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May/June 2014

Your Resource for Ceramic Techniques


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email: info@baileypottery.com PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014

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“Some days I’m standing up, some days I’m sitting down when I throw. So being able to adjust the height of the legs in nuanced ways is a real advantage... I also love the large aluminum builtin splash pan. It gives me something very stable to lean my body into as I’m throwing. It gives me extra stability and a little extra strength.”

Steven Hill

powerful tough innovative

ergonomic smooth value Visit skutt.com/video/hill to see video of Steven discussing the ergonomics of throwing.

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PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014


Inside

May/June 2014 Volume 17 Number 3

Features 8

14 Relating Pattern to Form by Shana Angela Salaff Pattern can function in many different and surprising ways, particularly when influenced by form.

17 The Print Duality by Martina Lantin Using monoprinting and toner-resist transfer to create surface decoration offers many layers of possibilities.

22 The Spouted Batter Bowl by Courtney Long Make a batter bowl inspired by nature to boost creativity in the studio and brighten up your kitchen.

6

29 The Oribe-Inspired Decorated Jar

17

by Ben Krupka Reinvent a historical style to create surfaces that inspire you and creatively engage your forms.

35 Thrown and Handbuilt All at Once by Naomi Tsukamoto Use a banding wheel and a combination of throwing and handbuilding techniques to make teacups and more.

40 Turn it Upside Down by Glenn Woods If your thrown forms are always a little bottom heavy, flip them over and use that clay to make a taller form!

In the Studio

29

6 Purple Glazes by Deanna Ranlett 8 Fluting Neriage Bowls by Robin Hopper 10 Personal Water Pots by J. Steven Baugh

Inspiration 40

44 In the Potter’s Kitchen Olive Trays by Sumi von Dassow 48 Pottery Illustrated Ceramic Musical Forms by Robin Ouellette

44

On the Cover Ben Krupka’s jar, 9 in. (23 cm) in height, porcelain, slips, glazes, fired to cone 6 in an electric kiln, 2014. PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014

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fired up | Commentary Volume 17 • Number 3

Transition

Publisher Charles Spahr Editorial Editor Bill Jones Managing Editor Holly Goring Associate Editor Jessica Knapp Editorial Support Jan Moloney Editorial Support Linda Stover

In three words I can sum up everything I’ve learned about life: it goes on. —Robert Frost The time has come for a transition here at Pottery Making Illustrated as I’ve decided to retire, hang up my editor’s hat, and get back into the studio. I’ve had a chance to look back and reflect on the first 95 issues of the magazine, and am amazed at what’s been covered in the world of pottery techniques. From the simple to the complex and the traditional to the experimental, artists from around the world have generously shared their information with enthusiastic readers such as you, and their techniques have been preserved for years to come. As with any successful venture, PMI has had lots of help from many quarters. Potters who wanted to share, teachers who had something to teach, and readers like you who have sent in your own discoveries. Some contributors seem to have an endless font of knowledge like Sumi von Dassow (who’s been around since the first issue!), the Gambles (David and Tracy), Paul Wandless, and countless others who have provided hundreds of excellent articles over the years. Of course, no magazine is the product of any one individual, and that’s where a capable and talented staff comes into play. Behind the scenes are editorial assistants Linda Stover and Jan Moloney, graphic designer Melissa Bury who creates eye-catching layouts from piles of images and text files, and production associate Erin Pfeifer who puts all the pieces and parts on the page. Sandy Moening in circulation makes sure you get the issues you ordered, while Mona Thiel and Marianna Bracht work diligently to bring you messages from advertisers. When it comes to the soul of the magazine, Holly Goring (managing editor) and Jessica Knapp (associate editor) have been instrumental in rounding up talent for PMI for six(!) years now and their quality efforts are evidenced in issue after issue. Both ceramic artists in their own right, their ability to identify techniques and pursue contributors has firmly established PMI as the foremost ceramic techniques magazine in the world. Moving forward, Holly will be taking over the helm, and I’m sure she’ll continue the mission and will certainly have her own unique style. I’d like to also thank the founding publisher, Mark Mecklenborg, for his faith and backing as PMI was getting off the ground during its early years, and to Charlie Spahr, the current publisher, for his continued commitment to the ideals of the magazine and the important role it plays in the ceramic arts community. Last, but not least, I’d like to extend a warm thanks to Steve Hecker, a man who’s worn many hats over the years, but who always unabashedly told me whether the articles, the magazine, or the mission remained true to the mark. Good advice is hard to come by. Life goes on—now it’s time to get to the studio.

Bill Jones Editor 4

PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014

editorial@potterymaking.org Telephone: (614) 895-4213 Fax: (614) 891-8960

Print and Digital Design Melissa Bury Production Associate Erin Pfeifer Marketing Steve Hecker Circulation Manager Sandy Moening Ceramics Arts Daily Managing Editor Jennifer Poellot Harnetty Webmaster Scott Freshour Advertising Advertising Manager Mona Thiel Advertising Services Marianna Bracht advertising@potterymaking.org Telephone: (614) 794-5826 Fax: (614) 891-8960

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www.potterymaking.org Pottery Making Illustrated (ISSN 1096-830X) is published bimonthly by The American Ceramic Society, 600 N. Cleveland Ave., Suite 210, Westerville, OH 43082. Periodical postage paid at Westerville, Ohio, and additional mailing offices. Opinions expressed are those of the contributors and do not necessarily represent those of the editors or The American Ceramic Society.

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PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014

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in the studio | Glaze Testing

Purple Glazes by Deanna Ranlett

Purple is a non-spectral color, meaning that it isn’t included in the rainbow as conceived by viewing from a prism on a sun-filled rainy day, but it should definitely be in your glaze palette! To me, purple says extravagant, special, and definitely unusual—think royalty or even better, Prince, (or should I say the artist formally known as...) You can get purple in a glaze in a variety of ways: ˜ Chrome plus tin. You can get a raspberry hue by mixing chrome oxide and tin oxide. These formulas have been published and featured prominently for oxidation red or burgundy at cone 6—typically 5% tin oxide and 0.2% chrome oxide.

˜ Cobalt.

Add .25% cobalt oxide incrementally, up 1% to increase the purple hue from lavender to eggplant. ˜ Manganese. Our studio limits manganese usage so we don’t use it to make our purples, but a lot of recipes using manganese as a colorant are available. ˜ Barium. Barium is classified as toxic and we don’t use barium in our studio, but there are some amazing barium purple recipes available for use on sculptures. These glazes aren’t food safe. ˜ Commercial stains. These colorants provide an opportunity to use a product formulated to give consistent color results.

11 5 10 4 9 3 8 2 7 1 6

Stacked bowls with cone 04 test glazes. 1 Icing Glaze with 5% MS #6088 Red + 5% MS #6363 Sky Blue. 2 Icing Glaze with 6% MS #6304 Chrome Tin Violet. 3 Gloss Base with 6% MS #6319 Lavender. 4 Hirsch Satin REV with 6% MS #6304 Chrome Tin Violet. 5 Hirsch Satin REV with 6% MS #6385 Pansy Purple. (MS = Mason stain) 6

PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014

Stacked bowls with cone 6 test glazes. 6 Amy’s Base with 6% MS #6304 Chrome Tin Violet + .25% cobalt carbonate. 7 Amy’s Base with 6% MS #6304 Chrome Tin Violet. 8 Sherman Matte with 5% MS #6374 Turquoise + 5% MS #6088 Dark Red. 9 Sherman Matte with 5% MS #6319 Lavender. 10 George Bowes Base with 5% MS #6088 Dark Red + 5% MS #6363 Sky Blue. 11 George Bowes Base with 3% MS #6319 Lavender + 3% MS #6385 Pansy Purple.


Working With Stains

˜ Sieve

For our focus here, we used primarily stains to highlight their vast possibilities in both low- and high-fire recipes. Stains come in a lot of color varieties and are available from many different manufacturers—including Mason Color Works, Inc. (www.masoncolor.com) and US Pigment (www.uspigment.com). Most pottery suppliers carry commercial stains. Stains have ingredients such as chrome oxide, cobalt carbonate, and tin oxide that have been fired and ground to make a consistently colored pigment that is easy to use. It’s sometimes possible to mix stains to get a new color, but not all stains are compatible in this way, so testing is required. We discovered through our testing that you can successfully mix red and blue stains to make a purple of your very own. You can use a stain containing cobalt such as Mason stain #6363 Sky Blue, or you can use smaller amounts of cobalt carbonate—a milder form of cobalt oxide. For a red stain, try Mason stain #6088 Dark Red. You can vary amounts to make the purple hues cooler (blue) or warmer (red.) You can also use any number of a variety of chrome-tin-violet stains like Mason stain #6304, which is a purple with a more reddish hue.

Tips When Using Stains ˜ Start

small, experiment, and take good notes. ˜ Use a gram scale capable of mixing small measurements. Check your scale’s calibration by measuring the weight of a nickel—it should weigh 5 grams.

your glaze and don’t mix them too thin. The stains can, and will end up on the bottom of your container if you do. ˜ Visit the manufacturer’s website to make sure you’re using stains and colorants that are compatible with your glaze ingredients. You need to pay attention to the calcium and zinc content in your recipe when using stains because they can have a negative impact/effect on the colorant. Each manufacturer will provide you with that information. To get that color, you may need to experiment with different base glazes. ˜ Some stains are more refractory (have a higher-melting point due to their composition) than others and you may need to make changes in your base glaze to compensate for this. ˜ Some stains might require the addition of an opacifier such as Zircopax to create the color and intensity you desire.

Future Testing Based on the success I had mixing stains, I would recommend tests blending a variety of red and blue stains in incremental amounts. I also suggest mixing red stain with cobalt carbonate in incremental amounts. Layering purple glazes with each other could be fun too. The Sherman Matte Glaze has a beautiful buttery surface and layering it with a glossier version like George Bowes or Amy’s Base could have some lovely results. Thank you to Amy Roberson for help in testing the purple glazes for this article. Amy Roberson is currently a resident artist at MudFire. Deanna Ranlett has worked in clay for 14 years and currently owns Atlanta Clay in Atlanta, Georgia (www.atlantaclay.com) and MudFire in Decatur, Georgia (www.mudfire.com).

Amy’s Base Cone 6

Wollastonite. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ferro Frit 3134. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Soda Feldspar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EPK Kaolin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Silica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10.0 % 25.0 15.0 25.0 25.0 100.0 %

Add: Zircopax. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 % Dips and pours more successfully than it brushes.

Ever Popular Sherman Matte Cone 6

Dolomite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Talc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ferro Frit 3124. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nepheline Syenite. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EPK Kaolin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Silica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brushes and dips well.

10 % 15 10 35 15 15 100 %

George Bowes Base Glaze

Gloss Base

Cone 6

Cone 04

Gerstley Borate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Whiting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Custer Feldspar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EPK Kaolin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Silica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18 % 16 40 10 16 100 %

75 % 15 10 100 %

Hirsch Satin REV Cone 04

Icing Glaze Cone 04

Whiting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ferro Frit 3124. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EPK Kaolin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Silica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Ferro Frit 3124. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EPK Kaolin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Silica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10 % 65 15 10 100 %

Gerstley Borate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lithium Carbonate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Whiting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nepheline Syenite. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EPK Kaolin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Silica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32 % 9 17 4 9 29 100 %

Glossy where thin, matte where it pools, and a bit runny.

PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014

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in the studio | Throwing and Altering

Fluting Neriage Bowls by Robin Hopper

In the widest sense, all clays are colored. When fired, natural clays can vary from almost white to almost black and almost any yellowish, pinkish, grayish, reddish or brownish tone between black and white. Most of these tones develop naturally from contamination with iron oxide in one of its forms or combinations. In its earliest state, where coarse clay is the result of geologic degradation or the breakdown of feldspathic rock to kaolinite, it usually is light ivory or cream in color. It achieves its other naturally darkening tones during its journey down rivers and into lake beds, when it becomes contaminated by contact with other minerals, such as iron, calcium, titanium, and manganese. The further it travels from the mother rock, the more contamination it acquires, and the darker it likely will be when fired. It usually becomes more plastic and malleable, too.

1 Laminating colored clay for thrown agateware or neriage bowls.

4 Flute the outside of a thrown neriage/ agateware bowl. 8

PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014

As it settles into lake beds, it forms layers of sediment, and over eons of time, layers build on other layers, creating a natural and variable lamination. If you were to shovel down through several layers, you would see a variety of differently toned strata. Ceramic artists interested in these color variations either use naturally colored clays or add colorants to light-colored base clays or porcelain.

Laminating Clay Bodies Depending on the desired result, you can use stains, oxides, or carbonates, either singly or mixed together, to add color to clays. Because of the opaque nature of clays, most colors will develop an opaque pastel-like quality, and the development of pure color is extremely difficult. Commercially prepared body stains are available to make richer colors.

2 Allow mixed colored clay bodies to set up before throwing with them.

3 Use a Surform to facet a leather-hard bowl thrown from stacked colored clay.

5 Fluting the inside rim of a thrown neriage/agateware bowl.

Three different fired examples of fluting on neriage/agateware thrown forms.


The amount of colorant needed to get a particular result will have to be determined through testing, as many colorants have quite different staining strengths when mixed into clay than when mixed into glazes. The type of clay will also have a profound effect on the color—white firing clays give purer colors and darker colored clays give more muted tones. In general, additions of .5% to 10% will produce a wide range. Combinations of naturally colored clays can also be laminated together (figure 1) but these mixes should be tested before being used. Testing ensures that the clay bodies will hold together without cracking during the firing. Freshly made colored clay blocks are best left for a period of time for amelioration, where differences in the softness or hardness of the various clays can be equalized to one homogeneous mass (figure 2). Caution: Always wear a dust mask and gloves when mixing clays and working with stains and oxides.

metal tools with cutout sections and/or sharpened edges. If the clay is too soft, it may deform the object being fluted; if it’s too hard, it may crack the surface or edges of the object. Fluting generally is done in a dragging motion, pulling down toward you in a clean, sweeping motion. The clay will cut cleanly and evenly at this stage if your tools are sharp. If the clay has started to change color or the surface is starting to dry, the tool is more likely to slide uncontrollably than cut easily. Cutting across the grain of laminated clays exposes an infinite variety of ran-

dom patterns. The type of pattern can be controlled both by the thickness of the layers and by how the laminations are placed when thrown on the wheel. If they are vertical to the wheelhead, they likely will produce fine, lacy patterns. If they are placed horizontally, much bolder patterns can be expected. If placed diagonally, a combination of both bold and lacy patterns might be expected. Excerpted from the book, Making Marks by Robin Hopper, which is available at the Ceramic Arts Daily bookstore, http://ceramicartsdaily.org/bookstore.

Neriage and Agateware A number of different names have been given to laminated colored clay processes, depending on where the process developed. In England they usually are referred to as agateware after the decorative, patterned gemstone. In Italy the use of colored clay often is referred to as millefiori, from a decorative glass-forming process meaning “a thousand flowers.” In Japan the word neriage refers to throwing with colored clays. Neriage, or agateware, is done by laminating different colored clays together and throwing them on a wheel to develop a swirling and spiraling blend of the clays. A thrown neriage bowl can be dried to leather hard then trimmed and faceted using a knife, a wire cutter, or a Surform to shave clay off in sections (figure 3).

Fluting Objects made with laminated clays can be left with the swirl pattern, or altered by various surface cutting techniques such as fluting, once the bowl has reached the leather-hard state (figures 4–5). Fluting is the process of cutting decorative grooves into a clay surface. It is best done on leather-hard clay with wireended modeling tools of various shapes, bamboo tools with sharpened edges or PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014

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in the studio | Throwing and Assembling

Personal Water Pots by J. Steven Baugh

Potters are well known for making their own tools—or anything else we need to help us make pots. But we rarely make the best pots for ourselves, so I designed a ‘best pot’ for myself that is also a tool I use every day when I throw pots. These are water pots and they show the best of my skills, assist in my day-today throwing, and generally are a topic of conversation when friends visit my studio.

Throwing Parts: Crock, Cup, and Bowl Start by throwing a medium-sized crock (figure 1). I throw fairly thin and do very little trimming, so I used about 2¾ pounds of clay to throw a pot that, after firing is about 5 inches tall and 6 inches wide. The mouth of the crock should be wide enough for you to easily plunge your hand into it with a sponge. Throw the side of the pot fairly straight to make assembling the water pot simpler. Next, throw a cup that is shorter than the crock and wide enough to push a round sponge into it for cleaning (see figure 1). I used 7⁄8 of a pound of clay to throw a cup 3¼ inches high by 3¼ inches wide after 12% shrinkage. This cup will become a pocket to hold your throwing tools. Finally, throw a shallow bowl to serve as a tray for your sponges or for holding excess slip. Since I wedge on the wheel, which produces extra slip, I scrape the slip onto the tray so I don’t have to change the water in the middle of a throwing session. For this tray, I used 1¾ pounds of clay to throw a shallow bowl that, when fired, was 6½ inches wide by 1¼ inches high (see figure 1).

Trimming and Assembling Trim the three pots when they’re leather hard and keep them evenly moist. Thrown pieces tend to want to “unwind” when fired to vitrification, so uneven dryness, which can cause warping and adhesion problems, may contribute to cracking between joined pieces. The cup, being smaller and having a

1 Throw a pot, a cup, and a shallow bowl, trim them when they’re leather hard, and round the bottom of the cup. 10

PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014

The finished pot, glazed using an iron-stained wax-resist pattern with a contrasting glaze band.

narrower base, may dry faster, so after trimming it, round the bottom rather than giving it a foot, then wrap it up tight until you have trimmed the other two pieces and are ready to assemble your water pot. Cut the cup in half then trim and bevel the cut edge to fit tight against the side of the crock. Set the cup against the crock where it will be assembled and mark a line, then flatten the pot inside the marked line with a paddle where the cup will be installed. Flattening this part of the pot gives more room for your tools and makes cleaning the tool pocket easier. Score and slip the joint lines and attach the pocket to the side of the pot (figure 2). Fill any gaps between the cup and the pot with slip, then put a coil around the joint on both the interior

2 Cut the cup in half, trim it for fit, flatten the crock inside the mark, and attach the cup to the crock.

3 Place the foot of the crock on the bottom and slightly to the side of the bowl and mark a line. Cut the bowl to fit the crock.


and exterior of the cup, pushing the coil deep into any gaps with a wooden modeling tool. Use a thicker coil on the inside to round out the joint. Coils help to reinforce and strengthen joints, reducing the likelihood that the pieces will twist apart. Smooth the joint with your fingers and then with a sponge to eliminate rough edges that could crack. Next, turn the shallow bowl upside down and gently rest the foot of the crock on the bowl. The edge of the crock should be in the approximate middle of the bowl. Mark a line onto the bottom of the bowl following the curve of the crock’s foot (figure 3). Set the crock aside then cut along the marked line and fit this cut edge as tight as you can to the crock. Adjust or bevel the cut to best fit the crock if needed. Score the crock and the bowl only at the areas of attachment, then score and slip the joint and attach the tray to the pot (figure 4). Both the pot and the bowl (now a tray) should be resting on a flat surface as you fit them together to ensure the water pot remains level. Make sure your tool pocket is off to the side in a position where it will be convenient for accessing your tools, but isn’t in the way when using the tray. Brush slip into any gaps, then put a coil of clay along the joint inside of the tray to fill in any gaps and secure the attachment. Turn the pot over and repeat the joining process on the bottom. Take care to avoid making bumps on the foot where the joint is and make sure the pot and tray still sit flat. As an extra refining step, smooth the joints and the foot of the water pot with a polished rock to smooth the surfaces (figure 5).

Drying and Firing Cover the water pot tightly with plastic until the moisture is even throughout, then gradually uncover the pot to dry it slowly and evenly. Bisque fire it. Finally, finish it with your favorite glaze then fire it too temperature. Thoroughly clean the pot each time you use it. A clean studio with clean tools is a low-dust studio, and you may just want to spend even more time at the wheel. J. Steven Baugh has been a perpetual student of ceramics since 1988. He built his current studio, The Pottery at Muddy Creek, with Ben Stockwell in 1994 in rural Montana.

4

5

Make sure to have a tight fit then score and slip the attachment. Add a coil to both sides of the joint for reinforcement.

Use a polished stone or similar shiny object to smooth all the joints and the foot of your water pot.

“My Paragon kiln practically fires itself, giving me more time to make pots” —David Hendley The Paragon kiln was already ancient when David and Karen Hendley bought it in 1995. Since then David has fired about 20,000 pieces of bisque in his electric Paragon. “For the last 20 years I have been glaze-firing all my work in a wood-fired kiln,” said David. “I enjoy the excitement of the firings, and my friends and customers like the random fire flashings and ash deposits. “What they don’t know is that every piece is first fired in my Paragon electric kiln. While accidental and chance effects can enhance a wood firing, consistency is the key to successful bisque firings. “For those firings, my Paragon has delivered reliable and consistent results year after year. It practically fires itself, giving me more time to make more pots.” The Paragons of today are even better than the early ones. The digital 12-sided TnF-27-3 shown at right is only 22 ¼” deep for easier loading. Lift the lid effortlessly with the spring counter-balance. Enjoy the accuracy

David and Karen Hendley with their ancient Paragon A-28B. It has fired about 20,000 pieces of bisque. The Hendleys run Old Farmhouse Pottery in Maydelle, Texas.

and convenience of the Orton controller. To learn more, call us or visit our website for a free catalog and the name of the Paragon dealer near you. Sign up for the Kiln Pointers newsletter.

Join the Clayart pottery forum here: lists.clayartworld.com

Constantly finding better ways to make kilns. 2011 South Town East Blvd. Mesquite, Texas 75149-1122 800-876-4328 / 972-288-7557 Toll Free Fax 888-222-6450 www.paragonweb.com info@paragonweb.com PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014

11


Velvets @ Cone 5/6

V-308 Yellow

V-391 Intense Yellow

V-304 Straw

V-309 Deep Yellow

V-384 Real Orange

V-389 Flame Orange

V-303 Terra Cotta

V-316 Light Pink

V-374 Royal Peach

V-315 Peach

V-323 Salmon

V-383 Light Red

V-388 Radiant Red

V-382 Red

V-387 Bright Red

V-385 Cinnamon

V-375 Maroon

V-321 Lilac

V-381 Amethyst

V-322 Purple

V-328 Iceberg Blue

V-325 Baby Blue

V-327 Turquoise Blue

V-341 Blue Green

V-332 Teal Blue

V-336 Royal Blue

V-334 Flaxen

V-372 Mint Green

V-343 Chartreuse

V-345 Light Green

V-354 Leaf Green

V-353 Dark Green

V-355 Shadow Green

V-368 Antique Ivory

V-301 Ivory Beige

V-369 Fawn

V-302 Beige

V-310 Tan

V-373 Medium Brown

V-314 Chocolate Brown

V-360 White

V-367 Mist Gray

V-356 Pearl Gray

V-357 Dark Gray

V-370 Velour Black

V-361 Jet Black

Layer 12

Mixable

PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014

Dinnerware Safe*

*To make dinnerware safe and to intensify the colors for Cone 5/6 firings, cover with AMACO® HF-9 Zinc-Free Clear, HF-10 Clear or HF-12 Satin Clear glazes.


V-350 Orange

V-390 Bright Orange

V-371 Rosy Mauve

V-318 Rose

V-320 Lavender

V-380 Violet

V-326 Medium Blue

V-386 Electric Blue

“ Velvets brush smoothly onto both greenware and bisque, they allow me to paint with fine detail and subtle color variations”

Heesoo Lee Helena, MT “Aspen Vase” Porcelain Cone 6

V-376 Hunter Green

V-333 Avocado

Velvet Underglazes Intense Yellow Deep Yellow Bright Orange Flame Orange Radiant Red Bright Red Lilac Iceberg Blue Chocolate Brown White Velour Black Jet Black

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Use on wet clay, greenware and bisque.

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America’s Most Trusted Underglazes™ PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014

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Relating

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Pattern to Form by Shana Angela Salaff

How does a surface pattern relate to form? How can you use pattern to alter or enhance your visual experience of a form? What tactics do contemporary artists employ? In nature, the generation of a form often creates a pattern. We see this in the growth patterns of a nautilus shell forming a beautiful spiral (figure 1). Leaves and flower petals often grow in the same kind of pattern (figure 2). Similarly, a thrown pot contains a spiral of throwing lines. Patterns created through purpose serve a useful function as well as an aesthetic one. Many patterns in our urban life are like this. Consider the utility hole cover; made of metal for longevity, and with a somewhat uneven surface so as not to be slippery. It also needs to be readily visible on the sidewalk or road. What Nara, Japan, and Fort Collins, Colorado, have designed transcends basic utility (figures 3–4). The unevenness of surface requirement is

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PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014

satisfied by the use of raised metal areas. In these two examples, a virtue is made out of a necessity by considering the sidewalk as a decorative surface. In the last issue of Pottery Making Illustrated, I discussed Ellen Dissanayake’s use of the term “making special” to describe one of the roles art plays in our lives. Dissanayake also speaks about the human need to exert a certain amount of control over our environment to help us to conquer the very real fear of the unknown. Visual pattern is a way that we create ordered visual spaces. In the utility-hole cover examples, pattern transforms utilitarian round surfaces into lovely objects that make an urban area special.

Surface-Form Relationship My design teacher at Sheridan College was a gruff, didactic, and brilliant Austrian named Gernot Dick. One day, he surprised the

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class by displaying close-up images of his terrier as a slide lecture. It wasn’t until he pointed out the various ways that the growth patterns of the dog’s hair responded to different parts of the body that I realized how closely nature observes the concept of “surfaceform relationship.” Transitions between the dog’s ears and the neck were especially interesting, with straight hair growing forward on the side of the ear flowing toward a spiraling transition area then to straight growth in the opposite direction on the neck.

Artists’ Solutions to Relating Pattern and Form Each of us will come up with personal solutions when pairing pattern with form, solutions that are more than just a consequence of growth pattern or utility alone. The pattern choices may simply enhance the form, or go further to change or manipulate the perception of the form. Forrest Lesch-Middelton uses patterns from a range of historical cultures. His forms are delineated clearly with crisp changes in direction. Darker bands between sections help to separate neck from body, body from foot. In this piece (figure 5), he applies different patterns to both main components of the body of the forms. His technique involves screen-printing a pattern onto a flat surface that is then wrapped around and transferred onto a cylinder, which is then altered to create the final form. This selective application of pattern highlights the different shapes of the sections that make up the form. Lesch–Middelton is able to contrast a pattern from one culture with one from another by placing them on separate areas of the same form. He adds to this a specific sepia color that appears to be quoting traditional printing or photographic process in monotone. There is a layered complexity to his work.

Using Pattern to Alter or Enhance Form Pattern can also be used as a way to divide space, as in this large vase by Paul Morris (figure 11), where one form becomes subdivided by the patterned areas. One’s eye loses the ability to focus on the form as a whole because it is constantly informed

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1 The growth patterns of the Nautilus shell create a striking spiral. Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons. 2 The aloe plant has a similar spiral growth. Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons. 3 Utility-hole cover, Nara, Japan. Nara is known for the wild deer that roam around the temple areas. 4 Utility-hole cover, Fort, Collins, Colorado. The city undertakes a number of urban beautification projects. 5 Forrest LeschMiddelton’s bottles, stoneware with transferred slip patterns. 6 Julia Galloway’s teapot, porcelain, slip, glaze, lusters. Photo: Robert Brady. 7 Sanam Emami’s patterned jar, Meissen brown stoneware, silkscreen transfers. All images of artwork are courtesy of the artists.

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and distracted by the visual surface movement. What makes the piece work as a whole is the way that the handles mimic the curves on the surface, and that the main form is bookended by the similar shapes of the top and the base that are also mimicked by the smaller protrusions.

Complicating a Surface with Layers Other artists use pattern and surface to complicate the surface of a form and to contrast decorative styles drawn from several different cultures with their own contemporary forms and materials. Julia Galloway contrasts different types of surfaces on the same pot (figure 6), using different materials (glaze, slip, and luster). She creates shapes within her forms that feel like puzzle pieces. Sanam Emami contrasts the textured pattern around the body of this covered jar (figure 7) with the applied decal pattern superimposed on the surface and looping around the form. Both vessels feature layers of pattern that are like the layers of cultural artifacts found in an archaeological dig. The upper layers sit on the surface because they are applied post-firing, but because of this they feel “newer”—underscoring that artist-created and computer-generated decals, and our metallic luster application methods really are “newer” techniques. Thus the contemporary is contrasted with the age-old in one object. The functions of the patterns here are informative as well as decorative. Galloway and Emami bring pattern from one area to another within the vessel, but another way that pattern can mess with one’s perception is to continue it outside the vessel

itself, or across many forms. Molly Hatch exploits this with her wall installations (figure 8). Hatch continues the various patterns from one plate to another, with an approach that seems to have more in common with wallpaper than ceramics; completely confusing our expectations of where one form should end and another begins. I’m going to leave you with one last pair of images—an image of pattern created by the weathering of tree bark and Kristen Kieffer’s vase (figures 9–10). The tree’s beautiful textured surface emerges through natural processes in the way that Gernot Dick’s terriers fur grew. Kristen Kieffer’s work, with its pattern-as-texture shares this kind of feeling—the surface and the form feel completely connected. Kieffer uses a stamping technique to apply the main textured pattern, and this changes the form as well as decorates it. The pattern functions to create differing surface depths in which the glaze will pool and provide different levels of intensity of color, while simultaneously referring to both lace and metalwork. In the interior of the vase, one sees Kieffer’s fingerprints, and we are reminded that a real person’s hand made these marks in a specific time and place. These traces bring the vessel to life. In all these artworks, the artists have used pattern in a conscious way to both complement the form as well as to communicate through it. Pattern here functions in so many ways … and of course, always “making special.” Shana Angela Salaff is an artist and instructor living in Fort Collins, Colorado. To see her work, visit www.shanasalaff.com.

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8 Molly Hatch’s plates from a solo exhibition at the King’s Road Anthropologie Gallery in London, England. The patterns on the plates source the historic textile collections at the Victoria & Albert Museum, London. 9 Pattern created by weathered tree bark. 10 Kristen Kieffer’s vase with stamped patterns. 11 Paul Morris’ large vase with form subdivided by pattern. 16

PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014


THE PRINT

Duality by Martina Lantin The ceramic surface may be activated by the imposition or printing of pattern, the framing of an image or the juxtaposition of colors. Throughout history, potters have sought to embellish the surfaces of their vessels. Ornament can accentuate components of the pot—whether rim, foot, or body. In addition, surfaces can inform us about the status or beliefs of the owner; they can convey a narrative, a moral, or a metaphor. These surfaces may be representative or abstract and executed in a myriad of ways. For many years, I wood fired my work. I sought to create strong forms that would welcome the energetic atmosphere of the kiln. In this way, I felt form and surface worked in concert, and the path of the flame told a story. Ten years ago, I struck out on my own, separate from a parent studio or workshop, and transitioned to working in earthenware and firing in an electric kiln. While I have always enjoyed the qualities of slipped surfaces, I found myself increasingly frustrated by what I saw as the static qualities, both in my use of materials and the firing process. As a resident artist at Baltimore Clayworks I was exposed to a variety of artists, all of them generous teachers, and it was here

that my play with surface and image began to take off. Fellow resident Jessica Broad was teaching a Print on Clay class and invited me to join in to see her demonstrate some slip-based methods. The rest, as they say, is history. Two direct and low-tech methods that inspired me then, and that I continue to use in various ways within my work, are monoprinting and toner-resist transfer. There are some points to keep in mind that will apply to both of the techniques. While I use these techniques with slips formulated for earthenware, the methods are transferable across clay and firing types. Similarly, the images included here show the techniques executed on a flat tile surface. Both the toner resist and monoprint adapt well to three-dimensional forms. In each case, the success of the print depends in part on the moisture content of the clay being printed upon, though it can be a challenge working on largescale or very volumetric forms. Ideally, the piece will be at a soft-leather-hard consistency. For forms with large curved sections, darting may be required to get the pattern to fit the shape.

Above: Martina Lantin’s cups combine monoprinting, toner-resist transfer, wax-resist glazing, and glaze trailing on thrown and altered forms. The surfaces have a rich, layered, and weathered appearance that encourages a closer look. PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014

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process | The Print Duality | Martina Lantin

1 When creating a monoprint on newsprint, draw or paint the top or outline layer first using underglaze and a thin brush.

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Apply additional layers of colored slip to define different sections of the image, then scratch through to create patterned areas.

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Apply a backing layer of white slip using a soft, wide brush. This slip will be visible as a background layer in all white or patterned areas.

After applying the slip, place the paper image-side down onto a tile, and use a rubber rib to compress the paper against the clay and ensure a cleaner transfer of the image.

Monoprinting

Once the paper dries—evidenced by the change in color, pull it away, revealing the image underneath (figure 5). If any parts of the print have failed to transfer, the paper may be carefully lowered and compressed once more. While I’m interested in the incomplete transfer possible with this technique, and don’t mind the blank spaces, it can also create a sharp and complete image. This method is flexible, because it allows underglaze, slips, and stains to be intimately combined with one another.

Monoprinting—where an image is created on one surface, and then transferred to another—is likely the most direct print method I employ. I prefer to use clean newsprint to generate my image, though printed newsprint will also work. The clean newsprint allows me the space to draw the image or pattern first in pencil or permanent marker. If applying the print to a more complex form, I make a pattern of the form—cutting the paper to shape with darts to allow for the curvatures of the piece. The outline, drawn here using a Chinese brush and commercial black underglaze (figure 1), is the first layer. Images need to be built up in reverse, since the elements drawn onto the paper initially will be topmost in the printed image. The outline is then filled in with colored slips. This layer can also be scratched away or eroded (figure 2) to allow the backing layer of the white slip to be brought forward. I apply the white slip last, covering the entire image (figure 3). In addition to creating a bright background, the layer of white slip also helps to ensure a complete transfer of the image. The prepared print is applied to the surface of the piece, working from one edge to the other to avoid air bubbles. Use fingers or a soft rib to compress the paper, being careful not to shift or tear the page (figure 4). 18

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PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014

Toner-Resist Transfer The toner-resist transfer technique requires more preparation, but is similarly flexible. The method depends on the waterresistant property of the toner (rather than the toner’s iron content as in decal printing). It’s best to experiment with laser printers or copiers available to determine which may work best. Line drawings or patterns with equal amounts of figure and ground are suited to this technique. Using high-contrast images with minimal large open spaces ensures that the black areas resist the application of pigment and the printed spaces are consistent in their color application. The image can be generated through the use of copyright-free imagery, or drawings made either on paper or digitally. Many


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Once the paper dries (the colors change as it dries), pull it away from the clay, revealing the transferred image.

7 Paint the frit and stain mixture onto the white areas of your laser-printed image. Clean any stray drops with a sponge.

Add water to the frit and Mason stain mixture until it’s a consistency that’s repelled well by the toner spaces on the image.

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Apply the image to clay once the sheen disappears. Compress the back, then once the paper dries, peel it off.

copiers have the capacity to color reverse the image (making what is the black-on-white line drawing into a white-on-black image). When working with text, letters need to be mirrored in the original, as the print process will be the reverse—making the text readable. This technique is flexible, working well with slips, commercial underglazes, and colorant/frit mixtures. I use a mixture of two parts Mason stain to one part Ferro Frit 3124. I like the direct control over color that my own stain mixture provides. Water is slowly added while blending the components together with a brush or palette knife (figure 6). The mixture may need to be adjusted to get the right consistency that’s repelled well by the toner spaces of the image. An additional variable is the pressure on the brush. Working quickly and directly can be the most efficient form of application. Loading the brush with pigment, the lines of the motif are traced, reloading as needed (figure 7). The resistant properties of the toner will push the pigment away from the black areas of the image, allowing a freer hand. Any stray drops can be picked up with a sponge or dry brush. Once the sheen has left the page, the print is applied to the piece and compressed from the center outward, or from one side to the other to avoid air bubbles. Using

If desired, apply a backing slip over the paper pattern before applying it to the clay. This creates a varied background.

a soft rib, the paper may be further compressed to ensure transfer. Should the clay be on the drier side, the back of the page can be dampened with a sponge and compressed again. The paper is pulled up once it has dried (figure 8). It can be reapplied and recompressed if the image didn’t transfer completely. The versatility of this method lies in its ability to repeat an image using multiple copies, to execute fine lines, and be applied to a three-dimensional surface. In addition, with a quick hand, the page can be backed with a contrasting colored slip (figures 9–10). The two techniques detailed here may also work in concert on the same piece.

Glazing In glazing on top of existing slip decoration, I seek to continue building visible layers by adding a variety of colored glazes. Glazes are often applied to fill between the lines of the underlayer (figure 11–12), then covered in wax, so that the colors resist any additional glazes and maintain their integrity in the firing. Once the wax resist dries, I either pour a glaze over the tile, or for cups and larger forms, dip the form in glaze. When glazing cups, I hold them with one finger on the rim, and my thumb on the foot, then dunk the cup in at an angle, rim-side down. PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014

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process | The Print Duality | Martina Lantin

10 After applying the slip, place the image onto the tile, compress, and peel the paper away. Note the image’s added depth.

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After the bisque firing, apply glazes to accentuate the pattern. Here the glaze is applied to fill between the lines.

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Add additional layers over the pattern to the bisque-fired and glazed form by trailing accent glaze lines.

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13–15 Tiles showing three different techniques, from left to right: underglaze toner resist without a backing slip, toner resist with a white backing slip and added glaze accents, and toner resist with backing slip and wax-resist glaze patterning.

The tumblers (see page 17) feature all of the techniques described here, applied to a three-dimensional form.

Enhancing Context From the moment they were introduced to me, monoprinting and toner-resist transfer became ways for me to generate depth in my surfaces and insert more detailed narratives and pattern references to enhance the context of my work. As my familiarity with these techniques evolved, I became interested in the erosion of images, making them difficult to read. The incomplete transfer of an image generates a surface that evokes the age of the object. Currently I use the toner-resist transfer technique underneath a layer of white slip, further obscuring the pattern as in the plate image at left. Through these methods I seek to convey the number of times during the making process that the object has been handled. The print processes generate a surface that I hope will encourage exploration, and through that exploration, lead to a deeper relationship between user and the crafted object. Wheel-thrown and altered platter with layers of pattern created using both monoprinting and toner-resist techniques. 20

PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014

Martina Lantin teaches ceramics at Marlboro College in Marlboro, Vermont. To see more of her work, visit www.mlceramics.com.


A POD NESTLED AMONG THE OAKS

Experience the first of architect Frank Gehry’s iconic pods —the Beau Rivage Resort & Casino Gallery Pod, during the

EXTROHRDINARY SUMMER CELEBRATION beginning July 12, 2014

TWO AMERICAN MASTERS COME TOGETHER The Ohr-O’Keefe Museum of Art—designed by Frank Gehry, architect of the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao—pays homage to the exuberant avant-garde vision of George E. Ohr, America’s first art potter. OOMA’s stainless steel pods and adjacent galleries stand as tribute to the creative spirit of two American masters. The Beau Rivage Resort & Casino Gallery Pod is part of the George Ohr Gallery Pavilion, sponsored by the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation.

386 Beach Boulevard, Biloxi, Mississippi www.georgeohr.org

PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014

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THE

Spouted

Batter Bowl

I’m inspired by North Carolina’s landscape—the Piedmont region’s red dirt, fall colors found along the Blue Ridge Mountains, and local folk and Native American pottery traditions. Undertones of my experiences in China, Greece, the US Southwest, and the Appalachian Mountains combine and show themselves in whispers in my work. I enjoy making specialized objects that have nothing to do with necessity but are utilitarian in their own right. If only for a brief moment, these objects aid in daily activities before becoming part of the dayto-day backdrop as life transpires. In my home, the kitchen is the center of all activity. Size variations of the mixing bowl are used daily and symbolize conscious cooking, eating, and even cleaning up with friends and family. These little moments accumulate over time and a narrative is placed on the pot in a way that could never be achieved if it were unused, sitting on a shelf. It’s only after a lifetime of use that it truly becomes a powerful family heirloom, evoking stories connected to its users through memory. 22

PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014

Traditional Bowl Form

by Courtney Long

Prepare 2¾ pounds of clay to create a medium-sized mixing bowl. Throw a flower-pot shape. Leave around 1⁄8-¼-inch clay in the rim so that it won’t become too thin as you widen the rim later. Remove any throwing lines from the exterior surface as it’s going to be heavily decorated. On the interior, use a curved metal rib to remove any right angles (figure 1). Your bowl may slump if it has too deep of an undercut. Place the bowl on a ware board and cover it overnight so the rim and bottom will dry at the same rate. Once it’s leather hard, you’re ready to trim. Always trim the outside profile first. Make a cut defining the foot ring but don’t worry about its final width here. Trim the excess clay beginning in the center and working outward (figure 2). If you intend to dip your bowl in slip or prefer not to use dipping tongs during glazing, it’s a good idea to trim the foot in a diameter that allows your hand to hold the bowl comfortably upside down.


1 Throw a medium-sized bowl and remove throwing lines from the exterior and any right angles from the interior.

4 Gently bend the spout into a curve to fit the bowl’s exterior near the rim. Be careful not cause any cracking on the edges.

Handbuilt Alterations

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Trim the bowl on the exterior first then trim the interior of the foot to fit the shape of the bowl’s interior well.

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Fit the spout against the bowl and trace the outside of the form with a needle tool making a light mark.

Roll out a ¹⁄8-inch-thick slab on any non-stick surface. I use a Super Surface Clay Mat because it has a rubber backing as to not move while rolling and tossing slabs on it and it has a nontextured surface. Remove any air pockets and smooth out any surface texture using a rubber or metal rib. Start with the spout form. I like to use tar paper as an inexpensive option to make water-resistant templates. Tar paper is available at home improvement stores for less than $10. The template for the spout shape is similar to the Rolling Stones’ lip and tongue logo. Fold your paper in half and cut out a desired profile so each side of the resulting template is symmetrical. Repeat this process for additional decorative shapes that will eventually become the handle—for this bowl, I cut out two cloud-shaped designs. Trace the spout and cloud templates onto the slab with a needle tool then remove them before cutting the clay. X-Acto blades are thin and give you a crisp line without dragging clay or altering the shape. Hold your X-Acto

Make a template for the spout. Trace the template onto a slab and cut it out. Compress the edges using plastic.

Cut out the shape and create a slight bevel. Attach the spout, supporting the bowl with your opposite hand at all times.

knife vertically when making the cut, not at an angle. Set the cutouts aside to stiffen until they become a soft leather hard.

Spout

To prevent cracking, place plastic over the spout and compress the edges (figure 3). Gently coax the spout into a half-rounded fold (figure 4). If there are any minor flaws in the bowl’s rim, place the spout there. Dry fit the spout to the upper side of the bowl. Holding the spout with one hand up against the bowl where you intend to attach it, trace the outside of the form with your needle tool, making a light mark (figure 5). Cut out the shape exactly on the line, holding the knife straight, and then go back over the cut to create a slight bevel. Score and slip the cut opening, then attach the spout, working inside the bowl and pressing outward. Press the clay into the beveled cut with one hand placed on the inside and the other hand placed firmly on the outside wall (figure 6). To shape the spout for a better pour, wet your hand and pull the spout’s outside edge between PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014

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process | The Spouted Batter Bowl | Courtney Long

7 Shape the spout by wetting your hand and pulling in a curved motion. Release pressure at the rim’s tip.

10 Place the handle cutouts onto soft, thick foam and lightly press them into rounded forms. Don’t overwork the edges.

8 Hold the middle of the spout with your index fingers while rubbing in a side to side and downward motion to refine the shape.

Dry fit the two halves to the bowl’s rim opposite the spout and trace a light line to mark their placement for attaching.

Place the cloud cutouts onto soft, thick foam and gently use your thumb, working from the center of the shape and releasing pressure toward the edge, to puff them out (figure 10). Hold the two cloud halves up, in the shape of a closed clamshell, to the bowl’s rim opposite the spout and trace a light line (figure 11). Cut inside the line, leaving a narrow area for the cloud to be attached (figure 12). Cutting out this section removes weight from the bowl’s rim and eliminates a second air pocket to worry about. Score and slip the attachment area and the edges of each cloud 24

PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014

Use a rubber-tipped tool to clean up the attachment and to define the exterior shape of the spout.

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your right thumb and bent right index finger in a curved motion. Release pressure at the rim’s tip (figure 7). Hold the middle of the spout with your left thumb and left index finger while rubbing in a side to side and downward motion with right index finger (figure 8). Repeat these motions until you get the shape you desire. Give the seam a distinct outline using a rubber-tipped tool (figure 9).

Cloud-Shaped Handle

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Make a beveled cut inside the marked line, leaving a narrow area for the handle to be attached.

shape. Attach the outside cloud first, pressing along its edge only. Next attach the inside cloud, then pinch the edges together (figure 13). Compress the newly formed edge with a sponge held between thumb and pointer finger. Trace the cloud’s outline with a rubber-tipped tool to remove any clay burrs or imperfections and create a distinct line. Push a small pin into the cloud to allow air to escape, but don’t remove it until after the bowl is dipped in slip or the hole will reseal.

Base Slip Decoration

Porcelain clay offers the best surface to show off translucent glazes but working with it can often be a love/hate relationship. If you find yourself in this predicament, you can turn your favorite commercial porcelain clay into a slip to use over a more workable clay body. Begin by cutting it into small pieces and dry them out. Place the dried clay in a bucket with enough water to just cover the clay. Let it sit until all the pieces are thoroughly slaked, then stir them using a drill and paint-mixing


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Attach the outside shape first, pressing the edges only. Attach the inside shape, then pinch the edges together.

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Push a small pin into the cloud to allow air to escape but don’t remove it. Dip the bowl in the slip.

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Sketch on the exterior then carve over the lines with a needle tool. Remove burrs after they dry.

Courtney’s Grolleg Slip Cone 6

Wollastonite. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nepheline Syenite. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grolleg. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Silica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 % 33 36 28 100 %

Add: Bentonite. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 % You can add Zircopax to make the slip more opaque; however, when using an electric kiln, visual depth achieved on the pot’s surface has to be purposeful. Allow the slip’s thick and thin areas to give you that depth, especially when poured over red clay.

Brush any interior areas that the slip did not cover. Add slip decoration in additional colors to the bowl’s well.

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Add underglaze embellishments. Bisque fire the pot. Wax the foot. Apply 2–3 coats of colored glaze on the imagery.

Immerse the bowl quickly and rotate clockwise, coating the exterior and interior with translucent glaze.

attachment. Run the material through an 80-mesh sieve to smooth it out. If you’d like to work with a homemade clay recipe, you can adjust this clay body (see sidebar at left) into a workable slip. Be sure to test it for fit on your own clay body. Dip the bowl in the slip gently but quickly (figure 14). While holding the bowl upside down to allow the excess slip to drip off, brush any areas that the slip did not cover, such as the inside of the spout and the handle attachment. Add slip decoration both in white or in additional colors to the bowl’s well (figure 15). Let the slip dry uncovered overnight, then remove the pin.

Sgraffito Decoration

Sgraffito is like a haircut, you can take away but you cannot put back, so plan ahead. Make templates from sketches or photocopies and increase or decrease the sizes as needed to fit your bowl. The best surface quality for creating sgraffito decoration is during the leather-hard state. This state allows you to trace templates onto the dry white slip using a pencil without leaving embedded marks. Once a preliminary sketch is complete, spontaneously carve the lines to give the image gesture. A needle tool held at an angle gives fine, crisp lines (figure 16). Most dust or clay burrs that form on the surface can be easily removed when bone dry. Don’t PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014

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Detail of Cloud Batter Bowl with Rabbit’s interior glaze and sgraffito line work.

Rabbit Butter Dish, 7 in. (18 cm) in length, earthenware, porcelain slip, fired to cone 5, 2013.

blow the dust in the air as it’s harmful to breathe in. If the underlying red clay leaves smudges, gently brush them away once the bowl is bone dry. Don’t disturb smudges while they’re wet, as the red iron mars the surface—a concern mainly if you are using clear glaze. Once the sgraffito line work is complete, you may add underglaze embellishments in various colors. Allow the entire pot to dry and then bisque fire it.

Glaze Decoration

Thoroughly wash the pot before doing any glazing to remove any dust, then let it dry overnight. Use a water-based wax to coat the foot ring and allow it to dry upside down. Dab or brush two to three coats of colored glaze on imagery so it’s about the thickness of a dime (figure 17). After the colored glazes are dry, pour translucent glaze into an open, round container, hold the bowl in your right hand, and twist as far counterclockwise as comfortable. Immerse the bowl quickly into the clear glaze on one side, set upright to let glaze slosh into middle before immersing it once again. Roll the bowl around in the glaze as you rotate your wrist in a clockwise motion as far as possible (figure 18). It’s best not to end major pour out drips over imagery; therefore plan ahead and make sure to initially hold the bowl so the excess glaze pours out at either the spout or the cloud handle. Dab finger marks with glaze after the form dries but before wiping the foot ring. Rub any pin holes that may form on the glaze surface. Don’t blow the dust! Fire the pot to temperature.

Detail of the glazing around the cloud-shaped handle.

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PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014

Courtney Long is a studio potter and educator living in Morganton, North Carolina. She received her MFA from Syracuse University. She’s currently Western Piedmont Community College’s Professional Crafts Coordinator and Pottery Instructor. See more of Courtney’s work on her website, www.courtneylongpottery.com.


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PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014


The Oribe-Inspired Decorated Jar by Ben Krupka

As a maker, I remain dedicated to the evolving conversation with material, aesthetic ideals, and function. I work within the parameters of aesthetic functionalism while striving to build pots that feel full of volume, look soft and fresh, and tell a story, while maintaining a historical reference. The work shown here references the experimental and playful feel

of Oribe-style ceramics, but through a contemporary lens, both in pattern and narrative themes as well as in form, which is influenced by how I eat and drink. The work uses abstract cloud forms to reference an intangible dream state and fuzzy communication that are depicted in unframed floating spaces. Pattern is used to define place and divide space.

Ben Krupka carves through wax-resistcovered slips to create a playful Oribeinspired surface on his porcelain jar. PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014

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process | The Oribe-Inspired Decorated Jar | Ben Krupka

1 Swell out the walls from the top downward. Keep the walls an even thickness.

4 Use the rib to push down the walls creating a flat lid.

2 Use the rib to remove all throwing lines and refine the surface of the pot.

5

Throwing Start by throwing a straight-walled cylinder with the bottom third resembling a bowl on the interior rather than a cylinder, which would have evenly thick walls. This will give the stability necessary to slightly swell out the belly of the pot in the throwing stage without compromising its vertical, wet structural strength. It also will come into play later when trimming. Leave the top quarter of the pot about twice as thick as the walls so it maintains its structure as you use downward pressure to create the lid seating. After the cylinder is thrown, smoothed, and the lid seating is roughly formed, begin at the top, working downward to swell out the walls, creating more volume (figure 1). It’s important to begin widening the form from the top as this allows the bottom half of the pot, which is still thick, to maintain structure and keeps the PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014

Form the knob prior to opening the walls of the lid.

6

Center the pot so it can be used to hold the lid while trimming.

The majority of my work begins on the wheel. I find this tool to be the simplest way to connect curves and create not only physical volume, but also a visually suggested sense of volume.

30

3

Trim the lid until the walls are evenly thick throughout.

pot from getting too thin early on, causing it to slump. Once the pot is formed, delicately rib down the entire pot removing all throwing lines that would eventually act as a visual distraction to the applied surface treatment (figure 2). Remove the pot from the wheel and allow it to become leather hard. Next, center a substantial amount of clay as a hump. This allows you to throw multiple lids more quickly in the event that one does not fit. While ignoring the majority of clay that is already centered, focus on a portion of clay that comfortably fits in your hand, and center it as though it’s a separate entity from the remainder of the clay on the wheel. Rather than creating a hole, which one would normally do when opening, form the knob in the center of the ball of clay (figure 3). After the knob is formed, throw walls around the knob and, using a stiff rib, push down and level out the top of the lid (figure 4). Once you are happy with the shape of the lid, use calipers to measure the exact lid diameter and cut it to size with a needle tool. Smooth out the cut edge, then remove the lid and allow it to become leather hard.


7 Trim excess clay around the base. Use a soft rib to even out the trimming surfaces. Allow it to become leather hard.

10 Use a soft brush to remove the dry burrs of wax and clay that peel up as you draw.

8

9

Apply colored slips. After the slips are dry, cover the entire pot with wax resist and allow the wax to harden.

11

12

After the drawing is complete, use colored slips to fill the lines.

Trimming Once the pot and the lid are both leather hard, re-center the pot (before trimming it) so it can be used as a chuck, or holder, for trimming the lid (figure 5). Trim the lid until the walls are an even thickness throughout (figure 6). Now the lid is complete. Flip the pot over, center it, and begin trimming. This is where the distinction between physical and visual volume is created. Because the interior of this vessel is shaped like a bowl, it affords the flexibility to trim heavily, exposing the bowl shape within. After the bulk of the trimming is complete, use the metal rib as a trimming tool to remove unwanted trimming lines. Sponge down the surface and use a soft rib to unify the thrown and trimmed surface (figure 7).

Slip Decoration It’s important to have a vision for the finished piece in order grasp the steps and work backward. I find it helpful to sketch my ideas on paper prior to applying slip to the surface of the pot. Once the pot is on the dry side of leather hard, begin to ap-

Use a pointed tool to draw through the wax and slip creating sgraffito lines. Avoid brushing the burrs into the lines.

Sponge away what doesn’t fill the lines before applying the next color.

ply colored slips by starting with the darkest color, in this case black. After allowing the black slip to dry, apply the next color of slip—I used Amaco Velvet Underglaze V-388 Radiant Red. Once the slips are dry, cover the entire pot with wax resist and allow it to sit overnight so the wax hardens (figure 8). The longer you let the wax dry, the easier it will be to draw clean lines.

Incising and Inlaying Use a tool with a point that gives the line quality you desire— anything from a ballpoint pen to a needle tool will work. Another contributing factor to line quality is the moisture content of the clay. The drier the pot, the sharper the line (figure 9). Throughout the drawing process, pause occasionally to brush off the burrs of wax and clay that peel up as you draw so they don’t accidentally get pushed back into your lines. Be patient and wait as long as it takes for the burrs to dry. The drier the burrs are when you brush them away, the cleaner the line will be (figure 10). Once the drawing is complete, use colored slips to fill in the lines (figure 11). After each color is applied, sponge away what PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014

31


process | The Oribe-Inspired Decorated Jar | Ben Krupka

13

14

Apply a colored glaze in sections around the pot’s exterior.

Apply a thin layer of clear glaze on top.

doesn’t adhere before applying the next color (figure 12). The overlying color should wipe away easily due to the layer of protective wax resist still on the pot.

Glazing After bisquing the pot, use a damp sponge to clean the surface before applying glaze. This removes any dust that developed from the wax burning off in the kiln and allows for a consistent and clean coat of glaze. Apply areas of colored glaze (figure 13), allow them to dry, then apply a thin layer of clear glaze on top of the entire pot (figure 14). Wipe the bottom clean, allow the glaze to dry, then fire it to temperature. Ben Krupka is a functional and sculptural ceramic artist and educator living and working in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. He has been teaching ceramics at Bard College at Simon’s Rock since 2005. Prior to this he completed a two-year residency at the Archie Bray Foundation in Helena, Montana. To see more of his work, visit www.benkrupka.com.

SLIP Base (Val Cushing -VCHF1)

17k Clear Cone 6

Cone 6

Nepheline Syenite. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ferro Frit 3124. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EPK Kaolin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grolleg. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OM4 Ball Clay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Silica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10 % 10 30 10 30 10 100 %

Add: Zircopax. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 % Bentonite. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 % Ben Krupka’s vase (detail above), 9 in. (23 cm) in height, porcelain, slips, glazes, fired to cone 6 in an electric kiln, 2014.

32

PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014

For Black: Mason Stain #6666. . . . . . 10 %

Lithium Carbonate.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wollastonite. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ferro Frit 3124. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EPK Kaolin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Silica (325 Mesh) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014

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Thrown & Handbuilt All at Once by Naomi Tsukamoto

Before electric wheels were designed, Japanese potters used wooden banding wheels to throw pots. It’s the hand version of the kick wheel so to speak. It’s turned by placing a wooden pole into a hole on the right side of the wheel and turning it rapidly several times before removing the pole and starting to throw. While teaching in community-based pottery schools in Japan, I often noticed some of the advanced students’ banding wheels turning very fast on the work table, and before long, they had nice cups and bowls. When I lived in the US, I hardly used banding wheels, and when I did, it was primarily to add surface treatment. So the technique they were using piqued my interest.

Tools In addition to the unique banding-wheel throwing technique, I have started using a number of highly specialized pottery tools, including several wooden throwing ribs. For example, there are different ribs for making sake cups, Japanese teacups, rice bowls, and so on. These ribs have curves that match the inside shapes for each form and are used often for shaping the inside of thrown forms. The two wooden ribs I’m using here are a rectangular-shaped rib for Japanese teacups and a teardrop-shaped, all-purpose rib that can be shifted in the hand to match a desired curve (see tools sidebar, page 36).

Steps to Make a Yunomi To experiment with this technique, start with a basic cylinder form like a teacup. Japanese teacups can be categorized into two forms: a yunomi, which has a height that is greater than its diameter and kumidashi, which is wider than it is tall (tea bowls, which are larger, are called macchawan or chawan). The example shown here is a yunomi. The amount of clay you want to prepare for each piece is approximately the same amount, but a little more than what you would use for throwing the same form on an electric wheel. For the yunomi, use ¾ of a pound (400g) of clay. Start with a ball of clay, and first divide the clay into three pieces. Choose the largest piece and make it into a ball, and make the other two pieces into short coils. Press the ball of clay

PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014

35


process | Thown and Handbuilt All at Once | Naomi Tsukamoto

The tools used in this project are: a bowl with water, a banding wheel, a wire tool, a rectangular wooden tea-bowl rib, a teardropshaped all-purpose wooden rib, a chamois, a sponge, a needle tool, and a wooden knife.

down onto the center of a banding wheel to make a short, solid cylinder. Make the diameter as wide as you want the finished teacup to be. Here, I am widening to the second line (3 inches in diameter) on a 8½-inch wide banding wheel. Next, applying the pinch-pot method, push a thumb into the center and make a depression. Check the depth of the bottom with a needle tool to make sure that there is enough clay (a little more than ¼ inch) for trimming (figure 1). Pull your thumb from the center out to open the clay to make the floor of the piece, supporting the outside edge with your fingers or the palm of your other hand so that the width of the form does not change (figure 2). Be careful not to dig your fingers into the clay as you widen the bottom, and keep the bottom of the piece level. Pinch and lift the wall until it reaches a thickness of about ¼ inch, which is thin, but can still support the weight of a coil added on top (figure 3). Turn the wheel quickly for several revolutions, then, while the wheel is spinning, hold the rectangular rib tightly with both hands and press the flat part of the rib against the bottom of the piece to get rid of the finger marks. Apply enough pressure to even out the surface so that the floor is flat and well compressed. Next, roll out another coil to the same length as the circumference of the cylin-

36

PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014

1 Press a ball of clay into a cylinder, create a center depression and check the bottom thickness using a needle tool.

3 Add a soft coil to the top of the cylinder, join the ends, and blend it into the cylinder using your thumbs and index fingers.

2 Open the bottom of the form using your thumb, and support the outside with your hand.

4 Pinch the coil between index fingers and thumbs of both hands to move the clay up and raise the height of the cylinder.

der, and add it to the wall. Connect the seams and raise the wall to the same thickness. Sandwich the wall between the index fingers and thumbs of both of your hands. Bring your thumbs together, gathering the clay, and drawing it closer from both sides as you press against your index fingers to move the clay up the wall and compact it (figure 4). Repeat the same motion all the way around until you complete an entire course of pinching and have thinned all of the clay. By gathering and compressing the clay as you build up the height of the wall, you will be able to achieve a nice straight wall even if the clay starts to flare out due to the weight of added coils. As you reach the rim, if you start pushing the clay in toward the center of the banding wheel a little more, you’ll be able to create a bottleneck form (figure 5). To erase the finger marks on the wall, hold the rectangular teacup rib vertically, and push the short end against the inside of the wall, adding enough pressure while moving it from the bottom to the top to smooth and even out the clay (figure 6). Place the palm of your other hand on the outside for support to keep the form from flaring out. Next, use the same rib, held horizontally, to erase the marks on the outside wall, moving the


5 To bring the top of the form in to make a bottle, pinch toward the vertical center of the wheel head.

8 Hold the rib vertically against the outside of the pot at a 90° angle and spin the wheel to true up the form.

6

7

Press the short end of the rectangular teacup rib against the inside of the cylinder to smooth the wall.

9

10

Continue to center the form by pressing the wet sponge against the outside of the wall while supporting the inside.

rib from bottom to the top, supporting from the inside (figure 7). Once the entire surface becomes smooth, hold the rib vertically against the outside of the form and at a right angle as you move the wheel to center the piece and true up the wall (figure 8). To further center the piece, turn the wheel again, and while it is spinning, hold the wet sponge against the inside of the cylinder, and with the other hand supporting the outside, move the sponge from bottom to the top with steady hands as if you are pulling the wall. When you add a little more pressure from the inside as if you are pushing out the form a little, the piece gets centered more easily. Next, hold the sponge against the outside of the pot and repeat the same motion, adding a little more pressure from the outside this time (figure 9). Now you have a centered short cylinder. Add another coil, and repeat the same steps to make the form taller.

Hold the teacup rib horizontally against the outside wall and move it slowly from bottom to top to smooth the exterior.

Once you reach the desired height, level and trim the rim by inserting a needle tool into the wall while the wheel spins.

Once the cylinder is complete, turn the wheel and level the rim using a needle tool (figure 10), and smooth the lip with chamois, compressing it to the desired thickness as you smooth it (figure 11). For shaping you can either turn the wheel first and push out and collar in just like when you do on the electric wheel with sponge and finger tips, or use an all-purpose rib to push out the form as you turn the wheel slowly (figure 12). If you like the curve of your teacup rib, you can also steadily apply the rib inside while the wheel is turning. For a bowl form, turn the wheel and angle the rim first (figure 13). Use the all-purpose, teardrop-shaped rib and hold it against the inside wall so that the gradual curve goes from the rim to the center of the form (figure 14). Finally clean the bottom with a wooden tool, create a bevel, and cut the bottom free from the wheel head using a cutting wire.

PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014

37


process | Thown and Handbuilt All at Once | Naomi Tsukamoto

11 Smooth the lip with a damp chamois held so that it’s draped lightly over the top.

14 Curve the wall and create a transition between the bottom of the bowl and the wall using the teardrop-shaped rib.

12 Shape the cylinder using the curved rib pressed against the inside wall.

15

The trimming steps when working with a banding wheel are almost identical to the steps used with an electric wheel, except that you want to keep the ware a little wetter than leather hard when trimming. Because banding wheels turn much slower, trying to trim drier clay doesn’t work well, because you would need to apply more pressure, and therefore add more tension to the surface, possibly distorting, pushing, or breaking the form. To start, tap the piece to center on a banding wheel. Once centered, turn the wheel and draw two circles on the bottom of the piece with a needle tool to mark the foot. Start trimming by taking the clay off diagonally to the outside mark, then define the outside edge of the foot (figure 15). After this step, you rely

PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014

To make a bowl, flare out the rim with your fingers while the wheel is spinning.

16

Tap the soft-leather-hard teacup on center, mark the location of the foot ring, then trim the foot.

Trimming

38

13

Naomi Tsukamoto’s finished teacup, made on a banding wheel using a combined coil and throwing technique.

less on the turning wheel, and trim by primarily moving your hand, and only moving the wheel as needed.

Conclusion This technique is great for teaching as it requires little space and can be applied to more advanced forms. Students can come to understand centering from their physical bodies, and therefore, the banding-wheel technique is often taught before wheel throwing in Japan. You rely less on the wheel movement and achieve softer and less mechanical forms. Some Japanese professional potters today still prefer using this technique to throwing on electric wheels. Naomi Tsukamoto is an artist and a writer who runs a flower and ceramic studio (www.facebook.com/hananoeki.tsugumistudio) with her florist husband in Hadano, Japan.


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PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014

39


Turn It by Glenn Woods

Several years ago, at an art fair in Florida, I encountered another potter who came into my booth and said, “I really like your pots but they seem to be missing the bottom part of the form”. At first I was offended—who did he think he was anyway? His forms didn’t seem any more spectacular than mine. After I got over myself, I looked at my pots and found he was right. I love to throw but have always noticed that no matter what pulling method I have used, I always seem to leave a little more clay at the bottom of the wall than I would like. I also noticed that the pots did seem to be lacking a little toward the bottom part of the forms. After thinking about this, I decided that I needed to find an easier way to use the clay left at the bottom of the piece rather than simply carving or trimming it away and discarding that clay into to my reclaim bucket.

A New Approach With the next piece, I threw the vase the way I always have but left a little more clay in the floor of the piece (a thicker bottom). I then wrapped the bottom of the piece in plastic to keep it wet and let the top dry to leather hard (figure 1). Since I hadn’t altered the piece, it was easy to turn upside down and center on the wheel just as if I was going to trim the piece (figure 2). I trimmed away the flange from the bottom, leaving the edge beveled toward the center (figure 3). Rather than trim-

Glenn Woods added height and flair to this wheel-thrown pitcher by turning the vessel over and using the clay in the thicker base to throw a graceful curve. 40

PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014

ming any more clay away, I cut a hole in the center of the bottom of the piece and pulled the bottom out toward me, just like opening up a ball of clay before starting to throw a cylinder. Once the bottom was opened, I applied slip only where needed and began pulling and thinning the walls where I would normally be trimming away extra clay (figure 4). Once the wall


1 Throw a vase form, wrap the bottom in plastic, and dry the top to leather hard.

4 Cut a hole in the bottom, throw to widen it, then throw the wall to thin the clay.

2

3

Cut the vase from the bat, flip it over and center it on the wheelhead.

5

6

After thinning the wall, collar and refine the shape.

was a uniform thickness, I collared in the form and continued thinning. This process added an additional 3 to 5 inches to the overall height of the piece and enabled me to create a more pleasing form (figure 5). To close the bottom, I simply threw a clay pad, compressed it, and then added a throwing ring so that when a person looks inside the pot, they see a beautiful spiral staring right back at them. I scored the bottom edge of the pot (figure 6) and marked the clay disc (figure 7) with the diameter of the foot, scored just inside this line, then attached them while the clay pad was still on the bat. Next, I compressed the seam (figure 8), cut away the excess clay and beveled the bottom (figure 9), then cut it off the bat. I set the pot on a plaster dome to make the bottom concave. The plaster also helped to even out the moisture in the bottom quickly so I didn’t end up with stress cracks. Once it dried to soft leather hard, I set the piece on a level table to make sure the bottom edge was even all the way around and the piece was level.

Trim away the bottom flange and create a bevel using a needle tool.

Score the bottom edge of the pot and measure the diameter with calipers.

Finishing the Form To make the spout for the pitcher, I threw a low, wide, bottomless bowl that angled out toward the top (figure 10). I created a grooved detail at the bottom, which added interest to the area where the spout joins the pitcher body. When this cylinder was leather hard, I cut it off of the bat, flipped it over, and trimmed the excess from the edge to create a bevel. I also trimmed a channel into the bottom (figure 11) that matched the shape of the rounded rim on the pitcher body, increasing the surface area and strength of the attachment point. Once the cylinder reached soft leather hard, I cut a section wide enough to make the spout (figure 12). I attached the section to the rim of the pot, then trimmed away the excess (figure 13). I made final adjustments to the base and throat of the spout and compressed the join (figure 14). After the body has been completed, rather than making a pitcher as shown here, you can simply leave it as it is and make a vase out of it, or you can throw a neck and add it on to the top PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014

41


process | Turn it Upside Down | Glenn Woods

7

8

Throw a clay disc, mark the diameter of the base, score the area and apply slip.

10 Throw a low, wide, bottomless bowl to create a pitcher spout.

9

Join the vessel to the base and compress the seam with your finger.

11

Trim away the excess clay from the edge of the clay pad using a wooden knife.

12

Trim a channel into the bottom of the leather-hard bottomless bowl.

Cut a section of the bottomless bowl that’s wide enough to make the spout.

of the form to create a bottle. There are many possibilities. Some may consider this cheating or even giving a person permission to stop trying to throw that perfect pot. I think of this technique as an alternative to trimming a piece to perfection. Personally, I never try to throw a bad pot (not that any of us do!), but if I make a mistake, I don’t use this technique to try to correct it. When I turn a pot upside down to finish the bottom, if it’s not well thrown, the process is more difficult, so I always throw the original form to the best of my abilities. So next time you throw a pot that is a little bottom heavy, turn it upside down! 13 Once attached, cut away excess from the spout to create the shape you want. 42

PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014

14 Position the spout, shape the throat so it pours well, then compress the join.

Glenn Woods is an artist and instructor living in Palm Harbor, Florida. See more of his work at www.potteryboys.com.


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in the potter’s kitchen | Food and Clay

Olive Trays by Sumi von Dassow

1 Lay the extrusion flat between dowels and pull a cutting wire along the sticks to bisect the extrusion.

3

44

2 Cut the ends straight, curve the trays as desired (they will want to curve naturally), and pinch the ends together.

4

Score and join the ends then smooth the joins and the long cut edges.

Allow the trays to dry, bisque fire them, then glaze them in colors that may look good with a variety of finger foods.

A few years ago students started bringing in catalog photos of olive trays and asking how to make them. An olive tray is a canoe-shaped dish that can be used for olives or other small appetizers. The ones in catalogs were straight as logs, with rounded ends—like a hollowed-out half of a zucchini. After a few tries with slabs, I settled on an extruded tube, cut in half and pinched together at the ends. And since it can be both challenging and boring to handbuild a perfectly straight form in clay, I make my olive trays S-shaped. I use a hexagonal extruder die with a round inside piece, so the bottom of the olive tray is flat but the inside is rounded (no corners inside means it’s easy to clean) and pack the barrel full of soft clay. I extrude about 14 inches of clay, cut it off, and keep going until the barrel is empty. I lay the extrusion down on a ware board between two 1-inch dowel rods or 1×1-inch sticks that are about 18 inches long. The sticks should be exactly half the height of the extrusion so they line up with the corners of the hexagon. I use my cutting wire to slice it in half lengthwise, pulling toward myself (figure 1). I try to cut it exactly in half, right along the corner of the hexagon. In fact, I try to cut along the weak corner where the Zbracket held the center piece into the die. This will help prevent the

extrusion from splitting along this seam as you are working on it. Cutting is faster and cleaner with a cutting wire than with a knife; also, wet clay cut with a sharp blade tends to stick back together again. It’s easier to cut and shape these if you let the clay set up a bit after extruding it. I peel the two halves apart and form each one into an S-shape. Then I cut the ends even and pinch them together (figure 2). After sponging the cut edges and smoothing the ends where they were pinched together (figure 3), I’m done. I use stoneware clay and glaze them with colors that I imagine would complement olives (figure 4). And of course an olive tray can be used for plenty of things other than olives. Mine end up about an inch and a half wide, so there are lots of small finger foods that can fit in them including dolmades (stuffed grape leaves) because they can be a lot of work to make and you might as well show them off in a special dish! I precook the rice for the dolmades to make it easier, but traditionally the rice is cooked with the other ingredients like a risotto.

PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014

Sumi von Dassow is an artist, instructor, and regular contributor to Pottery Making Illustrated. She lives in Golden, Colorado.


Recipe

Dolmades 1 jar grape leaves (one pint), 35 to 50 leaves 2 cups cooked rice ¼ cup olive oil plus ½ cup 1 large onion, chopped 1 ⁄3 cup pine nuts or chopped walnuts 1 ⁄3 cup currants or raisins ½ cup chopped fresh parsley juice of one lemon seasoning to taste: salt, pepper, cinnamon, allspice, etc. Saute onion in ¼ cup of olive oil until soft; stir in nuts, raisins, parsley, and rice. Add salt and pepper, cinnamon, allspice, or other seasonings to taste, if desired. Unroll a bundle of grape leaves from the jar and rinse off the brine. Lay one leaf down, vein side up. Cut off the stem if it’s tough. Place a tablespoon of filling in the center of the leaf and fold in the sides of the leaf, then roll loosely from the stem end. When all the filling is used up, place any extra leaves in the bottom of a heavy pot and arrange the filled leaves on top, seam sides down, packing tightly, and layering if necessary. Pour ½ cup olive oil over all, then lemon juice and a cup of water. Cover the leaves with a plate to keep them down, bring the pot to a boil, then cover it and turn the heat to a simmer. Cook about 30 minutes, adding water if necessary. Let the dolmades cool in the pot, then chill and serve.

Sumi von Dassow’s finished tray with dolmades (stuffed grape leaves).

PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014

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Great New Handbuilding Templates! Developed by Sandi Pierantozzi. A set of 24 durable, flexible, laminated templates to create Circular & Conical Forms. Perfect for Potters or Teachers! www.CircleMatic.com. Custom Ceramic Molds—For nearly 20 years, Petro Mold Company has been designing molds for some of the world’s most renowned ceramic artists and potters. Our innovative molds will help you improve productivity with your popular designs. We set the highest American quality standards with our sculpting, mold manufacturing and design services. Visit us today at www.custommolds.net or (800) 404-5521. Series Summer Arts School, July 7–August 1, 2014—Red Deer, AB, Canada. Series offers ceramics courses featuring worldrenowned instructors: Vincent Massey, James Watkins, Sarah Jaeger, Jim Etzkorn, Rebecca Hutchinson, Shirley Rimer, Carol Gouthro and more. Additional courses in: painting, drawing, fibre arts, photography, sculpture, jewelry, metals and woodworking. All skill levels welcome. Catalogs available online at www.rdc.ab.ca/series. Visit the website or call (403) 356-4900 for more information. Strong Arm Centering & Opening Tool— Make more pots, save your joints, use it to center and open 1–30 pounds of clay in seconds easily! This is the greatest tool for production potters, schools and studio potters. Create those big pots you have always imagined! Watch the video at www.marcspotterytools.com or call (585) 223-1930. Expressive Figures in Clay, Janis Mars Wunderlich at Cultural Arts Center, Columbus Ohio; $350 includes materials and open studio; June 23–27; information and register: ewrausch@columbus.gov or www.culturalartscenteronline.org. Workshops at Baltimore Clayworks. Adam Field, Sat–Sun, May 3 & 4, 2014; Bryan Hopkins, Sat–Sun, August 16 & 17, 2014; Adrian Arleo; Sat–Sun, October 25 & 26, 2014. Please visit www.baltimoreclayworks.org or call (410) 578 1919 x10. Summer Workshops at GoggleWorks Center for the Arts, Reading, PA. Presenters: John Gill, June 2–13; Jerry Bennett, June 16–27; Gratia Brown, July 14–25; Doug Peltzman, July 28–August 8. Information and registration at www.goggleworks.org or call (610) 374-4600.

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Ceramics and Jewelry & Metals Workshops at Paducah School of Art and Design—Martha Grover, A Passion for Porcelain, June 27–28; Jessica Calderwood, The Enameled Image, June 27–28; Harris Deller, Line to Volume and Back Again, July 11–12; Tova Lund, The Found Object in Contemporary Jewelry, August 1–2; Craig Rhodes, Onglaze and Production Techniques, August 1–2; Susan Beecher, Sensational Salt Fire, August 7–9; Douglas Harling, Granulation: Methods and Techniques, August 12–16; and John Neely, Pots for Tea, August 12–16. For more information, call (270) 408-4278 or visit PaducahSchoolofArtandDesign.org.

index to advertisers Aardvark. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 ACerS Books. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Al Johnsen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Amaco and Brent. . . . . . . . . 12, 13, 27 Bailey Pottery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Bennett Pottery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Bracker’s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Carolina Clay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Chinese Clay Art. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Ceramic Arts Daily . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Clay Art Center/Scott Creek . . . . . . . 28 Continental Clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Coyote Clay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Dolan Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Evenheat Kiln. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Georgies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Great Lakes Clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Herring Designs/SlabMat. . . . . . . . . . 47 Highwater Clays. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 J.C. Campbell Folk School. . . . . . . . . 39 Kiln Doctor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 L&L Kilns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cover 4 Larkin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Master Kiln. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Mayco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cover 2 MKM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Mudtools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Ohr-O’Keefe Museum of Art. . . . . . . 21 Olympic Kilns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Original Hi Roller. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Paragon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Peter Pugger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Potters Council. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Sheffield Pottery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Skutt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Smith-Sharpe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Spectrum Glazes. . . . . . . . . . . . Cover 3 Touchstone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Tucker’s Pottery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Xiem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Zanesville Prize. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014

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side-hole pot drum hadgini two-chambered drum designed by Frank Giorgini and Jamey Haddad

ocarina

side-blown flute

one-note whistle

goblet drum

alpenhorn multiple components assembled with silicone, brass fittings, and rubber rings bongos low-fire drums decorated in slip, covered and bound together after firing four-chambered huaca chambers are tuned in octaves and fifths

ceramic musical forms To learn more about making ceramic musical instruments, check out From Mud to Music by Barry Hall on the Ceramic Arts Daily bookstore at http://ceramicartsdaily.org/bookstore.

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PotteryMaking Illustrated | May/June 2014


Spectrum Glazes Continuing to lead the way.

Cone 5 Semi-Transparents and Celadons

1461 Onyx

1462 Rainy Day

1463 Cerulean

1464 Moroccan Blue

1465 Light Celadon

1466 Celadon

The newest additions to our glaze lineup are twelve mid-range SemiTransparent glazes. These are the perfect complement to detailed ware and offer a wide-range of color offerings with a focus on the many faces of Celadons in an electric oxidation environment.

1467 Spring Green

1468 Bottle Green

1469 Mimosa

1470 Cranberry

1471 Orchid

1472 Watermelon

SPECTRUM GLAZES INC. ● CONCORD, ONT. PH: (800) 970-1970 ● FAX: (905) 695-8354 ● www.spectrumglazes.com ● info@spectrumglazes.com



Pottery making may14 poi0514d