" Nothing is out of the question the way I live my life. I'm always thinking about creating. My future starts when I wake up every morning, that's when it starts... when I wake up and see the first light. Then I'm grateful..." - Miles Davis
Copyright ÂŠ 2010 Richard X Zawitz
Richard X Zawitz and the Experience of Art
First published in Hong Kong in 2010 by Richard X Zawitz
The Versatility of Vision
This edition published in 2012 by Richard X Zawitz
Virtual Sculptural Environments
Infinity Gallery 385 Oyster Point Road South San Francisco, 94080 USA T(USA): +650 616 7900 T(HK): +852 2865 1853 E: email@example.com W: www.richardxzawitz.com W: www.tanglecreations.com W: www.tangletherapy.com Text by Jonathan Thomson Designed and Art Directed by Andrew McWalters Conceptual environments by Madison Lee Printed by Lammar Offset Printing Ltd, Hong Kong ISBN 978-0-615-42979-3 All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without prior written permission from the publisher.
Global News Media and Richard X Zawitz
I dedicate this book to Creativity as the raison d’être for my being and existence. My work since the late 1960s has been devoted to the essences and energies which first became manifest to me through Chinese Taoism and then through the entire alchemical pantheon of the form and formlessness of Asian philosophy and metaphysics. With the good fortune of history (and in particular the mind freedom, revolution and counter culture movements of the mid 1960s) matching my in-born urges, I was also able to unlearn the western bias toward aesthetics and the arts. Thus, as a natural born threedimensional plus-ist, I chose sculpture to be the medium for my art. At the Art Department of the University of Hawaii I was mentored by an esteemed scholar from India, Professor Prithwish Neogy. In our one-on-one sessions as master and pupil, I was assigned a variety of projects from looking for specific lava rocks to carve, to meditation and the study of Zen painting and reading other scholars, including Jacques Maritain, D.T. Suzuki and of course Neogy’s own mentor Ananda Coomaraswamy. During this period I learned about many things including the ancient Indian concept of Rasa which then became an important focus of my own aesthetic. Rasa is the complete immersion of the individual with art and with the tradition of the art. My understanding of Rasa in combination with the study of Asian art history and philosophy influenced me in many profound ways and I have ever since attempted to manifest this sculpturally. I believe there are key periods in the course of an individual artist or seeker’s life that are influential in the shaping of that life just as there are key periods in history that are influential in shaping cultures and civilizations. The 1960s was the right place for me and the right time to both learn and un-learn. For me it was a once in a lifetime transformational period and I have carried the benefit of that experience with me ever since. In his book “Iconoclast” the neuroscientist Gregory Berns describes how innovators are able to unlock their creative potential. Like them, I have no fear of change.
Top: The mother of all things, Lava stone, 1970 Above: Zawitz residence, c. 1972 Kyoto Jisho In Karasuma dori. Left: Zawitz holding "Light of Infinity", 2010 (Photographer: Joan Boivin) Infinity studio, Hong Kong.
After my graduation in 1972 Professor Neogy recommended that I go to Japan to study with his great friend the renowned Zen painter Morita Shiryu, and with the local carvers who make Buddha sculptures in wood. I spent one year in Kyoto which at that time was a crossroads of creativity where Westerners like me were able to meet and embrace the essences and energies of the East and art. My studies and experiences led me to hypothesise the existence of one essential particle of matter which in turn led to my discovery of the “Tangle Particle” which manifests itself in two distinct and parallel ways and is
explained through science and humanism. The essential manifestation of the “Tangle Particle” is as a spiral, wave, curve, circle or arc. In nature and science it is found in galaxies, proteins, light waves, sound waves, hurricanes, cyclones, the growth patterns of all manner of fauna and flora, and in every culture’s art and design (think Van Gogh Sun Flowers and Starry Nights, and every type of painting (including body art) or textile design which uses knots, curves, spirals, waves or circles). Make your own observations someday, you will amazed. The images you will see in this book are my Tao. My Tao manifests it’s oneness through the multiplicity of entities that I have created and which I think have in some small way may have benefited humanity. Wherever these works are placed, I can promise an emission of positive energy into the environment. I
Below: Alien Buddha, 1997-2004 (Photographer: Joan Boivin) 6'Hx4'W, Picasso marble, stainless steel.
than enhancing the amenity of the environment through a universal aesthetic
Bottom: Infinity beta 4.16, 2008 36"Hx40"W, stainless steel, acrylic.
why we are all here. I think that all of the great cultural occurrences that
Opposite: Buddha scroll, 1972 60"Hx30"W, ink on paper.
and generating generous flows of positive energy. The overall purpose of the book is to enlighten and amuse the mind and the senses. I am a true believer in creativity as the purpose of life and the reason are known in recorded history, from the founding of religions through to the development cultures and entire civilizations, are founded on man’s basic urge to create. There are three aspects to life – the physical, intellectual and the spiritual as in the world of things, the world of thought and the world of feelings. Some of these are present in all forms of life but it is only in man that all three come
do not think it is enough to just displace space with so-called art or sculpture;
together in body, mind and spirit. It is the combination of all three that gives
instead, one must strive to reach the people who will experience the art. In
us the capacity to believe, to reason and to create. The traditional hierarchy
a world of negativity I try to provoke happiness and well-being. My mission
of man’s needs is based on a solid platform of physiological needs with safety,
is Peace Through Creativity.
love and belonging, esteem and self actualisation in ascending order above them. I believe that creativity, and the drive to become everything that one
In this book you will see examples of work from every period of my life.
is capable of becoming, is in fact a basic need that must be met or there will
Alien Buddha is a stone, wood and stainless steel mixed work, that took
be an imbalance in nature. I see the lack of balance in global affairs and
a painstakingly long time to make, but was as a result more rewarding to
the general shift towards a negative environment as evidence of this and
complete. The stone I used is called “Picasso Marble” and it was a joy to
therefore believe that the need to create, and facilitate creativity, is greater
work with. It is very hard, and contains curving streaks. As a sculptor, my
job was to find and depict them in much the same way that a painter builds an image using line and tone. My later sculptures include Infinity 634, a site
I want to thank Jonathan Thomson for his kindness and wisdom to curate my
specific work that was commissioned by the JW Marriott hotel in Hong Kong
work and mastermind this book and Andrew McWalters for his creative skills
in 2009 for the hotel lobby. The exact positioning of this work completes a
and art direction. I would also like to thank my family and dedicated wife
near perfect environment for positive energy with glass, water, wood, stone,
Kanya and children Nick and Aimee, and my grandson Charlie. Gosh knows I
plants and people.
would be living in a cave somewhere without them…..
My small sculpture called “Tangle” has sold more than 100 million
I wish everyone who reads this book creativity and wellness and invite you
copyrighted editions globally, and is used for everything from play to therapy
the reader to project that creativity and wellness both outward and inward.
and has educational uses as well as offering pure aesthetic pleasure. My series of large scale sculptures called “Infinity” that are made in stainless
steel and other related materials are another attempt to represent the Tao in a three dimensional-plus form. I think people engage with these works both through their visual elegance and their unseen energies. The Tangle Particle is also versatile enough to be applied to functional things including lamps, constructions toys, sculpture as furniture, and stereo speakers. My work also includes virtual sculpture that helps me to visualize how my physical sculpture would appear in a variety of environments. The virtual world allows me to think and plan on a massive scale. These monumental works are akin to landmark architecture in scale but have no function other
Richard X Zawitz and the Experience of Art
In the 1960s and 1970s a great many young people from the West travelled to the East seeking the enlightenment they believed could be found in Eastern religions and cultures. The “Hippie Trail” is now the stuff of legends for today’s independent travellers. The reality of what it was actually like may now be exaggerated, but it is true to say that many travellers on the trail did have inspiring, life-changing spiritual experiences. One such traveller was the American sculptor Richard Zawitz. Zawitz is today best known as the inventor of the Tangle, a hand-held executive toy that consists of a series of quarter round sections of tubing, either in plastic or stainless steel that are joined end to end so that each piece can swivel. The loop thus formed can be manipulated to form an array of different sinuous shapes. Zawitz’s work is extraordinarily allusive. It is an art object of simple beauty that is capable of conveying an extraordinary range of emotions and free associations. The work’s sweeping twisting lines and fluid wanderings are like rolling vapours made solid. For Zawitz, the twists and turns have an organic quality, and mark a nexus between coherent patterns of flow and the discordance of turbidity, the point where vortices, eddies and ripples emerge out of chaos. By some measures, Zawitz’s Tangle may be one of the most successful art objects ever made with more than one hundred million editions currently in circulation. Now reborn as sculpture on a monumental scale, all with the title Infinity (and a unique reference number) his work is able to touch and inspire even more people as it transforms public spaces into havens of spiritual tranquillity. Zawitz began his travels in Asian philosophy and art in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania with Chan Wing Tsit. Chan was a consummate scholar, teacher and mentor, and a living exemplar of the Chinese philosophical tradition. Of all the leading figures in twentieth century Chinese philosophy, he was among the first to make his home in the West, teaching and publishing in English and Chinese, but always in touch with Asia. From Chan Zawitz learned about Chinese philosophy, and most importantly, the Tao Te Ching.1 He was also convinced by Chan to further his studies at the University of Hawaii, where Chan himself had started his teaching career in the United States and where he began, in 1939, a series of conferences on Asian and comparative philosophy which later gave rise to the journal Philosophy East and West.2 In Hawaii, Zawitz began a two year period of independent study with
Left: Portrait with Infinity 6.34.r9, 2009 Stainless steel, granite, JW Marriott, Hong Kong,
Prithwish Neogy, who was a renowned scholar of Asian art and aesthetics. Here he encountered the writings of Ananda Coomaraswamy, Jacques Maritain and Sigfried Giedion and began to develop his own philosophical pluralism, drawing on primitive art, Taoism, Zen Buddhism, tantric art, rasa
and comparative philosophy to help articulate his understanding of the fundamental underlying principles of art and creativity. In his essay The Theory of Art in Asia, Ananda Coomaraswamy expounded on many different issues from the nature and meaning of representation in Asia, to symbolism and convention, originality and novelty, intensity and energy and the nature of art itself. He concluded his essay with an examination 3
of rasa as a central part of the formal theory of art in India. In Sanskit, the term rasa means the sap or juice of plants. In this physical sense, we can readily grasp what this essence may imply, be it orange or lemon or any other flavour. But when the word is applied to Indian art and aesthetic experience, it also refers to the state of heightened delight produced in the viewers mind by the emotion and experience of a work of art. The term was originally applied to the performing arts of dance, drama and music, but, as pointed out by Coomaraswamy, it is immediately applicable to all the arts. The
Left: Zawitz with red hat Swami, 1973 (Photographer unknown) Photo taken on streets in Kathmandu.
He distinguishes two stages in the creative process, the first which occurs
Below: Tibetan Chorten Tangboche Khumbu, (Photographer: R X Zawitz) 1973 Himalayas, Nepal.
to be controlled by the external world and his creative intuition begins to
below the level of consciousness in the “preconscious intellect” in which are found “sources of knowledge and creativity, of love and supra-sensuous desire hidden in the primordial translucid night of the intimate vitality of the soul.”6 It is in the preconscious intellect that the artist’s soul ceases germinate. In the second stage the creative idea is clarified for consciousness and is expressed. In an age that is essentially practical, and which posits praxis as the ultimate truth, he advocated the primacy of the spiritual.
Bottom: Zawitz on Khumbu trail towards Mt Everest, 1973 (Photographer unknown) Himalayas, Nepal.
principle of rasa can be subdivided into nine distinct sentiments, each arising from or embodying particular subjects and situations. These comprise the erotic, comic, pathetic, furious, heroic, terrible, odious, marvellous and the quiescent or tranquil sentiment. This last sentiment, known as Shanta, comes from knowing, or at least approaching, the utter serenity of spiritual tranquillity.
Maritain’s revelations about the importance of intuition are reiterated by Sigfried Giedion. Giedion is perhaps best known as an architectural historian, and author of Space Time and Architecture. However, in his book The Eternal Present: The Beginnings of Art, originally presented at the National Gallery of Art in Washington DC in 1957 as the AW Mellon Lectures in Fine Arts, he examines theories regarding the origins of art. Giedion notes that art is a fundamental experience, born out of the urge for elemental expression. “It grows out of man’s innate passion to develop a means of expression for his inner life. There is no difference whether the basic impulse for these feelings Top: Tibetan man with prayer wheel, 1973, Kathmandu.
Maritain was a French Catholic philosopher who advocated what he called “True Humanism” saying that the human person is both material and spiritual, and can become more than a merely self–interested individual by acquiring and practicing the habits necessary to actualize his humanity.4 In his Creative Intuition in Art and Poetry Marutain describes creativity as naturalistic in the sense that it does not rely on any external source or Platonic muse.5
Left: Tibetan nomad with prayer wheel, 1973, Kathmandu. Right: Richard X Zawitz, 1972 (Photographer unknown) Zawitz sitting outside wood cutters cottage studio, Kyoto.
rises from a cosmic anguish, the urge to play, art for arts sake, or – as today – the desire to express in signs and symbols the realm of the unconscious.” The key to Zawitz’s philosophy is pluralism, a subtle melding of Eastern and Western thought. This is not as straightforward as it might seem. In his book Mysticism and Morality: Oriental Thought and Moral Philosophy the philosopher Arthur Danto notes that while “the East has always held the promise of a deeply alternative existence, satisfying and pacific and exalting… It is nevertheless an aim of this book to discourage the hope that a way through our moral perplexities may be found in the Orient.”7
For Danto, the problem lies with an inability or unwillingness to put one’s own cultural assumptions at risk. But Zawitz was able to take risks and to “unlearn” his western aesthetic bias. For him, the key that opens the doors 8
to perception is the nondualist interrelatedness of all things. It is this that for him links the art of Asia with that of the West – from the humanism of Michelangelo to the inventive genius of Da Vinci and the pure form of Constantin Brancusi. “In the Zen Buddhist tradition that I embrace I believe in the rule of no rule.
The literal meaning of the word Tao is path, or way. The term is generally
Left: First Twist, 1971 36"Hx22"W, edition 1/1, Carrara marble.
used in three ways: giving a name to the ultimate reality that surpasses human experience; describing the observable rhythms and patterns of the universe; and describing the way of human life when it is in harmony with the Tao of the universe. An important aspect of the Tao is its state
Bottom: Richard X Zawitz, 1974 (Photographer unknown) Meditating on the Khumbu trail to Everest base camp.
of perpetual motion. “All things, as they come into being and develop, progress through a series of changes moving persistently to a return to the state of non-being, the primal unity and source of all things.”10 The basically circular movement of Tao confirms the idea of heaven as round, symbolized
My professor Neogy taught me something that I have never stopped living
by the circle. The pictographs and ideograms of Chinese writing may often
and that is life is not a matter of either / or, it is both / and. I have never
themselves encapsulate their meaning. Thus the character tao combines the
eliminated any possibilities. There is no reason to. Why should I? Why
character ch’o representing a foot taking a step or moving step by step and
should I conform? It is my job to use the understanding that I have been
the character shou, or head.11 The combination of head and foot symbolizes
given to perpetuate the conformity of non-conformity.”9
Tao as an inner way, it also illustrates the circular, complete and perpetual course of Tao for a circle’s beginning and end are the same and the movement around its periphery is unceasing.12 These two pictographs also illustrate the Taoist idea of Tao as both unmoving and continually moving, as the path lies motionless on the ground yet goes somewhere and so has movement. This aspect of Tao is the basis of the concept wu wei, a phrase which translates literally as inaction but in Taoism means actionless activity or pure effectiveness.13 Another interpretation is that the concept describes creative quietude, being that state when a certain dislocation of the conscious self takes place, and which frees the resources of the subconscious mind to engage in pure creativity.14 “I practice open ended creativity. I don’t have a point or a goal. I don’t set a goal for the creative aspects of what I do. Do you know Aldous Huxley’s Doors of Perception? By being able to open certain doors at certain times you realize that there is more to life than what you see. There is another dimension out there. Artists are able to get out of their ordinary mind. They use visualization in numerous ways including meditation and so on. I use numerous methodologies but one thing I use is just allowing things to come
“My art practice is intuitive. I still to this day and everyday practice an ancient
in and open up in your brain. I am able to use a 3-D virtual reality in my head
Chinese exercise from Taoism called Tzu-jan, or spontaneity. I believe that to
to visualize things. I also utilize direct carving as I know there is something
be a true creative, you can’t be on a fixed path. This is both a belief system
inside the stone.”
and a methodology for me. It can be counter-productive if for example in business you make fast spontaneous decisions, but I carry what I do into everything that I do. Tzu-jan is a methodology. The great Chinese painters all employed it. If something dripped that was not a setback but something that you worked with. Spontaneity allows other multiple relations to happen and in more of a Jungian synchronistic way than in a linear way, so that when you allow these spontaneous moments to happen so many other things can happen your life is completely open ended. It allows anything to happen.”
Top: Tao caligraphy, 2010 Above: Chaos scroll, 1973 60"Hx30"W, ink on paper.
Zawitz’s graduation work was a stone carving called First Twist. In this work a cylinder of white marble rises from a trapezoid wooden base. At about half its height, the cylinder bends sideways and turns up over itself completing one full turn. At its apex, the cylinder tapers and ends in a roughly spherical shape. It is a remarkably allusive work, suggesting at times either an Indian figure in a pronounced tribhanga pose (where the figure is oppositely bent at waist and neck to form a “S” shape), or a Tang dynasty figurine of
a woman with her hair piled characteristically high. As an abstract image, the essential elements of the sculpture have been distilled in order the simultaneously simplify and concentrate the composition. Abstraction in the Greek sense of aphaeresis refers to “the process as well as the result of the withdrawal from the particular, accidental, inessential in order to obtain the general, inevitable, essential. By bringing together essential characteristics in one artistic concept, abstraction offers us our most important means of systematically arranging the boundless multiplicity of objects which approach us in our perception, our imagination, and even in our thoughts.”
Bottom: Daruma torso, 1972 36"H x24"W, Japanese cypress. Opposite Top: Morita Shiryu, 1968 Ink on rice paper with signature and seal below.
work with the brush), space (including the formal qualities of composition and line quality), and literary value (the moji). The moji is the character or other component of the written word that was regarded as the irreducible unit of calligraphy. In the 1940s and 1950s Morita advocated focus on the formal qualities of calligraphy. In an essay about Matisse he enthuses about Matisse’s extreme reduction of all form to pure and simplified line and, as calligraphy is also an art of line, imagined these two art forms coming together like a rainbow with one end in the East and one in the West.17
In his senior year thesis that accompanied this work Zawitz wrote “It is the reverse evolution from the complex to the simple; the simplicity of primal unity and the transcending of the complex, the superficiality of things, that the artist of Tao searches for.16 On his graduation in 1972 from the University of Hawaii with a major in fine arts sculpture and sub majors in Asian art history and Asian philosophy, Zawitz went to live and work as a sculptor in Kyoto, Japan. He became interested in the story of Enku, an itinerant Buddhist monk who lived in Japan in the 17th
Opposite Left: Richard X Zawitz, 1973 (Photographer unknown) Zawitz outside wood cutters cottage studio in Kyoto. Opposite Right: Tibetan prayer circumambulation, 1973 (Photographer: R X Zawitz) Bodinath Stupa, Kathmandu.
Morita’s own calligraphy is avowedly illegible. In a theory of expression influenced by the Zen Buddhist principles taught by the Kyoto School of philosophy which argued that while the West was tied to dualistic thinking and approaches to art, the East pursued a path of nondualism, Morita understood the given conventional forms (the moji) as attaining utter sameness with something profoundly internal to the calligrapher. “The character is revered as the timeless product of centuries of language use, but at the same time it is intuited at a level so deeply interior to the calligrapher as to undergo a massive upheaval when brought forth as an expression in brush, ink and paper.”18
century in the early Edo period. Enku is known as a shugendo, a devotee of a form of religion that is a conglomerate of Taoism, Shinto and Buddhism. Shugendo means the path of training and testing and it centres on an ascetic and nomadic life. Enku travelled all over Japan and everywhere he went, he would carve an image of the Buddha. During his lifetime he was extremely prolific and is reputed to have carved some 120,000 images of Buddha. No two were alike and most were crudely fashioned from found timbers with just a few stokes of an axe. These images were not made as monuments or for self aggrandizement but for their spiritualism. Enku left these simple expressions of prayer and devotion as a reminder of enlightenment in hamlets and villages all over Japan. The notion of a cheap, simple and widely available evocation of enlightened creativity was to have an enduring impact on Zawitz. However, it was not yet evident in the work that he produced at this time. A work of Zawitz from this period is a rather bland wood carving representing Bodhidharma, the Buddhist monk traditionally credited with having introduced the Taoist influenced Ch’an (Zen in Japanese) Buddhism to China. Traditional
Zawitz also travelled to India, Nepal and Tibet. In Tibet he encountered
representations of Bodhidharma depict him as an ill-tempered, bearded and
the Tibetan infinite knot, the pattern of interwoven lines without ending or
beginning that is a symbol of infinite life and creation. Zawitz returned to America in 1975 and built a studio in Waltham, Massachusetts, in Boston’s
In Japan Zawitz worked with the calligrapher Morita Shiryū who had played
western suburbs. Here he began the process of unifying and reconciling his
an important role in developing a hybrid art that fused Japanese calligraphy
myriad influences and experiences into the creation of a four dimensional
with aspects of Western expressionism. Morita theorized calligraphy as
universal energy form. He was inspired to look for a shape or pattern that
having three properties: time (the duration of reading and of creating a
could evoke the eternal without ever being stiff or constrained.
In 1975 he made a tall elegant double spiral form that he called Column of Infinity. He kept a model of this work in his studio and found that visitors were drawn to it and fascinated by their ability to manipulate the elements of the spiral into new and different shapes where every new shape was as aesthetically pleasing as the last. From here Zawitz developed his line in space. A line without beginning or end, solid yet supple, immutable yet capable of constant change, a delight to both hand and eye that he called Statue of Infinity. It was this work comprising a series of linked quarter-
Left: Statue of Infinity, 1983 (Photographer unknown) 8'Hx4'W, stainless steel, Hyatt Macau.
having no shape of its own but capable of being infinitely accommodating.
Bottom: Infinite column/ Tree of life, 1975 48"Hx6"W, walnut wood.
volumetric space while the shapes created are open, empty and without
Water also attains clarity through calmness – “muddy water let stand will clear”. These are the virtues of wu wei. Zawitz is also interested in the ways in which his forms seem to outline mass. His linked curves make an outline enclosing nothing. Emptiness is a key Taoist concept as emptiness is Tao. Space is filled with meaning as
round curves that can each be twisted around its central axis which was
it is filled with Tao. Tao cannot be defined but it can be alluded to. Thus
commercialised as the Tangle.
the Tao Te Ching notes that the inner space of a jug is its essential part, not the pottery, and that it is the space within four walls that comprises the usefulness of a room. The purpose of Taoist meditation is to empty the mind of all distracting thought and emotion so that it is more conducive to quiescence and receptivity and better able to reflect on the Tao. In Indian art, this is also the rasa of Shanta. “The void is an extremely important part of my work. It ties into the Buddhist thought and into Taoist thought because without emptiness you can’t have the solid. Part of my learning and aesthetics is the displacement of space. There is a form of elegance in displacing space and in leaving voids. It is a methodology of space displacement.” Most often when we appreciate a successful work of art we share its rasa - the state of heightened sensation produced in the viewers mind by the emotion and experience of the work itself. But with Zawitz’s work we can go even further because we are the artist. We are responsible for the kinesthetic action of creation and can take pleasure in both the instinctive, subliminal act of creation itself and in the form that we create. It was while watching visitors to his exhibition manipulate this art work and taking great pleasure in it that Zawitz had an epiphany. He realized that this object could be accessible to millions of people – like Enku and his thousands of wooden Buddha, but it could do more. It could allow all of them to clear their minds, to find clarity and serenity and to participate and interact with the both the process and the
Visual reality is transitory at the best of times as objects seen under natural
product of sculpture. The work itself seems to foster multiple intelligences.
conditions change in appearance from moment to moment owing to
People with strong left-brain traits are drawn to the logical linearity of the
changes in light, atmosphere and the relative positions of object and viewer.
sculpture. People with right brain dominance appreciate its allusive qualities
Zawitz’s line in space gives physical form to things seen only in the mind’s
and its ability to spark visualization, imagination and intuition. Manipulation
eye. Together the interlinked curves allude to many things. They may be
of the work seems to allow us to link the powers of both hemispheres.
a waterfall or the movement of water through a series of shallow rapids, In a book published in 2009, noted psychologist Dr Roland Rotz noted that
rushing around and tumbling over rocks. They may be clouds, tendrils of vapour blown by the wind. These are powerful images that have important associations in Taoism. Water is an important Taoist symbol, always taking the path of least resistance, finding rest at the lowest point, making a level surface over irregular depths, infinitely supple yet incomparably strong and
Top and above: Infinity photographic art, 2009 (Photographer: Jem Fevzi) Chrome plated plastic.
“Researchers have begun to discover we can improve our ability to process information and generate novel ideas through movement, which varies and enhances our point of view. Recent research on movement and the brain suggests that small and large motor movements are critical for improved
cognitive functions such as focusing, remembering and critical thinking. Movement also plays an important role in improving emotions like pleasure joy and contentment. For over two decades, Tangle Toys have challenged and inspired adults and children to think creatively while imaging something novel and unique. No matter how they interact with Tangles, my clients find they provide an important sensory stimulant that helps their ability to focus on the discussion at hand.”
Bottom: Tangle toy and keychain, plastic, The tangle has been used to promote a range of international companies. Opposite: Richard Zawitz’s first patent, 1985 To date he has 20 pantents.
Zawitz’s sculpture employs what he describes as a “pure compound curve, which is a curve coming from two positions – the front and the side.” “Compound curves are groovy. They are beyond groovy, they are wonderful. Who doesn’t love a compound curve? I am lucky I figured that out because everyone does. Why? There are some things that are intrinsic in the human brain that approves of and appreciates a curve. That is part of my discovery. My parallel discovery was that vortexes, spirals, curves and circles are in combination with nature which is science, and are in combination with mankind which is all of art and culture. These are parallel and concomitant with each other. My theory is that there is an intuitive or intrinsic understanding of the curve in the human brain. It is an attraction. If I was a scientist I would have empirical proof that I had happened onto something. One hundred million versions of the tangle is a lot of laboratory work that helps to prove my thesis.” In documents filed with the US patent and trademark office in 1982, Zawitz’s sculpture is described rather dryly as “an annular support device formed by a series of identical torus segments with adjacent segments connected end-toend in a continuous loop.” As patent protection is only afforded to inventions which have a utilitarian purpose, the documentation describes the sculpture as a “manual diversion tranquilizer” and notes that “hand action coupled with a low attention requirement is well known to have a tranquilizing effect. Crocheting and whittling are traditional examples of diversion-relaxation therapy. The present annular device provides a similar tension relief function. Twisting the device is a simple, thoughtless procedure, which instantly produces unlimited fascinating and unpredictable configurations. With each twist of the segments, the device undergoes a chain-wide transformation in silhouette and axis orientation without repetition. The device functions as a mechanical or sculptural kaleidoscope, with a corresponding relaxing, mesmeric characteristic.”20 “The continuous centre line of symmetry around the annular device insures that each of the infinite random configurations will have a smooth and graceful silhouette, which contributes to the relaxation of the user. The torus section embodiments produce only continuous configurations free from geometric or mathematical discontinuities (no infinite derivatives).
The annular device may be displayed as a stationary artistic sculpture without change, and still have a desirable therapeutic effect. The flowing appearance of the annular device contributes to a relaxing atmosphere.” The mutability of the work invites the viewer to consider the evanescence
Left: Museum tangle with Swarovski elements, 2009 (Photographer: Joan Boivin) Chrome plated plastic with 3,000 Swarovski elements.
the expressive qualities of what Paul Klee famously called “taking a line for a walk” when describing drawing. For further variation in the forms available, it is possible to break the sculpture at any one of its joins, by simply pulling it apart, and to tie an actual knot in the length before reforming the loop. The geometrical possibilities of the sculpture are endless. In his work Zawitz sees not just the interconnectedness of all things but also the double helix as the
Zawitz sees his new monumental stainless steel pieces as part of an evolution. “The work is contemporary but also futuristic. I believe that I have invented a new paradigm aesthetically as well as a patented invention. So taking that and having a narrow window to open that allows creativity without having to spend years carving will open up innumerable creative possibilities. The creativity is not going to rest but will self perpetuate. As a non-theory person
of life while its continuously flowing form suggests lightness, freedom and the interconnectedness of all things. Zawitz explores in three dimensions
Right: Infinity 6.34, 2009 9'Hx3'W, stainless steel, black granite, JW Mariott, Hong Kong
Bottom: Rosemary, 2009 (Photographer unknown) famous model wearing Swarovski Tangle. Dragon Center Tangle Fashion show, Hong Kong.
I am intuitive. My middle initial that was given to me is X, for experimental.” “As someone willing to experiment I have no fear of building these sculptures or showing them in a museum or any other formal setting. For a client in Korea I have proposed a monumental Infinity sculpture that has 1.2 metre diameter segments and is 50 metres high. I have allowed myself to dream this large.”
building block of life or the cosmic spiral form of the galaxy.
Zawitz’s work and his methodology allow his public art clients an There is also something organic about his dynamic, undulating, flowing
unprecedented degree of participation in the creative process. In traditional
curvilinear forms that meshes well with his philosophy. “For the cultures
public art sculpture the role of the artist is to determine the form and to
of Asia the forest has always been a teacher and the message of the forest
capture it for his audience. Yet for Zawitz, everyone is an artist.
has been the message of interconnectedness and diversity, renewability and sustainability, integrity and pluralism.” In some works Zawitz experiments
“In order to make the Infinity sculpture for the JW Marriott Hotel in Hong Kong
with crystal studded surfaces or brightly coloured highly textured spiky
I knew the location where it was to be placed and I knew the parameters. I
surfaces that seem to belong to the animal kingdom. “The logic is threefold.
specifically allowed spontaneity to find the shape. It took about eight minutes
People are attracted to curves, the human brain loves colour as eye candy
to get there using a model and when if found it I loved it and just stopped.
and people love to touch. If I combine all of these things in one work it may
As the tangle master I believe in myself and my abilities. But what makes an
lead to more people liking it but this is not the reason why I build. I build
artist? As everyone can manipulate a tangle into an artistic shape my job is
because of a need to create and if I am lucky enough to also please a big
as facilitator. With the three dimensional modelling software now available
audience then I feel as if I have won a certain kind of game.”
any client can manipulate the model into any configuration and when they
get to the shape they want they can stop, photograph it at that point, and record the angle of twist from a notional centre line of every single segment. The model can then be fabricated into a full size sculpture.” “I love stainless steel. For me the choice of materials helps to define fine art
Opposite top: Audio forms, 2009 35"Hx24"W, edition 1/1, chrome plated plastic, electronic components, Sony Corporation, Tokyo.
status. I could build an inflatable version that would be perfectly valid but would not be considered fine art. You have to have boundaries somewhere. Even though I believe in infinity I have fixed points in materials and in aesthetics. The other thing I love about stainless steel is its timelessness.” Just as his forms may evoke the ceaseless rippling movement of water, so too do the reflective properties of stainless steel suggest the reflective qualities of water. Zawitz is fascinated by surface and likes to focus on the reflections which are subject to distortion across the whole convex surface. The reflections act in counterpoint to the solidity of the physical sculpture. On compound curves the complex reflections of their surroundings shift,
Opposite bottom: Statue of Infinity, 2001 (Photographer: R X Zawitz) 9'Hx9'W, stainless steel, laquered wood, Art Expo, Jacob Javits convention center
when you shift your focus, back to the solid object with an immutable logic.
The sense of fleeting motion and entanglement is captured and preserved
in an instant.
11 12 13 14 15
Chan Wing Tsit is author of a number of important texts including Chan Wing Tsit, A Sourcebook in Chinese Philosophy, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1963; Laozi, The way of Lao Tzu (Tao-te ching); Translated with introductory essays, comments, and notes by Wing-tsit Chan, Bobbs Merrill, Indianapolis, 1963; Junjiro Takakusu, The essentials of Buddhist philosophy: Edited by Wing-tsit Chan and Charles A. Moore, Office Appliance Co, Honolulu, 1956. Philosophy East and West: A Quarterly of Comparative Philosophy has been published continuously by University of Hawaii Press since 1951. Ananda K Coomaraswamy, The Transformation of Nature in Art, Dover, New York, 1934. Jacques Maritain, True Humanism; Translated by M. R. Adamson, Geoffrey Bles, London, 1939. Jacques Maritain, Creative Intuition in Art and Poetry, Harvill Press, London, 1954. This essay was first delivered at the National Gallery of Art in Washington DC in 1952 as the first of the AW Mellon Lectures in the Fine Arts. Carl R. Hausman, “Maritain’s Interpretation of Creativity in Art”, Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, Vol. 19, No. 2 (Winter, 1960), pp. 215-219. Arthur Danto, Mysticism and Morality: Oriental Thought and Moral Philosophy, Basic Books, New York, 1972. For a detailed critique of Danto’s position see Robert Carter “Ethics as a Declaration of Interdependence”, Trumpeter, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1992, online at http://trumpeter.athabascau.ca/content/v9.3/carter.html From transcripts of conversations with the artist in Hong Kong on 25 November 2009. All subsequent direct quotes are from this same conversation. Mai Mai Sze, The Way of Chinese Painting, Its Ideas and Technique, With Selections from the Seventeenth Century Mustard Seed Garden Manual of Painting, Vintage Books, New York, 1959, pg. 17. Ibid., pg 428. Ibid., pg. 17. Ibid. pg 17. Huston Smith, The Illustrated World’s Religions, Harper Collins, New York, 1995, pg. 135. J. Hoffmeister, Wörterbuch der philosophischen Begriffe, Hamburg, 1955 cited by Sigfried Giedion, The Eternal Present: Volume 1, The Beginnings of Art, Bollingen Foundation, New York, 1962, pg. 12. Richard X Zawitz, Taoism and the Experience of Art, Unpublished University of Hawaii Thesis, Hawaii, 1971, pg. 3. Bert Winther Tamaki, Art in the Encounter of Nations: Japanese and American artists in the early postwar years, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, 2001, pp. 66-89. Ibid. pg. 84. Richard X Zawitz and Mary Beth Spann, Learning with Tangle Brain Tools, Tangle Creations Inc, San Francisco, 2009, pg. xiv. United States Patent Number 4509929 at http://www.uspto.gov. A patent is a property right granted to an inventor that confers the right to exclude others from making, using or selling the invention. A utility patent may be granted to anyone who invents or discovers any new and useful process, machine, article of manufacture, or compositions of matters, or any new useful improvement thereof. The use must be specified in the application. Ibid. J Bandyopadhyay and Vandana Shiva, “Asia’s Forests, Asia’s Cultures” in Lessons of the Rainforest, Ed. Suzanne Head and Robert Heinzman, Sierra Club Books, San Francisco, 1990
In his works Zawitz explores the nexus between being and nothingness and captures temporary, transitional, ephemeral moments – the instant of time between one state of being and another – which is after all, a metaphor for life.
The Versatility of Vision
As a sculptor Richard X Zawitz developed his mature voice in the early 1980s. He moved from the natural materials of stone and wood to mirrored stainless steel, setting up a contrast between the fluidity of his forms and the solidity of their substance as well as allowing the mirrored surfaces to suggest an integration of the forms with their environments and embarked upon a series of monumental works collectively entitled Infinity. The compound curves that comprise the building blocks of his Infinity sculptures may be configured into an infinite variety of combinations, forming sculptures whose sinewy forms spiral upward, charged with potential energy, or hug the ground as they meander from place to place. Their allusive character conflate references from all world cultures, so that they strike a chord in all who experience them A wave may symbolise something passive, as in all those who let themselves be borne away to wherever it may carry them, or may suggest something open and illimitable or the tumult of violent action. Likewise a curve simultaneously describes liberation and confinement, while a curl encloses the signified within the signifying. Complex combinations of compound curves represent the fundamental interconnectedness of all things and the infinite possibilities which are the birthright of all mankind.
Bottom left and right: Tangle protein models, 2010 Created by Professor Marcel Jaspars, Edinburgh University, Scotland
His work strikes a chord in science, as his models have been adopted by molecular biologists as a tool in DNA modelling, and by physicists seeking to describe cosmic string theory. It also has applications in education and physical therapy. However, it is as public art that his work has the greatest impact as both grand statements and functional objects with practical beauty.
Infinity 8.30, 2010 12'Hx8'W, stainless steel, granite, USC Ronald Tutor Campus Center, California
Infinity 6.34.r9, 2009 10'Hx48'W, stainless steel, granite, JW Marriott, Hong Kong
Statue of Infinity 10.20, 2004 10'Hx8'W, stainless steel, Jacob Javits Convention Center, temporary exhibit, California
Statue of Infinity 8.20, 2003 10'Hx8'W, stainless steel, Renaissance Harbour View Hotel, Hong Kong,
Statue of Infinity One, 1994 8'Hx6'W, stainless steel, Hong Kong Convention Center entrance, Hong Kong.
Infinite Steel, 2005 10'Hx8'W, stainless steel, Mario Pelligrini estate, Montara, California
Infinite Steel, 2005 10'Hx8'W, stainless steel, Mario Pelligrini estate, Montara, California
Statue of Infinity One, 1994 8'Hx6'W, stainless steel, Hong Kong Convention Center entrance, Hong Kong.
Virtual Sculptural Environments
Ut expe nulpa velit fugiasitione resto omnimus sitam consectaquo commodi que perios ducim autatiscia quodi blaceaquam quidelis cullectia verum reperspiendi volorest, el est pel enim conseque cuptas es repudam iuntis dis andae eosam, to magnatis eribus ea cuptate sit, cori doloribus volendi pidenimus eos mos derfera vellacim qui occus el illecum quasin rehendam adita isqui oditem ipsusci delectus. Faccuptam nonet fuga. As eium in excest, seque most aut mo voluptate int hariorum quia nobistrum aditior emolore ptibus delitat venis et maximet urest, nonsed quo officiam nonsed es adio. Itaero consecea nis pliquiam, quiam recabor sequate arum ex eossiminiam, tem labore volorerias moloresti dolectota si bearis sin culpa sae volupta sit peruptae. As et modit minctat. Assi is doluptatur sundae nobissi debit, ut lam repercid qui dolendelic tor aces seque veliquia doloren dunture nullorestem ipsandu sdantio nsequia expernam ne quatias derro consend ebitatibusda estiasi optatus apitae. Ullut qui aut di re enditatem volupta conet enihicte vendiciet esti ide venimagnis et velicim oluptis modisimincto mint volumque est is moluptate nos et aut minimus, officiis escidest eum volorei catur? Quidebis eum ipsape volorum fugit odit, se inis dusamen tionsed ut aut res eum et fugiam, tem quia qui tem iusa diatur ant ulparumquam, cum quos est, inum quatemque porectiati rectatecabor magnimp ossita prorporion consecab il inias entur aboratur? Ovidem exces ex el et es neceprae se idendit, cum quam re prorpos ma que perunde bitatus.
Left: Richard X Zawitz, 1969 Self portrait, Hawaii.
Infinity 24.280, conceptual environment, Sydney, Australia, 12'Hx400'W, concrete, mosaic tiles.
Infinity 6.32, conceptual environment, Interior, 10'Hx6'W, stainless steel.
Statue of Rings, conceptual environment, Interior, 12'Hx6'W, stainless steel, granite.
INFINITY SCULPTURE (2009) 3.34 R9.5 1/8, Stainless Steel
Infinity 12.128t, conceptual environment, The City of Arts and Sciences, Valencia, Spain, 48'Hx60'W, stainless steel.
Infinity 36.60, Pittsburgh Pa, conceptual environment, 60'Hx40'W, stainless steel.
Infinity 48.260, conceptual environment, Burj Al Arab, Dubai, 12'Hx6'W, concrete, mosaic tiles.
Infinity Fountain 12.30, conceptual environment, Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong, 15'Hx10'W, stainless steel.
Infinity Fountain 18.96, conceptual environment, Water feature 98'Hx24'W, stainless steel, granite, water.
Spirit of Peace, conceptual environment Istanbul, 75'Hx60'W, bronze.
Infinite Four Parts Universe, conceptual environment, Vatican City, 200'Hx200'W, stainless steel.
Infinity 8.36, conceptual environment, One Central Macau, Macau, 10'Hx8'W, stainless steel.
Statue of Infinity, Gateway to West, conceptual environment, San Francisco harbour entrance, San Francisco, 275'Hx96'W, metal alloy.
Statue of Infinity, IFC, conceptual environment, Internation Finance Centre, oval atrium, Hong Kong, 275'Hx96'W, metal alloy.
In his earliest work in wood and stone, Richard Zawitz explored the complex array of images and objects that served to remind and support the essential teachings of Buddhism, Taoism, Shinto and the other Eastern religions and philosophies that he was learning at that time. In works such as Daruma Torso (1972) or Guardian Torso (Date) he sought to express notions of an idealised figure. Other works such as India (Date) or Daruma (Date) present the Buddha in a more transcendent way, far from the earthly realm and closer to a heavenly sphere. In later works he sought to deconstruct solid forms into primal organic elements. In works such as Flying Stone (Date), Mind Over Matter (Date) and Cosmic Stone (Date) he used stone to capture the fizz and spark of effervescence â€“ the moment of transition when gas is freed from an aqueous solution. These works appear like rafts of bubbles, held together by surface tension. In fact they have been laboriously carved out of alabaster. Their combination of spherical forms allude to problems of space - just as bubbles have the smallest possible surface area for any given volume and will always find the smallest surface area between points or edges. But it was in Tibet that he had his epiphany. It was here that he encountered the Tibetan Infinite Knot, the pattern of interwoven lines without beginning or end that is a symbol of infinite life and creation. The Tibetan Infinite Knot is a symbol of endless, flowing spirit and wisdom. At this moment Zawitz began to imagine a knot with no beginning and no end that could twist, turn and change into various shapes, but never lose its essential character. The Tibetan Infinite Knot captivated and inspired him and led him to explore curvilinear forms representing themes of infinity, rebirth and universal harmony. It was this symbol that led him to the realization that he could take his First Twist beyond its first turn and on into infinity.
Above: Infinity scroll, 1973 60"Hx30"W, ink on paper. Right: wood studies, 2008, Teak and Cypress. Left: Richard X Zawitz, 1969 Self portrait, Hawaii.
Cosmic stone, 1989 24"Wx18"Hx18"L, edition 1/1, alabaster, glass beads, rosewood.
Guardian figure bust, 1973 18"Hx12"Wx6"D, Cypress wood.
Flying stone 1991 24"Wx12"Lx18"H, edition 1/1, Alabaster.
Alien Buddha, 1997-2004 8'Hx6'Wx3'D, Picasso marble, wood, stainless steel.
Infinite column/ Tree of life, 1975 48"Hx6"W, walnut wood.
Torso, 1970 48"Hx24"x14"D, Serpentine and pine.
India, 1971 4'Hx12"W, koa wood, marble.
Mind over matter 1990 36"Wx16"Hx10"D, edition 1/1, alabaster, acrylic, teak.
Pre Buddhistic Buddha, 1971 12"Hx5"W, bronze, plastic fly, wooden antique. China
Hubert I Mungus, 1975 6'Hx20"W, wood charred patina.
In museum shops everywhere we can see examples of how art is merchandised in order to provide visitors with an enduring memento of their experience of art. Well known images of works from the collection are reproduced on everything from tea towels to coffee cups. The beauty of the tea towel or cup is thus enhanced, but the tea towel or cup is not itself transformed into an art object. The towel or cup retains its base character and the art is reduced to mere decoration. Richard Zawitz’s Tangle is different. The Tangle can be merchandised, and has been merchandised in more than 100 million editions and adapted into a range of entirely new applications without ever losing its essential qualities as an art object. As such, it is arguably one of the most successful art objects ever made. Some adaptations relate just to the surface finish. When coated in crystals in either solid or broken colours the work functions as jewellery or adornment. When coated in felt or in soft spiky finishes the work offers users a range of very different tactile experiences. At other times the surface finish provides a platform for branding messages. To date dozens of global corporations including Coca Cola, McDonalds and Kellogs have used Tangles in order to help identify them as a creative company. Other applications are more adaptive. When sheets of clear or coloured methacrylate are slung across the notional planes between the curves, the result is a line of sculpture-based furniture. The Infinity Furniture collection was developed by Zawitz in collaboration with Pierandrei Associati in Milan. The first two armchairs in the series were launched at the Salone D’Mobili in Milan in 2008. The same design collaboration resulted in a lighting fixture that is now produced by Tecnodelta. A desk lamp known as the Tangle Lamp allows users to twist and manipulate the arms of the lamp in order to put the light wherever it is wanted. The contours and lines of the arms have all of the flexibility of the original Tangle but from a solid base. Tangle Creations is now a multi-faceted content, product development, and distribution company for Tangle-related products and concepts, with products in the toy, electronic, therapy, pet, inflatable, educational, premium, promotional and sports sectors. This extraordinarily broad range of adaptations demonstrates the true versatility of Richard X Zawitz’s vision.
Top and above: Tangle Creations Identity, www.tanglecreations.com Left: Infinity alpha 4.16, 2008 6'Hx4'D, stainless steel, acrylic.
Infinity light, 2008 8'Hx8'W, aluminum, lighting components, Baci Abbracci flagship store, Milan.
Museum chrome tangle and Michael Jackson, 2008 (March) Italia Vogue magazine cover.
Infinity beta 4.16, 2008 36"Hx40"W, stainless steel, acrylic, design collaboration with Pierandre Associati Milan.
Infinity alpha 4.16, 2008 6'Hx4'D, stainless steel, acrylic, design collaboration with Pierandre Associati Milan.
Museum chrome tangle on the set of Spy Kids 4 movie. 2010
Infinity 4.20, 2009 36"Hx30"W, stainless steel, 36,000 Swarovski elements.
Left from top: Tangle Matrix Ball, Tangle Rocketball, Tangle Sportz football, basketball, baseball. 2010
Right: Tangle DNA Sound Speakers. 2005 Bottom: Tangle Lamp. 1999
Clockwise from top left: Tangle Neon Sparkle, 1981. Tangle Hairy, 2010. Spiked Bling Tangle, 2009. Tangle Therapy, 2004. Opposite clockwise from top right: Tangle Original Chrome, 1981. Tangle Jr Tri Color Metallic, 1981. Learning with Tangle Brain Tools Book, 2004.
Left from top: Tangle Therapy, Tangle Jr Fuzzies. Opposite Right from top: Tangle Hairy, Tangle Bling.
Infinity Gallery San Francisco
San Francisco, 385 Oyster Point Road, South San Francisco, USA
Middle: Zawitz rock lift, 30 pound rock.
Left: Loft studio in Infinity gallery, 1975 San Francisco, USA.
Infinity Gallery Hong Kong
Hong Kong Suite 4, 9th Floor, The Factory 1 Yip Fat Street Aberdeen
Left: Zawitz sitting, (Photographer: Joan Boivin) 2010, Infinity gallery, Hong Kong.
1946 1967 - 1968 1969 - 1972 1972 - 1975
Born Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA University of Pittsburgh University of Hawaii, Major in Fine Art Sculpture, Minor Asian Art History and Asian Philosophy Travel and study in Japan, Thailand, India, Nepal, Tibet Solo Exhibitions
1968 1970 1971 1972 1974 1985 1990 1991 1995
“Richard Zawitz Solo Exhibition”, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA “Richard Zawitz Solo Exhibition”, University of Hawaii Art Centre, Hawaii, USA “Richard Zawitz Solo Exhibition”, University of Hawaii Art Centre, Hawaii, USA “Richard Zawitz Solo Exhibition”, University of Hawaii Art Centre, Hawaii, USA “Tantric Art in Thailand”, Bangkok Cultural Centre, Bangkok, Thailand “Zen Sculpture”, Berlin Fine Art Gallery, Berlin, Germany “Richard Zawitz: Asia Meets the West”, Plum Blossoms Gallery, Hong Kong “East Meets West: The Taoist Art of Richard Zawitz”, Plum Blossoms Gallery, New York, USA “Richard Zawitz: Sculpture”, Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre, Hong Kong Group Exhibitions
1972 1975 1980 1997 2000 2001 2002 2006
“Name of Exhibition”, Honolulu Academy of Art Museum, Hawaii, USA “American Sculptors”, Boston University Fine Arts Centre, Massachusetts, USA “West Coast Sculptors”, San Francisco Embarcadero Art Centre, California, USA “Two Asia Sculptors”, Two man show with Wu Tsai Shang, Plum Blossoms Gallery, Hong Kong “The American Sculptor in Hawaii” Honolulu Academy of Art, Hawaii, USA “San Francisco Sculptors”, San Francisco Museum of Fine Art, California, USA “Group Show”, Grand Hyatt Hotel, Hong Kong “Asia and America”, Pittsburgh Cultural Centre, Pennsylvania, USA Commissions / Placements
1968 1975 1978 1981 1983 1984 2003 2005 2007 2009 2010
“Untitled”, Cor Ten Steel, University of Pittsburgh Campus, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA “Untitled”, Stainless Steel, Boston University Campus, Boston, Massachusetts, USA “Untitled”, Stainless Steel, Granite, Bank of America, San Francisco, California, USA “Untitled” Stainless Steel, Hyatt Hotel, Chicago, Illinois, USA “Untitled” Stainless Steel, Hyatt Hotel, Taipa, Macau “Untitled”, Stainless Steel, Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre, Hong Kong “Infinity”, Stainless Steel, Renaissance Hotel Harbour View, Hong Kong “Infinity”, Stainless Steel, Mario Pelligrini Residence, Montara, California, USA “Infinity”, Stainless Steel, Poly Concept Corporation, Paris, France “Infinity”, Stainless Steel, JW Marriott Hong Kong, Hong Kong “Infinity”, Stainless Steel, Ronald Tutor Campus Centre, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA
Left: Alien Buddha, 1997-2004 8'Hx6'Wx3'D, Picasso marble, wood, stainless steel.
Global News Media and Richard X Zawitz
Global News Media and Richard X Zawitz
Global News Media and Richard X Zawitz
INFINITY SCULPTURE (2009) 3.34 R9.5 1/8, Stainless Steel
INFINITY SCULPTURE (2009) 3.34 R9.5 1/8, Stainless Steel