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No energy, no life. Our body is not an exception from this rule. Food is the only energy source for man. Fortunately, eating is a pleasant necessity: meats, cheeses and vegetables are various enough to satisfy the needs of our body and to give us pleasure at the same time.

SUGAR AND GLUCIDS When talking about calories glucids come second right after lipids. Yet there are two kinds of glucids. The ones found in simple sugars (sucrose) are being adopted directly and immediately transformed to calories. That is why a lump of sugar can help someone who feels faint. Sugar is the only food with immediate effect. The other glucids , called slow or complex, must be processed for a longer time similarly to all of the nutrition substances. We can find them in dry fruits, tubers like potatoes and mostly in cereals. Whether talking about wheat, corn or rice, corn plants are the basic nutrition element in many countries.

Glucids in our breakfast are the best way to start the day.

KEEPING OUR BODY FIT It is absolutely necessary to eat and drink. No living creature can survive without food. Neither plants, nor animals and humans are able to. Each meal gives our body the elements it needs to grow and develop. In our body, that amazing laboratory, food is worked out, transformed and becomes something like builders or maintenance agents. After a long transformation, it is already able to cover the functions of the organs or to build up a part of the billions cells of ours. The last ones play their role and die in a period of time, so, they must be constantly renewed. Thus what we eat and drink becomes part of us. A GREAT ENERGY CONSUMER During food processing, products give us energy as well. It provides mainly the good body performance. Even an immobile, sick person lying in his bed needs minimum energy to survive. Besides, it guarantees thermal regulation: it sustains a constant body temperature: the perfect one is 37C and helps the body fight against cold and heat. Energy is also used for physical activities: people engaged in hard physical work and sportsmen consume a great amount of it. After a long walking, running or a busy afternoon we can feel slightly vertigo if we do not have a small bite. All our activities need a definite energy portion. That is why the body must have a daily energy supply.

Each person`s energy need depends on his or her build and the physical activity. This energy is measured in kilocalories(kcal) or in kilojoules(kj). 1kcal = 4,18 kj. Energy contribution differs depending on food type: 1g. glucids = 4 kcal 1g. lipids = 9kcal 1g. proteins = 4kcal

FOOD ELEMENTS All kinds of food provide us with energy. But some of them contain more calories (a calorie is a measure for energy), while others help our cells to renew. Each food in fact contains food elements which affect the body in different and supplementary ways: lipids, glucides, protides, vitamins and minerals. No food itself contains all these elements but it does contain just one or two that are in different quantity. Thus bread is richer in glucides, vegetables in vitamins and meat in protides. In order to eat a balanced food we need to eat all kinds of foods available. It is believed that meat, fish, fruits and vegetables, fats, sugary or cereals and dairy products are the large category of necessary foods. LIPIDS: CALORIES CHAMPIONS Lipids provide twice as much calorie than glucids and protides. Lipids are usually fats found in sunflower oil, butter, margarine, lard…… Thus for example, 100g. olive oil can give us 900 kilocalorie which satisfies the energy minimum of a six- year- old child. Meat, fish, eggs and dairy products also contain lipids. But … attention! Lipids are necessary since they let the body build an energy reserve and help building cell membrane, but they can also be harmful. When in big portions, animal fat can cause arterial troubles with elderly people.

PROTIDES FOR GROWTH Protides are the last nutrition category which gives us energy. Calories provided by them help our bodies fight with cold. But this is not the main function of that particular food. Basically, protides are a source of proteins being one of the vital building substances of human organism. They take an important part in growth and mostly in building some absolutely necessary substances as for example hormones and enzymes. They are recommended especially for children, teenagers and for those recovering from sickness. Meat, eggs, fish and dairy products have a lot of protides. In most cases they are very rich in vitamins. PROPER USE The thirteen vitamins that we know so far along with the mineral salts do not produce energy. However they are absolutely necessary and their lack may provoke some diseases. Fruit and vegetables contain lots of vitamins though they can be found in almost each food. However vitamins are very fragile nutrition elements. They can be destroyed easily when long cooked. The yolk (very rich in vitamin A which is good for your growth, sight and skin) loses most of its qualities if boiled longer. It is advisable not to peel off the skin of some fruit and vegetables after being washed for most of the vitamins are contained there.

Olive oil is a source of energy. Specialists believe that vegetable fats are perfect for health.

You can find vitamin C in oranges, lemons and all of the citrus fruits. It fights fatigue as well

THE HISTORY OF VITAMIN C In XVI century James Lind observed that scurvy which was a deadly disease could be avoided if one eats citrus fruit. So, without being aware Lind found one of the advantages of vitamin C. It was isolated in 1928 from the juice of peppers.

FROM CALCIUM TO FLUORINE Like vitamins mineral salts are present in lots of foods. Calcium which is one of the most important elements among them helps building our bones and teeth. That is why children should drink milk, eat cheese and yoghurt. Magnesium acts upon our nerves and muscles: those who love chocolate will not be in lack of it. Iron strengthens our immune system, which function is to fight against diseases. We can find it in liver which is also very rich in vitamins too… Mineral salts include also phosphorus, sodium, potassium, iodine, chlorine, fluorine and lots of other substances with different properties. BASIC RULES Following a few basic rules allows your body to be fed properly. First of all, you should drink at least 1, 5 l of water per day and you should increase that dose when the weather is hot. You can live a few weeks without food but death comes soon without water; our bodies cannot live without liquids for more than two days. Secondly, food should be various and it should be also taken at definite times- three times a day. Changing the rhythm disorders our body and having a hasty meal makes it tired. When we eat all of the time our stomach does not rest. So, it burns many calories. Besides, our needs vary due to sex, age and health condition.

Milk which contains protides, lipids, calcium and vitamins is a wonderful food for growth

DISEASES Talking about food we should avoid both overeating and lack of food. Famine causes a huge problem in poor countries. Today 150 million children under the age of five are ill- nourished and become victims of serious diseases. Just on the contrary, disorders caused by overeating are characteristic for rich countries. Yet, eating chocolate and meals with fatty sauces at times, preference to food rich in energy is not bad in itself. But all that energy should be used up. If not so and if staying still constantly then fats are being formed into our bodies. Thus our weight goes up and the risk of getting some illnesses runs up too. YOUR OWN BALANCE Everyone can find his or her balance: our body has thousands or ways to warn us: stomach contractions when hungry, heaviness, headache and feeling sleepy when eat too much. Pleasure and necessity do not oppose to each other. Just a simple example: the inhabitants of cold countries eat much fat and those from warm countries eat much fruit. This responds not only to their desire but also to their need: fruit have lots of calories but they contain water as well which is necessary for the hot climate.


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Each of us has his own habits in life. It is the same with eating. It depends on what we find delicious or not, when we are hungry, when to eat and how much to eat. We build these habits in the early childhood. A spoilt child becomes caviller; a child constantly pushed to eat a lot becomes gluttonous; a child that barely touched the food becomes neglectic to the food. Habits also determine our favourite food. We may state that Bulgarian habits and traditions in eating ( alot of fat and spicy food) are not healthy. The main principle is that we should eat whenever we feel really hungry. This is what we should teach our children. HOW OFTEN WE SHOULD EAT? It will be a great mistake if each time we feel a little bit hungry, we have a rich meal, especially in the evening. Thus we force the stomach and

We often hear not to eat in the evening because it is the fastest way to put weight. WRONG! It is not when we eat, but how much!

DO YOU EAT HEALTHY FOOD? Circle the answer that corresponds exactly to your way of eating! 1.How many times a day do you have a meal? a)Three times and more; b)Twice; c)Once; 2.Do you often have breakfast? a)Always; b)Once a week; c)Seldom; 3.What does your breakfast consist of? a)Cereal and some drink; b)Baked or fried food; c)Just some drink; 4.Do you often have a snack between breakfast, lunch and dinner? a)Never; b)Once or twice; c)Three times an more; 5.How often do you eat fresh vegetables, fruit, salads? a)Three times a day; b)Once – twice a day; c)Less than three – four times a week; 6.How often do you eat baked or fried food? a)Once a week; b)Three – four times a week; c)Almost every day; 7.How often do you eat sweets with cream or chocolate? a)Once a week; b)One to four times a week; c)Almost every day; 8.What do you put on your loaf of bread? a)Margarine; b)Butter with margarine or other combinations; c)Only butter; 9.How many times a week do you eat fish? a)More than once; b)Once or twice; c)Once and less; 10.How often do you eat bread. a)At least three times a day; b)Three to six times a week; c)Less than three times a week; 11.Before eating a piece of meat you: a)You put away all fat; b)You put away a part of the fat; c)You aet the whole meat; 12.How many glasses of coffee or tea do you drink a day? a)One – two; b)Three to five; c)Six and more; 13.How much alcohol do you drink a day? a)From two to four glasses; b)Less than two glasses; c)More than four glasses;

the guts to work harder and they need more blood. This will lead to fatigue and we will feel sleepy. It is healthier to eat less but more times a day. If the necessary quantity of food is taken at the particular time, the organism will not be overloaded.

DINNER Almost at the end of the day a tasty, aestheticly served, but not heavy dinner may be the beginning of a wonderful evening. With a full stomacn is hard to fall asleep and we may have bad dreams. So there should be at least one hour between dinner and bed-time. A short walk before going to bed can be also usefull. Be careful with sugar! Sugar has a lot of energy but nothing else. We should be careful with it because it acts against vitamins. Honey, fruit juice or fruit are a perfect substitute.

BREAKFAST It is extremely unhealthy when our breakfast consists only of a cup of coffee or tea. It is in the morning when the organism needs a lot of energy. Breakfast should be taken in peacefull atmosphere. A loaf of bread or a bowl of cereal is good enough. LUNCH Just the opposite of what we have heard – it is better to eat less during lunchtime. In the early afternoon the energy in the organism lowers down and if we have a rich meal, it may lead to tiredness at work.

KEY Answers a) – 2 points Answers b) – 1 point Answers c) – 0 points RESULTS 23 – 26 points Your way of eating is balanced and healthy. If you do not have any serious healthy problems or some genetic disorder, you will be in good fit and lively spirit. Keep it that way! 18 – 22 points Your way of eating is not exellent but still good. Do your best – turn eating and health into your main priority of thinking and acting. Thus you will certainly change your figure and you will feel more energetic and more cheerfull. 13-18 points You certainly should think about your way of eating and way of life. The situation is not desperate but you have to take measures. In other case you will soon feel fatigue and laxity. Follow your eating routine and mark what you can change without feeling depressed or deprived. 0 – 13 points You need emergency. Your way of eating seriously threatens your health. Think about your priorities and you will notice that you do not think of your food at all. Change this before a desease catch you. You will make sure that a good change affects your figure, spirit and selfconfidence in a possitive way.

SHOULD WE EAT WHAT WE FIND DELICIOUS? On the whole it is true that we should eat what we like. But yet we must be carefull not to eat all and the same food. Those who eat only meat-balls or cakes for a long time may harm themselves. Variety is important - food should contain the necessary amount ofenergy: one half from carbohydrates, one third from fats and about 15% proteins. In no case we should force ourselves to eat somethig we do not like.

It is good to change our habits! A lot of deseases are caused by incorrect eating habits. In such cases we should think of changing our habits. It is not easy to replace the omelette with cereal but it is worthy. Why not to eat omelette some times.....

EVERY DAY MILK, FRUIT AND VEGETABLES! Milk, fruit and vegetables are an unseparable part of our normal and healthy eating.meat is not compulsary but it does contain some wholesome substances. Milk, dairy products, fruit and vegetables contain a lot of vitamins and minerals as well.

Eating non-stop! Eating non-stop chocolate or chips in front of the TV may cause overweight. But it is also unhealthy when we eat a hamburger in a hurry saying we do not have time....


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If a person is healthy he will be happy; if a person has health and happiness he has the whole wealth of the world 1.EAT HEALTHY FOOD

Chose your friends carefully because they are believed to affect your behaviour and way of life.

6.KEEP AWAY FROM BAD HABITS

4.REALISE YOUR STRONG POINTS Motivation is the key to success. Realise what you can do best and use it.

9.CONTROLL YOUR ANGER

That does not mean to deprive of a lot of food ,just the opposite. You just have to skip those that have a low nutrition value and that contain bad for the health substances. The body needs various elements, thats why we should consume various food.

Do not drink alcohol, do not smoke,do not use drugs because these are bad for your health, mind and finances. 7.TAKE PART IN SOCIAL ACTIVITIES

2.TRAIN

5.MAKE YOUR SKILLS PERFECT Try to get rid of yor weak sides. Use your time to gain new skills and knowledge.

It can cause unpleasant situations and healthy problems. Be calmer! 10.PLAN AND FOLLOW A DAILY SCHEDULE

The basis of healthy life are early getting up and doing exercises. Strong spirit in a strong body.

Everything will take its place and there will not be any tension.

3.BE AMONG FRIENDS Be a volunteer, a member or a leader of a group or a team. 8.CONTROLL YOUR FINANCES Use your money wisely. Do not spend on things you do not need.


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shape guarantees less flu and virus infections. It reduces the risk or suffering serious illnesses and health troubles when older as for example high blood pressure, heart disease, some kinds of cancer and diabetes. ENERGETIC, FULL OF LIFE AND CONFIDENCE! Regular physical exercises remove the feeling of tension, anxiety and trouble. It lessens aggressiveness especially when your energy is directed to some sport competitions. When using up enough energy you would sleep better and feel more vigorous and in a better shape the next day. As the results, you can concentrate easier and for a longer time, your thoughts will run faster and your memory will improve. And last but not least you will have higher self- esteem and self- confidence.

Human body cannot function well without having enough movement and healthy food. When we feel our body being strong and healthy we are more energetic and vital, in good mood and better self-esteem. So, we cope better with hardships and difficulties in life.

LESS DISEASES Our daily motor activity makes our muscles, joints and bones stronger. It also makes our heart and lungs, nerve and immune systems to work better. It stimulates all organs and processes in our body. That is why good physical

NEW FRIENDS Physical exercises give you opportunities for making new friends and to be surrounded by your mates more often. Skills to work in a team and cooperation with people are extremely useful not just in doing sports but in life too. It is not necessary to be part of a team in order to train. There are so many other opportunities.

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GOOD APPEARANCE Regular physical exercises will help you look better. It is a good reason to take them in serious. Your muscles will become stronger and your body will be more flexible. What is more, you get a more attractive posture and figure, smooth and coordinated movements leading to grace and elegance. Your skin becomes fresher and softer. And most importantly your weight is normal. ENJOYING LIFE If you start doing sports from an early age there is a greater chance to keep it as a lifelong experience. And it just means that you can always be in robust health, strong and fit and live longer.


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Healthy eating is the foundation of good health and success in school. To grow healthy and strong, try to follow the 14 Dietary Guidelines : 1. Eat a variety of food , provide enough time for food and pleasant atmosphere ; 2. Do not miss the morning breakfast ; 3. Consume grain food - they are an important source of energy, prefer wholemeal bread; 4. Eat more vegetables and fruit, preferably with each meal; 5. Take daily milk and dairy products; 6. Eat meat without fat , replacing it with fish, beans and lentils; 7. Limit fat. Avoid fried foods ; 8. Limit sugar , confectionery and soft drinks; 9. Reduce salt and don’t emphasize on salty foods; 10. Drink every day enough water and other liquids; 11. Healthy weight is important. games and sports are an important part of your day; 12. Wash your hands regularly before the meal, also wash thoroughly all fruit and vegetables. 13. Nuts (walnuts, almonds, hazelnuts, peanuts), eat them with no salt except peanuts, and preferably raw. 14. You can eat 5 eggs a week (in this volume include eggs and other dishes and desserts). To be healthy diet it is necessary to follow all recommendations, not just some. Eat more vegetables and fruit Fruit and vegetables are among the most nutritious foods. They are rich in many vitamins and minerals needed for your growth and development and your resistance against diseases. •You cannot get fat when eating fruit and vegetables as they contain lots of water and no or hardly any fat. •Vegetables and fruit should appear in your menu every day - preferably with each meal; •Eat a variety of vegetables and fruit - white,

green, yellow, orange, red, blue; •As well as, eat vegetables in the form of salads, as additives in sandwiches or as a filling of pastry snacks; •Choose fresh fruit instead of sweets for dessert and for the fortifying snacks. Hungry in recesses - Children need “loading” with energy more than three times a day, especially if they are really active. Walking to school, physical games, wearing a backpack - all this requires energy. Moreover, children have small stomaches, so they need to eat more often than adults. When children do not eat and do not eat breakfast regularly they feel tired and act up. I need to eat something ... again - You have eaten your breakfast in the morning and you have been stuffed when you went to school. But now having had Art, PE, having written compositions in Bulgarian you feel you are ready again to eat! This is because your body has consumed the energy from the early morning breakfast at home. Luckily, the great break comes and it is time for breakfast! But what to eat? Great choices are fruit, nuts, fruit yogurt, chopped vegetables, biscuits, whole grain / fiber sticks and crackers, cheese, whole wheat bread. Prepare at your home something you love to eat, but try to avoid food with lots of sugar or fat temptations - that will not satisfy you for long.

What are healthy snacks? Many people think that having snacks between main meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner) means gorging with chips, candy, pastries ... Therefore they believe that these snacks are not nutritious or sustaining and necessary. But if you make the right choice, these snacks will be healthy, you will provide energy and nutrients , which you need. One orange will provide you with quick energy and vitamin C for later, which is much better if the PE lesson comes. A package of chips, however, contains much fat - something that you should not overdo with! If there is still time to lunch, whole grains foods(bread, homemade cake) will help you feel full or satiated longer, unlike ice cream, waffle or a donut with cream. Of course you can eat wafers and chips, occasionally, for example on Sunday. But try to choose more nutritious options for regular snacks. If you feel only slightly hungry - a fruit is quite sufficient. If you are very hungry and there is much time till lunch and dinner, eat out a slice of bread with cheese and tomato, a bowl with some cereal or a bowl of yogurt, a whole grain sandwich with vegetables .

1.Offer wholemeal bread or biscuits at every meal 2.Regularly serve rice, pasta or noodles with cooked food 3.Offer cereals for breakfast rich in fiber every day. 4.Add whole-wheat noodles and croutons in soups and salads. 5.Offer cereals for breakfast such as a lowfat muffins or popcorn. 6.Replace refined flour products with whole grains at every opportunity. 7.Offer a variety of fresh or frozen vegetables. 8.Avoid frozen vegetables with special sauces. 9.Avoid canned vegetables with too much salt. 10.Prepare vegetables in a way that preserves their nutritional value and avoid cooking them in butter, oil or other fat. 11.Steam, blanch, bake and cook the vegetables in Chinese (in very little fat over high heat and constant stirring). 12.Serve vegetables at every meal. 13.Offer a wide range of fruits to provide different nutrients. 14.Choose fresh, frozen or canned fruit in its own juice. 15.Add fruit to your lunch for school children. 16.Fruits which should be peeled like a banana, mandarin, orange are the best choice to avoid pesticides. All other - wash thoroughly with water before consumption. 17.Limit consumption of fruit juice and dried fruit. 18.Suggest a bowl of fresh fruit for a snack at home. 19. Trim the visible fat off the meat before you prepare it. 20.Remove skin from chicken for sandwiches, stews and other dishes. 21.Roast chicken with skin, in order not to dry off, but remove it before serving. 22.Reduce consumption of egg yolks! 23.Serve one portion of meat or any of its alternatives per day. 24.Prepare 3-4 times a week red meat, or seek an alternative source of iron. 25.Children under 2 years should drink fullcream milk. 26.Children over 2 years and older should drink skimmed milk. 27.Skimmed milk is suitable for children over 5 years. 28.For the whimsical children - try milk shakes, fruit milks, dairy cream, cream cheese, yellow cheese on pasta, rice and other hot dishes

This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication (communication) reflects the views only of the author and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of information contained therein.

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