for how otters move between the two mediums with graceful ease.
For the primer exhibition, we attempted to recreate the Wetlands in our allocated space, using a variety of features such as smell jars, sound drawings taken on site, collections of objects from the site and sound recordings. Each individual animal box was then set up relative to where their location would be at the Wetlands. This created a multi sensory trail for visitors to experience how the boxes would work on site.
The Wetlands Centre set up a trail for their visitors, which featured our studios boxes.While my physical box was unable to be installed on site due to the toxicity of materials used to make it, others in the group have installed theirs and the staff at the centre give regular updates about whether any animals have taken to the boxes. Some have already become a success. The flyer on the next page was produced by the centre as promotion.
DEATH IN VENICE
STAGING PHASE ‘Venice’ This stage began with a field trip to Venice, looking at current forms of architecture and their survival strategies, particularly at the work of Carlo Scarpa. After visiting the two potential sites for our building, I developed my brief for the graduation project, based on my own interpretation of a ‘palace of ecologies’ for the site. A number of techniques explored during the primer phase, such as sound recordings and rubbings were adopted on the field trip to gain an insight into aspects of Venice that may not be seen by the naked eye. When collated together, these findings helped to identify the main themes that formed the basis for design explorations.
FIELD TRIP - VENICE SITE - SANT’ELENA Venice was an ideal location for our studio as it is a living example of coexistence of ecologies in a foreverchanging landscape. Our chosen site, Sant’Elena is unique as it is one of the few areas on the island that is still predominantly residential. Walking from the busy streets of St Mark’s square to our site made it feel quite isolated.
ARCHITECT IN FOCUS - CARLO SCARPA Our studio visited four buildings designed by Carlo Scarpa: Olivetti Showroom, Ca Foscari, Tomba Brion and Fondazione Querini Stampalia. We looked at how he embraces the natural forms found in Venice and analysed his techniques of using them as building materials in his designs. Tomba Brion and Querini Stampalia, in particular, inspired some of my own design decisions during the graduation project.
CASE STUDY - FONDAZIONE QUERINI STAMPALIA
Please refer to page ..... for case study analysis ( Tech integration part 1)
Querini Stampalia was an interesting building to study and was very useful for my own design work. The way that Scarpa works with water, something that is becoming increasingly feared of by people in Venice, is inspiring. Rather than trying to stop it from entering, he welcomes it in. He plays with its qualities to enhance the atmosphere of the building, through reflections, light and the time-related impact it has on other materials around it. The layered steps act as a physical storyboard of the fluctuations of the lagoon and become a form of education, teaching us about the environmental changes affecting Venice.
â€œInside, inside! Water must be inside, like everywhere in the city. We just need to control and use it as a shining and reflecting substance. You will see the light reflections on the yellow and purple stuccos on the ceiling. That is so gorgeous!â€? ~ Carlo Scarpa
ANALYSING THE SITE
Canal Pier Luigi Penzo Football Stadium
Church of Sant’Elena
Francesca Morosini Naval Military School
PREVAILING WIND DIRECTION
Stadium - “Holds a place in local fans’ hearts” and shouldn’t be knocked down - therefore not built upon
Church of Sant’ Elena - The only church available to locals
SITE AND ECOLOGY Points of interest
Landscaping around the church - Part of the Church and needs to be kept. The boulevard leading to it should also be kept as it frames the path nicely.
Residential buildings - This site is more residential than the rest of Venice Hotel Sant’Elena - only hotel in this area
Marina main office
Church of Sant’ Elena
Adjacent buildings Infrastructure
Boulevard of trees - Restricts views to and from the residential area to the site and vice versa.
CHOSEN SITE Private boat marina
ACCESS ROUTES Pedestrian - 30 minutes from St Mark’s Square Public Boat - 25 minutes
Sant’ Elena Ferry terminal (public)
Private Boat AXONOMETRIC OF SITE CONSIDERATIONS
s cted view
views of lagoon close to water
PALACE FOR LOCALS.
PROTECTION FROM MOTO ONDOSO*.
REFLECTIVE PIECE The main focus of my project at staging was trying to ascertain what local Venetians need. I wanted to essentially design a â€˜palaceâ€™ for the locals without trying to keep tourists out. I did a lot of research on Venetian culture and festivals and started exploring the idea of a boat workshop and event space. However, I began to feel that my ideas were not working successfully with the site and its context. I therefore decided to review my initial research. I realised that my main interest was in the topic of death related to Venice and thus decided to look into this aspect in further detail. Being criticial about my work was, at the time, quite stressful, but as the project has developed, I feel it has led to a much more focused design intent and enjoyable development process. (see appendix A for old staging work). Some of my other initial interests have continued to influence my updated design. It is still predominantly focused on attracting locals and also aims to celebrate their culture through architecture details and structural choices. This will be shown in more depth further on. * Moto ondoso is the effect of wave motion caused by cruise ships and other boats on the lagoon causing increased flooding
ANALYSING THE MACRO - THE ENVIRONMENT
Large cruise ships currently pass through the main canal of Venice. They have a negative impact on the lagoon as they cause wave motion which leads to erosion of the lagoon bed and increased risk of flooding. Our site sits on the cruise ships path and therefore may be more susceptible to flooding and unstable land. This is an important environmental factor that needed to be taken into consideration. Could my building play a part in protecting the site from wave motion?
ANALYSING THE MACRO - ECOLOGIES
PHYSICAL SPIRITUAL 46
THE CONCEPT Venice is dying – physically, due to environmental changes and rising sea levels, and spiritually, through the loss of culture due to foreign expropriation. The latter has become so prominent that the 60,000 remaining locals threw a mock funeral for the ‘Old Venice’ in 2009.
“We’re going to turn into a city of ghosts if something isn’t done soon... In 30 years there might be zero Venetians left.” ~ Matteo Secchi, a local hotelier and activist Death is not uncommon to Venetians, however, who suffered two terrible bouts of plague in the 16th and 17th century, which took many lives. The two festivals ‘Festa del Redentore’ and ‘Festa della Salute’ pay tribute to these two periods and Festa della Salute is known to be the ‘last festival that is completely Venetian’.
Basilica di Santa Maria della Salute - used to celebrate the Festival di Salute to give thanks for the end of a plague in the 17th century
Church of Redentore - used to celebrate Festival of Redentore which gives thanks for the end of a 16th century plague
San Michele Island - current Venetian burial ground
MAP OF DEATH IN VENICE The chosen site sits in the centre of locations in Venice that mark ‘death’ in some form or another. Sant’Elena has been the victim of two tornados. On 11th September 1970, the island experienced its worst tornado, which killed 36 people and in 2012, another tornado hit, which wrecked the football stadium and surrounding areas. A monument to the victims of the 1970 event lies in the Park of Remembrance highlighted on the map (image above).
Park of -commemorating the soldiers who fought in WWII
BACKGROUND RESEARCH - A NEED FOR CHANGE
THE PROBLEM “If you’ve got the money, you can live in Venice. If you’re a romantic, you can die in Venice. But you cannot be buried in Venice.” Burial is currently the preferred choice to deal with death in Venice. However, like many other cities, it is running out of land space. Originally, Venetians were buried within the city, under existing paving stones. During the Napoleonic Era, this practice was abolished due to hygiene related concerns and San Michele was declared the new burial ground. But over the years, land on this island has become scarce and today, people can only be buried on the island temporarily, for around 12 years. After this, most remains are exhumed and either cremated or deposited in an ossuary on the mainland.
THE SOLUTION “having Venice as [the] final resting place is a dream for many”. ~ Venice council spokesman The wishes of local Venetians, along with the negative environmental effects of traditional burial and the land shortage issue demands a new, sustainable alternative that can be implemented on the island of Venice itself. With the realisation that ‘death in Venice’ is becoming increasingly sought out by locals but increasingly difficult to achieve, could an ecocrematorium could be the solution?
REDUCING THE FOOTPRINT OF DEATH - RESOMATION
GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS per cremation
1/5th OF ENERGY REQUIRED for a standard cremation
ASH IS PRODUCED than standard cremation
â€œWhen, for legitimate motives, cremation of the body has been chosen, the ashes of the faithful must be laid to rest in a sacred place, that is, in a cemetery or, in certain cases, in a church or an area, which has been set aside for this purpose, and so dedicated by the competent ecclesial authority.â€? ~ Vatican (2016)
RELIGIOUS VIEWS ON CREMATION
Although Venice is a very multicultural city, a large majority of locals remain Orthodox Roman Catholics As death is an important part of religious beliefs, it was crucial to find out what their belief is surrounding cremation
In order to achieve this sense of finality, I started to think about alternative burial methods that could be more sustainable and better for the environment. I wanted to find solutions that can not only be environmentally friendly but can help to protect the island against its predicted future. In other words, Venetians will be a part of protecting their home, even after death.
Ashes can be put into an artificial reef made from marine-friendly concrete which will be placed in the lagoon (please refer to Appendix B for more information on how the reefs protect the lagoon)
Ashes can be put into a biodegradable urn that contains a seed which will grow into a tree over time
CREMATION TO BURIAL PROCESS
Water and potassium hydroxide added
Vessel heated by passing steam through a coil
Weighing cell BODY WEIGHED
HEATED TO 150OC FOR 60-90 MINS - TISSUE BECOMES LIQUID
WATER-CREMATION - RESOMATION
OR OVER TIME THESEREEFS CAN REGENERATE THE LAGOON
ASH INTO AN ARTIFICIAL REEF
OVER TIME THESE TREES CAN REGENERATE THE SITE
Cool water is passed through a coil
LIQUID COOLED FLUID DRAINED
BONE RINSE AT 120OC FOR 20 MINS THEN FINAL RINSE BEFORE DOOR UNLOCKED
30% more ash obtained from water cremation
‘BIOS URN’ HAVE FOUND A WAY TO TURN ASHES INTO TREES
CREMULTATOR - GRINDS BONES TO ASH
DRYING OVEN - DRIES THE REMAINING BONES
DEVELOPING THE PROGRAMME
chapel of remembrance
garden of remembrance
Garden and chapel of remembrance should be sited away from the main building to allow single-time visitors to access, even when the main buiding is closed.
covered departure point
Baffle chamber (committal) â€œ Witnessing the final moments of the process prevents the uncertainty that often occurs with cremation and allows the bereaved to feel a greater sense of closure, similar to that experienced at a burial.â€?
cremators / furnace ash processing
deliveries and staff access
THE NEW CREMATORIUM Johan Celsing Arkitektkontor Sockenvägen, Sweden 2013
WOODLAND CEMETERY, Sigurd Lewerentz Sockenvägen, Sweden 1940s
The new crematorium is sited 50m from Lewerentz’s woodland cemetery and is designed to create a dialogue with the existing landscape but also be monumental in its own right. This was a useful, early precedent as it helped to show how crematoriums need to be technically planned in some areas such as the rooms that house the furnaces. It gave me an insight into how much room I would need around the machines and how big the corresponding ancillary spaces would need to be as well as any other corresponding service areas required.
“Although it is ‘stripped down to ... simple and symbolic monolithic forms’, “the siting and clever framing of the surrounding natural landscape establishes the cemetery as a place of peace and tranquillity; creating a space for quiet reflection and mourning. The integration of nature into the scheme enables individuals to feel a part of a ‘greater natural scheme’75 and emphasises the continued beauty of the world, encouraging hope and a reinvestment into life.” Basi (2018)
The woodland cemetery, although it does not house a crematorium, was essential in showing the importance of the surrounding landscape to these specific places of worship.
OBTAINING TECHNICAL INFORMATION
PHOTO OF UK CREMATORIUM GUIDANCE - DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENT
EXTRACT FROM THE ARCHITECTS HANDBOOK
A KEY ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The psychology of 21 st century crematoria:
the power of architecture in aiding bereavement
Kiran Basi BA Architecture Newcastle University 2017 - 18
This dissertation, written by a fellow student, Kiran Basi, was extremely useful in informing my design decisions. The essay argues that there is
â€œa need for crematoria to assist mourners in accepting and signifying a death, as well as creating opportunities for ritual and togetherness.â€? Basi (2018) It suggests a new typology, one that challenges the notion of death as something bleak and negative and instead proposes buildings that celebrate life. This, along with Carlo Scarpaâ€™s Tomba Brion, really inspired me to think about how my building can provide hope and happiness through death.
REALISATION AND REFINEMENT Designing for death in Venice
ACHIEVING A CALM BUT COHERENT JOURNEY - PLAN DEVELOPMENT
KUBLER-ROSS GRIEF CYCLE
VIGIL MASS RITE OF COMMITTAL Entrance procession
Greeting - sprinkling of casket with water and opening prayer First reading Final commendation Prayer and silence - incensation of casket and sprinkling of holy water, song of farewell
Viewing of committal Final prayer Procession to place of final committal (burial)
The plan of the building is heavily influenced by the ritualistic movement in a funeral. This, along with the site lines on the site are the main factors in the resulting programmatic layout. The aim is to try and guide mourners through their grief so that at the end of their journey through the building, they have achieved a sense of acceptance. (an aspect which has been criticised to be lacking in modern crematoriums)
FIRST ITERATION The first iteration was unsuccessful because it did not have a clear flow for mourners. As our site is so large, it would be a shame to have a building with a small footprint. As the surrounding site in crematoriums is just as important as the building itself, it is crucial to think about the site and the building as one whole design.
REALISATION ITERATION This plan was more successful as it has a clear journey through the building. However, work still needed to be done on making this journey coherent and each space needed to be delved into to understand the relationship to the next space.
As the site is so large, it was important for the building to be placed in a well-thought out location. Looking at site lines, it was clear that the building should be orientated to be parallel to the lagoon bank as this also means that it has a clear route through to the church as well.
9 7 8 10 13
FIRST FLOOR PLAN
Since the review, a lift has been added to the plan, and the waiting area has been separated from the entrance hall The toilet was taken out of the Remembrance chapel
KEY 1- Remembrance Chapel 2- Entrance Hall and adjoining waiting room (for viewing casket) 3- Annex 4- Main Chapel 5- Vestry 6- Baffle Chamber 7- Furnace Hall (Crematory) 8- Casting Room
10 - Farewell Chapel 11 - Open air viewing deck 12 - Service room 13 - Depository 14 -Staff Room 15 - Office 16 - Plant Room 17 - Reflection pods 18 - Floral courtyard and prep room
5 17 16 17
GROUND FLOOR PLAN SCALE 1:200 @ A0 1
AVOIDING A ‘CONVEYOR BELT SYSTEM’
Waiting area (during cremation process)
Due to the high demand for funeral services, and being the only crematorium in Venice, there is a chance that it will constantly busy. This should not affect ceremonies taking place and therefore while there wiill be a fast turnaround of services during the day, the plan of the building needs to be such that there is a clear flow from one funeral to the next. However, this must be done without comprimising mourner’s reflection and praying.
Since the review, it was clear a diagram was needed to show the flow of funeral parties in the building
The building has deliberately been stretched across the site, with a length of around 150m, to allow the â€˜conveyor beltâ€™ process to feel lengthened out and avoid rushing mourners. Care has been given to include a variety of spaces fpr reflection; one-on-one reflection pods and group gathering spaces.
DESIGNING THROUGH SECTIONS AND MODELS - ATMOSPHERIC QUALITIES OF LIGHT
“Natural light is... often considered as ‘heavenly light’ and is repeatedly used in sacred buildings as a metaphor for transcendence and hope.” Basi (2018)
Once the plan had been developed, it was necessary to start working in section. In keeping with the ‘eco’ target I want to achieve, I decided to look at how I can maximise natural daylight in the building while achieving certain atmospheres ideal for each space. As the project is so sensitive, the use of windows to bring light into spaces would compromise the privacy of the rituals occuring inside. Thus, I looked at rooflights as an alternative.
EMPHASISING KEY MOMENTS.
“light as director of movement and as a signifier of key moments and places of importance” Basi (2018)
The rooflights in the furnace hall, which contains the two operating cremator machines, focus on the machines themselves. However, these rooflights need to be designed to prevent direct sunlight reaching the cremators to avoid overheating.
The baffle chamber rooflight focuses on the ‘committal’ ritual that takes place through small openings in the wall between this space and the furnace hall. Mourners can choose to witness this moment, using the seating provided within the space.
The single small rooflight in the main chapel focuses on the ‘catafalque’ where the coffin rests during the service. More natural light is invited into the space through the use of lowlevel glazing on both sides of the chapel. This allows mourners to catch glimpses of outside without allowing others to look in.
2 hours 15 mins (journey for the mourners from the chapel to the farewell chapel, while they wait for the ashes
Tidal stream turbine to generate electricity
clean water discharged to lagoon
water storage and cleaning
water collected for resomator 2000 litres/ body
This section has been modified since the review, adding more technical detail to the rooflights as well as changing where the section cuts through spaces to get the optimum views.
45 mins (from arrival of coffin to departure of mourners from the chapel)
1 hour 15 mins (incineration) AND 1 hour (ashes to urn process)
heat/ electricity generated for further operation of furnaces
rainwater is collected via pitched roofs
anaerobic digestion of effluent from resomator
FINAL SECTION A-A 1:100
SHOWS ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESSES ON SITE AND TIME-LINE OF FUNERAL PROCESSION
INTERTWINING THE RITUALISTIC, HUMAN AND TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF THE DESIGN
The previous section shows how the environmental processes have been a major influence in the design and concept of the scheme. Care has been taken to try and limit the amount of waste produced from the two different cremators by recycling the products to help other processes on the site (see ARC3013 - technology part 2 for more information): 1 - The bio-effluent produced from RESOMATION is ideal for fertiliser (see appendix c - notes from Resomation designer) and is used for the planting around the site rather than flushed down the drain - this is also more ETHICAL 2 - The excess heat from the standard CREMATION process is re-used to heat the rest of the building. 3 - The artificial reefs are specifically chosen for their environmental effects. They act as WAVE ATTENUATION DEVICES to reduce wave motion and therefore lessen the lagoon erosion. They can also rehabilitate the lagoon and introduce new ecologies, creating a healthier site.
Minimal gas is let out to the atmoshpere due to the mercury abatement and heat recovery systems
Section showing how the excess heat released from the standard cremation process is used to heat the rest of the building.
C A N V A S
Reflection pod design - extract from arc3015 essay
F L O O D
F O R L I F E
When tide is down, steps are accessible
Crossing over water is symbolic of pathway to heaven or peace
Water rises and fall with the tide and excess water from the new canal is filtered into these moats to reduce flooding
PATHWAY TO HEAVEN
F I L T E R
FONDAZIONE QUERINI STAMPALIA Carlo Scarpa Venice, Italy 1961-63
MONUMENT TO THE PARTISAN WOMEN Carlo Scarpa Venice , Italy 1968-70
Querini Stampalia inspired my design in the way that Scarpa uses levels to create physical storyboards of the Venetian lagoon. The ablity of water to come and go as it pleases and introduce new life where it reaches is an aspect I wanted to incorporate into my design. In a way, the water acts as a bridge between the trees and the artificial reefs.
The image above shows how Scarpaâ€™s steps have since been inhabited by algae and other microorganisms. Not only does this change the colour of the surface, but also the texture .
CELEBRATING VENETIAN CULTURE THROUGH DESIGN
Gondolas are a classic Venetian item and during a funeral, they are used in a ritual that is not found anywhere else in the world. A decorated gondola parades the casket and the immediate family around the canals of Venice, an act which indicates Venetians love for their home. I wanted to celebrate this ritual and thought about how I can incorporate it within my design.
Venice has a special relationship with the sea and every year stages a â€˜marriageâ€™ to celebrate this. This link that the island has with water, as well as the threat that it could bring in the future inspired me to think about how this can be reflected within the design.
TOMBA BRION, Carlo Scarpa, 1968 Tomba Brion has inspired my design greatly, especially with the way in which Scarpa uses water. Like most Italian cemeteries, he has lined the approach with cypress trees which are indicators of Italian Cemeteries. I used the theory into practice essay to analyse his design methods and the ways in which he uses water on the site as a metaphor for Venice.
EXTRACT FROM ARC3015: THEORY INTO PRACTICE ESSAY
“as water seeps into the earth, it evokes the cyclical return and journey back to the source, with images of departure, death, and hope-for return.”11
Remembrance Chapel Reflection pods
11Charles Willard Moore, Water And Architeure (London: Thames and Hudson Ltd, 1997), p. 21.
Water channel directs eyes out to lagoon
Larger channel prevents public access to services side of the building
The idea of representing the importance of Venetian canals, which I see as the veins that connect the different parts of Venice together, led me to explore ways of linking various spaces in my design together, through channels of water. I thought about how I can use this theory to connect the Remembrance Chapel and the reflection pods to the rest of the site. Fig 10 shows how this could be implemented.
“natural materials including stone, brick and wood are known to ‘express their age, as well as the story of their origins and their history of human use”
Timber is an important material in Venice as itâ€™s foundations were built from 10 million trees. As my concept incorporates the growing of trees on the site, timber seemed like a suitable choice, not only because each tree that is cut down can be offset by the planting of a new tree, but also because being the foundations of the island, its use can become a metaphor for the resilience of Venice - hope for locals to continue fighting for the islandâ€™s preservation.
The walkways in the design are made of 5 layers of timber slats, each at different angles to create the dappled effect. These are screwed onto a larger timber frame. Face applied glazing is used and is screwed onto the exterior vertical slats.
In order to allow a suitable amount of light to enter the walkway, the slats become increasingly larger, in proportion to the height of the trees on the canal boulevard. This also creates interesting patterns as the size of the perforations vary. As mourners walk down the corridor the perforations get larger and larger, reflecting their emotional response.
THINKING THROUGH MAKING OUTPUT
As the building’s aim is to celebrate venetian culture and history, Venice’s two most prominent building materials, brick and timber, are the main materals used here. The private spaces, which carry the machinery and are therefore hotter than the rest of the building, are made from brick diaphragm walls which allow for a cooler environment, as well as LATERAL CIRCULATION OF EXCESS HEAT from the furnaces to the rest of the building through the walls. The public areas need to be of a ‘softer’ material and thus these spaces are timber frame, with changing timber cladding on the chapel compared to the other public areas. To bridge the gap between these two materials, glass is used (quite literally forming the bridge between the chapel and the baffle chamber). The public area of the building is then enveloped by a veranda of thin timber columns which represent the forest that will eventually enclose the building in the future.
“The natural materials employed inside the building [can] provide a further connection to the outdoors whilst maintaining a balance between openness and shelter.’ Basi (2018)
Once the materials had been chosen, I looked at the aesthetical qualities they would have when put together. Should standard red brick be used or white brick or grey brick? I chose grey brick because I feel that it matches the â€˜industrialâ€™ feel that I want to achieve in the private area and also enhances the timber when approaching the building. I feel it is more subtle than red brick which allows mourners to feel more relaxed at seeing the chimney when they are approaching the building.
CHOREOGRAPHY OF MOVEMENT THROUGH THE SITE
Main family route
Other party guests route
One-time visitor route
JOURNEY THROUGH THE BUILDING
Perspective of boat procession along the canal
The Entrance Hall The funeral guests arrive by foot across a wide bridge that crosses the canal. They are drawn to the building by a narrow window that provides a glimpse of what lies beyond. A turning wheel is required to open a hatched sliding door, a ritual which allows mourners to begin the process of grieving. Guests gather in the waiting room, which is separated by another sliding door with tighter hatches to provide privacy. Here, a third sliding door provides a framed view of the cypress tree-lined canal and mourners can watch as the family and the casket arrive by boat, after being paraded around the canals of Venice, as per tradition.
The glazing with the hoist system
A turning wheel causes the door to slide to the right
When the wheel is fully turned, it clicks into place and starts the system for the hoist, which lowers slowly
The hoist picks up the coffin and brings it inside the room.
Perspective of entrance hall with sliding door in motion
Mourners are invited, by the priest, to turn a wheel that is connected to the sliding door via a series of systems. As the wheel turns, the door slides to the right, temporarily stopping the boat from proceeding along the canal. When fully turned, the wheel sets off another system that allows the hoist to lift the coffin out of the boat and pull it into the waiting hall, ready for the bearers to carry into the chapel.
The Main Chapel, annex and vestry The coffin is carried by bearers to the main chapel via an annex which is used as a noise buffer. The vestry is placed to the left of the chapel with direct access for the officiating clergy to rest between services and has access to the private service spaces and the staff room. The chapel is surrounded by a narrow channel of water, which moruners have a view of through low-level glazing, creating a contemplative atmosphere. A small rooflight focuses on the catafalque and the coffin, showering it with light which is evocative of blessings from heaven. The glazing is positioned to give a clean-cut view up to the sky, again to allow for reflection ... and thus once in the chapel, you are surrounded by nature, the water on the ground, the sky above and the tree like timber slats bridging the gap - a worldy experience.
Perspective has been edited to enhance the atmospheric qualities of the space
The Baffle Chamber and Furnace Hall Guests exit the chapel via a large door which leads out to the floral courtyard and the rest of the landscape. The immediate family have the option to view the committal of the coffin into the cremator. This takes place in the ‘Baffle Chamber’ which sits behind the main chapel and is accessed via a more discreet door at the front of the hall. After the funeral ritual, the coffin is taken through to the baffle chamber via a conveyor belt to ensure a smooth transition. The committal ritual is viewed through two small windows into the furnace hall, allowing the family to see the coffin’s descent but preventing any view of the machines themselves. This has been done deliberately to be respectful of the bereavement process. A glazed walkway bridges the gap between the chapel and the baffle chamber. The transparent floor and the skylight are the only views out of the space. Mourners can connect with the water under their feet and the clouds above their heads, which creates a calming atmosphere.
Furnace Hall perspective
The casting room and viewing deck After the main service, families are free to wander around the site while the cremation process takes place. Families that have chosen to bury their loved one in an artificial reef are invited to make their way to the casting room when the ash is ready and can take part in the making of the reef. Those that have chosen the bio-urn can wait in the viewing deck, reflect in the reflection pods or wander around the site until it is time to proceed to the next ritual.
To the trees
Pulley system sketch
To the reefs
View of Remembrance Reefs
View of Remembrance Forest
The farewell Chapel
Involving the family directly in the ritual of death allows them to achieve closure more easily.
THE REEF RITUAL For families that have opted for the artificial reef, the pulley-system cannot be used due to the weight of the concrete. Instead, the family can gather on the veranda surrounding the farewell chapel, and watch as the boat carries the reef into the lagoon and lowers it into the water, becoming another protector of the lagoon.
THE TREE RITUAL The boat moors temporarily outside the depository and picks up the urn. It then travels on to the â€˜Farewell Chapelâ€™ where the family are waiting to say the final rites before burial. Here, a pulley system attached to a drop-down floor is used to lift the urn into the chapel. The family are invited to take part in this ritual and by doing so are giving their loved one their blessing to travel up to heaven. Once the rites are said, the urn is carried down to the Remembrance
SOUTH FACING ELEVATION (Not to scale)
BOAT MOORING AREA
REMEMBRANCE CHAPEL AND GARDENS
SITE PLAN SCALE 1:500 @ A1 113
TECH INTEGRATION PART 2 (REFERED TO THROUGHOUT PORTFOLIO
In order to achieve the dapple light effect seen in the image above, I played around with different thicknesses of timber columns and different spacing between each one to look at how the lighting effect changes. A challenge was also how to incorporate glazing as, due to the weather in Venice, the wall cannot be left open. I chose face-applied glazing as it can be easily fixed to the timber primary structure.
TECTONIC INTEGRATION PART 1 FONDAZIONE QUERINI STAMPALIA - CARLO SCARPA
OVERVIEW 4 DESIGN INTENT AND EXPERIENCE 5-6 SITE APPRAISAL 7 MATERIALITY AND ATMOSPHERE 8-10 STRUCTURAL STRATEGY 11 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIES
KEY DETAILS AND MOMENTS 13 SCHEDULE OF CHANGES 14 BIBLIOGRAPHY 15 119
It is located in the Palazzo Querini Stampalia, between St Mark’s Basilica and the Rialto Bridge.
The building includes living quarters, an archive, a public library and a museum that “recreates the magnificent residence of the Querini Stampalia family” and contains paintings and furnishings dating back to 1869.
Date of construction –
It was founded in 1869 for the Querini Stampalia Family but was partly redesigned by Carlo Scarpa in 1963.
Designers names –
The original building was established by Count Giovanni Querini, the last Venetian descendent of the Querini Stampalia family. There is no record of the original architect but the building has become a famous example of Carlo Scarpa’s work since he was asked to renovate it in the 1963. Valeriano Pastor, between the 1980s and 1990s, and Mario Botta, in 1994, also restored parts of the building, bringing their own distinct styles to the palace.
Architectural style –
The original architecture of the Querini palace still exists, but is successfully juxtaposed with the design ideas of the three contemporary architects mentioned above. Scarpa’s iconic style can be seen in the way the water is addressed within the building, while the improved accessibility and services concentrated on the ground floor is part of the work of Mario Botta and the detailed restructuring of services and functions is the work of Pastor.
The rest of this document primarily focuses on Carlo Scarpa’s renovation.
St Markâ€™s Square
Santa Maria Formosa church
Fondazione Querini Stampalia
Welcoming water in
A scaled-down metaphor of Venice
Scarpa’s intervention was based around three main intents. Firstly, like many of his other buildings, he wanted to welcome water in and work with it, rather than trying to keep it out. Additionally, the building can be seen as a “scaled-down metaphor of Venice”. This is especially noticeable in the ‘porch’ area as seen in Figure A. It acts as a physical storyboard of the long-standing relationship between water and Venetian buildings. The movement of the water in and out of the building and the traces that it has left on the stucco mimics this visual effect that water has had on Venetian façades without letting it physically permeate the buildings foundations. Lastly, Scarpa was very careful about executing his intervention with sensitivity to the existing architectural style, and was successful in combining old and new styles.
Combining old and new
USER EXPERIENCE AND ACCESS
KEY to building
Scarpa’s intent to work with water has created a unique experience for visitors. Once inside, a gangway leads from the foyer (2), across the porch (3) into the northeast room (4). It is raised slightly above the water level, making visitors feel as though they are on a floating catwalk and mimics the bridges outside.
On one side of the gangway is the ‘waterfeature’, where visitors can watch as the water flows in and out through the specially designed gates, and learn to appreciate the special relationship that water has with Venice. On the other side, a glass wall separates the porch to the main exhibition room (5), where visitors can catch glimpses of the courtyard (10) (Fig. B)
The current entrance to the building is by a bridge added in by Mario Botta, which links the new apartments, acquired in 1994, to Campo Santa Maria Formosa. However, prior to this acquisition, the entrance to the building was via another bridge designed by Scarpa to make the building more accessible. The original entrance was via a narrow street to the side of the building. However, Scarpa decided to introduce a new bridge connected to the ‘Campiello’, the little square besides the church and attached it to an existing window (Figure C).Not only did this make it more accessible, but also celebrated the entrance, a stark contrast to its original, narrow access.
9 Fig. D
The bridge was designed to fit in with the existing ones on the same section of channel. It is typically Venetian, made of steel and sits on two Istrian stone blocks, to match the choice of material inside. However, unlike the other bridges, it is slightly asymmetrical. This occurred in order to meet two contrasting access-related conditions: first, the bridge needed to be high enough to allow gondolas to pass underneath but it also needed to be low enough to clear the lintel of the existing opening in the building (Figure D). The bridge fulfils one of Scarpa’s intents of mixing the old and new together. While it embraces the old Venetian style, it does so in a very contemporary way and it is easy to see Scarpa’s influence.
St Mark’s Square Doge’s Palace and Basilica
Fondazione Querini Stampalia
Building on site -
Relationship with context -
The building is located in the district of Castello, on the left bank of the Grand Canal. It is a 5-minute walk from both St Mark’s Square and the Rialto Bridge, meaning that it is very centrally located and can therefore be easily accessed by both foot and boat.
Scarpa’s intervention was careful not to change the exterior of the building too drastically as it’s location in the ‘Campo Santa Maria Formosa’ Square which also houses a Renaissance church dating back to the 1400s, meant that it needed to fit in with the surrounding architecture. Primary public access to the building is from the main square, via a bridge but passers-by on boats can catch glimpses of the interior through Scarpa’s specially designed water gates seen to the right.
Layering is a common theme seen in many of Scarpa’s works. It is especially present in this building in the way that he uses the stucco on the walls. This is a special Italian stucco known as ‘Stucco Lustro’ which is a combination of natural lime and marble that is used to create an “ancient kind of finish for modern walls”.1 By using this, Scarpa intended to closely link it to the materiality of the existing building. Furthemore, patterns of common layering can be seen in many details around the building from the radiator to the floor mosaics (Figure E). Scarpa also used water to recreate the atmosphere felt when walking around Venice. By allowing the water to frame the walls, he is able to recreate the patterns of light and reflections seen along Venetian canals . The water also acts as ‘living material’ as, over time, its constant effect of erosion on the stucco has allowed new colours and patterns to form.
“Inside, inside! Water must be inside, like everywhere in the city. We just need to control and use it as a shining and reflecting substance. You will see the light reflections on the yellow and purple stuccos on the ceiling. That is so gorgeous!”2 ~ Carlo Scarpa 14
1 “Ampio | Stucco Lustro | Marble Plaster | Marmorino - Sustainable Wall Finish”, Stuccolustro.Dk, 2017 <http://www. stuccolustro.dk/eng/> [accessed 23 December 2017]. 2“Carlo Scarpa’S Surprisingly Traditional Legacy | Architecture | Agenda | Phaidon”, Phaidon <http://uk.phaidon.com/agenda/architecture/articles/2014/july/17/carlo-scarpa-s-surprisingly-traditional-legacy/>
Water is used as a counterpoint to the treatment of the ground floor of the Palazzo. Its source is a small labyrinth carved in marble which suggests the pain of its forced birth. It is then channeled through a long trough, parallel to the Rio (Santa Maria Formosa)which extends almost the entire length of the garden. It then passes beneath a stone lion that faces the source and finally disappears into the drain which is magnificently expressive of the idea of vortex.1 ~ Giuseppe Zambonini
To Exhibition hall
The exhibition hall opens out onto a small, rectangular garden, which was raised by Scarpa, to create a better relationship between inside and out. Again, Scarpa has mixed traditional Venetian garden layouts with his own motifs, as well as Arabic and Japanese designs and has embraced water as a building material here, once again. It is enclosed on all sides, by ivy-covered brick walls and a concrete wall designed by Scarpa, which holds a receptacle to collect rainwater. As visitors first come outside they are greeted by a linear, concrete, trough of water (Figure G) which sits parallel to the canal and separates the elevated lawn from the footpath. The trough leads, on one end, to a â€˜scupperâ€™ that deposits the water into a circular basin. This circular design is unlike his other, rectilinear motifs, and therefore stands apart (Fig. H).
Kenneth Frampton, Carlo Scarpa And The Adoration Of The Joint, 1995, p. 305.
In order to allow water to move freely within the building, Scarpa designed two identical iron gates that close the arches of the porch facing the canal. These are made of two parts: brass alloy vertical round bars are fixed to the iron frame at the top and various thickness of iron sections are arranged in oriental patterns at the bottom. They are not designed to regulate the water flow, like the MOSE gates in Venice. Instead, they act as an example of how Venetian architecture can embrace the water; ironically, the strong, iron gates, which would normally be used to stop the water, welcome the water in at its own pace.
The gates form part of a performance that the architecture has with the water, accomplished using a series of steps at different heights that act as a visual mapping of the tidal variations in the Venetian lagoon. The image above shows the water levels at two different times of the day. The raised interior gangway is cantilevered above the other steps as it coincides with the high-water line and therefore the cantilever prevents the water from accessing this section.
Virtually all buildings in Venice are constructed on wooden platforms as a form of solid foundation above the poor bearing capacity of the lagoon mud and sand. This structural system has several design and constructional consequences, aside from most structures being tribemated with massive joists at close centers. Brick is the common building material above water while much denser limestone from Istia is reserved for waterproofing the floors, quoins, window dressings, thresholds. A typical Venetian dwelling is thin and relatively insubstantial in its construction. Many windows, further reducing overall building weight, was made possible by the ready supply of the famous venitian glass from the nearby island f Murano. Mosaic of terrazzo are the common floor coverings and these are both suited to accommodating damp and ground movement.
ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIES
KEY DETAILS AND MOMENTS THRESHOLDS
Scarpaâ€™s design intent can be seen in all details, from the overall design to the smaller aspects such as the door in the exhibition hall. This was made from travertine stone panels, chosen carefully to contrast with the concrete on the bottom. The doors irregular shape is a motif of Scarpaâ€™s designs and can be seen in different forms throughout the building, from the layout of the courtyard to the water feature in the porch area.
The solid swing-door is attached to a sheet of metal that covers the wall, with two groups of joint. It is designed with openings which take shape when the door is closed and coordinated to the wall of the upper part. These openings are formed as an interactive detail that allow people to communicate between two rooms. Back of the door
Front of the door
Concrete : Reinforcement for the bottom part of structure as well as the pebblestone flooring.
24 Pebblestone : Paved on the ground and provides texture of gravel that links to the nature more.
Travertine stone : Used as surface finishings for the wall and swing-door; left with polished, solid texture.
LIST OF IMAGES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY
1 - map of building in wider context of Venice - by Tanya Haldipur 2 - (Fig. A) Plan of porch - by Tanya Haldipur 3 - Photo of iron gates from outside - by Tanya Haldipur 4 - Photo of porch - by Tanya Haldipur 5 - Photo of radiator column - taken from https://www.flickr.com/photos/dteil/6961502088/in/photostream/ 6 - Plan of Scarpa’s restoration on ground floor - Taken from https://www.metalocus.es/en/news/architecture-details-palazzo-querini-stampalia-carlo-scarpa 7 - (Fig. B) Image of exhibition hall - by Tanya Haldipur 8 - (Fig. C) Drawn by Hannah McAvoy, edited by Tanya Haldipur (added in the points on the key) 9 - (Fig. D) Photo of Scarpa’s bridge entrance - taken from https://www.metalocus.es/en/news/architecture-details-palazzo-querini-stampalia-carlo-scarpa 10 - Map of building within context - Google maps, edited by Tanya Haldipur 11 - Map of mmediate context - Google maps, edited by Tanya Haldipur 12 - photo of gate by Scarpa - by Tanya Haldipur 13 - Photo of reflections - by Tanya Haldipur 14 - Photo of water’s colour changing effect - by Tanya Haldipur 15 - Colllage of Scarpa’s layering theme - by Tanya Haldipur 16 - Sketch plan of garden - by Tanya Haldipur 17 - Drawing of garden detail 1 - by Hannah McAvoy 18 - Drawing of garden detail 2 - by Hannah McAvoy 19 - Drawing of garden detail 3 - by Hannah McAvoy 20 - Diagram of gate - by Tanya Haldipur 21 - Diagram of water movement in porch - by Tanya Haldipur 22 - Drawing of building structure - by Emily Child 23 - Energy and environmental strategy diagram - by Jake Williams-Deoraj 24 - Axonometric of travertine door - by Matthew Leung and Meina Zhang 25 - Image of door 1 - by Matthew Leung 26 - Drawing of door - By Matthew Leung and Meina Zhang 27 - Image of door 2 - by Matthew Leung
1. “Fondazione Querini Stampalia”, Querinistampalia.Org <http://www.querinistampalia.org/ita/home_page.php> 2. “Ampio | Stucco Lustro | Marble Plaster | Marmorino - Sustainable Wall Finish”, Stuccolustro.Dk, 2017 <http://www.stuccolustro.dk/eng/> 3. “Carlo Scarpa’S Surprisingly Traditional Legacy | Architecture | Agenda | Phaidon”, Phaidon <http://uk.phaidon.com/agen- da/architecture/articles/2014/july/17/carlo-scarpa-s-surprisingly-traditional-legacy/> 4. Kenneth Frampton, Carlo Scarpa And The Adoration Of The Joint, 1995, p. 305.
THINKING THROUGH MAKING WORKSHOPS
WOODWORK JOINERY WORKSHOP making a dove tail joint Tuesday 14th November 2017
INTERACTIVE DESIGN WORKSHOP Tuesday 5th December 2017
APPENDIX A - OLD STAGING MAIN CONCEPTS
“Thhe is nothing mme Venetian than the Voga...”
APPENDIX B - ARTIFICIAL REEFS INCORPORATING HUMAN CREMAINS
circular opening on roof of ball allows for easy placement by divers or boats
Holes in the shell allow movement of fish and other marine life into the reef balls.
- Made of a special marine-friendly concrete, designed to mimic natural reef systems - The reef is created by pouring concrete into a fibreglass mold. - Any concrete can be used but three admixes; microsilics, superplastisizer and fibers are needed to give the reef balls high strength and make it suitable for marine life. - A minimum of 25 pounds of microsilics is required for every yard (4000 lbs) of concrete. One and a half pounds or more of fibers are used for flexural strength and shipping resistance. Non-toxic superplastisizer (liquid or powder) is used to achieve a minimum of a seven inch slump.
The external surface of the reef ball is more exposed to light than the inner concave surfaces. Coral is attracted to light whereas sponges and algae tend to grow in darker areas. Therefore, the reef balls have the ability to attract a variety of organisms.
- Typical cremains are about 2-3 kilos ( it depends upon how big the person was). This can be added in, up to 60% of the mix, with the sand and aggregate amounts decreasing accordingly.
Eternal reefs Italia has already started using this concept around Italy for preservation of the coasts, marine flora and fauna, fish repopulation and marine conservation and are thinking of trialing it in Venice. The reefs are made of eco-compatible elements and have an estimated lifespan of over 500 years.
BENEFITS OF INTRODUCTION TO VENICE - The reefs can aid efforts to rehabilitate the lagoon from the effects of ‘Moto Ondoso’, as our site sits on the cruise ships path through venice. Larger waves are disrupted reducing wave energy and reducing erosion. - To allow for families to bury their loved one’s near to Venice, as many would like and also symbolises the island’s marriage to the sea.
* all information has been obtained by talking to Sara Cirelli MSc Environmental Scientist, Reef Ball Foundation and images sourced from https://patents.google.com/patent/US5836265
APPENDIX C - INFORMATION FROM RESOMATION DESIGNER
SIGNIFICANT TEXT Amstrong, R and Campbell, A (2017), Palace of Ecologies brief Basi, K (2018), The psychology of 21st century crematoria: the power of architecture in aiding bereavement, ARC3060 Dissertation Cremation.org.uk. (1978). THE SITING AND PLANNING OF CREMATORIA. [online] Available at: http://www.cremation.org.uk/content/files/Siting%20 %20and%20Planning%281%29.pdf Haldipur, T (2018), ARC3013 Technology report part 1 Haldipur, T (2018), ARC3013 Technology report part 2 Haldipur, T (2018), ARC3015 Theory into Practice Essay Pickard, Q. (2008). The Architects’ Handbook. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. Resomation Ltd. (n.d.). Resomation. [online] Available at: http://resomation.com/ Vatican.va. (2016). regarding the burial of the deceased and the conservation of the ashes in the case of cremation. [online] Available at: https://press. vatican.va/content/salastampa/en/bollettino/pubblico/2016/10/25/161025c.html
IMAGE LIST *All images are by author unless stated here Page 22 (images of otter holts) Mason, C. and Macdonald, S. (2009). Otters. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Page 32, 33 (flyer from wetland centre) Wahington Wetland Centre, 2018, advertising creature box walk Page 39 (Tomba Brion photos) Wheldon, P, 2017 Page 46 (all photos) thestar.com. (2009). Mock funeral bemoans ‘dying’ Venice | The Star. [online] Available at: https://www.thestar.com/news/ world/2009/11/15/mock_funeral_bemoans_dying_venice.html Page 50 (image) BBC News. (n.d.). Dissolving the dead - alkaline hydrolysis a new alternative to burial and cremation - BBC News. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/resources/idt-sh/dissolving_the_dead Page 51 (diagram) Petmemorialcenter.ca. (n.d.). After Care Comparisons- Burial, Cremation and Aquamation. [online] Available at: http://www.petmemorialcenter.ca/aquamation/aftercare.php Page 51 (quote) resomation… Page 52 (artificial reef) Patents.google.com. (n.d.). WO2014007926A1 - Artificial reef system - Google Patents. [online] Available at: https://patents. google.com/patent/WO2014007926A1/en Page 52 (bio urn) Bios Urn. (n.d.). Bios Urn - The Biodegradable Urn Designed to Grow a Tree. [online] Available at: https://urnabios.com/ Page 57 (new crematorium image) ArchDaily. (2014). The New Crematorium, The Woodland Cemetery / Johan Celsing Arkitektkontor. [online] Available at: https://www.archdaily.com/547748/the-new-crematorium-the-woodland-cemetery-johan-celsing-arkitektkontor Page 57 (asplund) Getty Images. (n.d.). Chapel of the Holy Cross, The Woodland Crematorium, The Woodland Cemetery (Skogskyrkogarden), Stockholm. [online] Available at: https://www.gettyimages.co.uk/detail/news-photo/chapel-of-the-holy-cross-the-woodland-crematorium-the-news-photo/154504837 Page 83 (trees) google maps Page 112 (detail) Haldipur T, 2018, ARC3013 Technology report