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Knitting Traditions

Fair Orkney

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! T I K E H GET T e 36

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20 PROJECTS Timeless & Treasured

How Kitchener & Patriotism Pushed Knitting Discover Victoriana in Nineteenth-Century Manuals The Mystery of

HIDDENITE: A Jewel of a Shawl

FALL 2015

PLUS: Preserving Primitive Sheep Breeds p. 40


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n Scarf—

contents

Russia Simple in

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Stories & Projects 6 The Knitter That Never Was—Christopher John Brooke Phillips 12 Knit, Purl, Heal—Mary Polityka Bush 15 Muffatees for a Man—Mary Polityka Bush 18 Patriotic Knitting Bags and Tools of the World Wars— Karen C. K. Ballard

22 Zouave Sleeveless Jacket from Weldon’s Practical Needlework 24 Going in Circles: A History of Knitting in the Round—Eileen Lee 28 Going in Circles Socks—Eileen Lee 32 Fair Isle Knitting Across Space and Time—Elizabeth Lovick 36 Orkney Fair Isle Tam—Elizabeth Lovick 40 On the Edge: How a Handful of People Have Preserved Some Rare, Valuable Sheep and Their Wools—Deborah Robson = Victoriana Projects

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47 Manx Loaghtan Boot Socks—Ann Budd 50 Simple in Russian Lace Scarf—Inna Voltchkova 58 Lucy’s Stars and Diamonds Stole—Katrina King 62 Grace Murray: Ultra-Prolific Knitter of Andean-Inspired Hats—

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Cynthia LeCount Samaké

66 “You’ve Got to Really Like Your Job”: Department Stores as Purveyors of Yarn and Knitting Knowledge, 1930–1960— Susan Strawn

71 Vintage Sport Socks—Susan Strawn 74 English Spencer—Rachel Anderson 80 Leafy Reticule—Sarah Gomez 82 Hiddenite Shawl—Manda Shah 86 Penzance Fair Hat & Carousel Bag—Lisa Cruse 92 Turbanesque Child’s Hat & Muff—Lisa Cruse 96 Victorian Silk Reticule—Sara Lamb 98 Pincushion, Knitted Like a Lemon 100 Old-Fashioned Shell and Feather Pattern 101 Wedge Pattern in Three Colours 102 Jewel Stitch 103 Very Narrow Lace 104 Fleur-de-Lis Lace

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Departments 4 Letter from the Editor 106 Abbreviations & Techniques 112 Sources for Supplies = Victoriana Projects

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Expecting a little mischie?

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From the Editor

T

hey say that necessity is the mother of invention, but when it comes to knitting, comfort and convenience might play a larger role. Our eleventh issue of Knitting Traditions features stories and projects reflecting how an original design or technique transitioned into something else. Sometimes it happened slowly over the years through multiple makers—here necessity probably took a back seat. Other times, we see necessity cause dramatic shifts in knitting: in wartime, craft can take on new meaning and urgency.

Economic shifts, new materials, or fashion fads cause social and crafting innovations. As Elizabeth Lovick demonstrates, Fair Isle knitting traversed the Northern Isles and adapted constantly due to market demand, with each island developing its own variations. Susan Strawn shows how department stores capitalized on market trends or world events to sell yarn. Then, as Deborah Robson documents, primitive sheep breeds nearly died out from governmental policies, creation of synthetic fibers, or war. Pinpointing the exact moment of change can be difficult. But elsewhere, it’s easy to link a shift to events. During world wars, necessity greatly shaped knitting: governments asked civilian women to knit socks as a patriotic duty, and they in turn needed improved techniques to meet the demand. Doctors realized that handwork like knitting could help injured soldiers recover from physical and emotional wounds. Our features about Lord Kitchener (Christopher John Brooke Phillips), knitting and healing (Mary Polityka Bush), patriotic knitting bags (Karen C. K. Ballard), and circular knitting (Eileen Lee) show how makers’ or wearers’ desire for convenience and comfort created useful innovations that in time of war suddenly spread everywhere. Finally and most importantly, we credit the knitters who appreciate the value of quality craftsmanship and love history— people who enjoy knitting traditions. They beautifully recreated pieces using techniques and patterns that have traveled across time and space. Inna Voltchkova’s Simple in Russian Scarf is a classic Orenburg project, while Katrina King’s stole shows how the same traditions can adapt to new colors, shapes, and techniques (here bead knitting). Vintage fashions and Victorian patterns still inspire us today: our projects include a Spencer jacket, shawls, hats, and bags reminiscent of English traditions, plus an array of swatches and edgings from nineteenth-century magazines. Maybe you would like to adapt one of these vintage designs for your clothing or home. We hope you enjoy this issue of Knitting Traditions, a PieceWork special issue, and that your own knitting comes from comfort and convenience more often than necessity. My special thanks go to Jeane Hutchins and Kathy Mallo, whose patience and mentorship never fail, and to the beautiful McCreery House in Loveland, which was the location for our photo shoot.

Knitting Traditions EDITOR Deborah Gerish EDITOR-IN-CHIEF, PIECEWORK Jeane Hutchins MANAGING EDITOR SPECIALTY FIBER Kathy Mallo TECHNICAL EDITORS Tracey Davidson, Karen Frisa,

Julie Gaddy, Robin Melanson EDITORIAL ASSISTANT Tamara Schmiege COPY EDITOR AND PROOFREADER Katie Bright ASSOCIATE ART DIRECTOR Samantha Wranosky PRODUCTION DESIGNER Nichole Mulder DESIGNERS Amy Petriello, Katherine Hess PHOTOGRAPHER Donald Scott PHOTOSTYLING Ann Swanson HAIR AND MAKEUP Keegan Steele ADVERTISING MANAGERS Diane Kocal, Sally Finnegan CLASSIFIED AD SALES MANAGER Tina Hickman AD TRAFFICKER Mary Lutz SENIOR ECOMMERCE MARKETING MANAGER Jessi Rodriguez

Founder Linda Ligon Creative Director Larissa Davis Senior Production Manager Nancy M. Pollock Director, Magazine Marketing & Fullfillment Mark Fleetwood

Chairman & CEO David Nussbaum Chief Operating Officer/Chief Financial Officer James Ogle

President Sara Domville Chief Digital Officer Chad Phelps Vice Presidents, Ecommerce Marketing Evelyn Bridge, Marc Okeon

Senior Vice President, Operations Phil Graham Vice President, Communications Stacie Berger Director of Advertising Sales Greg Burney Interweave Main Office 4868 Innovation Dr. Fort Collins, CO 80525-5576 (800) 272-2193 Visit our websites at interweave.com • fwmedia.com • needleworktraditions.com Knitting Traditions is a special issue of PieceWork® magazine (ISSN 10672249). PieceWork is published bimonthly by Interweave, a division of F+W Media, Inc., 4868 Innovation Dr. Fort Collins, CO 80525-5576. USPS #011717. All contents of this issue of Knitting Traditions are copyrighted by F+W Media, Inc., 2015. All rights reserved. Projects and information are for inspiration and personal use only. Reproduction in whole or in part is prohibited, except by permission of the publisher. Interweave Customer Service: interweaveservice@interweave.com CONTACT PIECEWORK Advertising: Tina Hickman, Tina.Hickman@fwcommunity.com or visit needleworktraditions.com Retailers: If you are interested in carrying this magazine in your store please contact us: Toll free (866) 949-1646 Email sales@interweave.com Editorial inquiries: (970) 776-1448, piecework@interweave.com.

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The Knitter That Never Was CHRISTOPHER JOHN BROOKE PHILLIPS

F

ield Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener (Knight of the Order of the

Garter; Knight of the Order of St. Patrick; Knight Grand Cross, Order of the Bath; Order of Merit; Grand Commander, Order of the Star of India; Most Distinguished Order of St. Michael and St. George; Grand Commander, Order of the Indian Empire; and others) was born June 24, 1850, in Ballylongford, County Kerry, Ireland. He died June 5, 1916, while aboard the cruiser HMS Hampshire, which struck a mine to the west of the Orkney Islands. A soldier of immense popularity, he was famous for his campaign against the Mahdi in the Sudan (1881–1899), including the Battle of Omdurman (September 1898), his conduct of the Second Boer War in South Africa (1899–1902), and his immense effort to create a “new” army of one million volunteers when appointed Britain’s Secretary of State for War in 1914.

Photograph of Horatio Herbert Kitchener, British Field Marshal and proconsul who served in the Second Boer War and World War I. George Grantham Bain Collection, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. (LC-82-3676-10). Photograph courtesy of the Library of Congress.

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Although noted for his shyness, he nevertheless had a clear vision of what needed to be done in any situation and implemented his ideas with a single mind. His vision encompassed the care of the troops under his command and genuine concerns for the care of the vanquished. In the Sudan, he instigated an education program, open to all from the highest to the lowest, and personally directed the rebuilding of the mosques. In South Africa, he supported a policy of nonpunishment of the Boers, realizing that punitive peace terms would be an incentive for trouble later. He also supported a policy of enfranchisement for all South Africans, of every creed and color. That policy the Boers vetoed, for fear of reprisals by native Africans for the cruel and inhuman conditions inflicted upon them in the gold and diamond mines. His name and fame also have crept into the annals of knitting history. The “Kitchener Stitch,” a seamless closure for the toes of handknitted socks, has often been attributed to him as his “invention.” Although this legend has circulated widely, and still circulates, there is no proof to support it. Most certainly, seamless grafting was practiced before Kitchener was born. Well known as a micromanager, as well as for his consideration for the fighting man, nothing disproves that the well-being of soldiers’ feet would not have come to Kitchener’s notice. Any reduction in the availability of fit soldiers would be high on his list of matters requiring attention. Lack of fighting capacity through sock construction that caused blistering and sores would be a complete anathema, driving him to seek a solution. The soldiers of World War I (1914–1918) had more than sufficient problems with their feet, which were constantly exposed to the cold and wet that led to the debilitating condition known as “trench foot.” The Red Cross in the United Kingdom confirms that no record exists that the matter was tackled on a formal basis. One can only surmise that Kitchener made informal inquiries and took advice in respect to the offending seams. It is not hard to imagine that once apprised of a better method, he would have ensured that it was passed on to the various charities, institutions, and organizations responsible for producing “comforts for the troops.” Perhaps, in order to lend weight to the requirement, it was appended with the title “Kitchener Stitch,”

“There is a great need of knitted socks etc., for our troops. It is indeed, a crying need, as the War Office allowance is only three pairs for each man, and a long day’s march will wear socks into holes.”

and the term moved into common parlance. Strangely, the term seems to have been, and is, most prevalent in Australia, New Zealand, and Canada, and even stranger, in the United States, considering that Kitchener was already dead when the United States entered World War I. Consider the mathematics of the sock problem. Each soldier in the British army (and probably in the British Empire as well) received three pairs of socks every six months. Records show that on active service, a pair of socks lasted two weeks. Thus, each soldier on active service would be about twenty pairs short per annum. Of course, only a proportion of troops were active, and the remainder no doubt had a much smaller demand for new socks. At the close of World War I, the British army consisted of four million men, even a small proportion of which would require a lot of socks. In addition, the troops of the British Empire, the U.S. forces, the Italians, and the opposing Germans and Austro-Hungarians, would all need socks. Clearly, the worldwide demand was enormous. At the outbreak of hostilities, Kitchener was given the task of raising a second army—of volunteers, one million strong to supplement the relatively small number of troops in the regular British army, and also to ensure that the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) in France was kept adequately supplied. He made an early appeal via Queen Mary for 300,000 pairs of socks, an appeal which was echoed in The Times of August 29, 1914, by Lady French, wife of Field Marshal Sir John French, commander of British Forces in France: “There is a great need of knitted socks etc., for our troops. It is indeed, a crying

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World War I poster, featuring Lord Kitchener. Collection Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. (LC-USZC4-12405). Photograph courtesy of the Library of Congress.

need, as the War Office allowance is only three pairs for each man, and a long day’s march will wear socks into holes.” It was clear that need was immediate, and the queen expressed a desire that as much work as possible should be placed through the Central Committee for Women’s Employment. Donations, financial or in-kind, could be sent to The Lady-in-Waiting to her Majesty, Devonshire House, London. In the County of Devon, in southwest England, the response was immediate, and Lady Fortescue, a member of the aristocracy, received in the first few weeks, 5,000 pairs of socks. However, Lord Fortescue remarked that many were poorly made and were put to use as mudguards on the breeches of rifles. The Daily Mail (London), reporting on the efforts of the Rotes Kreuz [Red Cross] in Germany, notes on October 27, 1914: “The whole feminine Germany is at present occupied in making socks and mittens for the men at the front. This habit of knitting has now become so prevalent that it is something of a disgrace for a woman to sit idle in tramway-car or train when with

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her knitting needle she might be helping the heroes of the Fatherland. In Berlin you will see these tricoteuses, modern style on every hand.” The International Red Cross took a major role from the outset, although its charter prevented its giving direct assistance to belligerents. The organization’s mission was, and is, to bring succor and relief to the wounded, the injured, and victims of war. The Red Cross message went out via newspapers, posters, leaflets, and word of mouth for volunteers, in the United Kingdom and throughout the British Empire, particularly Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. The response was overwhelming; individuals and organizations of every hue took up the call. It wasn’t long before the Red Cross was issuing patterns and instructions for knitted comforts and supplying materials. By November 1914, Kitchener’s request for 300,000 pairs of socks had been fulfilled. It was not only the Red Cross that published sock patterns; newspapers, magazines, and woolen mills all contributed to a vast availability. Among the latter were Paton’s, Beehive Knitting Wools, Ladyship Wools, White Heather, J & J Baldwin, and Eskimo Yarn. The call for socks spread across the British Empire, with the urgent appeal from Kitchener and the International Red Cross. In Australia, women took up the call under the guidance of the Australian Red Cross and state-based organizations. On August 24, 1916, these organizations formed the Australian Comforts Fund (ACF); its motto was “Keep the Fit Man Fit.” One of the objectives was not to duplicate but complement the work of the Red Cross, not only providing the finished articles but also the materials and wherewithal to make them. In the winter of 1916, the ACF-supported output provided 80,000 pairs of handknitted socks. Records show that the Sydney Soldiers Sock Fund (specializing in teaching knitting techniques for soldiers’ socks throughout Australia) supplied 21,000 pairs every year for the duration of the war. The same fervor gripped New Zealand, with the Red Cross and voluntary organizations throwing their weight into providing that essential item. By August 1915, New Zealanders had the benefit of a publication produced by Lady Liverpool (neé Annette Louise Foljambe), wife of Lord Liverpool, Governor of New Zealand. Her Excellency’s Knitting Book comprised 193 pages of patterns and knitting methods for soldiers’ comforts. Such was the


enthusiasm that as the war drew to a close, New Zealand could boast 900 women’s patriotic organizations producing handknitted socks and other comforts for the troops abroad. Canada was no less a contributor. Patriotic women gathered together via church clubs and other volunteer organizations to supply socks and other comforts via the Red Cross and the national society, Associated Field Comforts. By January 1915, when the first wave of Canadian troops had arrived in England, urgent requests were sent home for socks and more socks. Canada responded. In November 1915, the city of Hamilton, Ontario, supplied nearly 28,000 pairs to the western front. Such was the demand that knitting machines were supplied to willing volunteers who aimed to produce 100 pairs a month. These circular, eighty-four-needle machines were hand-turned, and were in principle similar to modern knitting machines. Their reported output was a pair every forty minutes. The socks from the machines were open-toed and required closing by hand. At the outset, they were closed with a stitched seam, similar to those handknitted to the early Red Cross pattern, although it is understood that this soon changed according to Kitchener’s requirement. A comprehensive pattern incorporating toe grafting was published in Vogue in July 1918 called “The Kitchener Heelless Sock.” Examining the Canadian contribution reveals that Lucy Maud Montgomery, the author of Anne of Green Gables, offered her own fervent support. The conflict is reflected in the penultimate novel of the series, Rilla of Ingleside, in which Rilla (Anne’s daughter), her family, and her acquaintances knitted socks as their patriotic duty: “I will remember that Kitchener is at the helm and Joffre is doing very well for a Frenchman. I shall get that box of cake off to little Jem and finish that pair of socks today likewise. A sock a day is my allowance. Old Mrs. Albert Mead of Harbour Head manages a pair and a half a day but she has nothing to do but knit.” On April 6, 1917, the United States declared war on Germany, presenting the military with the immense task of turning a peacetime unit into a wartime fighting army, requiring not only the immediate expansion of manpower but the necessary supplies to put an effective force into the field of battle. The same problems that faced Kitchener in 1914 now presented themselves across the Atlantic. The supply of knitted garments, and in particular socks,

did not start from scratch at the outbreak of hostilities. Some American individuals and organizations already were engaged in the supply of such commodities. Among them was Maud Churchill Nicoll, the wife of De Lancey Nicoll, lawyer, and briefly, assistant New York County district attorney. Her belief in the cause against Germany took her through nurses’ training and led to a move to Britain in July 1915, whereupon she was severely injured in an automobile accident and spent the succeeding years partially bedridden in London. To continue her service to the cause, she devoted her time to knitting for servicemen. In addition to knitting, she wrote How to Knit Socks: A Manual for Both Amateur and Expert Knitters in 1915. In 1918, her Knitting and Sewing: How to Make Seventy Useful Items for Men in the Army and Navy was published. Included are ten patterns for socks and stockings—Plain Socks, Heavier Socks (in six-ply fingering), Heavier Socks (in three-ply wheeling), Ribbed Socks, Trench Stockings, Seamen’s Stockings, Ribbed Stockings, Puttee Stockings, Bed Socks, and Double Knitted Bed Socks. In all cases, the toes are closed by “darning in the weave,” also referred to as “Swiss Darning,” which is essentially the same as the Kitchener Stitch. The output during World War I is astounding; by the close of hostilities, the U.S. Red Cross had provided more than fourteen million items, not including any knitted comforts sent directly by other organizations. On Christmas Eve 1917, for example, the 88th Infantry Division, at

“This habit of knitting has now become so prevalent that it is something of a disgrace for a woman to sit idle in tramway-car or train when with her knitting needle she might be helping the heroes of the Fatherland.”

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Such was the demand that knitting machines were supplied to willing volunteers who aimed to produce 100 pairs a month. . . . Their reported output was a pair every forty minutes.

Camp Dodge, Iowa, received a Red Cross parcel that included 13,000 pairs of knitted socks. From Kitchener’s initial request in 1914 came an unparalleled global movement that kept the armies of Great Britain, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States supplied with socks. Did Kitchener knit? No evidence suggests he ever raised a needle. Did he invent the Kitchener Stitch? No, the technique was already employed many years earlier. Did he request that socks should have “Grafted Toes”? Very likely. It is difficult to determine how the term “Kitchener Stitch” came into being, but a possible source may be discovered in the previously mentioned edition of Vogue: the “The Kitchener Heelless Sock” pattern expressly incorporates toe grafting, which may have become associated with the name Kitchener in the title. Perhaps it will forever remain a mystery. ABOUT THE AUTHOR. Christopher John Brooke Phillips was born in Eng-

land and now lives with his wife, Patricia Ann, near Valencia, Spain. A retired businessman, he researches and writes on matters of historical interest. A historical novel set in the twentieth century is in the works.

Kitchener Stitch Step 1: Bring threaded needle through front stitch as if to purl and leave stitch on needle (Figure 1). Step 2: Bring threaded needle through back stitch as if to knit and leave stitch on needle (Figure 2). Step 3: Bring threaded needle through first front stitch as if to knit and slip this stitch off needle. Bring threaded needle through next front stitch as if to purl and leave stitch on needle (Figure 3). Step 4: Bring threaded needle through first back stitch as if to purl and slip this stitch off needle. Bring needle through next back stitch as if to knit and leave stitch on needle (Figure 4). Repeat Steps 3 and 4 until no stitches remain on needles.

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3

Figure 4

The Kitchener Stitch. Text and illustrations courtesy of Interweave Knits (knittingdaily.com).

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Knit, Purl, Heal MARY POLITYKA BUSH

A Red Cross poster from 1919. Collection Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, D.C. (LC-USZC4-9737). Image courtesy of the Library of Congress.

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Many were grown men, others barely old enough to shave. In later years, women joined their ranks. Volunteers and draftees, they waved farewell to loved ones and left their homes— many for the first time—traveling to distant states or foreign countries to fight for the cause of their country. As soldiers and sailors, they witnessed the unspeakable horrors of battle. Those who were not killed outright too often returned home with maimed bodies and with psyches shredded by the brutality of their experiences. Wounds, lost limbs, blindness, and serviceinduced ailments were dealt with, following established protocols of the day. Addressing the psychological toll was, however, guesswork— and remained so for many years. Today, much is still to be learned. As far back as the American Civil War (1861–1865), knitting came to the rescue of many as they recovered from their injuries, both physical and mental. In March of 1865, a month before the end of the Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln (1809–1865) authorized the creation of an asylum where wounded soldiers and sailors would live while they received medical care and convalesced before returning to their families and society. The original branch of the National Asylum for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers was established in Maine in 1866. It was the first such facility in the world. The veterans lived in a structured environment established along military lines: they wore uniforms, slept in barracks, and adhered to a daily routine that began with reveille at 5 a.m. and ended with taps at 9:30 p.m. The day included productive activities, an early form of what we know today as occupational therapy. Information released by one board of managers stated that such activities were intended to “replace morbid ideas with healthy, normal ones to incite interest and ambition and . . . to restore a lost or weakened function either mental or physical.” Some of the activities were aimed at teach-


ing new skills the disabled could use to earn a living after their release. Others, such as knitting, helped “pass the time.” Civil War soldiers who returned from battle withdrawn and dazed, acutely sensitive, depressed, and unable to function normally, were diagnosed—one might say dismissed— as simply tired. A little rest, it was believed, would perk them up, and soon they would resume productive roles in society. By World War I (1914–1918), that same seemingly insignificant condition had a name—“shell shock”—and though it was acknowledged as a genuine affliction, the extent of its impact and how to treat it remained mysteries. During World War II (1939–1945), the condition was referred to as battle fatigue, a term closer to the mark, although treatment options were not yet adequate. The intricacies of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as this deeply affecting condition is now known, are more fully understood; more successful treatment options are available today as well. At the time of World War I, occupational therapists developed various programs to help facilitate the recovery of wounded veterans. Knitting was one of the tools in their arsenal. Observed to have a calming effect, knitting also helped convalescing patients feel useful and productive. At the end of a knitting session, they had something tangible—even if it was only a few rows of garter stitch—to show for their efforts. Manipulating yarn with a pair of needles also afforded those recently trapped in the chaos of death and destruction a measure of control they could extend into their postwar lives. The tranquil mood induced by knitting facilitated the grieving process for returning vets as well. Recovering veterans still rely on knitting for its therapeutic benefits. In a recent report from the Veterans Hospital in Palo Alto, California, veterans consistently cite participation in a knitting group as a preferred coping activity. In The Creativity Cure: How to Build Happiness with Your Own Two Hands, Dr. Carrie Barron, assistant clinical professor of psychiatry at Columbia University, writes that knitting’s rhythmic, repetitive motion establishes a state of mind similar to that produced by meditation or yoga, other activities that help veterans cope. In other U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities, today’s recreation therapists organize creative arts workshops, which include knitting, to stimulate interest while simultaneously rebuilding the veterans’ self-confidence. Since 2005, physiologist Betsan Corkhill, a recognized authority on therapeutic knitting, has pioneered research into the meditative, creative, and social benefits of knitting. As part of her mission, she founded Stitchlinks, an online community-interest company located in Bath, England (see Further Resources). It is the home of therapeutic knitting’s global

support network. In her article “The Benefits of Knitting for Personal and Social Wellbeing in Adulthood: Findings from an International Survey” (Jill Riley, Betsan Corkhill, and Clare Morris, British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 2013), Corkhill cites evidence that the planning, risk-taking, patience, and coping with mistakes that knitting requires transfer to other facets of life. Creating a project from start to finish involves goal setting (knit a red wool cardigan for Mom’s birthday), developing a strategy to achieve the goal (work two hours per day), and developing the necessary skills to do so (learn to knit cables)—in all, a three-part process that exercises important life skills. And because it involves task sequencing at a rudimentary level, knitting requires judgment and followthrough as well as focus on working the pattern and performing mathematical tasks such as counting stitches. Participants in one study felt that knitting improved their mathematical and organizational skills. Corkhill further notes that counting stitches can be a productive release for those with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Her research also supports what others have observed, that people who knit in a group experience the positive effects of a social connection and supportive friendships and feel happier overall than those who knit alone. Ample evidence exists to prove that knitting offers physical benefits as well. The action of pushing one needle through a loop on another needle, wrapping the yarn around the working needle’s tip and withdrawing it, repeated multiple times, both exercises and strengthens wrists and hands. Doctors now, in fact, recommend knitting to patients recovering from breaks, sprains, and other injuries to those areas of the body. One doctor estimated that a patient who had lost movement in an injured finger would need to move it 5,000 times a day to regain its full range of motion. To that end, the doctor suggested knitting. It worked. Knitting has also shown promise in easing the manifestations of Parkinson’s disease, one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders in which neurons die off in the area of the brain that produces dopamine, a neurotransmitter linked with motor skills. As neurons are lost, movement, control, and energy suffer while there are increases in tremors, muscle rigidity, and impaired movement, coordination, and balance problems. Drugs help, but so do repetitive movement activities, including knitting, that trigger the production of dopamine. Because dopamine is associated with pleasurable activities, studies suggest that engaging in hobbies such as knitting can, over time, train the brain to release dopamine and serotonin, another good-mood hormone, thereby providing long-term benefits. The production of these beneficial KNITTING TRADITIONS

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Wounded World War I service members knitting. Photograph courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

chemicals can be activated by something as simple as the soft clicking sound produced by the needles or the sensation of yarn sliding through the fingers, which has been likened to stroking a cat or dog, a proven contentment stimulus. What’s more, not only does knitting play a positive role in helping to control Parkinson’s symptoms, it has been shown to affect, even slow, the downhill slide of dementia for similar reasons. Evidence indicates that knitting may work better than medication for some. In a study by the Mind/Body Medical Institute’s Professor Herbert Benson, insomnia patients who took part in a program that included knitting not only reported improved sleep, but nearly all felt they could forgo sleep-inducing medication. In another case, an individual suffering from depression testified that knitting triggers her positive emotions while antidepressants merely numb her senses. The truth is that knitting does produce the effects of an antidepressant without sluggish side effects. Knitting is a great way to treat anxiety, depression, and stress because it involves many different areas of the brain, particularly those which control memory, attention span, visuospatial processing, as well as creative and problem-solving abilities. Although it has taken years to reach a conclusion, anecdotal data, empirical evidence, and scientific research now validate what die-hard knitters have long known in their hearts: the power to manage stress, to control well-being, and to re14

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cover from certain physical injuries often lies in one’s own hands. And knitting, an activity once thought of as being done on the home front to clothe and comfort soldiers in the field, now plays a part in healing them upon their return home.

Further Resources Barron, Carrie, and Alton Barron. The Creativity Cure: How to Build Happiness with Your Own Two Hands. New York: Scribner, 2012. Baum, Carolyn. “Occupational Therapy and PTSD—It Had Its Origins in WWI, with Shell Shock.” Available online at www .healingcombattrauma.com/occupational-therapy. Corkhill, Betsan. Knit for Health and Wellness: How to Knit a Flexible Mind and More. Bath, England: Barney Hegarty, 2014. Mascarelli, Amanda. “Might Crafts Such as Knitting Offer Long-Term Health Benefits?” Available online at www .washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/might-craftssuch-as-knitting-offer-long-term-health-benefits/2014/04/21/ d05a8d40-c3ef-11e3-b574-f8748871856a_story.html. Stitchlinks; www.stitchlinks.com. ABOUT THE AUTHOR AND DESIGNER. Mary Polityka Bush, who has lived in seven cities in three states, currently resides in Piedmont, California, with her husband, Tom. Her travels for business and pleasure have taken her to various locations in the United States, Europe, and Canada. She always travels with a knitting or needlework project to occupy her hands, distract her mind, and help her remain calm when flights are delayed and other travel plans misfire.

A companion project follows


Muffatees for a Man MARY POLITYKA BUSH

Inspired by the preceding article

In 1813, an officer in the Duke of Wellington’s Foot Guards wrote home to his family entreating the women to knit muffatees for himself and for his fellow officers. Indulge a favorite guy with Mary Polityka Bush’s version. Made with wool yarn, they are perfect cold-weather gear—outdoors and in.

N

ineteenth-century rank-and-file British soldiers kept warm by pulling their soft flannel shirtsleeves down over their hands. The thick woolen sleeves of an officer’s fitted uniform, however, did not permit such practical ingenuity. According to Ian Fletcher’s Wellington’s Foot Guards (Oxford, England: Osprey Publishing, 1994), one Ensign Rous, an officer in the Duke of Wellington’s Foot Guards, wrote home to his family in 1813 entreating the women to knit muffatees for himself and for his fellow officers—but not for the common soldiers because such comforts would pamper them and make them soft.

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Muffatees are fingerless, thumbless handwarmers that cover the wrist and most of the hand, stopping below the knuckles but well shy of the fingertips. They are worn alone or, in extreme cold, are layered over gloves or mittens to maximize warmth. They are essential coldweather gear for soldiers, sailors, farmers, sportsmen, and others who spend much time outdoors and require the freedom to use their fingers without sacrificing warmth. Indoors, muffatees will provide unfettered comfort when the thermostat has been lowered. Most muffatees are knitted tubes with an opening for the thumb knitted in or left unsewn in the side seam if they are not knitted in the round. These easy muffatees are knitted on straight needles and seamed along the thumb side. The instructions produce muffatees to fit the hand of a man who wears a glove size of 9½. They can easily be enlarged or reduced in size and lengthened or shortened, by adding or subtracting multiples of 4 stitches and knitting to the length desired.

Materials Cascade Yarns Cascade 220 Heathers, 100% Peruvian Highland wool yarn, worsted weight, 220 yards (201.2 m)/100 gram (3.5 oz) skein, 1 skein of #9338 Lichen; www.cascadeyarns.com Needles, sizes 7 (4.5 mm) and 8 (5 mm) or sizes needed to obtain gauge John James Needle, tapestry, size 14, for sewing seams; www.colonialneedle.com Finished size: 9 inches (22.9 cm) hand circumference and 7½ inches (19.0 cm) long Gauge: 23 sts and 28 rows = 4 inches (10.2 cm) in Moss st on larger needles

Special Stitch Moss Stitch (even number of sts) Rows 1 and 2: *K1, p1; rep from * across. Rows 3 and 4: *P1, k1; rep from * across. Rep Rows 1–4 for patt.

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The palm side of Mary Polityka Bush’s Muffatees for a Man.

Instructions Notes: See page 106 for Abbreviations and Techniques. The muffatee is knitted from the narrow ribbing between the fingertips and knuckles upward toward the ribbing at the wrist. Muffatee With larger needles, CO on 52 sts. Work 6 rows in k2, p2 rib. Work in Moss st until piece measures 4¾ inches (12.1 cm) from CO edge, ending with Row 4 of patt. Change to smaller needles and work in k2, p2 rib until piece measures 7½ inches (19.0 cm) from CO edge. Use larger needle to BO all sts in rib patt. Finishing On each piece, sew 2 inches (5.1 cm) upward from the narrow rib and 3 inches (7.6 cm) downward from the wide rib at the wrist, leaving a thumb opening of 2½ inches (6.4 cm). Weave in ends.


Satisfy your historical curiosities of knitting, crochet and needlework with this deluxe collection! Once a popular Victorian magazine of knit, crochet, patchwork, and other “useful articles” involving needlework, Weldon’s began as a paper pattern company and became one of the most recognized needlework publishers in England. Now available as an extravagant boxed set, Weldon’s Practical Needlework: Deluxe Edition contains the first six volumes of the series. Each hardcover volume is comprised of 12 monthly issues. There are roughly 16 categories and over 2,000 projects included in this collection. In addition to knit and crochet, each volume contains a variety of decorative needlework: crewel, appliqué, cross-stitch, macramé, smocking, bead netting, and other lesser-known techniques. This box set serves as a historical document and a collector’s item. Open a window to another time and place with Weldon’s Practical Needlework: Deluxe Edition as you explore fashion, domestic life, and the history of needlework.

Hardcover boxed set with cloth case 912 Pages, $129.99 ISBN 13: 9781620337417

This boxed set makes a perfect gift for anyone interested in historical needlework and is the perfect addition to your library! Order online at InterweaveStore.com


Patriotic Knitting Bags and Tools of the World Wars KAREN C. K. BALLARD

D

uring both World War I (1914–1918) and World War II (1939–1945), nearly all noncombatants, including men not serving in the armed forces, children, prisoners, the infirm, and especially women, were

encouraged to knit for servicemen, the wounded, European refugees, and the patriotic home front. The encouragement came from newspaper and magazine articles and advertisements, posters, flyers, postcards, radio music, sheet music, even the World War I play The Knitting Club Meets, or Just Back from France (1918) and the World War II movie Mr. Lucky (1943), in which Cary Grant and other men appear to be knitting.

Perhaps most compelling was encouragement from family, friends, and acquaintances. Knitting bags became necessary fashion accessories; failure to carry one’s knitting, or worse, to be seen knitting something for oneself, put one at risk of being judged as unpatriotic. Knitting holders and bags came in many styles; some of the most interesting bore American symbols, military motifs, a red-white-and-blue color scheme, victory symbols, or emblems of relief organizations.

World War I The song It’s the Lovingest Way (words by Dorothea Childs and M. DeG. Graff, music by M. DeG. Graff, 1918) exhorted all knitters to knit for soldiers: I’m knitting socks for soldiers, And you should be knitting for them too Don’t camouflage your patriotic fervor— Get some yarn and learn to knit Twenty billions pairs of socks must be in the April Box, Don’t adopt the slacker style. . . . Many knitting holders and bags were designed to coordinate with or complement the knitter’s clothing, even bathing apparel. In July 1918, Modern Priscilla magazine effused, “Women are prouder of carrying a knitting bag this season than of wearing fine furs or costly jewels. It is an emblem of Service.” Nonetheless, complaints were published about overly extravagant and

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expensive knitting bags and knitting bags filled with nonknitting items; one example from the July 1918 Catholic World: “. . . do not have a very large forty dollar object which contains one small moth-eaten square of gray dangling from your arm. . . .” The criticisms mostly were ignored. Before America’s entry into World War I in April 1917, most U.S. citizens were frightened by the prospect of war but saw it as inevitable. The Special Aid Society for American Preparedness (SASAP) encouraged U.S. preparation for the inevitable war by soliciting knitted goods. A knitting bag emblazoned with the SASAP shield has the following poem on its back: Do you belong to the wool brigade? If not, then come along. Mothers, wives and maidens, make this army strong. Gray wool is our ammunition; some make it into balls, Pass them on to the knitting squad, they will soon use them all For this is not time to be idle and sit with folded hands, Take up your knitting wherever you’re sitting, a sock soon grown under your hand. Hark! I hear the bugle call, somebody wants another ball. The American Red Cross was one of the early organizations to solicit knitted goods for refugees. In November


1916, Modern Priscilla offered a pattern for a cross-shaped “Red Cross Knitting Bag” embroidered with Arts and Crafts–style flowers that bridged the gap between being patriotic and being pretty. The Needlework Guild of America (established in 1885 in Philadelphia) was another major solicitor of knitted articles for refugees. U.S. relief societies also sprang up to aid combatants and refugees among America’s European allies. The American Fund for French Wounded was one of the most effective, begging readers of its magazine advertisements “not to fail France in her hour of need.” Two others were the British War Relief and the Allies Special Aid Society. At this time, each of the organizations sponsored its own campaign for knitted goods, many of them publishing their own knitting instructions and providing instructions for their distribution. With the United States’ entry into the war, the American Red Cross advertised its efforts through parades; began to assess military, hospital, and refugee needs; provided patterns and yarn; evaluated knitted contributions, correcting those that didn’t measure up; and ensured that the finished goods reached those who needed them the most. The organization also established centers where knitters could congregate to knit and receive instruction from master knitters. Many American Red Cross knitters wore uniforms and carried knitting bags bearing the Red Cross emblems. Other relief organizations also provided their own bags and emblems. Although most organizations were willing to let the Red Cross take control, the Navy League Comforts Committee continued to publish its own instructions, solicited knitted articles, hosted knitting rallies and parades, and remained separate from the Red Cross throughout the war. Military motifs on knitting bags included embroidered

images of soldiers, military branch symbols, and appliquéd service stars (one star for each family member or sweetheart in the service). A knitting holder in the shape of a torpedo shell was advertised in the June 1918 Sea Power (a magazine published by the Navy League). One could buy sets of or individual red-white-and-blue knitting needles as well as tape measures and crochet hooks. A New York chapter of the Red Cross offered a knitting-needle gauge for knitting military socks, helmet liners, and sweaters. Steel needles came in cardboard holders, many of which boasted patriotic poems or images. One such container distributed by Puritan Flour and containing Red Cross knitting patterns and four double-pointed steel needles, depicted General John J. Pershing, leader of the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I, and had the following poem on the back: Knit till the last armed foe expires; Knit for your altars and your fires, Knit for the green graves of your sires; God and your native land. Knitting-needle holders and point protectors shaped like a doughboy hat with a boot and others shaped like Uncle Sam were produced. One such set of “Knobs for Needy Knitters” came with a little card with its own poem: To Keep our boys fit Uncle Sam says We must each do our bit So at once we should arm with Needles and yarn. and these to keep points from jabbing and harm. Knitting continued unabated until the armistice in November 1918; wool reserves, however, were running out,

Right: Children knitting at the Navy League’s public knitting bee in Central Park, summer 1918. Photographer unknown. During the two-day event, women, children, and combat veterans gathered to knit for the war effort. Collection of the Library of Congress, George Grantham Bain Collection. (LC-B2- 467416). Photograph courtesy of the Library of Congress.

Opposite Page: Badges from World War I supporting war relief efforts, including one from the Needlework Guild of America. Collection of the author. Photograph by Joe Coca.

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and the emphasis on “war-work” shifted to the production of much-needed socks. Italian women were put into action darning socks, but despite the enormous effort of U.S. knitters and Italian darners, sock reserves eventually ran out. July 1918’s Modern Priscilla explained, “When in doubt knit socks and then some,” and on another page recommended a smaller knitting bag just for socks. Fuel rationing and shortages of military-colored wool made it acceptable to knit cotton, silk, and bright- or pastelcolored wool articles for one’s family for warmth. After the war, knitting for wounded servicemen and refugees continued under the auspices of the Red Cross but on a much smaller scale than had been done during wartime.

World War II Britain declared war on Germany September 3, 1939. The call to knit for servicemen went out again: Clementine Churchill, wife of Prime Minister Winston Churchill, urged U.S. citizens to knit for the British Navy. On December 30, 1939, the New York socialite Natalie Wales Latham started Bundles for Britain. This organization, also referred to as the “British War Relief Society” or simply “Knitting for Britain” not only solicited knitted goods for British servicepersons and displaced British civilians but also sold such knitting accessories as gauges depicting the British Isles (but providing both American and metric holes) and knitting bags with the organization’s logo. The bags were pictured with knitters Vivien Leigh on the December 17, 1940, cover of Look and the Dionne quintuplets on the October 4, 1941, cover of Liberty magazine. Bundles for Britain also sold metal tape measures, pencils, compacts, and even collar tags for dogs (Barkers for Britain) and cats (Kitten for Britain). All proceeds went toward supporting the needs of British military personnel and displaced civilians. The allvolunteer organization was extremely successful, growing to 500 branches in forty-six of the forty-eight states by the end of 1940. The U.S. government designated wool a critical war material. During 1939, the U.S. State Department entered into an agreement with the British government to store the 1940 and 1941 Australian wool clips on U.S. shores, not only to prevent the wool from falling into German hands but also to make it available for American use should it be needed to prevent shortages like America’s sock shortages during World War I. Other relief organizations emerged in the early years of the war, including the American-French War Relief, Finns American Relief Committee, Polish Women’s Relief Committee, Bit for Belgium, Queen Wilhelmina Fund (Netherlands), Polish Relief, and Russian Relief. Red-white-and-blue knitting sets and holders, stitch counters, tape measures, and individual needles, appropriate for Britain and France as well as the United States, became popular again.

In the spring of 1940, as National Guard troops from many states started training in Louisiana and the Carolinas, U.S. knitters started making articles for their own soldiers. In September 1941, popular actress Gertrude Lawrence posed for a United Press photograph knitting from a bag emblazoned “Citizens Committee for the Army and Navy, Inc.” During the next month, the Knit for Defense Committee of the New York chapter of the Citizens Committee for the Army, Navy, and Air Force hosted a Knit for Defense Tea at New York City’s Waldorf-Astoria hotel. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt, dubbed the “First Knitter of the Land,” toting her own bulging knitting bag, delivered the kickoff speech. The New York Times termed this event “the greatest mass knitting movement” ever. The day after the December 7, 1941, Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States declared war on Japan. Three days later, Germany and Italy declared war on the United States.

Susan Bates World War II faux alligator knitting kit shown on an embroidered “Victory” knitting bag. Collection of the author. Photograph by Joe Coca.

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World War II “Barkers for Britain” dog collar charm (left) and “Kitten for Britain” cat collar charm from U.S. Bundles for Britain program. Collection of the author. Photograph by Joe Coca.

When William C. Lawson’s wife and daughter appealed to him to create something to prevent their yarn balls from rolling away while they were knitting, the Florida engineer devised the Yarnest. This cagelike gadget, designed to fold flat when not in use, was patented on October 18, 1938 (patent number 2,133,896), while war was threatening in Europe, and was ready for market in late 1941. An advertisement for it appeared in the Winter 1941–1942 issue of McCall’s Needlework. Victory motifs including “V” and “…-” (Morse code for V) appeared on knitting-needle gauges. The word “Victory” was embroidered on knitting bags; other knitting holders sported stars and stripes. A cardboard knitting register, “Handy Help for the War-Time Knitter,” was a tool for counting rows and tracking increases and decreases. The American Red Cross again took over assessing requirements, providing instructions, evaluating contributions, and distributing to those most in need. The Red Cross provided this administration for most relief organizations, as well as doing the same for its own chapters. Bundles for Blue Jackets was formed to provide knitted goods to the Navy, although the organization soon was subsumed into the newly formed Bundles for America as its Naval division. Bundles for America appears to have operated independently of the American Red Cross, advertising and publishing its own patterns and creating yarn holders emblazoned with the Bundles for America logo. The movie actress Joan Blondell posed for a publicity photograph released on May 14, 1943, knitting from a Bundles for America yarn holder. At the end of World War II, knitting for the wounded and refugees continued to some extent, but pastels and brightly colored yarns and the emerging fashion for Argyle knitting wooed many away from war work. Badges from World War II supporting war-relief efforts and a World War I knitting set in red-white-and-blue silk ribbon offered for sale in Georgianna Isabel Thatcher’s linen shop in New Mexico, shown on a Special Aid Society for American Preparedness (SASAP) World War I knitting bag. Collection of the author. Clockwise from right: Bundles for Britain World War II knitting bag with badges fastened to the front and a ball of yarn and needles that were in the bag when the author purchased it; a “V” World War II knitting gauge; Puritan Flour World War I cardboard holder with steel knitting needles, depicting General John J. Pershing; British War Relief Society World War II ruler; “Handy Help for the War-Time Knitter” World War II knitting register. Collection of the author. Photographs by Joe Coca.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR. Karen C. K. Ballard is a textile historian who spe-

cializes in textile tools and writes about crochet collectibles for the Crochet Guild of America’s Chain Link newsletter. She has been certified by the Crochet Guild of America as a Master of Advanced Crochet Stitches and Techniques. Visit her website at http://threadwinder.info.

Further Reading Haines, Rachel. Textiles for Defense: Emergency Policy for Textiles and Apparel in the Twentieth Century. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Carnegie-Mellon University, 1983. Out of print. Macdonald, Anne L. No Idle Hands: The Social History of American Knitting. New York: Ballantine Books, 1990.

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Victoriana

Patterns from the Past

Zouave Sleeveless Jacket

Allover ribbing means this vest can stretch to fit many sizes.

T

he jacket shown in the engraving is of the description known as “Zouave,” being a close-fitting, sleeveless jacket, especially well adapted to wear in the house, or out of doors under a cloak; it is simply knitted in ribbing, and is trimmed with a fairly wide crochet border. For a girl’s size, or small woman, use 4 ozs. of unshrinkable 22

KNITTING TRADITIONS

vest wool, and a pair of No. 10 bone knitting needles; for ordinary woman’s size procure 6 ozs. of 5-ply fingering and No. 8 or No. 9 needles. Begin at the bottom of the Back, that is by the waist, and cast on 75 stitches. 1st row— Knit 3, * purl 3, knit 3, and repeat from * to the end of the row. 2nd row—Purl 3, * knit 3, purl 3, and repeat from *


Patterns from the Past

to the end. Continue these two rows alternately, carefully slipping the first stitch of every row to produce a smooth edge; and when a length of 12 inches is done, or a piece of sufficient length to reach from the waist to the neck, it will be time to divide for the shoulders. 1st Shoulder row— Knit 3, purl 3 and knit 3 alternately 3 times, purl 3, knit 5, draw the last stitch but one over the last stitch, knit 1, draw another stitch over, and so cast off in all 21 stitches, knit 2, purl 3 and knit 3 alternately four times to the end of the row. 2nd row—Purl 3, knit 3 and purl 3 alternately four times, which gives 27 stitches on the needle for the left-hand shoulder. The other group of 27 stitches for the right-hand shoulder may for the present be left untouched. Proceed with the ribbing of the left-hand shoulder until 29 rows are accomplished; then, at the end of the 30th row, cast on 24 stitches for the Front of the neck; here will be 51 stitches on the needle for the left front of the jacket; work these stitches in ribbing, as before, until a length is attained of from 12 to 13 inches, when cast off moderately loosely. Resume knitting the other shoulder by the cast-off stitches of the neck, and rib along as usual. Then continue on these 27 stitches until 30 shoulder rows are done; and at the end of the 31st row cast on 24 stitches for the front, so that now you have 51 stitches on which to rib until the length corresponds with the previous front, and cast off. The ribbing is, of course, alike on both sides, but the side with the plain knit edge stitches is to be considered the right side of the jacket. To Make up the Jacket—Ascertain the exact half of the length of the back, and on each margin, at the half, or better still at about an inch higher than the half (measuring from the foundation stitches at the bottom of the back), put in a pin. Now sew the cast-off stitches of each front piece to the corresponding margin or selvedge of the back piece, from the bottom of the back to the height of the pin. Thus you will see how Zouave shapes itself, and how most capacious armholes are formed by this mode of adjusting the ends of the fronts upon the back. For the Crochet Border—Use a fine bone crochet needle, and hold the right side of the jacket towards you: work all round the jacket. 1st round—Plain double crochet; work an ample number of stitches along the bottom of the jacket, but do not put too many where the neck is cast off and on, as the fit will be better if here the knitting is slightly drawn in. 2nd round—Double crochet, taking up the front and top threads of the stitches of the preceding round. 3rd round— The same, easing the corners with whatever increase seems necessary. 4th round—Treble, working stitch upon stitch. 5th round—Do 3 treble in a space between treble stitches

Victoriana

Wide crochet edgings in two colors provide contrast.

of previous round, * miss two spaces, do 3 treble in the next space, and repeat from * to the completion of the round. 6th round—Down each front and along the bottom of the jacket work 3 treble in each space between the groups of last round, but at the neck work 4 treble in each space; fasten off neatly. Crochet a corresponding border round each armhole. Make a crochet chain with wool double; run this in the treble stitches of the fourth row of the neck border, and arrange a small tassel on each end. Sew two pearl buttons on the left-hand front of the jacket; they will secure themselves in the crochet on the opposite side, and so be useful to button the jacket over the chest. From Weldon’s Practical Needlework, Volume 11, Thirtieth Series. Sample knitted by Karen DeGeal in Knit Picks Lindy Chain, 5 skeins linen, 1 skein each chocolate and hollyberry (red), using size 3 (3.25 mm) needles. KNITTING TRADITIONS

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Going in Circles A History of Knitting in the Round EILEEN LEE

K

nitting is one of the most ancient forms of handiwork. Pieces of beautifully designed knitted fabrics have been found in the ruins of ancient Egypt and Peru. What instruments were

used is not known, but the stitches are similar to those we do today: knitting and purling. Knitting in the round or circular knitting is a form of knitting that creates a seamless tube. When working circularly, the knitting is cast on and the first and last cast-on stitches are joined. The knitting progresses spirally in rounds (comparable to rows in flat knitting). The work is done on the outside or the public side of the garment. There are many advantages to knitting circularly. The weight of the fabric is evenly distributed on the needles, making it less stressful on the arms and wrists. In stockinette stitch, no purling is required—often perceived to be one of the greatest benefits of circular knitting. With a circular needle, there is no need to continually switch from one needle to the next, and stitches will not fall off the back end of needles as they might with double-pointed needles. The construction of garments such as sweaters is significantly simplified because knitting in the round almost entirely eliminates the finishing steps of sewing the sweater together. The earliest knitting needles had a hook at one end, like a crochet hook, and were made of copper wire. They were filed and shaped by hand. A set consisted of five needles. While one end of the needle was hooked, the other was blunted, and in circular knitting, the hooked ends never touched because the stitches from the left-hand needle were hooked off the blunted end. At some moment in time, the hooked needle was replaced by a smooth-pointed needle. The last known hooked needles were a set of five found in a Turkish tomb in 1390. Ancient knitting needles were made of wood, bone, ivory, briar, bamboo, copper, wire, amber, and maybe even iron. Steel needles came later. Knitters themselves made the needles, known as knitting woods, needles, skewers, pins, or wires. Every sort of material, from steel to powdered milk, is used to make the modern knitting needle or pin today: wood, briar, bone, steel, nickel-plated steel, aluminum,

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“Perfection points help prevent dropped stitches,” the Boye Needle Company proudly proclaimed on its sets of plastic doublepointed needles. Collection of the author.


On the opposite side of this envelope, Boye listed its circular needle sizes: 11", 16", 24" in sizes 0 to 8, and 29" needles in sizes 0 to 10½. Collection of the author.

Envelope for a “highly polished” circular knitting pin with metal cable, from the Boye Needle Company. Collection of the author.

lacquered aluminum, erinoid (also known as galalith), casein, vulcanite, tortoiseshell, and it goes on and on. In addition, every imaginable color is available. Double-Pointed Needles Another type of needle used for circular knitting was the straight double-pointed variety. They were made of wood, bone, ivory, briar, bamboo, copper, wire, amber, iron, and steel in sets of four or five. The needles were often made in blacksmith shops, where steel wire was cut to length, tempered, and then smoothed at the tips to allow knitting from either end. These early needles were heavy, and several lengths were available to use for sweaters as well as socks. A number of fourteenth-century oil paintings, typically called Knitting Madonnas, depict Mary knitting with double-pointed needles. Circular Needles The first U.S. patent for a circular needle was issued in 1918. The circular needle looks like two short knitting

needles connected by a cable. The early circular needles were made of steel wire cable with rigid ends. They were somewhat problematic because the joins where the needle tips met the wire would often catch on the knitted yarn, but knitters could “knit the new way” on circular needles, a definite advantage over straight knitting needles. With these new needles, knitters could knit in the round without juggling four or five double-pointed needles. Made in several lengths, circular needles allowed knitters to work a tubular garment such as a skirt or vest in an endless spiral, holding hundreds of stitches on a single pair of needles. Knitting needle manufacturers like Boye marketed the innovation to advanced knitters: “You can’t drop stitches and it’s so much faster and easier.” Boye promoted also circular knitting pins with points locked to a cable by a special process, adding that “thin tapered points prevent broken threads.” Recent technology has developed a smoother join and lighter-weight needle, in lengths 9 inches to 60 inches. Knitting in the round greatly simplified knitting. The finishing stages of sewing the back, front, and sleeves of a sweater may be almost entirely eliminated in a top-down circular sweater. This is an advantage because wherever seams are sewn, there is less elasticity. Knitting with steeks is another circular sweater practice. First the sweater is knitted entirely in a circular tube from bottom to shoulders. At the same time, intentional openings (armholes, necks, cardigan fronts) are temporarily knitted with extra stitches. The opening sections are then reinforced by either a crochet pick-up or stitching with a

KNITTING TRADITIONS

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Knitting needle manufacturers like Boye marketed the innovation to advanced knitters: “You can’t drop stitches and it’s so much faster and easier.”

Boye’s aluminum circular needle retained the “perfection points” but substituted nylon for the cable. Collection of the author.

sewing machine. Then the extra stitches are cut to create the opening. A Norwegian friend taught me this technique many years ago. She knits all her sweaters in this way. Two Circular Needles Some knitters prefer knitting in the round with two circular needles. The concept is incredibly simple: you knit half the stitches on one circular needle and then knit the other half of the stitches using the second circular needle. Magic Loop Even though I was taught many years ago to knit socks and mitts using four double-pointed needles, my favorite knitting style today is the magic-loop method. Made pop-

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KNITTING TRADITIONS

ular in 2002, the magic loop creates small-circumference projects on one long circular needle. With this method, you pull out a loop of cable to divide your stitches, usually into two equal parts. Once you divide the stitches, you can use the free needle tip to knit across half the stitches. You then rotate the project and work the remaining stitches. Using this technique allows you to knit two socks or mitts at the same time. The benefit of this is that your socks will always be the same length, and when you’re done with one sock, you’re done with both socks. I teach the magic-loop technique and write patterns for socks and mitts using this technique. I do have a few friends who are die-hard double-pointers, and that’s okay. Whatever method you choose, make sure you take pleasure in the process and enjoy your socks. The Problem of Jogs When knitting in the round, whether it be with double-pointed needles, two circular needles, or the magic loop, the “jog” is always a concern. When knitting stripes, or color designs, a visible step or “jog” between the rounds shows up at the beginning of a new round where you changed colors. There are several remedies for this. This is the one I prefer: When changing colors or beginning a new stripe, knit one round of new color as usual. As you begin the second round of the new color, with your right needle tip, pick up the right leg of the stitch just below the first stitch of the round and place it on the left needle. (The stitch you are picking up is the first stitch of the last round worked with


the previous color.) Knit both the first stitch of the new color and the lifted stitch together. Continue knitting the rest of the round as normal.

do because there would have been too many skeins to work with.

The Problem of Laddering A ladder is a column of extended running threads that are surrounded on either side by normal stitches. They look like the rungs of a ladder. Ladders can occur when using any of the circular techniques. It usually happens in the area between the last stitch of one needle and the first stitch of the next. A ladder can be hardly noticeable or so wide that it appears to be a column of dropped stitches. It is not attractive. Cat Bordhi taught me the remedy for ladders. When you come to the end of one needle and you are ready to start on the new needle, knit the first stitch and tug. You will notice that it doesn’t tighten very much. The second stitch when knitted is the stitch to tug, and it will tug up very tight. This has fixed my ladder problems substantially. The stranded-knitting sock project that follows is written for the magic-loop technique starting at the cuff. I didn’t knit both socks at the same time as I often like to

Further Reading Rutt, Richard. A History of Hand Knitting. Loveland, Colorado: Interweave, 1987; reprinted 2003. ABOUT THE AUTHOR AND DESIGNER. Eileen Lee has a textile

background, working with Levi Strauss & Co. for eighteen years where she was responsible for product development, design, and merchandising. Meadow Farm Yarn Studio in Nevada City, California, is where she has been for the last eleven years, managing the shop; teaching knitting, weaving, spinning, and dyeing; and creating knitting patterns. She now has a studio near her home where she teaches all of the above classes. She is published in several magazines including Knitting Traditions, The Unofficial Downton Abbey Knits, and PieceWork. Her patterns are available on her website www.mzfiber.com and Ravelry (mzfiber). She lives in Grass Valley, California, with her husband, Bill; son, Eric; and dachshund, Lizy Marie.

A companion project follows

The Magic Loop method, used to make two socks at once on a long circular needle. A marker helps the knitter see which sock marks the beginning and end of the round. Here the knitter works the instep sides of the right and left socks, then works the sole side of the left and right socks. Knitting sample by the author.

KNITTING TRADITIONS

27


Going in Circles Socks EILEEN LEE

Inspired by the preceding article

Going in circles will not make you dizzy, even when knitting in four colors.

K

nitting socks is something I enjoy very much. I always have a pair of socks in the works. My husband is the biggest fan of my knitted socks. Even if I made him nothing but socks, he would be the happiest man in the world.

The magic loop is my preferred method. Unless I’m knitting with many colors, I usually work two socks at the same time. Normally I would knit socks using a size 0, casting on 56 stitches. Because these socks are knitted using the color

28

KNITTING TRADITIONS

stranded method, your tension will be tighter and the fabric will have less elasticity. Even though the socks might appear to be big enough, they won’t have the same stretch as one-color socks. Consequently, I used a size 2 needle, casting on 64 stitches.


Materials Cascade Yarns Heritage, 75% superwash merino wool/25% nylon yarn, fingering weight, 437 yards (399.6 m)/100 gram (3.5 oz) skein, 1 skein each of #5657 Hunter Green (MC), #5607 Red (CC1), #5659 Primavera (CC2), and #5641 Mango (CC3) Needles, size 2 (2.75 mm) or size needed to obtain gauge Markers Tapestry needle Finished sizes: 6¾ (7½) inch (17.1 [19] cm) foot circumference; 8½ (9¼) inch (21.6 [23.5] cm) foot length; socks shown measure 6¾ inches (17.1 cm) Gauge: 38 sts and 40 rnds = 4 inches (10.2 cm) in stranded patt

Instructions Note: See page 106 for Abbreviations and Techniques Socks With CC3, CO 64 (72) sts. Do not join. Break CC3. Working back and forth, join MC and k 2 rows. Join CC1 and k 2 rows. Next Row (RS): With MC, *k4, insert a twist between needles by rotating left needle counterclockwise one full turn; rep from * to last 4 sts, k4. Break MC. Pm and join in the rnd. With CC1, k 1 rnd. Work 7 rnds in k2, p2 rib. Break CC1. Next Rnd: With MC, k 1 rnd, inc 2 (0) sts evenly spaced—66 (72) sts. P 1 rnd. K 2 rnds. Work Rows 1–18 of Small Dots chart. With MC, k 2 rnds, p 1 rnd. With CC2, k 2 rnds. Beg and ending as indicated for your size, work Rows 1–11 of Hearts chart. With CC2, k 2 rnds, dec 2 (0) sts evenly spaced on last rnd—64 (72) sts rem. P 1 rnd. Work Rows 1–17 of Large Dots chart. Heel Heel flap, Heel is worked back and forth over first 32 (36) sts of rnd. Row 1 (RS): Sl 1, *with CC2, k1, with CC1, k1; rep from * 14 (16) more times, with CC2, k1, turn. Row 2 (WS): Sl 1, *with CC1, p1, with CC2, p1; rep from * 14 (16) more times, with CC1, p1, turn. Rep Rows 1 and 2 until heel flap measures 2 (2½) inches (5.1 [6.3] cm), ending with a WS row. Turn heel, Maintaining stripe patt, cont as foll. Short-row 1 (RS): *Sl 1, k16 (18), k2tog, k1, turn. Short-row 2 (WS): Sl 1, p3, p2tog, p1, turn. Short-row 3: Sl 1, k to 1 st before gap, k2tog (closing gap), k1, turn. Short-row 4: Sl 1, p to 1 st before gap, p2tog (closing gap), p1, turn. Rep Short-rows 3 and 4 five (six) more times—18 (20) heel sts rem. Break CC1. Shape gussets, With CC2, k18 (20) heel sts, pick up and k 1 st in each

Color Stranding Techniques Stranded knitting is a technique for working two (or more) colors of yarn in the same round: a background color and a pattern color. The color not in use is carried, or stranded, across the back of the work. Caution must be taken not to strand the yarn tightly because this will cause the work to pucker. On the other hand, the yarn shouldn’t be stranded so loosely that it hangs. An excellent method of working stranded knitting is to hold one yarn in each hand—a two-handed technique. The left hand is knitting Continental and the right is knitting British. Tacking down floats on the back of the work as you knit is essential to your success. If there is a long run of a color, trapping the nonworking yarn at the center of the run will help the socks slide onto feet without catching on toes. To do this, strand the yarn not in use over the yarn in use before knitting the next stitch. Then knit the stitch as usual without pulling through the woven strand. See knittingdaily.com/glossary for diagrams.

KNITTING TRADITIONS

29


Instep

Hearts 29

11

27

9

25

7

23

5

21

3

19

1

17 15

end 6¾"

end 7½"

10-st rep

beg both sizes

13 11

Large Dots

Small Dots 17

9

17 15

7

15 13

5

13 11

3

11 9

1 end 7½"

end 6¾"

32 (36) sts

9 7

beg 6¾"

beg 7½"

7 5 5 3

sl st along left side of heel flap, pm, k32 (36) instep sts, pm, pick up and k 1 st in each sl st along other side of heel flap, k to m; beg of rnd is at beg of instep. Break CC2. Work Row 1 of Squares chart over all sts. Cont in patt, shape gusset as foll: Dec Rnd: Work in patt to m, k1, ssk, work in patt to last 3 sts, k2tog, k1—2 sts dec’d. Rep Dec Rnd every other rnd until 64 (72) sts rem: 32 (36) sts each for instep and sole. Work even through Row 4 of chart. Foot With CC3, k 1 rnd. Next Rnd: P32 (36), k32 (36). Break CC3. With MC, k 2 rnds. Next Rnd: Beg and ending as indicated for your size, work Instep chart over 32 (36) sts, work Sole chart over 32 (36) sts. Cont in patt through Row 29 of Instep chart (Row 1 of Sole chart). Break CC2. With MC, k 2 rnds. Break MC. Toe Next Rnd: *With CC1, k1, with CC3, k1; rep from * to end. Cont in stripe patt, shape toe as foll: Dec Rnd: *K1, ssk, k to 3 sts before m, k2tog, k1; rep from * once more—4 sts dec’d. Rep Dec Rnd every other rnd 7 more times—32 (40) sts rem: 16 (20) sts each for instep and sole. With CC1, graft toe using Kitchener st. Finishing Sew seam at CO edge. Weave in loose ends. Block with a steam iron.

30

KNITTING TRADITIONS

Key

3 1

MC

1 8-st rep 6-st rep

CC1 Squares

Sole

CC2 3

1

CC3

1

2-st rep

patt rep

4-st rep

Charts may be photocopied for personal use. The charts for this project are available in PDF format at needleworktraditions.com/charts-and-illustrations.


Welcome to Our New Needlework Community The new site is for all things needlework and all things PieceWork! Here you’ll find: t free projects and articles tBMJOLUPPVSCMPHT tUIFPieceWork index tUIFDVSSFOUJTTVFT$BMFOEBS tSFDPNNFOEFECPPLT tBpreview of the current issue tBOENBOZIFMQGVMMJOLT

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Fair Isle Knitting Across Space and Time ELIZABETH LOVICK

S

heriff Thoms, sheriff of Orkney and Shetland in the second part of the nineteenth century, was an eccentric man, but he is one to whom knitters

should be grateful. He was the man who first brought the style of knitting we know as Fair Isle to the public’s attention. In 1886, he took three Fair Isle girls with their stranded knitting to the Great Exhibition in London. It was a time when fashions were turning from black, gray, and navy to the new bright colors, and Fair Isle knitting was exactly what was wanted.

The island of Fair Isle is midway between the most northerly of the Orkney Islands and the southern tip of Mainland Shetland. After each famine or disaster on Fair Isle in the nineteenth century, families went to live on the neighboring islands of North Ronaldsay and Stronsay, both belonging to Orkney. They took with them their knitting patterns which evolved to a distinctive Orkney Fair Isle style. After the Great War, the demand for stranded colorwork increased so much that the knitters of Fair Isle could not cope with the orders coming in. In 1924, three children’s sweaters were sent from Fair Isle to Lerwick so that the Mainland knitters could see what the Fair Isle knitters were doing. That was the start of commercial stranded knitting on Mainland Shetland. Change Over Time Fair Isle knitting has always been, and still is, evolving. It has been, and still is, driven by an economic imperative. Islanders need the money and so must produce goods that are of good quality, are fashionable, and are what folk want to buy. There are basic patterns that make the items “Fair Isle,” but within that broad definition, ideas about good design change over the years. The oldest known Fair Isle items have very bright colors—we would call them garish. The colors on the outsides of the garments may have mellowed with time and light, but the insides show the brash, original colors. In the 1920s and 1930s, natural colors became all the rage, so the islanders began to produce their garments in these colors. As the driving force was the economic imperative, any-

32

KNITTING TRADITIONS

Reworking of a tunic from Fair Isle knitted in the 1900s, almost certainly in a croft called Leugh. The original tunic is in the museum on Fair Isle. This version is knitted and modeled by Elizabeth Lovick (pattern called the Leugh Jacket). Photograph by Nick Lovick Photography.

thing to speed up the knitting was a good idea. So instead of having every row intricately patterned, garments began to sport bands of plain rows between the patterns. Having a single color as the background also sped up knitting, so by the 1940s, most of the jumpers had a plain, light background with color in the pattern. In the 1960s, punch-card knitting machines capable of doing Fair Isle patterns came on the market, and the Fair Isle cooperative turned from handknitting to machine knits.


Fair Isle knitting has always been, and still is, evolving. It has been, and still is, driven by an economic imperative. . . . There are basic patterns that make the items “Fair Isle,” but within that broad definition, ideas about good design change over the years.

George Rendall outside his shop in Kirkwall, Orkney, sometime in the 1920s. He sold items from Fair Isle and from various Orkney islands. Note that the background colors of the Fair Isle items form equal stripes rather than following the patterns, indicative of early Fair Isle influences. Orkney Library and Archive; used with permission.

The cooperative has continued to use hand-operated machines to make its knitwear, and the styles and colors have continued to evolve, while still being unmistakably Fair Isle. Over the last eighty years or so of the twentieth century, the islands of Fair Isle, Mainland Shetland, and Orkney each developed their own stranded knitting styles. All make use of the key “rule” which places a design in the Fair Isle tradition: there are ever only two colors on one row. Fair Isle Fair Isle The knitters on Fair Isle have kept very much to the design rules established in the nineteenth century. There are three types of patterns: peeries (1 to 5 rows), borders (5 to 9 rows), and large patterns; the larger patterns are separated by small (peerie) ones. In the early days, there were fewer large patterns, and the colors didn’t necessarily follow the patterns but changed almost randomly. The larger patterns almost always have an odd number of rows and are usually of the

A delightful photo from the 1920s, taken on the Orkney island of Westray. The boy’s sweater pattern is one color, and the background two, mainly cream but with a dark band in the center of the larger pattern. Orkney Library and Archive; used with permission.

KNITTING TRADITIONS

33


Holm School, Mainland Orkney, in the 1940s. Note the variety of typically “Orkney Fair Isle” sweaters. The girl on the far right of the back row wears the Orkney version of the yoked sweater— straight rows with raglan shaping, not the rounded circular yoke seen in Shetland. Several show a Faroese influence in the designs and the way the bands are colored. Orkney Library and Archive; used with permission.

OXO variety with the middle row in a contrasting color. The early colors were blue (dyed with indigo), deep red (dyed with madder and overdyed with lichen), and bright yellow (dyed with amphibious bistort). Indigo and madder came from trade with passing ships, and the other dyes were from plants on the island. Different crofts had different ideas and source plants, and the exact colors of the dyed wool provide a way to attach historical garments to specific crofts and knitters with some certainty. These colors provided contrast with natural brown, fawn, and white fleeces. Greens were very rare, as they were only available through complex overdyeing, which took time—and, remember, time is money! As the twentieth century progressed, wool came to the island ready-dyed, and after World War II, more colors were seen. It has only been in the last twenty years or so that a wide variety of colors has been used on the island, but the garments knitted (by hand or machine) for the islanders’ own families tend to stick to variations on the traditional colors. Shetland Fair Isle Commercial stranded knitting on Mainland Shetland started in 1924 and at first copied the Fair Isle ideas. Then World War II brought many Norwegians to Shetland, who also carried their jumper traditions. Patterns developed to be continuous over the whole sweater: for example, a “grid” pattern with varied motifs in the squares emerged. Similarly, vertical “stripes” of pattern, often including stars, became more pop-

34

KNITTING TRADITIONS

Sullom School, North Mainland, Shetland, 1961. Several sweaters are allovers, and others have a panel down the center front. The sweater of the girl next to the teacher, back right, has flower and butterfly motifs above the cuffs and welt that were popular in the pattern books from the 1930s. Photograph by Dennis Coutts, courtesy of Dennis Coutts Photography.

ular. Mainland patterns became larger than those on Fair Isle, with noticeable influences from the Norwegian stars. In the early 1930s, sweaters with patterning on a round yoke, along with a band above the welt and cuffs, became popular. This basic design has continued ever since. Note that the term “all-over” is used in Shetland to indicate patterning all over the sweater as opposed to just on the yoke, neck, and cuffs.


A display of stranded knitting from the 1930s to 1970s in the Shetland Museum in Lerwick. Note the large star patterns and the all-overs. From the 1960s, the plain areas of yoked sweaters and cardigans were often machine knitted and the yokes were worked by hand. Photograph by Elizabeth Lovick.

Stranded knitting became common on Mainland Shetland after commercially dyed wool was widely available, so Shetland knitters never faced the constraint of home dyeing. From the start, they tended to use a wide color palette. Within any pattern, knitters often used shades of the same color, whereas in “Fair Isle Fair Isle” the colors are different. Often Shetland designs have the pattern in one color while the background has a large number of color changes—or the other way around. Orkney Fair Isle In Orkney, stranded knitting was sold locally, not as an exported product. Women would knit to clothe their families and to barter for goods or cash with their neighbors. Like the Shetlanders, Orcadians have always fished in other waters and brought back knitting patterns, in particular from the Faroe Islands and Norway. Orkney patterns tend to be banded but use both Fair Isle OXO patterns and Shetland stars. Here the peerie patterns are known as peedies (from the Orkney word for “small”). Several pattern bands were commonly used by the 1920s and 1930s, which are not typically seen anywhere else, and the influence of Faroese motifs and color changes is strong. Another difference that emerged before World War II is that in Orkney, the larger patterns are often used near the hem with smaller patterns farther up the garment, distinguishing them from the Fair Isle and Shetland traditions. The early examples also show the influence of gansey (or Guernsey) patterns, with many of the knit/purl gansey pat-

terns re-created in color. Orcadian sheep come in many colors, and many of the garments were made in handspun undyed wool. Backgrounds tend to be very dark brown, with a variety of browns, fawns, and grays forming the pattern. Each pattern tends to be worked in one color, unless, like stars, the pattern is large. North Ronaldsay is the island closest to Fair Isle, and the patterns there seem to be most like those of Fair Isle. As these sweaters and accessories were for wearing, and Orcadians are a very modest race, no one has kept much Orcadian clothing, so we are very dependent on photos. Happily, there are some excellent photographers whose work has survived. Conclusion There is no such thing as one traditional Fair Isle style! Fair Isle is constantly evolving, even on the island itself. Over the years, knitters have molded the techniques to their ideas, and as long as that tradition continues, Fair Isle knitting will stay alive. ABOUT THE AUTHOR AND DESIGNER. Elizabeth Lovick lives on Flotta, one of the small Orkney islands, where she spins and knits, researches and writes. She has a special interest in bringing traditional knitting styles to new audiences. Her website is www.northernlace.co.uk, and she blogs as Northern Lace. She is northernlace on Ravelry and Facebook, but LizLovick on Twitter.

A companion project follows

KNITTING TRADITIONS

35


Orkney Fair Isle Tam ELIZABETH LOVICK

Inspired by the preceding article

GET THIS KIT! bit.ly/orkney-fairisle-tam-kit

Orkney tams do not begin with a ribbing worked in two colors. A colorwork pattern in stockinette stitch starts immediately.

36

KNITTING TRADITIONS


Materials Jamieson & Smith 2-ply Jumper Weight, 100% Shetland wool yarn, fingering weight, 125 yards (115 m)/25 gram (.88 oz) ball, 1 (2) balls of #01A Off White (MC) and 1 ball each of #202 Fawn (A), #87 Heather (B), #36 Navy (C); www.shetlandwoolbrokers.co.uk Needles, set of double pointed, sizes 2½ (3 mm) and 4 (3.5 mm) or size needed to obtain gauge Stitch markers Tapestry needle Finished sizes: Band 15 (17¼) inches (38.1 [43.8] cm) to fit head size 19–21 (21½–24) inches (48.3–53.3 [54.6–61] cm); top 11 (12½) inches (27.9 [31.8] cm) diameter. Tam shown measures 11 inches (27.9 cm) in diameter. Gauge: 26 sts and 30 rows = 4 inches in St st on larger needles after washing and blocking

Special Stitch When increasing by knitting into front and back of the same stitch (k1f&b), knit into the stitch using the color of the chart stitch symbol and leave it on the needle. Knit through the back loop of the same stitch using the color of the chart stitch to the left of the symbol. Slip stitch off the left needle—1 stitch increased.

T

his is a stitch-by-stitch reconstruction of a tam worn in a photo from the Orkney island of Papa Westray. It is typical of others seen in the country just before World War I. The photo is, of course, black and white, but I have chosen colors which match the tones of the photo and the colors of the time.

Instructions Notes: See page 106 for Abbreviations and Techniques. The tam is worked in the round from the bottom up. A facing is worked in MC first, then the tam is worked in stranded colorwork. Both sizes use the same chart, but there are seven repeats of the chart per row for the smaller size and eight for the larger size. Since the tam brim does not have ribbing, stitch gauge in stranded colorwork is very important to ensure proper fit. Be sure to check blocked gauge carefully. Sew facing to tam body loosely to allow band to stretch to head circumference.

Tam Facing, With smaller needles and MC, CO 98 (112) sts. Pm and join in the rnd. Knit 9 rnds. Set-up (turning) rnd: *P 14, pm; rep from * to last 14 sts, p14—7 (8) sections of 14 sts. Body, Change to larger needles and work Rnds 1–72 of Tam chart (see Special Stitch), joining and breaking colors as required—28 (32) sts rem. Break all CC and cont in MC only.

KNITTING TRADITIONS

37


Tam

Dec Rnd: *K3tog, k1, remove m; rep from * to end of rnd—14 (16) sts rem. Dec Rnd: K2tog 7 (8) times—7 (8) sts rem. Break yarn, leaving a 12-inch tail. With tail threaded on tapestry needle, draw tail through 7 (8) rem sts and pull to gather. Secure tail to WS. Finishing Weave in ends. Fold facing to WS along purl turning row and slip st loosely in place. Wash and dry flat, stretching over a plate to create the classic tam shape.

71 69 67 65 63 61 59 57 55 53

Key

51

With MC, knit

With B, knit

With MC, k2tog

With B, k2tog

With MC, ssk

With B, ssk

With A, knit

With C, knit

43

k1f&b (see Special Stitch)

41

49 47

With A, k2tog

2

45

39

With A, ssk

37 35

Chart may be photocopied for personal use. The chart for this project is available in PDF format at needleworktraditions.com/charts-and-illustrations.

33 31 29 2

2

27 25

2

2

23 21

2

2

19 17

2

2

15 13

2

2 2

2 2

2

11 9 7 5 3 1

14 sts inc'd to 28 sts dec'd to 4 sts 38

KNITTING TRADITIONS


Discover traditional

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Explore northern European heritage knitting, including Nordic, Baltic, and Scandinavian knitting traditions with designer Lucinda Guy! This collection includes 20 full-sized garments as well as accessories for women, men, children, and the home! First Frost: Cozy Folk Knitting celebrates all that is wonderful about decorative folk knitting. As essential everyday wear for anyone living and working in the harsh, cold climates of the North. These folk knit patterns range from the simple and utilitarian to textural, braided, tasseled, and exuberantly colored usually reserved for special occasions and celebrations.

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On the Edge How a Handful of People Have Preserved Some Rare, Valuable Sheep and Their Wools DEBORAH ROBSON

M

OST PEOPLE TODAY are familiar with only the two types of wool best suited for industrial processing. One type consists of wools obtained from a variety of breeds of sheep that are blended to produce multipurpose knitting yarns such as the North American four-ply knitting worsted. The other

is merino, obtained from a single breed consisting of several strains whose fine wool ranges from medium-soft to exceptionally soft. The wool of both types is virtually all white as factories can dye white wool to any color that a designer can dream up.

Missing from this picture are hundreds of breeds of sheep with fleeces that run the gamut of texture, fineness or strength, and color. These sheep evolved over thousands of years through interactions among the animals and their environments as well as through breeding decisions made by humans. Their wool, though it may be perfectly suitable for hand processing, doesn’t fit the industrial model. And therein lies the problem: If the breeders and shepherds of these colorful, distinctive animals can’t make a living by keeping them, then the animals may well become extinct. Why does that matter? If you have known only industrially processed wools and merino, it’s as if you have tasted only vanilla and chocolate ice cream and have never had a chance to try strawberry, rum custard, peppermint, or pistachio, or to learn perhaps that chocolate chocolate chip is your favorite flavor. The good news is that some individuals in the past, nearly or completely singlehandedly, have saved a number of endangered breeds from extinction and that today’s fiber folk have enough clout to make a huge difference for the future. But each of us needs to do our part, too. It’s easy and fun. Just reach out, find, and play with a new-to-you skein of yarn from a new-to-you breed. I guarantee that doing so will open your eyes to possibilities that you may not have imagined. Allow me to introduce four rare breeds of sheep and their delightful wools. (Selecting which breeds to feature has been an interesting project in itself. I worked from the lists prepared by the American Livestock Breeds Conservancy [for North America] and by the Rare Breeds Survival Trust [for the British Isles]. Some breeds appear on one of these lists and some on both.) For each breed, both spun yarns and

40

KNITTING TRADITIONS

fleeces are available, at the very least through Internet sources. As for other breeds, all sorts of woolly variety can be located by searching on Google, looking at Local Harvest offerings, and/or checking breeders’ associations and contacting their members (see the Resources sidebar on page 46). I chose breeds that differ dramatically from one another to give you an idea of the diversity of sheep. I also wanted to show how hard some breeds’ stories are to trace, how a single moment in history nearly eradicated some, and how frequently the actions of a single person or a handful of people secured a breed’s survival, at least for the time being. What happens in the future is up to us. Two of the breeds I chose have British roots: the Manx Loaghtan from the Northern European Short-Tailed group and the Leicester Longwool, an English Longwool that traces its ancestry to Roman Britain. Two are American originals: the Navajo-Churro, a small and hardy breed that was almost extinguished more than once through social engineering and “improvement” efforts, and the American Tunis, a breed that is as old as the United States but barely survived the Civil War (1861–1865). The wool of each of these breeds differs from the two types most commonly available. Each warrants your attention, and each may earn your admiration and even love as they have mine.

Manx Loaghtan In the Irish Sea, between the Welsh shore and Ireland, lies the 221-square-mile (572 sq km), self-governed Isle of Man. Numerous northern peoples visited this island over the centuries, leaving there a sturdy population of sheep with general-purpose wool in colors including white, gray,


Left: Manx Loaghtan fleeces are known for their unusual color and softness. Gloucester, England, 2011. Below: Manx Loaghtan ewe and lamb. Gloucester, England, 2011. Photographs courtesy of the Manx Loaghtan Sheep Breeders’ Group.

black, and brown. Manx sheep still exist today despite a close call with improvement-compelled eradication, but only brown ones have endured. It’s a lovely brown, in a variety of shades (loaghtan is Manx for “mouse brown” or “burnt brown”), but the white, gray, and black wools of history have been lost. What happened? During the nineteenth century, laws were enacted limiting the islanders’ access to common grazing areas, thus reducing their ability to raise livestock of all types. In addition, increasing demand for white wool to be processed on industrial equipment resulted in the displacement of the native sheep by breeds producing white wool of consistent length and quality. (The same pressure for modernization has pushed many other hardy, small, slow-growing, longlived, practical, and versatile breeds to the edge.) According to Adelaide L. J. Gosset’s Shepherds of Britain: Scenes from the Shepherd Life Past and Present (London: Constable and Company, 1911), two Manx farmers kept the traditional sheep alive. The first, Robert Quirk, refused to give up his old-fashioned animals, saying, “[T]he oul’ times were bes’ for all.” When he died, his flock passed into the care of the second, John Caesar Bacon. Because of Quirk, Manx sheep still exist. Because of Bacon, they are now all brown. Bacon focused both on keeping the breed alive and on cultivating the brown color, which he apparently preferred to the other colors. Because the brown color trait is recessive, a lamb will be brown only if it receives a copy of the brown trait from both parents. For an entire flock to be brown, all the other, dominant, colors had to be excluded. After Bacon died, several other farmers continued to pro-

vide for a few of his sheep’s descendants, but by the middle of the twentieth century, only a tiny population remained. The need to increase their genetic diversity led to shortterm breeding of the ewes with two outside rams, a Castlemilk Moorit and then a Soay; both breeds, like the Manx Loaghtan, are members of the Northern European ShortTailed family. Although the basic brown fleece color didn’t budge, these crossings resulted in some undesired variations in color patterning. The breed was recognized by the Rare Breeds Survival Trust (RBST) in 1974. The RBST and individual breeders differ as to how many horns the rams should have and other details, but all agree on the breed’s value. The Manx people are the breed’s strong protectors. During the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in 2001, the island government, at a huge temporary cost to the local economy but with a long-term concern for the island’s cultural and biological integrity, canceled one of the area’s largest tourist events, the Isle of Man Tourist Trophy motorcycle races, to protect the sheep from infection. Manx wool is a mid-range type, suitable for making warm and serviceable mittens, hats, sweaters, socks, and woven tweeds. Like some of the other Northern European Short-Tailed breeds, the sheep shed their wool naturally. A Manx flock on the Calf of Man, a small island off the coast of the main island, and another on Jersey, one of the Channel Islands near the French coast, provide conservation grazing and help maintain a healthy mix of plants and habitat for wildlife.

KNITTING TRADITIONS

41


Left: Leicester Longwool ewe, showing her silky fleece, at Row House Farm in Virginia’s Shenandoah Valley. Bottom Left: Leicester Longwool lambs, less than two weeks old, at Row House Farm in Virginia’s Shenandoah Valley. Photographs courtesy of Row House Farm and by Melanie Rowan.

Leicester Longwool The Leicester Longwool originated in the county of Leicestershire in England, a landscape suited to raising solid, slow-maturing sheep with heavy fleeces of long, lustrous, strong wool. Although exceptionally valuable for many purposes over the centuries, the wool does not fit into a system that mass-produces knitting yarns. Industrialization has pushed the Leicester Longwool to the agricultural fringes. In addition to its abundance, Leicester wool is superlative for making hard-wearing carpets and rugs, upholstery, coats, and bags. Its shimmering white takes dyed colors with brilliance. Colored Leicester Longwools also exist and are much appreciated by spinners, knitters, crocheters, and other handcrafters who are willing to seek out small-lot yarns produced by individual farms, small-scale mills, or cooperatives.

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As early as the 1620s, a number of Leicester Longwool sheep traveled to the new North American colonies. During the eighteenth century, as meat was becoming a more valuable commodity than wool, the British agriculturalist Robert Bakewell (1725–1795) selectively bred local Leicesters to increase their value for meat production. These later Leicesters also traveled to North America, some of them to George Washington’s flocks, and to Australia and New Zealand, where they contributed to those heavily wool-dependent economies. Leicester Longwools have played a role in the development of many breeds throughout the world, including the other English Longwools and several breeds on the European continent. Leicester Longwools were considered to be vital to the wool industry for a couple of centuries, but by the middle of the twentieth century, they were virtually extinct in North America and endangered in the British Isles. Wool of the type that they produce was being replaced by synthetics, and they were larger than the preferred size for meat animals. By the end of the third quarter of the twentieth century, only about 200 breeding ewes remained in the world. Colonial Williamsburg has been the leader in bringing Leicester Longwools back into North America. Interest in the breed because of its eighteenth-century popularity and economic clout led the historic site to acquire, in the 1980s, the only individual it could find, a single ram lamb from Canada. A vandal or vandals killed the animal in 1988, but donations and subsequent research led to the discovery of a Leicester Longwool flock in Tasmania, being kept by Ivan Heazlewood, an expert on the breed who had personal reasons for wanting to see it reestablished in North America.


In 1990, Colonial Williamsburg imported eight ewes, six lambs, and a ram from Heazlewood’s flock. They have thrived under the care of Elaine Shirley, manager of the rare breeds program, and some of the breeding stock has been passed along to others wishing to establish their own Leicester flocks. The Leicester Longwool has been on the American Livestock Breeds Conservancy (ALBC) and RBST lists for many years. The good news is that its incomparable fleeces and yarns produced from its wool are now available to fiber artists. Because the fibers grow more than an inch (2.5 cm) a month, twice-yearly shearings keep staple lengths to a manageable 5 to 6 inches (12.7 to 15.2 cm) per clip.

Navajo-Churro Sixteenth-century Spanish explorers and colonizers brought both Churro and Merino sheep with them across the Atlantic Ocean to Mexico and then into what is now the southwestern United States. The smaller, scrappier, more durable Churros adapted more readily than the Merinos to the heat and cold of the dry, vegetation-poor desert landscape and became essential parts of the lives of Hispanic, Navajo, and Puebloan communities throughout the area. Their double coat combining long, strong fibers and shorter, softer ones is both durable and resilient, perfect for weaving rugs, saddle blankets, and, more recently, fine tapestries. The outer coat protects the more delicate inner layer so that the sheep don’t generate a heavy layer of grease

to protect the wool from the weather as Merinos do. Thus, Navajo-Churro fleeces can be spun without washing or can be cleaned with very little water, a great advantage in the desert. The wool comes in whites, grays, blacks, browns, and reddish tones. Navajo weavers in the vicinity of the Two Grey Hills and Toadlena trading posts make use of these natural shades in their exquisite rugs and tapestries. The weavers of Tierra Wools prefer brightly dyed NavajoChurro wool to interpret intricate southwestern Hispanic textile traditions. Although Navajo-Churro has traditionally been used for weaving, some fleeces and yarns are equally well suited for knitting. Political and bureaucratic forces, along with the nineteenth century’s drive to improve livestock into productive anonymity, came close to exterminating the Navajo-Churro. In the 1860s, in an attempt to control the Navajos, the fed-

Above: Navajo-Churro ewes and lambs, oldest of the North American sheep breeds, in New Mexico. Left: A Navajo-Churro flock braves the snow with rider Molly Manzanares in Los Ojos, New Mexico. Photographs courtesy of Tierra Wools and by Lara Manzanares.

KNITTING TRADITIONS

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eral government destroyed most of their sheep, rounded up all the people they could find, and forced them on the Long Walk. Several years later, the survivors were allowed to return to a portion of their homeland, and each was given two sheep with which to start over. Not so long after, the government decided that more productive animals were needed and encouraged breeding with larger white-wooled sheep that unfortunately required richer land than is available in the region. Their grazing destroyed the landscape, resulting in government stock-reduction efforts during the 1930s. Bureaucratic interference thus caused a cascade of problems. Were there any old-style sheep left, ones that could graze without eroding the land and that could survive extended drought? A few remained, deep in the canyons of the Navajo Nation with people who still believed in them or on remote holdings in the care of Hispanic shepherds who preferred small, sturdy, relatively self-sufficient animals. In the 1970s, an effort to reconstitute the breed began. The animal scientist Lyle McNeal started collecting NavajoChurros, finding the people who still kept these sheep and persuading them that their animals were a rare treasure. His goal was to define the breed and increase its numbers and then reintroduce it to its home region. With the establishment of the cross-cultural Navajo Sheep Project, that’s what has happened. The project’s goal has been to maintain the appropriate type of sheep for the ecological and cultural environment of both the Native and the Hispanic communities. Attaining it was far more difficult than this brief summary makes it sound. For example, in its first twentyfive years, the project’s flock had to be moved to thirteen different locations in four states. Many individuals have put decades of work into keeping the Navajo-Churros viable. The future of these sheep is not yet assured, but with the persistence of the people who care about them, the breed’s own tenacity, and a growing appreciation for the wool’s distinctive qualities, there’s much more hope than there used to be.

American Tunis The American Tunis has been around since shortly after the founding of the United States, and its precursors were kept by John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, and George Washington. The breed’s history extends back to biblical times. Its ancestors in North Africa—in Tunisia in particular— had horns, as well as fleeces that combined white, brown, and black wool. In North America, the fat-tailed African sheep were bred with Robert Bakewell’s large long-wooled

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American Tunis ewe with cream-colored fleece. Photograph courtesy of the National Tunis Sheep Registry and by Debbi Brown.

Leicesters and later with the more moderate-sized Southdowns (another now-rare breed, noted as a meat producer) to produce a uniquely North American sheep, one that was hornless and whose wool was all white, often with warm overtones. Curiously, the lambs are cinnamon colored at birth. As they mature, the wool lightens while the face, ears, and legs remain a lovely reddish brown. Both rams and ewes are noted for their pleasant dispositions. They are long lived, and the ewes’ abundant milk production makes the Tunis a good candidate for sheep-based dairying. With their tolerance of hot weather and resistance to parasites, flocks thrived in the mid-Atlantic and southeastern regions of the United States in the nineteenth century— until the Civil War, when the breed was nearly extirpated. Most of the sheep were eaten by hungry soldiers and civilians or were simply destroyed as armies passed through. After the war, according to the National Tunis Sheep Registry, only a single flock remained, in South Carolina. Near the end of the century, Charles Roundtree and James Guilliams, Midwestern sheep farmers, moved the remnants of this flock to Indiana. And it turned out that American Tunis sheep can handle cold as well as hot weather. After the breed’s saviors brought the sheep back to decent numbers, flocks were established in adjacent states and up into New England as well as, once again, in the mid-Atlantic region. Tunis wool has enough length to be a good beginners’


Facts Manx Loaghtan

Fleece Weight 3–5½ pounds (1.4–2.5 kg) Staple Length 2½–5 inches (6.5–12.5 cm) Fiber Diameters Average 27 (woolly type) to 33 (hairy type) microns (spinning counts 46s–56s). There A swatch knitted with Manx Loaghtan is a broad range of acceptable fleece qualities, from coarser to finer, which means yarn from Blacker Designs, Cornwall, England; the pattern is Cable and Band that some fleeces are relatively soft and from Barbara Walker’s Charted Knitting others are more durable. Designs (Pittsville, Wisconsin: SchoolLock Characteristics house Press, 1998). Locks are close textured and uniformly Photograph by the author. brown throughout, with some luster. There are two types of fleece within the breed (not on the same animal), one hairy and one woolly. The wool overall tends to be soft and contains enough grease to protect it, more so than in some of the other Northern European Short-Tailed fleeces. The crimp is bold, uniform, and of consistent quality throughout, from butt to tip. Natural Colors Soft brown; the tips tend to sun-bleach to a lighter shade.

Leicester Longwool

A swatch knitted with Leicester Longwool yarn, singles from Double J Ranch, Oregon City, Oregon; the pattern is Diamond and Rib, from Barbara Walker’s Charted Knitting Designs (Pittsville, Wisconsin: Schoolhouse Press, 1998). Photograph by the author.

Fleece Weight 5 (half-year)–18 (full-year) pounds (2.3– 8.2 kg) Staple Length 5 (half-year)–14 (full-year) inches (12.5– 35.5 cm), averaging 6–10 inches (15–25.5 cm); frequently shorn twice a year Fiber Diameters U.S. White and colored, 32–38 microns (spinning counts 40s–46s) U.K. White, 32–38 microns (spinning counts 40s–46s); colored, 32–46 microns (spinning counts 40s or coarser) New Zealand White and colored, 37–40 microns (spinning counts 36s–40s) Australia 32–38 microns (spinning counts 40s–48s); colored, 32–35 microns (spin ning counts 44s–48s)

Lock Characteristics Beautiful, long, distinct locks with crimp that is well defined from pointed tips to flat bases. Natural Colors White, black, and a varied, shimmering gray (called English blue).

Navajo-Churro

Fleece Weight 4–8 pounds (1.8–3.6 kg), possibly as light as 2 pounds (0.9 kg); yield 60–65 percent (most loss due to dust, rather than grease) Staple Length Undercoat generally 3–5 inches (7.5– 12.5 cm), although it can be as short as 2 inches (5 cm) or as long as 6 inches (15 A swatch knitted with Navajo-Churro yarn, singles from Gypsy Wools, Boul- cm); outercoat generally 6–12 inches der, Colorado. The pattern is Waterfall (15–30.5 cm), although it can be as short from Barbara Walker’s Charted Knitting as 4 inches (10 cm) or as long as 14 inches Designs (Pittsville, Wisconsin: School- (35.5 cm) house Press, 1998). Fiber Diameters Photograph by the author. Inner coat: 10–35 microns (spinning counts 44s–much finer than 80s), most likely in the low 20s (spinning counts 60s–62s); outercoat: 35 (or more) microns (spinning counts 44s and coarser); kemp fibers: 65 (or more) microns Lock Characteristics Wide base tapering to a narrow tip. Low in grease and open, which means the fibers can easily be separated, but this wool has an interesting cohesive quality as well: the fibers seem to have an affinity for each other, not joined, as other fleeces’ fibers are, by lanolin or strict similarity. Natural Colors Many are white, although the breed is also well known for its variety of light to dark browns, some of them with reddish undertones, as well as its grays and blacks. The outercoat and undercoat can be different colors. Some sheep have spots.

American Tunis

A swatch knitted with American Tunis yarn from Solitude Wool, Round Hill, Virginia; the pattern is #132 from Hitomi Shida’s 250 Japanese Knitting Patterns (Tokyo: Nihon Vogue, 2005). Photograph by the author.

Fleece Weight 6–15 pounds (2.7–6.8 kg), averaging 8–12 pounds (3.6–5.4 kg); yield 50–70 percent Staple Length 3–6 inches (7.5–15 cm), generally 3½–5 inches (9–12.5 cm) Fiber Diameters U.S. breed standard is 24.29–29.2 microns (spinning counts 54s–58s); in the field, expect to find 24–31 microns (spinning counts 50s–58s) Lock Characteristics Relatively open, a bit blocky, sometimes with pointed tips.

Natural Colors Ivory to cream; reddish from first and second lamb shearings before the wool lightens to its adult shade.

Excerpted with permission from The Fleece and Fiber Sourcebook: More Than 200 Fibers from Animal to Spun Yarn by Deborah Robson and Carol Ekarius (North Adams, Massachusetts: Storey, 2011). KNITTING TRADITIONS

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[Tunis] flocks thrived in the mid-Atlantic and southeastern regions of the United States in the nineteenth century—until the Civil War, when the breed was nearly extirpated. Most of the sheep were eaten by hungry soldiers and civilians or were simply destroyed as armies passed through.

fiber for handspinning. Prepared yarns are durable and lustrous; their sleek finish defines stitch or weave textures and produces crisp color patterns.

The Power of One Margaret Mead (1901–1978) once said: “Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has.” In the case of these four rare breeds, we have seen how the action of a single person can save an entire breed from extinction. With two, three, or four people, the work goes faster. Some of us can help by maintaining flocks of livestock. Many more of us can help give the shepherds and farmers income from their animals simply by discovering and using the fleeces and yarns they produce each year. This is the power we have, each of us: to assist in saving a living treasure by seeking out and using its wool. In so doing, our crafting world becomes larger, and our impact will be felt—with luck, for centuries to come. ABOUT THE AUTHOR. Deborah Robson is a former editor of Spin.Off, one of PieceWork’s sister magazines. With livestock expert Carol Ekarius, she is coauthor of The Fleece and Fiber Sourcebook: More Than 200 Fibers from Animal to Spun Yarn (North Adams, Massachusetts: Storey Publishing, 2011). Her DVD Handspinning Rare Wools: How to Spin Them, Why We Should Care was produced by Interweave in 2011. For more information, visit www.drobson.info.

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Further Reading Crews, Ed. “Rare Sheep: From Hog Island and Leicester.” Colonial Williamsburg:The Journal of The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. Summer 2007. Available online at www.history.org/foundation/journal/ Summer07/sheep.cfm. Dohner, Janet Vorwald. The Encyclopedia of Historic and Endangered Livestock and Poultry Breeds. New Haven:Yale University Press, 2001. Robson, Deborah, and Carol Ekarius. The Fleece and Fiber Sourcebook: More Than 200 Fibers from Animal to Spun Yarn. North Adams, Massachusetts: Storey, 2011. Robson, Deborah, and Donna Druchunas. “The Two Lives and Two Legacies of Beatrix Potter.” PieceWork, November/December 2010. Ryder, M. L. Sheep and Man. London: Gerald Duckworth, 2007. Out of print. Wade-Martins, Peter. The Manx Loghtan Story: The Decline and Revival of a Primitive Breed. Kent, England: Geerings of Ashford and The Rare Breeds Survival Trust, 1990. Out of print.

A companion project follows

Resources American Livestock Breeds Conservancy; www.albc-usa.org Black Mesa Weavers; www.blackmesaweavers.org Leicester Longwool Sheep Breeders Association; www .leicesterlongwool.org Los Ojos Handweavers. Rebirth of a Tradition: Modern Rio Grande Style Weaving. DVD. Los Ojos, New Mexico: Tierra Wools, 2007; (575) 588-7231 Manx Loaghtan Breeders’ Group; www.manxloaghtan sheep.org National Tunis Sheep Registry; www.tunissheep.org Navajo-Churro Sheep Association; www.navajo-churro sheep.com Navajo Sheep Project; http://navajosheepproject.com/intro. html Oklahoma State University, Breeds of Livestock Project, Sheep; www.ansi.okstate.edu/breeds/sheep/ Rare Breeds Survival Trust; www.rbst.org.uk Sheep is Life Celebration; www.navajolifeway.org/sheep-is-life. html Tierra Wools; www.handweavers.com


Manx Loaghtan Boot Socks ANN BUDD

Inspired by the preceding article

Ann Budd’s boot socks made with Manx Loaghtan yarn. Photograph by Joe Coca.

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orked with pure Manx Loaghtan yarn, these thick, cushy socks are designed to be worn in boots, but they

W

can also be worn without boots as house slippers. A simple knit/purl pattern around the leg and along the instep adds textural interest. To prevent felting and shrinkage, handwash these special socks.

Materials Blacker Yarns Pure Manx Loaghtan Wool, 100% wool yarn, DK weight, 119 yards (108.8 m)/50 gram (1.8 oz) ball, 2 (3) balls of Natural; www.blackeryarns.co.uk Needles, set of 4 double pointed, size 5 (3.75 mm) or size needed to obtain gauge Stitch marker Waste yarn for holder (optional) Tapestry needle Finished sizes: About 8½ (9¾) inches (22 [25] cm) in circumference, 9 (9½) inches (23 [24] cm) long from back of heel to tip of toe, and 8¾ (9) inches (22 [23] cm) tall from top of cuff to base of heel; to fit U.S. woman’s 5–7/man’s 4–6 [woman’s 8–10/man’s 7–9] shoe sizes Gauge: 20 sts and 32 rnds = 4 inches (10.2 cm) in patt st, worked in rnds

Instructions Notes: See page 106 for Abbreviations and Techniques. Adjust the length of the foot to personalize the fit. Sock Leg, CO 42 (49) sts. Divide sts on 3 needles: 14 (14) sts on Needle 1 (half of back of leg), 14 (21) sts on Needle 2 (front of leg), and 14 (14) sts on Needle 3 (other half of back of leg), pm, and join for working in rnds. Rnd beg at back of leg. Set-Up Rnd: *K2, p1, k3, p1; rep from * to end of rnd. Work sts as they appear (k the knits and p the purls) for 8 more rnds—9 rnds total. Work leg patt as foll, Rnds 1–3: *K2, p5; rep from * to end of rnd. Rnds 4–6: *K2, p1, k3, p1; rep from * to end of rnd. Rep these 6 rnds until piece measures about 6 inches (15 cm) from CO or desired length to top of heel, ending with Rnd 3 or Rnd 6 of patt. Heel, Next Row: K11 (13), turn work so WS is facing, sl 1, p19 (23)—20 (24) heel sts. Place rem 22 (25) sts on waste yarn or spare needles to work later for instep. Heel flap, Work 20 (24) heel sts back and forth in rows as foll, Row 1 (RS): *Sl 1, k1; rep from * to end of row. Row 2 (WS): Sl 1, p to end. Rep these 2 rows 9 (11) more times—10 (12) sl sts at each selvedge edge. Turn heel, working short-rows as foll, Row 1 (RS): Sl 1, k11 (13), ssk, k1, turn work. 48

KNITTING TRADITIONS

Row 2 (WS): Sl 1, p5, p2tog, p1, turn work. Row 3: Sl 1, k to 1 st before gap formed on prev row, ssk (1 st each side of gap), k1, turn work. Row 4: Sl 1, p to 1 st before gap formed on prev row, p2tog (1 st each side of gap), p1, turn work. Rep Rows 3 and 4 until all heel sts have been worked, omitting the final k1 on the last rep of Row 3 and omitting the final p1 on the last rep of Row 4—12 (14) sts rem. Shape gussets, Rnd 1: On Needle 1, sl 1, k11 (13) to end of heel sts, pick up and k 10 (12) sts along selvedge edge of heel flap (1 st in each sl edge st), then pick up and k 1 st at base of heel flap; on Needle 2, k3 (1), work instep patt as established on 14 (21) sts, k5 (3); on Needle 3, pick up and k 1 st at base of heel flap, then 10 (12) sts along selvedge edge (1 st in each sl edge st), then k the 1st 6 (7) sts from Needle 1—56 (65) sts total; 17 (20) sts each on Needle 1 and Needle 3; 22 (25) instep sts on Needle 2. Rnd beg at center of heel. Rnd 2: On Needle 1, k to last 2 sts, k2tog; on Needle 2, work instep sts in patt as established; on Needle 3, ssk, k to end—2 sts dec’d. Rnd 3: On Needle 1, k; on Needle 2, work sts as established; on Needle 3, k. Rep Rnds 2 and 3 until 42 (49) sts rem. For Size Large Only: Dec 1 st at end of Needle 1, work as established to end—42 (48) sts rem. Foot, Work in patt as established until piece measures about 7 (7¼) inches (17 [18] cm) from back of heel or about 2 (2¼) inches (5 [6] cm) less than desired total foot length, ending with Rnd 3 or Rnd 6 of patt. Adjust sts if necessary so that there are 10 (12) sts on Needle 1, 21 (24) sts on Needle 2, and 11 (12) sts on Needle 3. Toe, Rnd 1: On Needle 1, k to last 3 sts, k2tog, k1; on Needle 2, k1, ssk, k to last 3 sts, k2tog, k1; on Needle 3, k1, ssk, k to end—4 sts dec’d. Rnd 2: K. Rep Rnds 1 and 2 until 22 (24) sts rem. Rep Rnd 1 (i.e., dec every rnd) until 6 (8) sts rem. Finishing Cut yarn, leaving an 8-inch (20.3-cm) tail. Thread tail on the tapestry needle, draw through remaining stitches two times, pull tight to close hole, and fasten off on wrong side. Weave in loose ends. Block lightly, if desired. ABOUT THE DESIGNER. Ann Budd’s most recent knitting book is The Knitter’s Handy Book of Top-Down Sweaters: Basic Designs in Multiple Sizes and Gauges. (Loveland, Colorado: Interweave, 2012). Learn more at www.annbuddknits.com.


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Simple in Russian Lace Scarf INNA VOLTCHKOVA

GET THIS KIT! bit.ly/simple-inrussian-lacescarf-kit

Suri alpaca yarn blooms beautifully in this delicate scarf.

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KNITTING TRADITIONS


I

designed this palatine scarf for knitters who have just started to knit lace, especially in the Russian style, but it will captivate experienced knitters too. You only have to know the knit stitch, knit 2 or 3 stitches together, and yarnover to complete the project. Russian lace emerged in the eighteenth century in the side or wrong-side rows. You may also mark the right side Orenburg region, with early styles handed down through of the piece with contrasting scrap yarn or a removable generations and modified into perfection. This scarf is knit marker to easily tell the difference. in one piece with traditional techniques and five of the traThe scarf is worked in a garter-stitch lace pattern, with ditional elements of Orenburg gossamer laceknitting: Dithe blank squares of the chart representing knit stitches on agonals (kosoryadki), Peas (gorokh), Mouse Print (myshiniy both right-side and wrong-side rows. sled), Strawberry (gluckhotinka), and Beaded Way (bisernaya Slip edge stitches as if to purl with yarn in front (sl 1 dorozhka). Diagonals are an easy element to remember and pwise wyf) on both sides of the scarf. allow the creation of numerous variations of geometric patScarf terns, which is typical for Orenburg-style lace. This palatine Lower Border scarf has eight symmetrical large snowflakes created by diNote: Each tooth contains 8 yo, and has 8 slipped sts on agonals and surrounded by strawberries. Chains of Beaded the left side of the tooth; these loops will be used to join Way decorate and separate the main part of the scarf from the Lower Border to the body of the scarf. its edging. The Peas element, filling up corners, is patterned Using the long-tail method and holding both needle tips on both right- and wrong-side rows. Mouse Print decorates tog, CO 7 sts. Pull out right needle tip leaving CO sts on left the border teeth. needle tip ready for a RS row. Begin Lower Border chart, Set-Up Row (RS): Sl 1 pwise wyf (see Notes), k2, yo, k4—8 sts. Set-Up Row (WS): Sl 1, k7. Golden Crown Suri Alpaca, 100% Suri alpaca, laceweight, 218 yards Increase section (199.3 m)/28.3 gram (1 oz) skein, 2 skeins of #3038 gentle lavenNote: Puhovnitsy (knitters who create Orenburg lace) call der; www.windyvalleymuskox.net this part “Open the tooth.” Addi Lace Needles, circular, 24 inches (60 cm), size 1 (2.5 mm) or size Row 1 (RS): Sl 1, k2, yo, k5—9sts. needed to obtain gauge; www.skacelknitting.com Rows 2, 4, 6 and 8: Sl 1, knit to end. Stitch markers Row 3 (RS): Sl 1, k2, yo, k6—10 sts. Tapestry needle Row5 (RS): Sl 1, k2, yo, k3, yo, k2tog, k2—11 sts. Row 7 (RS): Sl 1, k2, yo, k3, yo, k2tog, yo, k2tog, k1—12 sts. Optional: Flexible blocking wires Decrease section Note: Puhovnitsy call this part “Close the tooth.” Finished size: 12 inches (30.5 cm) wide and 58½ inches (148.6 cm) Row 9 (RS): Sl 1, k3, yo, k2tog, k2, yo, k2tog, k2—12sts. long after blocking Row 10 (WS): Sl 1, k9, k2tog—11 sts rem. Gauge: 24 sts and 30 rows = 4 inches (10.2 cm) in charted patt Row 11 (RS): Sl 1, k3, yo, k2tog, k5. after blocking Row 12 (WS): Sl 1, k8, k2tog—10 sts rem. Row 13 (RS): Sl 1, k3, yo, k2tog, k4. Row 14 (WS): Sl 1, k7, k2tog—9 sts rem. Instructions Row 15 (RS): Sl 1, k3, yo, k2tog, k3. Note: Last yo in Row 15 Notes: See page 106 for Abbreviations and Techniques. becomes first yo in next tooth, marked in gray on Row 1 The scarf has a central body section enclosed in upper, of chart. lower, left, and right borders. The lower border is knitted Row 16 (WS): Sl 1, k6, k2tog—8 sts rem. first, then stitches are picked up along the side and cast-on Rep Rows 1–16 four more times, then work Rows 17–32 edges of the border. Right and left borders are knitted at the (6 teeth completed). same time as the body section. After the scarf body is comBody pleted, live stitches are left on the needle and bound off by Begin Lower Body chart, knitting one stitch from the upper border together with one Row 1 (RS): Sl 1, k2, yo, k5—9 right border sts. stitch from the scarf body as the upper border is worked. Move these 9 sts to needle cable. Drop yarn. With RS When working the body of the scarf, use different colfacing and using left needle tip, pick up but do not knit as ored stitch markers to indicate whether you are on rightfollows:

Materials

KNITTING TRADITIONS

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A traditional toothed edging becomes more elaborate with Mouse Prints.

Pick up 7 CO sts, pm, pick up 49 slipped stitches on edge of Lower Border by putting the needle into the front of each loop—56 sts on left needle and 9 sts on right needle, yarn between the right border and the center sts (after stitch 9 of chart). Pick up yarn and continue Row 1 (RS) of Lower Body chart as follows: Pm, k49 sts through back loop to form the traditional crossed sts, sl m, k4, yo, k3—66 sts: 9 right border sts, 49 center sts, 8 left border sts. Turn work and continue working Lower Body chart. Row 2 (WS): Sl 1, k2, yo, k5, sl m, k49, sl m, k9—67 sts: 9 border sts, 49 center sts, 9 border sts. Cont working Lower Body chart Rows 3–38. Work Rows 1–48 of Center Body chart 7 times.

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Work Rows 1–42 of Upper Body chart once—66 sts; 8 border sts, 49 center sts, 9 border sts. Upper border Note: Join last border st with live body st at the end of each RS row as foll: Move last st of upper border to the left needle and k2tog with live st of center section; turn work, work WS row. Remove m after working Row 1 of Upper Border chart. Work Rows 1–16 of Upper Border chart 5 times, then work Rows 17–31 once—19 sts rem: 9 left border sts on the left side of m and 10 sts (1 body st and 9 upper border sts) before the marker with working yarn before center st. The rem 48 center sts have been joined.


1

3

5

9 11 13 15

17

19

21

23

25

27 29

31

33

35

37

7

Transfer 1 more st from right needle to left needle; k3tog (one st from left needle and 2 sts transferred from right needle); rep from * until 1 st rem, k1. Fasten off. Finishing Weave in loose ends. Block using your preferred blocking method.

Graft sts tog as foll: Note: Keep working yarn loose. Remove m and transfer 2 sts from right needle to left needle; k3tog (1 st from left needle and 2 transferred sts from right needle). *Return the rem st to left needle.

Key knit yo yo yo (Mouse Print motif) yo (Peas motif) yo (Beaded Way motif) yo (Diagonals motif) yo (Strawberry motif) 2

k1f&b k2tog k1tbl (crossed sts) k3tog sl 1 wyf on RS sl 1 wyf on WS k2tog (last st of edging tog with 1 st of body) marker position

2

Lower Body

cast-on sts

KNITTING TRADITIONS

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KNITTING TRADITIONS

Center Body

9

11

25

27

41

43

7

13

23

29

39

45

5

15

21

31

37

47

1

3

17

19

33

35


1

3 7 9

11

13

15

5

17

19 21 23 25

27

29

31

33

35 37 39 41

Strawberry 5 3 1 7-st repeat Diagonals 7 5 3 1 5-st repeat Peas 3 1 4-st repeat Mouse Print 5 3 1 4-st repeat Beaded Way 5 3 1

Upper Body

4-st repeat

KNITTING TRADITIONS

55


Lower Border 31 29 27 25 23 21 19 17 15 13 11 9

work 5 times

7 5 3 1 Set-Up Row (WS) Set-Up Row (RS) Cast on

Upper Border 31 29 27 25 23 21

ABOUT THE DESIGNER. Inna Voltchkova was born and raised in Kiev,

the oldest city in Eastern Europe. She started knitting when she was ten years old and is a graduate of the Kiev National University of Technology and Design. When a 1991 trip to Chicago introduced her to the love of her life, she moved to the Chicago area, and for the past twenty years, Inna’s passion has been lace knitting, especially Russian-style lace. For many years, Inna has worked with Galina Khmeleva at Skaska Designs Ltd. Winner of the 2010 TKGA Design Contest, Inna’s beautiful lace designs have been featured frequently in the pages of PieceWork since 2009. Visit her on Facebook at Russian Knitting Design.

Charts may be photocopied for personal use. The charts for this project are available in PDF format at needleworktraditions.com/charts-and-illustrations.

56

KNITTING TRADITIONS

19 17 15 13 11 9

work 5 times

7 5 3 1


SIMPLE, SOPHISTICATED

Knitted Garments

Heather Zoppetti 144 pages, $24.99 ISBN 13: 9781620331354

Full of simple garments and accessories for everyday life, this book will become your new favorite! In this collection of 18 garments and accessories, using lace motifs for edging is only the beginning. Join Heather Zoppetti as she shows you how lace can be easily incorporated into feminine garments meant for daily wear: as a simple panel insert, as edgings and bands, and in an increasingly all-over manner. Hidden among the collection of lovely garments is a thorough introduction to the basics of lace knitting, including various cast-ons and bindoffs appropriate for lace knitting.

Order online at www.InterweaveStore.com


Lucy’s Stars and Diamonds Stole KATRINA KING

Y

ears ago, friends gave me a music mix for my birthday titled Super Eclectic Roller Coaster. It’s full of different types of music from hard metal to downright goofy and perfectly captures my personality. I’m an original Star Trek fan, and two of the songs are from the stars of the show Leonard Nimoy and William Shatner. Nimoy’s is his recital of “Desiderata,” very spiritual and uplifting, whereas Shatner’s spoken-word version of “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds” makes me laugh. Here’s Lucy with her stars and diamonds in the Orenburg style that I learned from Galina Khmeleva. It has a modern twist with a new shape, worked all in one piece with strawberries, diagonals, and mouse print elements.

Materials Lorna’s Laces Helen’s Lace, 50% merino wool/50% tussah silk yarn, laceweight, 1250 yards (1143 m)/113 gram (4 oz) skein, 1 skein of #68ns Sally Jean; www.lornaslaces.net Needles, circular, 32 inches (80 cm) size 2 (2.75 mm) or size needed to obtain gauge Knitter’s Pride steel crochet hook size 14 (.5 mm); www.knitterspride.com Seed beads, size 8/0 glass, 35 gram (1.2 oz)/container, 1 container of Garnet Lined Ruby AB; containers hold about 1,400 beads; this project requires about 300 beads; www.earthfaire.com Nylon cord and T-pins or blocking wires Tapestry needle Finished size: 17¼ inches (43.8 cm) wide and 78½ inches (199.4 cm) long Gauge: 20 sts and 45 rows = 4 inches (10.2 cm) in garter st, after blocking

Special Instructions Place Bead: Work st to be beaded, slide bead onto crochet hook, insert crochet hook pwise into st just worked and sl st onto crochet hook, slide bead down hook and onto st, then return st to right needle.

Instructions Note: See page 106 for Abbreviations and Techniques. Stole Note: Work all WS rows as foll: Sl 1 pwise wyf, k to end. With 2 needles held tog and using the long-tail method, CO 297 sts. Remove 1 needle. Do not join. Work Rows 1–193 of Stole chart. With WS facing, loosely BO all sts. Finishing Weave in loose ends. Use nylon cord and T-pins or blocking wires to block.

58

KNITTING TRADITIONS

ABOUT THE DESIGNER. Besides fiber arts, Katrina King is also passionate about cake decorating. When not tangled in laceweight yarn or covered in sugar, she can be found teaching at her local yarn shops and chasing her daughters to various activities in Fort Collins, Colorado.


This stole combines classic touches—a fabulous silk and wool yarn, traditional Orenburg elements—with beads, an unusual shape, and bright color.

KNITTING TRADITIONS

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Key k yo k2tog on first rep, k2tog; on 2nd and 3rd reps, k1 k3tog k1 then place bead (see Special Instructions)

Stole

k2tog then place bead sl 1 pwise wyf patt rep

9594 9392919089888786 858483828180797877767574737271706968676665646362616059585756555453525150494847

60

KNITTING TRADITIONS


Charts may be photocopied for personal use. The charts for this project are available in PDF format at needleworktraditions.com/charts-and-illustrations.

193 191 189 187 185 183 181 179 177 175 173 171 169 167 165 163 161 159 157 155 153 151 149 147 145 143 141 139 137 135 133 131 129 127 125 123 121 119 117 115 113 111 109 107 105 103 101 99 97 95 93 91 89 87 85 83 81 79 77 75 73 71 69 67 65 63 61 59 57 55 53 51 49 47 45 43 41 39 37 35 33 31 29 27 25 23 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 464544434241403938373635343332313029282726252423222120191817 16151413121110 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

KNITTING TRADITIONS

61


Grace Murray Ultra-Prolific Knitter of Andean-Inspired Hats CYNTHIA LECOUNT SAMAKÉ

T

his past May when I arrived at her home in Gloucester, Massachusetts, Grace Murray was stitching in the loose ends on Andean cap Number 280. As she introduced me to her husband, David, he said, “Oh, so you are the one responsible for all this!”

According to Grace, who is now ninety-one years old, it all started in 1992 when a knitting neighbor invited her along on the 2½-hour drive to Halcyon Yarn in Bath, Maine. Once at the store, Grace bought my book Andean Folk Knitting: Traditions and Techniques from Peru and Bolivia (St. Paul, Minnesota: Dos Tejedoras, 1990). In the chapters on indigenous knitters, she was fascinated to learn that the men also knit, and that villagers use

hundreds of regionally different motifs and color combinations to create caps called chullos. Best of all, Grace enthused, the book contained hat patterns and graphs for the colorful motifs so that she could knit them for her four adult sons. (Grace calls them “hats” and I say “caps,” but we refer to the same thing.) When she was six years old, Grace learned to knit from her sister Emma, who was twenty years older and Cynthia LeCount Samaké (left) and Grace, May 2015. Photograph by Steven Murray.

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had learned from their grandmother. With eight children, Grace’s mother had no time for knitting, but she raised artistic and adventurous daughters. Grace’s sister Louise Kenyon (1906–2000) was a member of the renowned Folly Cove Designers from Gloucester; the group printed fabric with hand-cut linoleum blocks from the late 1930s to the late 1960s. Louise also knitted in her spare time. By the time Grace bought the book on folk knits from Peru and Bolivia, she had already been knitting for sixty years. She had made many complex projects including reverse-stitch patterned sweaters and stranded-color pullovers for her sons and grandchildren, so the challenge of new techniques and shapes thrilled her. Two weeks later, she returned to Bath and quizzed the Halcyon Yarn store experts about which yarns and needles

Lansing Banks proudly wears his sailboat hat showing a red earflap for port/left side. David drew the graph that includes birds, waves, whitecaps, and fish. Photograph by Grace Murray.

would work best to knit Andean-style caps. After much deliberation, she came home with eight colors of JaggerSpun Maine Line 2/8 yarn, in mini cones of 275 yards each, enough to make four or five woolly caps. (Grace knitted all 280 caps with this same yarn and jokes that she has “kept them in business.”) At first, she wound the yarn off the cones and into skeins from the back of a Windsor chair, but the annoying cones rolled all over the kitchen floor. Then David had a clever idea: he went to the woodpile and brought in a heavy maul or sledgehammer that he placed upright in the middle of the kitchen. He dropped a cone onto the handle; it rotated easily, and she could wind the skeins more efficiently. She processed the first batch of eight colors to increase the loft in the same way she still does with all yarn, by submerging the skeins in cold water in the bottom of the washing machine, then whirling it almost dry on the spin cycle. But once again, yarn invaded the kitchen, draped around the room to dry. David went to his Multicolored earflaps come from Bolivia; Peruvian knitters create scalloped edgings. Grace’s hats marry the two traditions, and she adds her own innovations. Photograph © Michael Malyszko 2015.

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Not only has she combined techniques of Peru and Bolivia, but she has also created innovations to embellish and strengthen her chullos. She makes the ends of color changes very long and weaves them in when she completes the cap, then pulls the excess to the outside in two places to form tassels at the middle back. The long ends for the earflap color changes also become tassels. Crocheted borders on the earflaps reinforce the edges, and she sews the earflaps back farther than on the Andean versions, to better cover the ear.

shop and made a nifty rack to hang the skeins to dry above the woodstove. In those days, Grace and David spent pleasant summers on their sailboat Ladybug, and in 1992, Grace boarded with her stash of new yarn and circular size 2 needles. When a thick fog on the Maine coast stalled their progress, she thought, “Now I will have time to start a hat!” She laughed as she told me about early attempts at the complicated scalloped edgings or puntas that are the first step. With nowhere to go and not much else to do in the foggy harbor for several days, David recited the instructions aloud, step by step, until Grace could make perfect puntas. She quickly mastered the other unusual techniques and knitted thirty-five Andean-style caps in the next two years. When Christmas 1994 arrived, she decided to give away the caps as holiday gifts. On Christmas morning, David strung a clothesline across the living room in front of the fireplace; they pinned up the caps for delighted family members to choose from. Then they took the line with the remaining caps to the houses of four close friends so they could all choose a cap. This was the beginning of “Grace’s hats,” and she has become well known in Massachusetts for her talent and generosity. Winter brings very cold weather to the eastern seaboard—this winter, 8 feet of snow buried their house— so the warm caps make welcome presents. She continues to give them away to friends and acquaintances, and occasionally donates one for a charity auction. She showed me two scrapbooks full of photos and lengthy lists denoting each hat’s owner, up to Number 279. I calculated that she has made slightly more than one per month for the past twenty-three years! Grace developed and continues to knit her personal cap style, a Pan-Andean version using the scalloped edge from Peruvian village caps and the rounded multicolored earflaps from Bolivian altiplano models. Knitters in specific places in both countries make the checkered border that she uses. While knitting in the round, Grace twists the yarns every few stitches, which is another labor-intensive technique of64

KNITTING TRADITIONS

ten done in the Andes and which results in a denser, warmer cap. Not only has she combined techniques of Peru and Bolivia, but she has also created innovations to embellish and strengthen her chullos. She makes the ends of color changes very long and weaves them in when she completes the cap, then pulls the excess to the outside in two places to form tassels at the middle back. The long ends for the earflap color changes also become tassels. Crocheted borders on the earflaps reinforce the edges, and she sews the earflaps back farther than on the Andean versions, to better cover the ear. Many caps are over twenty years old, and all receive hard use in the freezing winter, yet they are still intact.

Grace and Willi. Photograph by Cynthia LeCount Samaké.


Most of her caps use the motifs from Andean Folk Knitting, but she creates her own aesthetic, mixing traditional motifs from different places in a single cap. She has also introduced modern motifs to personalize them. Grace’s ingenious husband has created graphs of local Gloucester fishing-port motifs that she incorporates into hats for sailing friends, even adding red earflaps for port/left side and green for starboard/ right. David’s sailboats, lighthouses, anchors, blue fish, and gray whales parade around the heads of many local fisherman friends. People relate charming stories about their caps. One skier, wearing his red cap, was on the side of Mt. Baker in Washington State and felt something hitting his head. He looked up to see a persistent hummingbird dive-bombing his hat. On a trekking trip in Nepal, a girl misplaced her cap and now hopes a Sherpa is enjoying it. A local woman lost hers when it dropped out of her car; someone found and recognized it, and brought the hat back to Grace who returned it to the owner. Another recipient was on a peace march in Washington, D.C., when someone in the jostling crowd yelled, “Where’d you get that hat?” The pacifist yelled back, “From a friend.” The other asked, “Is she from Gloucester?” Then the crowd pressed the women apart, leaving the question unanswered. All those who own one of Grace Murray’s caps cherish the product of a charming collaboration by a very special couple. Her new goal is three hundred hats! A BOUT THE A UTHOR . Cynthia LeCount Samaké has known Grace Murray for over twenty years, and she wishes they didn’t live at opposite ends of the country! Cynthia is an expert in indigenous textiles, and she leads knitting/ weaving tours of interesting places with Behind the Scenes Adventures, California. The next trip for knitters goes to Argentina and Uruguay, April 25–May 9, 2016. For details and other trips, see the website www.btsadventures.com.

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KNITTING TRADITIONS

65


“You’ve Got to Really Like Your Job” Department Stores as Purveyors of Yarn and Knitting Knowledge, 1930–1960 SUSAN STRAWN

Free knitting instruction from experts who liked to help people drew knitters and customer loyalty to department store needlework departments. From Merchants Trade Journal, May 1947, p. 198.

A

merican department stores served as social networks for knitters long before boutique yarn shops and the Internet. Established as grand emporiums and respectable shopping destinations, department stores flourished between 1890 and 1960. Most developed from peddler carts or drapers selling dry goods

(textiles) and expanded to include many departments that sold furniture, books, jewelry, food, and more. During department store heydays, knitting instructors and buyers in needlework departments kept knitting needles busy and yarn flying out the doors. Who were these anonymous, unsung purveyors of knitting knowledge who worked tirelessly to sell yarn and promote knitting? 66

KNITTING TRADITIONS


Names of stores and employees would remain lost to history without one periodical in particular, the Dry Goods Merchants Trade Journal (1903–1968).* The Journal dispatched teams of editors across the nation to interview department store employees and observe successful promotional strategies. Editors published lively reports in the Journal, including proven ways that needlework departments promoted knitting. The role of department stores in knitting history and tradition can be teased from reports by the Journal’s welltraveled editors.

The Thirties: Free Instruction! Fashion Revues! Contests! Department stores capitalized on knitting’s soaring popularity during the Great Depression with free instruction from knitting experts. Knitting became one of the few Depression-resistant industries. At Zahn’s department store in Racine, Wisconsin, knitting instructor Mrs. S. Gluck created a social hub. She focused on novice knitters and found “great satisfaction to have bridge and poker friends drop these pleasures for the Knit Shop.” She also welcomed those who knitted “on a professional basis” for income. “Why not?” she asked. “I have one young man coming to my department who . . . has been earning money for his schooling by knitting for Racine women.” She noted a side benefit of the store’s no-smoking policy: smokers who first came to the shop often left several times each afternoon for a “few puffs,” but as they became more involved with knitting, they invariably forgot cigarettes (November 1934). At the Emporium in Jackson, Mississippi, advertising manager Mr. Beacham considered knitting instructors the greatest single factor for success (March 1935). “She must have a fine personality and know the ins and outs of knitting thoroughly,” he stated. Needlework buyer Miss Bernice Facer at the W. H. Wright and Sons Company in Ogden, Utah, reported “nothing short of phenomenal” growth of 45 percent in four months, thanks to expert knitters. “Proper instruction is the big thing,” she reported. “When I started,

ZAHNS NEW KNIT SHOP In charge of Mrs. S. Gluck, Expert Knitter Offers FREE Instruction to Beginners When you buy the makings of a sweater, knitted dress or suit, you submit your measurements and Mrs. Gluck will make up complete instructions for you, so it’s bound to fit, much to your surprise. A wide selection of colors and yarns at various prices. Dry Goods Merchants Trade Journal, November 1934, p. 80

55

Reports in the Journal shared advertisements that had brought success to other needlework departments. From Dry Goods Journal, February 1937, p. 106.

I don’t believe there were four women in Ogden interested in knitting. But I attended the [yarn] manufacturer’s school, found out how to give instructions and interest immediately increased” (September 1935). With knitting experts ensconced in needlework departments, stores across the nation created innovative sales and window displays that drew Depression-era knitters. “Clever psychology” at the Kresge department store in Newark, New Jersey, sold nearly 5,000 balls of yarn at 16 cents a ball, and a ban on mail-order sales and delivery forced customers into the store (March 1934). Prominent window displays of yarn and knitting also pulled in customers. At the J. L. Brandeis and Sons Company in Omaha, Nebraska, buyer Miss Lois Ferrin brought “melody” into her yarn displays. “The composer would not compose a piece of monotonous volume. . . . [H]is music, if good, contains many variations of stress. So should our displays be varied” (April 1937). Contests proved especially attractive during Depression years. At Rhodes’ in Tacoma, Washington, art needlework buyer Miss Catherine Ewing personally recruited more than one hundred knitters to compete for prizes of (what else?) even more yarn, enough for the first-place winner to knit a dress (August 1936). In St. Louis, Missouri, the GlobeDemocrat newspaper coordinated a contest among regional department stores that brought 698 finished sweaters, each donated to charity. Generous prizes included trips to Los

*Published by W. J. Pilkington in Des Moines, Iowa, from 1903 until 1968, the name Dry Goods Merchants Trade Journal changed to Dry Goods Journal (1936–1947) to Merchants Trade Journal (1947–1962) and to Department Store Journal (1962–1968). KNITTING TRADITIONS

67


Knitting books took a patriotic turn during World War II. The Spool Cotton Company, 1941. Collection of the

College knitting could lead to romance, this pattern book implies. Botany Yarns, 1958. Collection of the author.

author.

Angeles (first place) and New Orleans (second place), a fur coat (third place), and so on down to patterns given to a total of 175 lucky winners (June 1937).

would continue knitting after the war, believed Miss Pittard. “Knowledge acquired is not soon forgotten” (November 1945).

The War Years: Keep Hands and Minds Busy!

Postwar Knitting and the Fifties: Shortages! Teenagers! Leisure Time!

Department stores in military regions appealed to wives of service men, especially “prospective mothers” during World War II. The J. A. Kirven Company of Columbus, Georgia, launched publicity to convince women that knitting would offset layette shortages in baby departments and keep hands and minds busy. “Since the doctor said yes, your next step is Kirven’s knitting department . . . there to select the softest, loveliest yarn and begin knitting for the new arrival” (May 1944). Department stores dedicated more space for knitting instruction and displays. At the Evansville Dry Goods Company in Evansville, Indiana, Mrs. Louise Bibb took charge of The Knitting Shop that occupied nearly one-fourth of a balcony overlooking all four sides of the main floor (February 1942). At P. A. Bergner’s in Peoria, Illinois, needlework buyer Miss Pittard instructed service wives with time on their hands, especially customers knitting for the Bundles for Britain and for the American troops. These knitters 68

KNITTING TRADITIONS

Department stores coped with yarn and other shortages during and after the war. At Barney’s in Schenectady, New York, buyer Mrs. Marion Dillard reported that the “response to just a small ad [for yarn] is terrific” (March 1946). Shortages of infants’ wear spelled opportunity, however, for entrepreneurial knitters at Ben F. Smith Dry Goods Company in Texarkana, Texas. Floor manager Mr. Paul D. Morris reported that “homemaker industrialists” knitted bibs, booties, and other layette items to fill gaps manufacturers could not supply. Customers bought yarn at retail price, and the store paid the knitter’s production price. On average a knitter earned a monthly income of $30 from the store (July 1946). Sock and sweater knitting claimed a special place in needlework departments. At John Bressmer Company in Springfield, Illinois, assistant buyer Miss F. Thoma reported: Strange as it may seem, men have been big boost-


“Gone are the days when socks were just things to wear under one’s shoes. No longer are they drab, everyday necessities. Socks today are lovely to look at, delightful to own—and, with Bear Brand, heaven to knit.” From Bear Brand Hand Knit Socks for Men, Women, Children, 1950

ers of the knitting trade. Returning veterans having been introduced to knitted items found in packages from home or from the Red Cross, are demanding that the woman of the house continue the good work. They want more of those knitted socks [and] sweaters. (March 1947) Needlework departments wooed children and teenagers as prospective postwar knitters. At Stix, Baer and Fuller in St. Louis, Missouri, Mrs. Elmeda Brown instructed classes of forty to forty-five girls who came to the store to knit sweaters on Saturday mornings. “Of the children who began work on sweaters, 99 per cent of them completed the work,” she reported with justifiable pride (November 1945). The Emporium Department Store in St. Paul, Minnesota, reported “a fad started among teen-agers rolls up big sales” and pulled in teenagers with the theme “Knit that sweater!” (April 1946). Free instruction lured young knitters into needlework departments. Mrs. E. Donald at Henshey’s in Santa Monica, California, established a knitting school in the needlework department for “the crowd of teen-agers always gathered here. The fad for couples wearing identical sweaters has added to the ranks of the younger knitters” (January 1947). At Lichtenstein’s in Corpus Christi, Texas, buyer Miss Mary Rankin found that her seventy youngsters in a summer knitting program became walking advertisements for the needlework department (May 1947). Reports in the Journal on needlework departments dwindled during the fifties. Traveling editors did observe the “pulling power” of innovative yarn display fixtures. At Joseph Spiess Company in Elgin, Illinois, art needlework buyer Mrs. Lois Morgan opined, “Merchandise well-displayed really is half-sold” (October 1950). Creative knitting challenges and contests also spurred interest. In 1955, buyer Vernon Trammell at Purcell’s department store in Lexington, Kentucky, convinced the University of Kentucky football

team to pay for yarn that university girls knitted into wool socks for the complete team roster. He organized a sockknitting contest entered by 184 women. Free expert knitting instruction supplemented with yarn manufacturers’ pattern books still proved the biggest draw. Petersen-Harned-Von Maur in Davenport, Iowa, employed a full-time instructor. “We have ladies who come in and say, ‘I must have something to do,’” explained buyer Mrs. Vivian Vinall. Instructors guided them. Instructor Mrs. Ada Clark at The Crescent in Spokane, Washington, described free lessons as their “biggest drawing card. . . . Many of the women come and stay all day” (August 1955). Perhaps the most dedicated instructor was Mrs. Alice McQueney, a twenty-year veteran knitting instructor at Hager and Brother in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Any customer who became “hopelessly confused” could count on Mrs. McQueney to tuck the dress, stole, or whatever it may be into a box and take it home to work on. “You’ve got to really like your job,” said Mrs. McQueney (August 1955). Otherwise lost to history, these anecdotal gems from the Dry Goods Merchants Trade Journal breathe life into the history of department stores as champions of yarn and knitting. In needlework departments across the nation, dedicated knitting instructors and innovative buyers sold yarn, inspired knitters, and kept alive knitting knowledge through extraordinary times.

Further Reading Benson, Susan Porter. Counter Cultures: Saleswomen, Managers, and Customers in American Department Stores 1890–1940. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois, 1988. Ferry, John William. A History of the Department Store. New York: Macmillan, 1960. ABOUT THE AUTHOR AND DESIGNER. Susan Strawn knits from the

past, especially from cultural and historical traditions found in vintage patterns and handknits. She is professor emerita of apparel design and merchandising at Dominican University (Chicago) and author of Knitting America: A Glorious History from Warm Socks to High Art (Voyageur, 2007). She lives in Seattle.

A companion project follows

Mrs. Alice McQueney demonstrates how to knit buttonholes. Mrs. McQueney really liked her work. From Merchants Trade Journal, August 1955, p. 114.

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The first in a new series, Interweave Favorites: 25 Knitted Accessories to Wear and Share is a collection of cozy patterns carefully curated from Interweave’s roster of incredible authors and designers and brought together in a single book! Knitters of all levels will find plenty of standout projects to make and love, from warm socks to delicate shawls; from colorful mitts to scarf and hat sets. Most projects can be knitted speedily enough to become timely gifts, while a few—such as an Estonian lace shawl—require more time (but are worth it).

Interweave 128 pages, $22.99 ISBN 13: 9781620338261

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Vintage Sport Socks SUSAN STRAWN

Inspired by the preceding article

V

intage Sport Socks emerged from my collection of hundreds of knitting pattern books (1930–1960) as an ideal choice to illustrate “department store knitting.” Although sweaters, socks, and baby knits dominated patterns during this time, I found my collection included six issues of Bear Brand Hand Knit Socks for Men, Women, Children updated from 1950 at least through the late 1960s (the price increased over the years from 35¢ to $2.50). The pattern that inspired Vintage Sport Socks appeared in all six issues, indicating a most popular choice among knitters.

Materials Brown Sheep Wildfoote, 75% washable wool/25% nylon yarn, fingering weight, 215 yards (197 m)/50 gram (1¾ oz) skein, 1 skein each of #SY46 Lightening Lemon (MC) and #SY40 Gunsmoke (CC) (see Notes); www.brownsheep.com Needles, sizes 2 (2.75 mm) and 3 (3.25 mm) or size needed to obtain gauge Markers Waste yarn for heel Tapestry needle Finished size: 6¾ inch (17.1 cm) foot circumference (ribbing stretches to fit), 8¼ inch (21 cm) foot length; foot length is adjustable Gauge: 28 sts and 38 rnds = 4 inches (10.2 cm) in St st on larger needles

Instructions Notes: See page 106 for Abbreviations and Techniques. Wrong side of cuff is on the right side of stocking. Sample socks used almost all of one skein of MC; consider purchasing an extra skein as insurance. Socks Cuff, With MC and smaller needles, CO 62 sts. Do not join. Work in k2, p2 rib for 3 rows, working back and forth. Next Row (WS): P. Join CC. Work Rows 1–18 of Cuff chart. Break CC. K 1 row. P 1 row. Dec Row (RS): P1, k3, [k2tog, k5, k2tog, k6] 3 times, k2tog, k5, k2tog, k3, p1—54 sts rem. Next Row: K2tog, *p2, k2; rep from * to last 4 sts, p2, k2tog—52 sts rem. Pm and join to work in the rnd so that WS of cuff (RS of sock) faces out (see Notes). Leg, Work even in k2, p2 rib for 3 inches (7.6 cm). Change to larger needles. Work even until rib measures 5½ inches (14

Ever-popular sport socks in two colors can be sized for men, women, or kids.

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71


cm) from cuff, ending 11 sts before end of rnd on last rnd. Next Rnd: With waste yarn, k22, transfer 22 sts to left needle, with MC, k22, work in rib to last 11 sts, k11. Foot, Next Rnd: K11, work in rib to last 11 sts, k11. Cont in patt until piece measures 5 inches (12.7 cm) from waste yarn, or 1¾ inches (4.4 cm) less than desired finished length. Toe, Set-Up Rnd: K13, pm, k26, pm, k13. Dec Rnd: *K to 3 sts before m, k2tog, k1, sl m, k1, ssk; rep from * once more, k to end—4 sts dec’d. K 1 rnd. Rep last 2 rnds 5 more times—28 sts rem. Rep Dec Rnd every rnd 3 times—16 sts rem. K to m. Break yarn, leaving a 12-inch (30.5-cm) tail. Graft sts using Kitchener st.

72

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Heel, Remove waste yarn and place 22 sts of back of leg and 21 sts of sole onto needles—43 sts total. Join MC. Beg at center of back of leg, k11, pick up and k 1 st in corner, k21, pick up and k 1 st in corner, k11—45 sts. Rnd 1: K11, pm, k2tog, k10, M1, k9, k2tog, pm, k to end— 44 sts rem: 22 sts each for back of leg and sole. K 2 rnds even. Dec Rnd: *K to 2 sts before m, k2tog, sl m, k2tog; rep from * once more, k to end—4 sts dec’d. K 1 rnd. Rep last 2 rnds 6 more times—16 sts rem. K to m. Break yarn, leaving a 12-inch (30.5-cm) tail. Graft sts using Kitchener st. Finishing Sew cuff seams. Weave in loose ends. To block, submerge in cool water for half an hour, place on sock blockers or lay flat to dry.


Key

Cuff with MC, k on RS, p on WS

17 with CC, k on RS, p on WS

15

patt rep

13 11 9 7 5 3 1 12-st rep

Chart may be photocopied for personal use. The chart for this project is available in PDF format at needleworktraditions.com/ charts-and-illustrations.

Use leftover yarn for a second pair with colors reversed on the cuff.

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73


English Spencer RACHEL ANDERSON

T

he diaphanous fashions favored in the early 1800s required a range of cover-ups, the most dashing of which is the Spencer jacket. Named for George, 2nd Earl Spencer (an ancestor of the late Diana, Princess of Wales), allegedly after burning the tails off a tailcoat, the Spencer is essentially a cropped jacket with military styling. Deceptively simple in luxurious Madelinetosh Pashmina, details are key to achieving the look, making this a knitting tour de force. The construction begins with a contrasting fitted breast band, continuing up the open edges which are worked simultaneously with the body. The increases in the body are specified exactly to avoid unevenness. Close-fitting cuffs, which should authentically begin either low on the wrist or at the knuckles on the hand, lead to set-in sleeves framed by knitted-on short-row epaulettes. The purled I-cord, used for the frog and button closures embellishing the front, is chosen for extra hold and “grabbiness”: as this technique can be a little tricky, it would pay dividends to practice with waste yarn first. Perfect for that special occasion, the English Spencer would also be ideal over a strappy shell for those chilly summer evenings!

Materials Madelinetosh Pashmina, 75% merino wool, 15% silk, 10% cashmere, sportweight, 360 yards (329.2 m)/skein, 3 (4, 4, 5, 5) skeins of Sugar Plum (MC) and 1 skein of Venetian (CC); www .madelinetosh.com Needles, circular, 40 to 60 inches (101.6 to 152.4 cm), depending on size you are making, and set of double pointed, size 3 (3.25 mm) or size needed to obtain gauge Markers (m) Locking markers Stitch holders Crochet hook, size D/3 (3.25 mm) Tapestry needle Hook-and-eye fastener Finished sizes: 31 (34¾, 38½, 42¼, 45¾) inches (78.7 [88.3, 97.8, 107.3, 116.2] cm) bust circumference, buttoned; spencer shown measures 31 inches (78.7 cm) Gauge: 26 sts and 38 rows = 4 inches (10.2 cm) in St st

Special Stitch Seed Stitch (even number of sts) Row/Rnd 1: *K1, p1; rep from * to end. Row/Rnd 2: *P1, k1; rep from * to end. Rep Rows/Rnds 1 and 2 for patt.

Instructions Notes: See page 106 for Abbreviations and Techniques. The body of the spencer is worked back and forth in one piece to the underarms. Fronts and back are worked separately above the underarms. A circular needle is used

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KNITTING TRADITIONS

to accommodate the large number of stitches. The sleeves are worked in the round on double-pointed needles (or small circular needle if preferred) to the sleeve cap, and are worked flat thereafter. Epaulette stitches are picked up from the top of the sleeve caps before garment assembly, and the collar stitches are picked up from the neck edges after assembly. The buttons and frogs (fasteners) are worked as reverse I-cord on double pointed needles; with two strands of yarn for the large buttons and frogs, and one strand for the small buttons. The contrasting-color button bands are worked at the same time as the main-color body using the intarsia method. Divide the contrasting-color yarn into two balls before beginning. Spencer Body, With cir needle and CC, and using the Chain-Edge method, CO 174 (198, 222, 246, 270) sts. Do not join. Work 8 rows in Seed st. Inc Row (RS): With CC, work 8 sts in Seed st for band, join MC and work as foll: Right Front: [K3 (3, 4, 5, 5), M1, k1] 9 times, k0 (6, 3, 0, 6), place marker (pm) for side; Back: K2 (2, 3, 3, 3), [M1, k5 (6, 7, 7, 8)] 7 (4, 1, 7, 4) time(s), [M1, k4 (5, 6, 6, 7)] 3 (9, 15, 3, 9) times, [M1, k5 (6, 7, 7, 8)] 7 (4, 1, 7, 4) time(s), M1, k2 (3, 3, 3, 4), pm for side; Left Front: K0 (6, 3, 0, 6), [k1, M1, k3 (3, 4, 5, 5)] 9 times; join new ball of CC (see Notes) and work 8 sts in Seed st for band—210 (234, 258, 282, 306) sts: 8 sts for each band, 45 (51, 57, 63, 69) sts for each front, and 104 (116, 128, 140, 152) sts for back.


Merino and silk add strength and sheen to kitten-soft cashmere in Madelinetosh Pashmina. You won’t want to stop touching this yarn even after you’re done knitting.

KNITTING TRADITIONS

75


body

5¾ (6¾, 8, 8¾, 9½) inches 14.6 (17.1, 20.3, 22.2, 24.1) cm 26¾ (30½, 34¼, 37¾, 41½) inches 67.9 (77.5, 87.0, 95.9, 105.4) cm

Next Row (WS): With CC, work 8 sts in Seed st, with MC, p to last 8 sts, with CC, work in Seed st to end. Work band sts in CC and Seed st and body sts in MC and St st, until piece measures 5¾ (7, 8¼, 9¼, 9¾) inches (14.6 [17.8, 21.0, 23.5, 24.8] cm), ending with a WS row. Right Front With CC, work 8 sts in Seed st, with MC, k to first m, place rem 157 (175, 193, 211, 229) sts on holder, turn—53 (59, 65, 71, 77) sts for right front (including band). Shape armhole, Next Row (WS): BO 5 (6, 6, 6, 7) sts, p to last 8 sts, with CC, work in Seed st to end—48 (53, 59, 65, 70) sts rem. Work 1 RS row in patt. At beg of WS rows, BO 4 sts once, then BO 1 st 2 (5, 6, 7, 9) times—42 (44, 49, 54, 57) sts rem. Work even in patt until armhole measures 6½ (6¾, 7¼, 7¾, 8) inches (16.5 [17.1, 18.4, 19.7, 20.3] cm) from first BO row, ending with a WS row. Shape neck and shoulder, Next Row (RS): With CC, work first 8 sts in patt then place them on holder, break CC leaving an 8-inch (20.3 cm) tail, with MC, BO 10 (10, 10, 12, 12) sts, k to end—24 (26, 31, 34, 37) sts rem. Work 1 WS row even. At beg of RS rows, BO 3 sts 1 (1, 1, 1, 2) time(s), then BO 2 sts 1 (2, 2, 2, 2) time(s), then BO 1 st once—18 (18, 23, 26, 26) sts rem. Next Row (WS): BO 8 (8, 10, 11, 11) sts—10 (10, 13, 15, 15) sts rem. Next Row (RS): BO 1 st—9 (9, 12, 14, 14) sts rem. Next Row (WS): BO 7 (7, 10, 11, 11) sts—2 (2, 2, 3, 3) sts rem. Next Row (RS): BO 1 st—1 (1, 1, 2, 2) st(s) rem. BO rem st(s). Left Front Place leftmost 53 (59, 65, 71, 77) sts onto cir needle. With RS facing, rejoin MC. Next Row (RS): BO 5 (6, 6, 6, 7) sts, k to last 8 sts, with CC, work in Seed st to end—48 (53, 59, 65, 70) sts rem. Work 1 WS row in patt. At beg of RS rows, BO 4 sts once, then 76

KNITTING TRADITIONS

4 (4¾, 5¼, 5½, 5¾) inches 10.0 (12.0, 13.5, 14.0, 14.5) cm

sleeve 15 (16½, 17, 17¾, 18¾) inches 38.0 (42.0, 43.0, 45.0, 47.5) cm

13½ (15½, 16½, 17½, 18½) inches 34.5 (39.5, 42.0, 44.5, 47.0) cm

7 (7½, 8, 8½, 9) inches 18.0 (19.0, 20.5, 21.5, 23.0) cm

3 (3½, 4, 4, 4¼) inches 7.5 (9.0, 10.0, 10.0, 11.0) cm 32¼ (36, 39¾, 43½, 47) inches 81.9 (91.4, 101.0, 110.5, 119.4) cm

¾ inch 2.0 cm

1¼ (1½, 1½, 1½, 1¾) inches 3.0 (4.0, 4.0, 4.0, 4.5) cm

7¾ (8¼, 8¼, 9, 9¾) inches 19.5 (21.0, 21.0, 23.0, 25.0) cm 2½ (2½, 3¼, 3¾, 3¾) inches 6.5 (6.5, 8.5, 9.5, 9.5) cm

7½ (8½, 9¼, 10¼, 10¼) inches 19.0 (21.5, 23.5, 26.0, 26.0) cm

BO 1 st 2 (5, 6, 7, 9) times—42 (44, 49, 54, 57) sts rem. Work even in patt until armhole measures 6½ (6¾, 7¼, 7¾, 8) inches (16.5 [17.1, 18.4, 19.7, 20.3] cm), ending with a RS row. Shape neck and shoulder, Next Row (WS): With CC, work first 8 sts in patt then place them on holder, break CC leaving an 8-inch (20.3 cm) tail, with MC, BO 10 (10, 10, 12, 12) sts, purl to end—24 (26, 31, 34, 37) sts rem. Work 1 RS row even. At beg of WS rows, BO 3 sts 1 (1, 1, 1, 2) time(s), then BO 2 sts 1 (2, 2, 2, 2) time(s), then BO 1 st once—18 (18, 23, 26, 26) sts rem. Next Row (RS): BO 8 (8, 10, 11, 11) sts—10 (10, 13, 15, 15) sts rem. Next Row (WS): BO 1 st—9 (9, 12, 14, 14) sts rem. Next Row (RS): BO 7 (7, 10, 11, 11) sts—2 (2, 2, 3, 3) sts rem. Next Row (WS): BO 1 st—1 (1, 1, 2, 2) st(s) rem. BO rem st(s). Back Place rem 104 (116, 128, 140, 152) sts onto cir needle. With RS facing, rejoin MC.


Bands, collar, epaulettes, and frog closures in a deep color highlight the English Spencer’s military origins.

Shape armholes, BO 5 (6, 6, 6, 7) sts at beg of next 2 rows—94 (104, 116, 128, 138) sts rem. BO 4 sts at beg of foll 2 rows—86 (96, 108, 120, 130) sts rem. BO 1 st at beg of next 4 (10, 12, 14, 18) rows—82 (86, 96, 106, 112) sts rem. Work even until armhole measures 7 (7½, 8, 8½, 9) inches (17.8 [19.1, 20.3, 21.6, 22.9] cm). Shape shoulders, BO 8 (8, 10, 11, 11) sts at beg of next 2 rows, then BO 7 (7, 10, 11, 11) sts at beg foll 2 rows, then BO 1 (1, 1, 2, 2) st(s) at beg of next 2 rows—50 (54, 54, 58, 64) sts rem. BO rem sts. Sleeves With dpn and CC, and using the Chain-Edge method, CO 48 (56, 60, 66, 66) sts. Pm and join in the rnd, being careful not to twist sts. Work 10 rnds in Seed st. Break CC. Join MC. Next Rnd: K. Inc Rnd: K1, M1, k to last st, M1, k1—2 sts inc’d. Cont in St st, rep Inc Rnd every other rnd 4 more times, then every 4th rnd 6 times, every 6th rnd 5 (6, 12, 8, 16) times, then every 8th rnd 4 (5, 1, 5, 0) time(s)—88 (100, 108, 114, 120) sts. Work even until sleeve measures about 15

(16½, 17, 17¾, 18¾) inches (38.1 [41.9, 43.2, 45.1, 47.6] cm) from CO. Shape cap (worked flat), Next Row (RS): BO 5 (6, 6, 6, 7) sts, k to end—83 (94, 102, 108, 113) sts rem. Remove m and turn. Next Row (WS): BO 5 (6, 6, 6, 7) sts, p to end—78 (88, 96, 102, 106) sts rem. BO 4 sts at beg of foll 2 rows—70 (80, 88, 94, 98) sts rem. BO 1 st at beg of next 4 (10, 12, 14, 18) rows—66 (70, 76, 80, 80) sts rem. Sizes 38½ (42¼, 45¾) inches (97.8 [107.3, 116.2] cm) only: Work 2 rows even. BO 1 st at beg of next 2 rows. Rep the last 4 rows 0 (3, 2) more times—74 (72, 74) sts rem. All sizes: BO 1 st at beg of next 18 (16, 16, 2, 6) rows—48 (54, 58, 70, 68) sts rem. Place locking m in first and last sts to mark beg and end of epaulettes (for size 45¾ inches [116.2 cm], place m in first and last sts 2 rows below this row). BO 2 sts at beg of foll 8 (10, 10, 4, 2) rows—32 (34, 38, 62, 64) sts rem. BO 3 sts at beg of next 4 (4, 4, 12, 12) rows—20 (22, 26, 26, 28) sts rem. BO rem sts. KNITTING TRADITIONS

77


Finishing Block pieces to measurements (leave locking m in place). Sew shoulder seams. Epaulettes With RS of sleeve cap facing, cir needle, and CC, beg at first locking m and pick up and k 58 (62, 66, 74, 74) sts evenly around edge of cap (working 1 st or 1 row from the edge), ending at other locking m. Do not join. Next Row (WS): *K1, p1; rep from * to end. Shape epaulette using short-rows as foll: Short-row 1 (WS): Work in rib patt to last 5 sts, wrap next st, turn. Short-row 2 (RS): Rep Short-row 1. Short-row 3: Work in rib patt to 5 sts before last wrapped st, wrap next st, turn. Short-rows 4–8: Rep Short-row 3 five more times. Short-row 9: Work in rib patt to next wrapped st, work wrap tog with wrapped st, work 4 sts in rib patt, wrap next st, turn. Short-row 10: Rep Short-row 9. Short-row 11: Work in rib patt to next double-wrapped st, work both wraps tog with wrapped st, work 4 sts in rib patt, wrap next st, turn. Short-rows 12–14: Rep Short-row 11 three more times. Short-row 15: Work in rib patt to end, working last wraps tog with double-wrapped st. Row 16: Rep Short-row 15. BO all sts. Break yarn leaving a 15-inch (38.1 cm) tail. With yarn tail, whipstitch BO edge of epaulette to edge of sleeve cap. Remove m. Pin sleeves into armholes, easing to fit if necessary. Sew in place, being careful to catch BO edge of epaulette neatly in seam. Collar With RS of neck edge facing, return 8 held right band sts to cir needle. Join CC. Beg at right front neck edge, pick up and k 20 (22, 22, 24, 26) sts along right neck, 48 (52, 52, 56, 62) sts along back neck, and 20 (22, 22, 24, 26) sts along left neck, ending next to left band sts, then return 8 held left band sts to left needle tip and work across them in Seed st—104 (112, 112, 120, 130) sts. Do not join. Work in Seed st for 5 inches (12.7 cm), or desired length. BO all sts in patt. Frogs (make two) With dpn and 2 strands of CC held tog, CO 3 sts. Work Reverse I-cord for 15 inches (38.1 cm), slightly stretched.

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Figure 1

6

Begin at dot

4

2

1 3

5 7

8

Sew sides together, leaving a 11/4" (3.2 cm) opening for buttonhole

41/4" (10.8 cm)

Figure 2 3 1

2

Sew end underneath

Begin at dot

Break yarn and draw through sts. Tack into shape according to Figure 1. Large Buttons (make two) With dpn and 2 strands of CC held tog, CO 4 sts. Work Reverse I-cord for 4 inches (10.2 cm). Break yarn and draw through sts. Tack into a trefoil shape according to Figure 2. Tie into a loose knot, bring end through center of knot, then to underside. Small Buttons (make two) With dpn and CC, CO 4 sts. Work Reverse I-cord for 3 inches (7.6 cm). Complete as for large button. Sew frogs to right front and large buttons to left front, one set placed at fullest part of bust (when garment is worn) and the other set 4½ (4¾, 5, 5¼, 5½) inches (11.4 [12.1, 12.7, 13.3, 14.0] cm) below first set (or as desired), placed such that bands overlap when closures are fastened. Fold collar down, arrange as desired, and sew hook-and-eye closure at center front opening underneath fold, to secure collar in position. Sew a small button to the outer wrist of each sleeve, about ½ inch (1.3 cm) above top of cuff. Weave in ends. Block collar lightly if desired. ABOUT THE DESIGNER Rachel Anderson is a former neuroscientist now

teaching Mathematics and Knitting for Self-Defence in Ireland’s wettest county. She is certain that any knitting pattern could be reduced to a mathematical expression but pretends it is too trivial to prove. She is a rare-breed sheep enthusiast and loves working with native Irish wool.


WHAT WOULD

Jane KNIT? Enter the world of Jane Austen through timeless knitting patterns inspired by the places and characters in her beloved novels. The gorgeously evocative pieces include cardigans, knitted shawls, bags, and other accessories, as well as knitted projects for men and children. While the projects are inspired by the fashions of 200 years ago, they are every bit as relevant today. Knitters obsessed with Jane Austen as well as stitchers just looking for wonderfully appealing projects will fall in love with these beautiful designs.

The Best of Jane Austen Knits 27 Regency-Inspired Designs

Order online at www.InterweaveStore.com

Edited by Amy Clarke Moore ISBN 978-1-62033-881-0 160 pages, $24.99


Leafy Reticule SARAH GOMEZ

T

his Regency-style reticule features a leaflike stranded colorwork pattern with matching drawstrings. Originally inspired by a small beaded purse in a museum, this style of bag is based on those used in Regency times, when Jane Austen lived and wrote.

Materials Knit Picks Palette, 100% Peruvian Highland wool yarn, fingering weight, 231 yards (211.2 m)/50 gram (1.8 oz) ball, 1 ball each of #1989 oyster heather (MC) and #2196 spearmint (CC); www .craftsamericana.com Needles, set of 4 double pointed, size 1 (2.25 mm) or size needed to obtain gauge Sitich marker Tapestry needle Finished size: 6¾ inches (17.1 cm) tall and 9¼ inches (23.5 cm) circumference Gauge: 35 sts and 44 rnds = 4 inches (10.2 cm) in St st, blocked

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KNITTING TRADITIONS

Instructions Note: See page 106 for Abbreviations and Techniques. Reticule With MC, CO 8 sts. Distribute sts onto 3 needles. Pm and join in the rnd. Rnd 1: [K1f&b] 8 times—16 sts. Rnd 2 and all even rnds through Rnd 16: K. Rnd 3: [K1f&b, k1] 8 times—24 sts. Rnd 5: [K1f&b, k2] 8 times—32 sts. Rnd 7: [K1f&b, k3] 8 times—40 sts. Rnd 9: [K1f&b, k4] 8 times—48 sts. Rnd 11: [K1f&b, k5] 8 times—56 sts. Rnd 13: [K1f&b, k6] 8 times—64 sts. Rnd 15: [K1f&b, k7] 8 times—72 sts. Rnd 17: [K1f&b, k8] 8 times—80 sts.


K 4 rnds. *Work Rnds 1–7 of Leaves chart once. With MC, K 8 rnds; rep from * 2 more times. Cont with MC only. [P 1 rnd, k 1 rnd] 2 times. Eyelet Rnd: *K2tog, yo; rep from * to end. [K 1 rnd, p 1 rnd] 2 times. BO all sts. Handles (make 2) With CC, CO 2 sts onto 1 dpn. Work 2-st I-cord until piece measures 16 inches (40.6 cm). Break yarn, thread through live sts and pull tight. Finishing Thread one handle through every other hole on Eyelet rnd at top edge of bag, and sew ends of handle tog. Thread second handle through rem holes and sew ends tog. To close bag, pull one handle out on either side. Sew hole closed at bottom of bag. Weave in ends and block. A BOUT THE D ESIGNER . Sarah Gomez is a young Christian knitter living near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. She loves the look of leaf and flower motifs and stitch patterns in knitting. Find more of her work at her website, www.alittlebittoknit.com, or on Ravelry where she goes by aLittleBitToKnit.

Key with MC, knit with CC, knit patt rep

Leaves 7 5 3 1 5-st repeat

Chart may be photocopied for personal use. The chart for this project is available in PDF format at needleworktraditions.com/charts-and-illustrations.

Small drawstring bags have a million uses, from gift bags to swatch holders.

KNITTING TRADITIONS

81


Hiddenite Shawl MANDA SHAH

Hiddenite lace shimmers in a wool and silk yarn.

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KNITTING TRADITIONS


N

ineteenth-century mineralogists often dug up unexpected minerals while seeking metals for new industries and technologies. One such find, spodumene, still provides lithium for batteries and cell phones. In translucent pink or green crystals, it’s a gemstone. The pink variety, kunzite, was named in honor of George Frederick Kunz, Tiffany & Company’s chief jeweler. Its lesser-known cousin, hiddenite, ranges from pale to deep emerald green, and its name recognizes geologist William Earl Hidden. Here Hiddenite becomes a jewel of a shawl with its elegance and beauty. Nupps add a special touch to the diamond shapes forming the shawl body.

Materials JaggerSpun Zephyr Wool-Silk 2/18, 50% silk/50% merino wool yarn, laceweight, #030 Emerald Green. This yarn comes in several putups: 5040 yards [4608.6 m]/453 gram [1 lb] cone; 1120 yards [1024.1 m]/100 gram [3.5 oz] skein/hank; 560 yd [512.1 m]/50 gram [1.8 oz] skein/hank. You will need about 610 yards [557.8 m]/53 grams [1.8 oz] to complete the pattern as written; www .jaggeryarn.com Needles, circular 32 inches (81 cm), size 4 (3.5 mm) or size needed to obtain gauge Steel crochet hook, size 7 (1.65 mm) Blocking supplies (blocking board, rust-proof T-pins, blocking wires) Tapestry needle Finished size: 106 inches (269.2 cm) wide from tip to tip and 24 inches (61.0 cm) deep Gauge: 12 sts and 23 rows = 4 inches (10.2 cm) in Hiddenite Lace patt

Special Stitches Nupp: On RS row, [k1, yo, k1, yo, k1, yo, k1] into same st—7 sts. On subsequent WS row, p all 7 sts tog—1 st rem. 3 Chain Crochet BO: Insert crochet hook into first stitch on needle, as if to knit. Wrap yarn around hook, pull this loop through stitch on needle, and let stitch drop off needle. *Chain 3, insert hook into next stitch as if to knit, wrap yarn around hook, pull loop through both stitch on needle and nearest loop on hook, letting stitch drop off needle. Repeat from * until all sts are BO.

Instructions Notes: See page 106 for Abbreviations and Techniques. Hiddenite shawl is worked back and forth from the top down.

A crescent shape is achieved by increasing the stitch count by 4 on every right side row with 2 yarnovers each at the beginning and end of the row. Keep the stitches loose while forming the nupps on right side so that purling all the stitches together on subsequent wrong side will be easier. Circular needle is used to accommodate rapidly growing stitch count. Charts show right-side rows only; purl all wrong-side rows except nupps. For a nupp, purl all 7 stitches made on previous row together to decrease back to 1 st. One repeat of Hiddenite Lace chart (Rows 1–14) adds 30 sts. Please keep this in mind if you plan to work a different shawl size. Shawl Using the knitted method, CO 5 sts.

KNITTING TRADITIONS

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Work Rows 1–16 of Set-up Chart once (see Notes)—39 sts. Work Rows 1–14 of Hiddenite Lace chart 8 times—279 sts. Work Rows 1–14 of Diamond Lace Edge chart once—309 sts. Using the 3 Chain Crochet method (see Special Stitches), BO all sts. Fasten off. Finishing Weave in ends. Block well. ABOUT THE DESIGNER. Manda Shah lives in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. When she took a break from a career in information technology, she picked up knitting as a creative hobby and then moved on to designing. In addition to self-publishing on Ravelry, Manda has designs published in Interweave Knits, Brooklyn Tweed, Vogue Knitting, I Like Knitting, and Elann.

Key

Charts may be photocopied for personal use. The charts for this project are available in PDF format at needleworktraditions.com/charts-and-illustrations.

k yo

Set-up 15

k2tog

13 11

sl 1, k1, psso

9 7 5

sl 1, k2tog, psso

3 1

nupp (see Special Stitches) 5 to 39 sts patt rep

Chart shows only RS rows; see Notes for WS rows.

Hiddenite Lace 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 10-st repeat Chart shows only RS rows; see Notes for WS rows.

Diamond Lace Edge 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 10-st repeat Chart shows only RS rows; see Notes for WS rows.

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Penzance Fair Hat & Carousel Bag LISA CRUSE

Both bag and hat end in pointed tops but arrive there through different routes—a merry-go-round cylinder for one, a gently curving dome for the other.

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KNITTING TRADITIONS


W

hether you have admired painted merry-go-rounds in Dame Laura Knight’s Penzance Fair, or have virtually leaped off the brightly colored page with Mary Poppins, a ride on a majestic carousel steed is one of the fastest return trips to childhood. As a National Historic Landmark and our nation’s oldest platform carousel still in operation, Flying Horses Carousel in Oak Bluffs, Massachusetts, made my children’s summer visits to the island of Martha’s Vineyard even more magical. Going for the brass ring to win a free ride is the ultimate challenge long faced by so many young-at-heart jockeys since the carousel was built in 1876 by Charles W. F. Dare Company. Flying Horses Carousel, one of two Dare carousels still in operation, once was an attraction on Coney Island before finding a permanent stable in the town of Oak Bluffs. Shown with an enchanting woven braid trim and vintage military button accents from my personal collection, this bag is first knitted in the round, then fulled in the washing machine, then embellished. My mind races with other possibilities of embellishment, color, and closures for presentation as varied as the carousels that have inspired its shape. Generous in size, this carousel will perfectly house your knitting projects with room for needles—and no zippers to snag your yarn. Perhaps you will even wish to add a petite pocket to the lining for your brass ring stitch markers. This bag pairs well with my turban-inspired hat, where subtle differences in their pointed shapes complement each other. The hat’s onion dome echoes headgear of an exotic mystery and ageless beauty, having appeared in almost every culture at one time or another throughout history. The lovely shaping works equally well for Renaissance festivals as for futuristic costume, fairy-tale charm, or a walk to the park. The knitting is truly simple enough for a beginner, and the fulling process forgives any uneven stitches. Once the blocking and drying are complete, the fun of embellishing begins.

Instructions Note: See page 106 for Abbreviations and Techniques. Hat is knitted in the round from the brim to the point on the crown.Yarn is held double throughout. Size may be adjusted by increasing or decreasing felting time. Check hat often during felting process. Hat should fit snugly at brow line without pulling the rise and crown out of shape. Double leaf embellishment may be stitched from ribbon trim with a pin back added, or a large brooch may be pinned to the brim. Hat Beg at band with cir needle and 2 strands held tog, CO 72 (78, 84) sts. Pm and join to work in the rnd, being careful not to twist sts. [P 1 rnd, k 1 rnd] 2 times. Cont in St st until piece measures 2¼ inches (5.7 cm) from CO edge. Inc Rnd: [K3, M1R] 24 (26, 28) times—96 (104, 112) sts. K 3 rnds.

Hat Materials Cascade 220, 100% Peruvian Highland wool yarn, worsted weight, 220 yards (201 m)/100 gram (3.5 oz) skein, 2 skeins of #8555 Black; www.cascadeyarns.com Needles, circular 24 inches (61 cm) and set of double pointed, size 10½ (6.5 mm) or size needed to obtain gauge Marker Tapestry needle Optional: 2 yards (1.8 m) ribbon trim 1¼ inches (3.2 cm) wide, sewing needle and matching thread. For cockade: Pin back, piece of craft felt 2 inches (5.1 cm) by 4 inches (10.2 cm), and 2 small buttons, if desired. For double leaf decoration: Pin back. Finished sizes: 20 (22, 24) inches (50.8 [55.9, 61] cm) brim circumference; sample is size 22 inches (55.9 cm) Gauge: 12 sts and 16 rows = 4 inches (10.2 cm) in St st with 2 strands held tog, before felting

Inc Rnd: [K8, M1R] 12 (13, 14) times—108 (117, 126) sts. K 10 (12, 13) rnds. Size 24 inches (61 cm) only: Dec Rnd: [K12, k2tog] 9 times—117 sts rem. K 2 rnds. Sizes 22 (24) inches (55.9 [61] cm) only: Dec Rnd: [K11, k2tog] 9 times—108 sts rem. K 2 rnds. Cont for all 3 sizes as foll, changing to dpn when necessary: Dec Rnd: [K10, k2tog] 9 times—99 sts rem. K 2 rnds. Dec Rnd: [K9, k2tog] 9 times—90 sts rem. K 2 rnds. Dec Rnd: [K8, k2tog] 9 times—81 sts rem. K 2 rnds. Dec Rnd: [K7, k2tog] 9 times—72 sts rem. K 2 rnds. Dec Rnd: [K6, k2tog] 9 times—63 sts rem. K 2 rnds. Dec Rnd: [K5, k2tog] 9 times—54 sts rem. K 2 rnds. Dec Rnd: [K4, k2tog] 9 times—45 sts rem. K 2 rnds. Dec Rnd: [K3, k2tog] 9 times—36 sts rem. K 2 rnds. Dec Rnd: [K2, k2tog] 9 times—27 sts rem. K 2 rnds. Dec Rnd: [K1, k2tog] 9 times—18 sts rem. K 2 rnds. Dec Rnd: [K2tog] 9 times—9 sts rem. K 1 rnd. Dec Rnd: [K2tog] 4 times, k1—5 sts rem. K 1 rnd.

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87


Double Leaf Decoration Cut two lengths of ribbon, one about 10 inches (25.4 cm) long and one 8 inches (20.3 cm) long, so that the pattern matches on each side of the ribbon when folded in half and the pattern on each length is alike at the center. Fold each ribbon into a point, with the shorter one in front and, with sewing needle and thread, secure the shape with tacking stitches. Fold the bottom corners under to gather raw ends tightly, forming a leaf or feather shape. Wrap a 3-inch (7.6 cm) piece of ribbon trim around the raw ends to conceal them, neatly turn under edge at back, and stitch securely in place. Sew a pin back invisibly on the underside at center. Pin to brim as desired. Cockade Pin Create a figure-eight cockade by pinch pleating overlapping pleats into one long edge of ribbon, ¼ inch (.6 cm) at a time (Figure 1) and, with sewing needle and thread, secure the shape with tacking stitches (do not cut the ribbon until you have finished the figure-eight). Once a full circle has been completed (Figure 2), reverse the direction of the work by pinch pleating the opposite long edge ¼ inch (.6 cm) at a time until a second circle has been formed (Figure 3). Cut ribbon, tuck raw edges under and securely stitch. Stabilize the back of the piece by sewing on a piece of craft felt cut into an oval smaller than the cockade. On the front, sew a button to the center of each circle. Sew a pin back invisibly on the underside at center catching both felt and ribbon. Pin to brim as desired.

Figure 1

Break yarn leaving a 6-inch (15.2 cm) tail, thread tail through rem sts, pull tightly, and fasten off to inside. Finishing Full hat in washing machine to desired size (see Sidebar on page 90). Block as follows: Felted hat should fit snugly at brow line without pulling the rise and crown out of shape. Block by stretching the crown over an inverted shallow bowl about 8 inches (20.3 cm) or so in diameter to form a smoothly rounded crown (rim of bowl should rest in widest part of hat). Place a small inverted funnel or other support in the center of the crown to form a smooth point. Place a short cylindrical object such as a canister that is about the desired band circumference into the band of the hat (support these items with other objects if necessary to balance them at the appropriate heights). Smooth piece into final shape. Allow to dry completely.

Begin

Tack each pleat with running stitches

Figure 2 Work clockwise

Figure 3

Embellishment Cut a length of ribbon trim 21 (23, 25) inches (53.3 [58.4, 63.5] cm), or to circumference of hatband plus 1 inch (2.5 cm). With sewing needle and thread and RS of ribbon tog, stitch ends tog, taking a ½-inch (1.3 cm) seam allowance. Pin trim around lower edge of hat, just above roll formed by garter st border, with seam at center back. Sew both long edges of trim neatly and invisibly to brim of hat, making sure that stitches are not so tight as to make brim uncomfortable. 88

KNITTING TRADITIONS

Sew a button to center of each circle Tuck end of ribbon beneath starting point

Work counterclockwise


Bag Materials Cascade 220, 100% Peruvian Highland wool yarn, worsted weight, 220 yards (201 m)/100 gram (3.5 oz) skein, 3 skeins of #8555 Black; www.cascadeyarns.com Needles, circular 24 inches (61 cm) and set of double pointed, size 10½ (6.5 mm) or size needed to obtain gauge Marker Tapestry needle Three yards of ribbon trim 1¼ inch (3.2 cm) wide Three buttons, 1 inch (2.5 cm) wide or larger One yard (.91 m) 6-stranded cotton embroidery floss to match yarn color Two decorator tassels measuring 2 inches (5.1 cm) long Optional lining: Large piece of paper such as wrapping paper or roll of tracing paper, ¾ yard (.68 m) of heavy-duty fusible interfacing, 20 inches (50.8 cm) wide; ¼ yard (.23 m) lining fabric, 60 inches (152.4 cm) wide; sewing needle and matching thread

Bottom only: Break yarn, leaving a 6-inch (15.2 cm) tail, thread tail through rem sts, pull tightly, and fasten off to inside. Top, cont.: Cont k and beg loop for handle as foll: Dec Rnd: [K2tog] 4 times—4 sts rem. Place all sts on one dpn. Knit I-cord for 15 inches (38.1 cm). Break yarn, leaving a 12-inch (30.5 cm) tail. Thread tail through rem sts and pull tightly. With tail threaded on tapestry needle, stitch to attach end securely at base of handle prior to fulling. Full pieces in washing machine to desired size (see Sidebar on page 90). Block as follows: Stretch bag top over a shallow straight-sided bowl or cake pan about 8 inches (20.3 cm) in diameter. Place an inverted funnel or other support in the center of the top to form a smooth point. Shape the bag bottom by inverting it over a form such as a cylindrical canister, also about 8 inches (20.3 cm) in diameter. Smooth pieces into final shape. Allow pieces to dry completely.

Finished size: One size, about 13 inches (33.0 cm) tall excluding handle, 8 inches (20.3 cm) in diameter Gauge: 12 sts and 16 rows = 4 inches (10.2 cm) in St st with 2 strands held tog, before felting

Bag Instructions Note: See page 106 for Abbreviations and Techniques. Bag is knitted in the round starting at opening edge for both top and bottom sections.Yarn is held double throughout. Size may be adjusted by increasing or decreasing felting time. Felt top and bottom pieces at the same time, checking pieces often during felting process to ensure proper sizing of both pieces. Instructions are for bag top with changes for bag bottom in parentheses. Change to double-pointed needles when necessary. Instructions are given for tab and button closures. Alternatively, purchased frog or other closures may be used to great effect. Top (bottom in parentheses) With cir needle and 2 strands held tog, CO 80 sts. Pm and join to work in the rnd, being careful not to twist sts. Work in St st until piece measures 3 (8) inches (7.6 [20.3] cm) from CO edge. Turning ridge: P 3 rnds. Shape top (bottom): K 2 rnds. Dec Rnd: [K8, k2tog] 8 times—72 sts rem. K 3 (2) rnds. Dec Rnd: [K7, k2tog] 8 times—64 sts rem. K 3 (2) rnds. Dec Rnd: [K6, k2tog] 8 times—56 sts rem. K 3 (2) rnds. Dec Rnd: [K5, k2tog] 8 times—48 sts rem. K 2 rnds. Dec Rnd: [K4, k2tog] 8 times—40 sts rem. K 2 (1) rnds. Dec Rnd: [K3, k2tog] 8 times—32 sts rem. K 2 (0) rnds. Dec Rnd: [K2, k2tog] 8 times—24 sts rem. K 2 (0) rnds. Dec Rnd: [K1, k2tog] 8 times—16 sts rem. Dec Rnd: [K2tog] 8 times—8 sts rem.

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89


Optional Lining Cut three paper pattern pieces as foll: one rectangle 2 inches (5.1 cm) × 23 inches (58.4 cm), one rectangle 6 inches (15.2 cm) × 23 inches (58.4 cm), and one circle, 8 inches (20.3 cm) in diameter. Bring short sides of each rectangle tog to form a cylindrical shape, check fit inside bag top and bag bottom, and check fit of circle inside bag bottom. Adjust pattern pieces if necessary to fit bag dimensions. Arrange pattern pieces on interfacing, with long sides of rectangles along long edge and circle on remainder. Cut interfacing with no seam allowances. Arrange pattern pieces side by side on lining fabric, with short sides of rectangles on straight grain. Mark ½-inch (1.3 cm) seam allowances around all pieces. Cut lining fabric with seam allowances. Heat-bond interfacing to wrong side of fabric according to manufacturer’s instructions, leaving seam allowances of fabric unfused. Press seam allowances to wrong side. With sewing needle and thread, right sides tog and taking ½-inch (1.3 cm) seam allowance, stitch short ends of each rectangle tog to form cylinders. With right sides tog, and taking ½-inch (1.3 cm) seam allowance, stitch the bottom circle to one edge of larger cylinder. Insert large cylinder into bag, wrong sides tog with seam allowance turned under, and sew top edge of lining evenly and invisibly to bag, approximately ½ inch (1.3 cm) below cast-on edge of bag. Insert smaller cylinder into bag top, wrong sides tog with seam allowances turned under, aligning top edge of lining at turning ridge and bottom edge of lining ½-inch (1.3 cm) above cast-on edge of bag top. Sew lining evenly and invisibly to bag along both long edges to secure. Embellishment Cut two lengths of ribbon trim 25 inches (63.5 cm) long, or to outer circumference of bag plus 1 inch (2.5 cm), such that the pattern centers nicely at the midpoint of each length and matches on both lengths. With sewing needle and thread and RS of ribbon tog, stitch ends tog, taking a ½ inch (1.3 cm) seam allowance. Pin one trim around edge of bag bottom and the other trim around edge of bag top, both 3⁄8 inch (.95 cm) from the cast-on edge. Make sure to align seams of trim with seam of lining. Sew long edges of trims neatly and invisibly in place. Button tabs: Mark 3 points around cast-on edge of bag top as folls: One opposite the seam of the trim, and two on each side, equidistant from seam and first marked point. Cut three lengths of ribbon trim 7½ inches (19.1 cm) long, so that the pattern matches on each side of the ribbon when folded in half and the pattern on each length is alike. Fold into points and stitch according to Figure 5. Pin tabs to bag top, right sides tog, with edge of tab even with cast-on edge of bag top. Stitch securely in place 3⁄8 inch (.95 cm) from edge. Fold tab downward such that the tabs extend below bag top (please refer to photo) and sew again from wrong side, close to edge, thus concealing raw ends. Hinge: Align cast-on edges of bag top and bottom so that the seams of the trim on each piece meet. With cotton embroidery floss, stitch the pieces together ¼ inch (.64 cm) from the cast-on edges (just below trim) for 4 inches (10.2 cm), centered on seams. But90

KNITTING TRADITIONS

tons: Mark placement for buttons on bag bottom aligned with button tabs, such that top and bottom will meet perfectly when buttons are fastened. Sew buttons to bag bottom. Hang tassels around front button (opposite seam) and sew in place if desired.

Fulling in the washing machine Place piece(s) in a pillow protector bag or pillowcase to catch stray fiber. Using hot water with a half teaspoon of laundry soap added and washing machine set on smallest load size, place piece into washer and allow to agitate for about 6 minutes to start. Stop process often (every 3 or 4 minutes once shrinking begins) to measure circumference. Watch carefully to avoid shrinking too much because there is no way to enlarge the pieces again. When pieces reach desired circumference, rinse in cool water and squeeze in a towel to remove excess moisture. Block over a form until dry. If cleaning your piece is necessary, dry-clean, or sponge with a damp cloth. If your piece becomes thoroughly wet, it may be necessary to block it again.

Figure 4

Fold ribbons into overlapping points

Fold bottom corners to WS along dotted lines Figure 5

33/4" (9.5 cm)

Sew side edges of ribbon together above and below buttonhole, and sew across wrong side where ribbon is folded in back Leave a 11/4" (3.2 cm) opening for buttonhole

ABOUT THE DESIGNER. Lisa Cruse began knitting in childhood at the same time Mary Poppins first appeared on screen. This lifelong love of needlework and color mixed with artistic expression and teaching internationally keep her ideas revolving and her childlike enthusiasm at the fore. Her designs are available on Ravelry (AmbrosiaCottage) where she maintains the Ambrosia Cottage group. Lisa enjoys painting, cooking, and jazz.


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Knit Accessories!

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KNITTING ACCESSORIES:

7 FREE Patterns for Knitted Accessories

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KNITTING TRADITIONS

91


Turbanesque Child’s Hat & Muff LISA CRUSE

M

y maternal grandparents gave me a white rabbit fur muff when I was a child in the 1960s, which began a fascination for me in the realm of historical fashion. While the muff (from the Dutch word mof) has morphed in size and composition, it dates back to the sixteenth century with fur construction for both men and women as a means of staving off chilblains. The Regency period highly exaggerated the size of the muff, while its use became strictly feminine at that time, and then the muff fell out of favor with changing times. Today’s humanitarian viewpoint shuns the use of animal skins for fashion statements, but fortunately fiber is ours for artistic expression while providing necessary warmth. The miraculous fulling process of wool produces a cozy modern muff with textural interest provided by seed-stitch accents and glowing embroidery details—all sweet as fondant. The muff is presented here with a matching hat of exotic shaping to beguile another young generation.

Materials Hat and muff: Brown Sheep Nature Spun, 100% wool yarn, worsted weight, 245 yards (224 m)/100 gram (3½ oz) skein, 2 skeins of #740 Snow (A); www. brownsheep.com Muff lining: Lion Brand LB Collection Angora Merino, 80% extrafine merino wool/20% angora yarn, light worsted weight, 131 yards (120 m)/50 gram (1¾ oz) ball, 1 ball of #098 Vanilla (B); www .lionbrand.com/yarns Needles, 16-inch (40 mm) circular and set of double pointed, size 10½ (6.5 mm) or size needed to obtain gauge Marker Tapestry needle Small amounts of embroidery floss, perle cotton, tapestry wool, or fingering-weight yarn in 4 shades of red for berries and 3 shades of green for leaves. Shown here: DMC Six Strand Embroidery Floss, colors 666 (bright red), 899 (medium pink), 351 (medium coral), 498 (magenta), 890 (dark green), 988 (medium lime), 3348 (light lime). DMC Color Variations Floss in 4200 (pinks and reds) and 4045 (greens) offers comparable colors in single-skein put-ups. Embroidery needle Finished sizes: Hat 14 (16, 18) inches (35.6 [40.6, 45.7] cm) after felting; shown in size 18 inches (45.7 cm). Muff one size 8¼ inches (20.9 cm) long and 13 inches (33 cm) circumference at widest point Gauge: 12 sts and 16 rnds = 4 inches (10.2 cm) in St st with 2 strands of yarn A held tog, before felting

Special Stitches Seed Stitch in the Round (odd number of sts) Rnd 1: K1, *p1, k1; rep from * to end. Rnd 2: P1, *k1, p1; rep from * to end. Rep Rnds 1 and 2 for patt.

92

KNITTING TRADITIONS

Instructions Notes: See page 106 for Abbreviations and Techniques. Hat is knitted in the round from brim to crown. Muff is knitted in the round from end to end. Yarn is held double throughout for hat and outer layer of muff. Felt hat and outer layer of muff at the same time for consistency. Loop strap may be felted separately, then attached to muff, adjusting length as desired. Lining for muff is optional. Lining is knitted separately with a single strand of yarn and stitched into muff after felting and embroidery details are complete. Lining is not felted. Size may be adjusted by increasing or decreasing felting time. Check hat often during felting process. Embroidery details are optional. Hat Brim, With cir needle and 2 strands of yarn A, CO 43 (49, 55) sts. Place marker (pm) and join in the rnd. Next: Work Seed st in the round (see Special Stitches) for 6 (7, 7) rnds. Shape rise, Dec Rnd: K2tog, knit to end—42 (48, 54) sts rem. Inc Rnd: [K3, M1R, pm] 14 (16, 18) times (using rnd m as last pm)—56 (64, 72) sts. Next: Knit 2 rnds. Inc Rnd: *Knit to m, M1R, sl m; rep from * around—70 (80, 90) sts. Next: Knit 1 rnd. Rep Inc Rnd—84 (96, 108) sts. Next: Knit 8 (9, 10) rnds removing all m except for end of rnd. Shape crown, Note: Change to double-pointed needles when necessary. Size 18 inches (45.7 cm) only, Dec Rnd: [K7, k2tog] 12 times—96 sts rem. Knit 3 rnds.


Every girl feels like a princess when she wears an angora-lined muff and matching hat.

KNITTING TRADITIONS

93


Sizes 16 (18) inches (40.6 [45.7]) only, Dec Rnd: [K6, k2tog] 12 times—84 (84) sts rem. Knit 3 rnds. All sizes, Dec Rnd: [K5, k2tog, pm] 12 times (using rnd m as last pm)— 72 sts rem. Next: Knit 2 rnds. Dec Rnd: *Knit to 2 sts before m, k2tog; rep from * around—12 sts dec’d. Rep Dec Rnd every third rnd 4 more times—24 sts rem. Next: Knit 1 rnd. Dec Rnd: K2tog 12 times—12 sts rem. Dec Rnd: K2tog 6 times—6 sts rem. Break yarn leaving a 10inch tail. With tail threaded on a tapestry needle, run tail through rem sts, pull tight and fasten off on WS.

Muff With cir needle and 2 strands A, CO 37 sts. Pm and join to work in the rnd. Next: Work Seed st band for 7 rnds (See Special Stitches). Dec Rnd: Change to St st, k2tog then knit rem sts of rnd— 36 sts rem. Inc Rnd: [K3, M1R] 12 times—48 sts. Work in St st until piece is 9 inches (22.9 cm) from CO edge. Dec Rnd: [K2, k2tog] 11 times, end k4—37 sts rem. Next: Work Seed st band for 7 rnds. BO loosely and fasten off. Loop strap, CO 35 sts onto cir needle. K 1 row, p 1 row. BO loosely.

Finishing

Decreases on the hat form a pointed turban shape.

94

KNITTING TRADITIONS

Felting Felt hat and muff at the same time until hatband measures as desired. Loop strap may be felted at same time as muff. Felt in the washing machine to desired measurements as follows: Place items in a pillow protector bag or pillowcase to catch stray fiber. Fasten the bag or pillowcase firmly. Using hot water with a half teaspoon of laundry soap added and smallest load size, place hat into washer and allow to agitate. Stop the process often to measure the circumference. Watch carefully to avoid shrinking too much because there is no way to enlarge again. When hat reaches desired circumference, rinse in cool water and squeeze in a towel to remove excess moisture. Blocking Place a small funnel under crown to shape peak at top of hat. Block hat by stretching the crown over a shallow bowl to form a smoothly rounded crown. Continue to shape the crown and rise by inverting the bowl over a form such as a cylindrical canister that is about the desired hat circumference and smoothing the hat down to the brim. This will be the finished circumference of the brim. Block muff by smoothing and pulling into desired size. Optionally, smooth muff over a cylindrical canister that is about the desired muff circumference. Embroidery Details Use embroidery templates to add details to hat and muff after felting. Place bottom of Hat embroidery chart about ¼ inch above Seed Stitch brim. Place top of Muff Embroidery chart about ½ inch below Seed Stitch band. Variations in embroidery details are provided by the mix of colors used. For berries, use three shades of red/coral tog in the needle at the same time, changing shading by varying which three shades you use. Work Padded Satin Stitch (see page 95) to form berries as shown. Leaves are worked with three shades of green in Daisy Stitch Variation (see page 95).


Embroidery Stitches

Embroider the finishing touch: flowers and leaves in shades of red and green.

Avoid pulling sts too tightly so embellishments stand out against the felted wool. Muff Strap After felting, adjust to desired length. Loop in half and stitch securely to inside edge at one end of muff. See photo for placement. Muff Lining With one strand of yarn B, CO 50 sts and join in the round. Knit even in St st until length measures same as for felted muff. BO all sts. Do not felt lining. Insert lining into muff with purl sides tog, matching ends. Sew lining invisibly to inside of muff at each end using slip stitches, taking care that loop strap is exposed beyond edge of muff.

Padded Satin Stitch Using one strand of yarn, fill in the berry shape with Straight Stitch to form a padded foundation. Then with three shades of red/coral tog in the needle, work closely spaced Straight Stitches filling the entire circular berry shape. Change the shading for each berry by varying which three shades are chosen. Daisy Stitch Variation Using three shades of green, work Daisy Stitch. Add a Straight Stitch running the length of the center for filler. Avoid pulling sts too tightly; keep them loose so they stand out against the felted wool.

Hat Embroidery

1¾ inch

2 ¾ inches

ABOUT THE AUTHOR AND DESIGNER. Lisa Cruse knits in New Eng-

land but loves to travel and teach needlework internationally. Known for her bespoke hats, patterns, and embellishments, she incorporates her talent for color and painting into her designs along with her romantic yet realistic nature. You may find her designs at www.lisacruse.com and join her Ambrosia Cottage group on Ravelry.

Muff Embroidery

2 inches daisy stitch variation padded satin stitch

Templates may be photocopied for personal use. The templates for this project are available in PDF format at needleworktraditions.com/charts-and-illustrations.

2 ½ inches

KNITTING TRADITIONS

95


Victorian Silk Reticule SARA LAMB

Silk yarn makes a strong, colorful bag adorned with many tassels.

P

eterson’s Magazine was published between 1842 and 1898 to provide women with drawings of the latest fashions, as well as stories, poems, engravings, sheets of music, and patterns for all kinds of handcrafts: knitting, crochet, macramé, embroidery, and sewing.

In 1863, the twelve monthly volumes comprised 484 total pages of small now-faded print and drawings. The January issue begins with several stories, some poetry, and then starting on page 75, the handcraft patterns. All of them, twelve projects in this issue, are bylined Mrs. Jane Weaver. Mrs. Weaver was apparently prolific and adept at all the womanly arts. The instructions for this reticule are complete, if a bit vague to modern knitters. Mrs. Weaver tells us to “cast on to a steel knitting needle of a fine size” in a “rather coarse knitting silk.” Not being sure what either description meant, I started with a sample. Jorie II bombyx silk from Treenway seemed “rather coarse” for silk, being a ten-element yarn: five size 20/2-ply silk yarns are plied back on themselves, making a yarn that knits 22 stitches per 4 inches on size 7 needles. I knew

96

KNITTING TRADITIONS

I would need a denser fabric for a bag than for a scarf or garment, so I tried much smaller needles. Using size 1 (2.25 mm) 10-inch (25 cm) straight needles, I cast on 20 stitches and knitted for an inch, then changed to 11⁄2 (2.5 mm) for another inch, size 2 (2.75 mm) for an inch, then last to size 3 (3.25 mm) needles. I knew from my sample that size 3 needles would give a very limp fabric. The pattern has openwork, so any area of plain knitting would have to be firm enough to hold the body of the bag together. I started the bag with a size 1 needle, but after a few repeats, I found the fabric still too limp, so I started again with a size 0. This bag was completed with the size 0 throughout. While Mrs. Weaver suggests using two colors for the bag, she does not mention in the instructions where to change color. So I used the biggest needle in the sample and


knitted variations on locations in the pattern to switch from one color to another, trying to keep the finished sequence as close to the drawing of the bag as possible.

Materials Treenway Silks Jorie II, 100% Bombyx Spun Silk yarn, light worsted weight, 210 yards (192.0 m)/100 gram (3.5 oz) skein, 1 skein each of #33 Tiramisu (A) and # 214 Glacier (B) Needles, straight 10 inches (25.4 cm), size 0 (2 mm) or size needed to obtain gauge Crochet hook, size D/3.25 mm Glass padre or trade beads 7–10 mm, 9 blue to match color B Waste yarn Tapestry needle Finished size: About 151⁄4 inches (38.7 cm) in circumference and 9 inches (22.9 cm) tall Gauge: 22 sts and 42 rows = 4 inches (10.2 cm) in patt

Reticule Instructions Note: See page 106 for Abbreviations and Techniques Bag With A and using a provisional method, CO 45 sts. Do not join. Row 1 (RS): With A, k. Row 2 (WS): With A, p. Row 3: With B, k. Row 4: With B, p. Row 5: With B, k1, *yo, k2tog; rep from * to end. Row 6: With B, k. Row 7: With B, p. Row 8: With B, p. Rep Rows 1–8 eighteen more times, then work Rows 1–7 once more. Remove waste yarn from provisional CO and place 45 CO sts on a second needle. Hold needles tog with RS facing and needle holding CO sts in back. With B, graft sts using Kitchener st. Thread A onto tapestry needle and draw through edge sts on one side of the bag. Pull tight to gather sts and fasten off on WS to form bag bottom. Edging With crochet hook and B, work 84 sc around the top edge of the bag. Next Rnd: *Ch 7, sk 3 sc, sc in next sc; rep from * to end. Fasten off. Finishing Make nine 2-inch (5.1 cm) tassels using B for tassel body and A for top knot and neck. Thread top knot yarn through 1 bead before tying knot. Attach 3 tassels to bottom of bag. Make two 2-color twisted cords each 30 inches (76.2 cm) long using A for 1 group and B for the other group. Thread 1 cord through knitted eyelets around top of bag and tie ends tog to form a loop. Attach 3 tassels to tied end of cord. Beginning at opposite side of bag, repeat for 2nd cord. Weave in ends. ABOUT THE DESIGNER. You can generally find Sara Lamb in her backyard yurt

studio in northern California, spinning, weaving, and knitting. She is the author of Spin to Weave (Interweave, 2013) and The Practical Guide to Spinning Silk (Interweave, 2014). She is lambspin on Ravelry.

Bag-Purse in Silk Netting Peterson’s Magazine, January 1863, p. 81 By Mrs. Jane Weaver These very pretty little purses are now much used, and as they are easy of execution, we are sure that many young ladies will feel inclined to make one, either for her own use or as a New Years present. They are knitted in rather coarse knitting-silk, of two or more colors, according to taste—blue and brown, or violet and scarlet, or pink and black; but as this is entirely a matter of taste, we only suggest these colors as contrasting well together. To commence: cast on to a steel knittingneedle of a fine size forty-five loops; knit the first row, purl the second, knit the third, purl the fourth. The fifth row is the open row. Knit the first loop, silk forward, knit two together, silk forward, knit two together to the end of the row. Knit the sixth row, purl the seventh, purl the eighth. These eight rows form the stripe. The next row is the commencement of another stripe, and must, therefore, again be a knitted row. Repeat these stripes until there are twenty. Join the two edges together, and gather one end for the bottom of the purse. The top is to be finished with a narrow crochet border. A pretty ornamental cord is then inserted through the knitted holes close to the crochet edge, and finished with three tassels to match, one on each side, and one where it is gathered at the bottom; and this very useful and very pretty purse is completed.

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Patterns from the Past

Pincushion, Knitted Like a Lemon

Knitted citrus pincushions look charming in a bowl.

A

lemon pincushion is a novel ornament for a drawingroom table; it is also suitable and pretty to hang on a Christmas tree, and a plate full of these useful trifles will form an attractive addition to a stall at a bazaar and realise a fair percentage of profit. Required: ½ oz. of lemoncoloured and ¼ oz. of shaded green single Berlin wool, a pair of No. 12 and a pair of No. 16 steel knitting needles. The lemon wool is to make the fruit, the green is for the leaves and stem. With lemon wool and No. 12 needles cast on 34 stitches. The knitting should be done rather tightly; the first stitch of every row must be slipped and drawn

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tightly to avoid any hole or small gap at the turning, the last stitch of each little row also should be knitted tightly for the same reason. 1st row—Knit plain 34 stitches. 2nd row—Knit 22 stitches, leave 12 stitches unknitted; turn the work. 3rd row—Knit 14, leave 8; turn the work. 4th row—Knit 15, turn the work. 5th row—Knit 16, turn the work. 6th row—Knit 17, turn the work. 7th row—Knit 18, turn the work. 8th row—Knit 19, turn the work; and proceed in this manner, knitting one additional stitch in every successive row, until you get to the 19th row—Knit 30; which brings you quite to the end of the needle away


Patterns from the Past

from the tag. 20th row—Knit plain 34 stitches, that is, knit all along the pin, and you come to the end close by the tag. This forms one section of the lemon. It requires five sections, therefore repeat from the first row four times. Cast off. Make a stuffing of cotton wool, horse-hair, or any soft fabric, to the size and shape of a lemon, stretch the knitting smoothly thereon; join the cast-on stitches to those that were cast off, and sew up the ends; the end that points out like a lip is the bottom of the lemon, at the other end, the top, the leaves are to be arranged. For the Leaves— With green wool and No. 16 needles—leaving a tag of wool about 4 inches long—cast on 2 stitches. 1st row—Make 1 (by passing the wool round the needle), knit 2. 2nd row— Make 1, purl 3. 3rd row—Make 1, knit 4. 4th row—Make 1, purl 5. 5th row—Make 1, knit 6. 6th row—Make 1, purl 7. 7th row—Make 1, knit 2, slip 1, knit 2 together, pass the slipped stitch over, knit 3. 8th row—Make 1, purl 7. Repeat the two last rows 6 times. 21st row—Slip 1, knit 1, slip 1, knit 2 together, pass the slipped stitch over, knit 2 together, knit 1. 22nd row—Slip 1, purl 2 together, purl 2 together; this brings you to the top of the leaf, having 3 stitches on the needle. Cast off. Make in all five of these leaves. Group

Victoriana

the five leaves round the top of the lemon, and use the cast-off tag to secure each in place; attach the points of the leaves to the lemon by the cast-on tag, and pass the end of the wool right through the lemon before cutting it off closely. For the Stalk—Take the green wool, and cast 12 stitches on one of the No. 16 needles; knit 1 plain row, then cast off. Sew the stalk in the centre of the group of leaves, using for this purpose both the commencing and finishing ends of wool; pass one end of wool right through to the lip of the lemon, then pass it back again, leaving a small loop in the lip, and secure it firmly. The engraving clearly shows the working of the lemon, and the arrangement of the leaves and stalk. From Weldon’s Practical Needlework, Volume 10, Twenty-eighth Series. Samples knit by Heather A. Vaughan in Brown Sheep Cotton Fine, sunflower gold and lime light for fruit, jungle green for leaves and stems, using size 0 (2 mm) for fruit and size 2 (2.75 mm) for the leaves and stems.

KNITTING TRADITIONS

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Patterns from the Past

Old-Fashioned Shell & Feather Pattern

T

he shell and feather is one of the oldest knitting patterns in existence, having been handed down from generation to generation, yet it remains to this day a universal favourite, so pretty is it, and so useful for an endless variety of purposes. It looks equally well knitted with wool or with cotton, and among the articles for which it may be employed we will enumerate shawls and scarfs, sofa blankets, boxcovers, long window curtains, antimacassars, pincushion tops, the bottoms of petticoats, and the fronts of stockings and socks. Knitting needles of bone or steel must be selected to accord in size with the material, remembering that coarse needles will make the work very much more open than fine ones, therefore in the case of an inexperienced worker it will be advisable to experiment on a small example before commencing the actual article. Our engraving represents the real old-fashioned Shell and Feather Pattern comprising 26 stitches. There are smaller varieties of the pattern which will be detailed later. For this large pattern it is necessary to cast on some multiple of 26 stitches, together with 5 additional edge stitches; thus 83, 135, 187, will be suitable numbers. Commence by knitting 4 plain rows. lst Pattern row—Slip 1, knit 1, purl 1, * knit 25, purl 1, repeat from *; and knit plain the last 2 stitches. 2nd row—Slip 1, knit 2, * purl 25, knit 1, repeat from *; and knit plain the last 2 stitches. 3rd row—Same as first. 4th row—Same as second. 5th row—Slip 1, knit 1, purl 1, * knit 2 together four times successively, knit 1; make 1 100

KNITTING TRADITIONS

and knit 1 alternately eight times; now four times in succession slip 1, knit l, and pass the slipped stitch over; then purl 1; repeat from *; and knit plain the last 2 stitches of the row. 6th row—Slip 1, knit 2, * purl 25, knit 1, repeat from *; and knit plain the last 2 stitches. 7th row—Slip 1, knit 1, purl 1, * knit 25, purl l, repeat from *; and knit plain the last 2 stitches. 8th row—Same as the sixth row. Repeat from the fifth row to the eighth row for the length required. Finish with 4 plain rows and cast off. The test of correctness in this pattern is to see that the stitches which you purl in the fifth row and the seventh row form a continuous line, like a seam, up the back of the work. A smaller Shell and Feather Pattern is produced as follows:—Cast on any number of stitches forming a multiple of 20, together with 5 additional edge stitches. Knit 4 plain rows. 1st Pattern row—Slip 1, knit 1, purl 1, * knit 19, purl 1, repeat from *; and knit plain the last two stitches. 2nd row—Slip 1, knit 2, * purl 19, knit 1, repeat from *; and knit the last 2 stitches. 3rd row—Same as first. 4th row—Same as second. 5th row— Slip 1, knit 1, purl 1, * knit 2 together three times successively, knit 1; make 1 and knit 1 alternately six times; now three times in succession slip 1, knit 1, and pass the slipped stitch over; then purl 1; repeat from *; and knit plain the last 2 stitches of the row. 6th row—Slip 1, knit 2, * purl 19, knit 1, repeat from *; and at the end knit 2. 7th row—Slip 1, knit 1, purl 1, * knit 19, purl 1, repeat from *; and knit plain the last 2 stitches. 8th row—Same as the sixth row. Repeat from the fifth row to the eighth row for the length required. Finish with 4 plain rows, and cast off. A still smaller Shell and Feather Pattern requires only 14 stitches for each pattern, or any multiple of 14, together with 5 additional stitches for the edge. Knit 4 plain rows. lst pattern row—Slip 1, knit 1, purl 1, * knit 13, purl 1, repeat from *; and knit plain the last 2 stitches. 2nd row—Slip 1, knit 2, * purl 13, knit 1, repeat from *; and at the end knit 2. 3rd row—Same as first. 4th row—Same as second. 5th row— Slip 1, knit 1, purl 1, * knit 2 together, knit 2 together, knit 1; make 1 and knit 1 alternately four times; slip 1, knit l, pass the slipped stitch over, slip 1, knit 1, pass the slipped stitch over, purl 1; repeat from *; and knit plain the last 2 stitches of the row. 6th row—Slip l, knit 2, * purl 13, knit 1, repeat from *; and at the end knit 2. 7th row—Slip 1, knit 1, purl 1, * knit 13, purl l, repeat from *; and knit plain the last 2 stitches. 8th row—Same as the 6th row. Repeat from the fifth row to the eighth row inclusive, and continue until a sufficient length is knitted: then work 4 plain rows, and cast off. From Weldon’s Practical Needlework, Volume 11, Thirty-third Series. Sample knit in Knit Picks Aloft, color blush, using size 1.5 (2.5 mm) needles.


Patterns from the Past

Victoriana

Wedge Pattern in Three Colours

The wedge pattern isn’t only for waistcoats. It adapts easily into accessories for men.

T

he “wedge” pattern is one of the designs for knitted vests that require three colours or shades to bring out the best effect. Of these three one serves solely as a background against which are arranged in formal rows a number of little triangles, those in each alternate line being alike in colour. If the cost is of no object, it is a good plan to work the background of the pattern with wool and the triangles with silk, but if it is desired to expend as little as possible on the knitting, it is sufficiently pretty when wool alone is used. This pattern looks best in single Berlin, stocking fingering, Alloa wheeling, or Andalusian wool, using steel needles, No. 14. The ordinary knitting silk answers admirably in combination with either of these wools. The choice of colours must depend greatly upon individual taste, but an extremely pretty waistcoat may be produced by choosing dull, reddish brown for the background colour and two shades of olive green for the triangles. Another idea is to have three shades of one colour only, such as blue, brown, or green, or to have a black background with patterns of green and brown, or dull crimson, upon it. It is a design that does not require to be brought out by the use of bright colours, as it readily stands up effectively from the ground tint with subdued shades.

The knitting is executed solely in rows of alternately plain and purl, the pattern depending upon the change of colour and not upon any fancy stitch. The work is so easy that it is readily learnt, and with a little attention can be very quickly done. We will suppose that the colours selected are dark red, dark green, and black, the last-named being destined for the background. Cast on any number of stitches that will divide by five, using the black, or background, colour. 1st row— Knit 1 stitch with the red wool, 4 with the black; repeat these five stitches all along. 2nd row—Turn and purl back, working 3 black stitches and 2 red alternately all along. Remember in working this row to keep the loops of wool that are made in passing from stitch to stitch on the wrong, that is, the rough side of the knitting, and to let them set quite loosely lest they should draw the pattern out of place. 3rd row—Knit 3 red and 2 black stitches alternately all along. In these plainly knitted rows the loops of wool are passed across at the back of the work, so that they are all kept on the same side of the pattern. 4th row—Purl 1 black and 4 red stitches all along. 5th row—The first row of triangles is now finished, so, to make a break between them and the next set, knit this row plain with black wool or whatever has been chosen for the background. 6th row—Purl 4 stitches with the black wool, 1 stitch with the green wool that has not hitherto been used in this pattern. Repeat these 5 stitches all along. 7th row—Knit 2 stitches with green and 3 stitches with black alternately. It will be noticed that the dark red wool has fallen out of use; it will be required again however, when the third row of triangles has to be made. 8th row—Purl 2 black stitches and 3 green all along. 9th row—Knit 4 stitches with green and 1 stitch with black alternately. 10th row—This is a background row again like the 5th, and is worked with black. This time it is purled instead of being plainly knitted. Now lay aside the green wool, and take the red for the third row of triangles. These are made exactly like those already knitted, and the work must therefore be repeated from the first row. When enough has been knitted for one section of the vest, cast off with the black wool. This pattern can readily be carried out with only 2 colours if preferred, the triangles being of one and the background of the second shade. Also, it is easy to make the triangles themselves either larger or smaller if some variation is required. From Weldon’s Practical Needlework, Volume 12, Crochet and Knitted Waistcoats, First Series. Case knitted in Rowan Fine Tweed, 1 skein each of Malham and Buckden, and Knit Picks Palette, color 23729 black, using size 3 (3.25 mm) needles. If knit in the round, this pattern could use one background color and one self-striping yarn for the triangles.

KNITTING TRADITIONS

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Patterns from the Past

Jewel Stitch

Above: It’s the embroidery that makes this pattern special. Right: A tone-on-tone combination produces subtle results, as in the green swatch. Contrasting floss or yarn draws attention to the embroidery.

N

o. 20 shows “Jewel” stitch, which is knitted in a simple pattern and then finished with stitches of coloured knitting silk. The work is so easy that it can be executed very quickly. Cast on an even number of stitches which is divisible by four. If edge stitches are desired, two extra are required, and they must be knitted as described in the No. 21 pattern [Ed.—knitted on the right and purled on the wrong side of the work.] The lower edge of the front must be long enough to reach from the middle to the underarm seam, and if double Berlin wool is used 64 stitches will probably be found sufficient. 1st row—Purl every stitch. 2nd row—* Make 2 by knitting, purling, and knitting into 1 stitch, purl 3 together; repeat from * all along. Notice that in this and similar rows the number of stitches is neither increased nor decreased, as the added stitches made by working three in one are taken off by purling three together. 3rd row—Purl every stitch. 4th row—* Purl 3 together, make 2 as in the 2nd row; repeat from * all along. Repeat from the 1st row until a length of 25 inches has been made. Cast off, and work the second part of the front in the same way. 102

KNITTING TRADITIONS

The knitting is then ready for the embroidery. Choose a good-sized rug needle, and knitting silk of a colour that will look well with the wool already used. If fine, take the silk double. Begin at the top edge, bringing the needle out exactly above the top of a tuft, carry it down along the diagonal furrow that runs between all the tufts, and work a row of back-stitching down the whole length, being careful not to leave a groove. Each stitch must be exactly the length of a tuft, and the method of working will be found more easy to follow by study of the illustration than by a written description. It will be seen that the embroidery forms a series of fine diagonal stripes over the knitting. If the extra work involved is not an objection, these lines may be carried over the waistcoat in the opposite direction also, and then they will outline the tufts completely instead of partially, as in our model. The arrangement of the silk stitches may be varied infinitely; for instance, every alternate tuft may be surrounded with four stitches, with an excellent result. From Weldon’s Practical Needlework, Volume 12, Crochet and Knitted Waistcoats, First Series. Samples knit in Knit Picks Palette, color 23730 cream, using size 3 (3.25 mm) needles; color 24254 celadon heather, using size 1 (2.25 mm) needles.


Patterns from the Past

Victoriana

Very Narrow Lace A four-row repeat makes this pattern easy to memorize, with lovely results.

Suitable for edging pincushions, toilet mats, &c., and is quite a narrow edging, its extreme depth, knitted in coarse (Strutts’ No. 6) knitting cotton and needles No. 16, being scarcely one inch, our illustration giving it enlarged to show distinctly its effective pattern. Cast on 7 stitches. 1st row—Slip 1, purl 2, make 1, purl 2 together, make 2, purl 2 together. 2nd row—Make 1, knit 2, purl 1, knit 2, make 1, knit 2 together, knit 1. 3rd row—Slip 1, purl 2, make 1, purl 2 together, purl 4. 4th row—Cast off 2, knit

3, make 1, knit 2 together, knit 1. Repeat from first row for the length required. From Weldon’s Practical Needlework, Volume 10, Twenty-seventh Series. Samples knit in Knit Picks Palette, color 24254 celadon heather, using size 2 (2.75 mm) needles; Knit Picks Curio, comfrey, on size 0 (2 mm) needles.

KNITTING TRADITIONS

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Patterns from the Past

Fleur-de-Lis Lace Cotton crochet thread and fingering weight wool produce different effects in this edging.

Cast on 14 stitches. 1st row. Knit 2, forward, 2 together, knit 5, 2 together, forward, 2 together, knit 1. 2nd row. Forward, 2 together, forward, purl 1, forward, purl 2 together, purl 4, knit 4. 3rd row. Knit 2, forward, 2 together, knit 3, 2 together, forward, knit 3, forward, knit 2. 4th row. Forward, 2 together, forward, knit 1, forward, purl 3 together, forward, knit 1, forward, purl 2 together, purl 2, knit 4. 5th row. Knit 2, forward, 2 together, knit 1, 2 together, forward, knit 3, forward, knit 1, forward, knit 3, forward, knit 2. 6th row. Forward, 2 together, purl 1, purl 3 together, forward, purl 3, forward, purl 3 together, purl 1, forward, 2 together, knit 4. 7th row. Knit 2, forward, 2 together, knit 2, forward, slip

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1, 2 together, pass over, forward, knit 3, forward, slip 1, 2 together, pass over, forward, knit 2. 8th row. Forward, 2 together, purl 2 together, purl 1, purl 3 together, 2 together, forward, purl 3, knit 4. 9th row. Knit 2, forward, 2 together, knit 4, forward, slip 1, 3 together, pass over, forward, knit 2. 10th row. Forward, 2 together, purl 2 together, forward, purl 5, knit 4. 11th row. Knit 2, forward, 2 together, knit 6, forward, knit 1, forward, knit 2. 12th row. Forward, 2 together, purl 2 together, purl 7, knit 4. From Ladies’ Needlework, 1849, pp. 94–95. Samples knit in Knit Picks Palette, bluebell, on size 3 (3.25 mm) needles; Knit Picks Curio, chocolate, on size 0 (2 mm) needles.


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Abbreviations beg—begin(s); beginning BO—bind off CC—contrasting color ch—chain cir—circular cn—cable needle CO—cast on cont—continue(s); continuing dc—double crochet dec(s) (’d)—decrease(s); decreased; decreasing dpn—double-pointed needle(s) foll—follow(s); following hdc—half double crochet inc(s) (’d)—increase(s); increased; increasing k—knit k1b—knit 1 in back of stitch k1f&b—knit into the front and back of the same stitch—1 stitch increased k2b—knit 2 in back of next 2 stitches kwise—knitwise; as if to knit k2tog—knit 2 stitches together k3tog—knit 3 stitches together k5tog—knit 5 stitches together lp(s)—loop(s) m(s)—marker(s) MC—main color M1—make one (increase) M1k—increase 1 by knitting into the front and then the back of the same stitch before slipping it off the left-hand needle M1P—increase 1 by purling into the front and then the back of the same stitch before slipping it off the left-hand needle

MlL—(make 1 left) lift the running thread between the stitch just worked and the next stitch from front to back, and knit into the back of this thread M1R—(make 1 right) lift the running thread between the stitch just worked and the next stitch from back to front, and knit into the front of this thread p—purl p1b—purl 2 in back of stitch p2tog—purl 2 stitches together p3tog—purl 3 stitches together p4tog—purl 4 stitches together p5tog—purl 5 stitches together p7tog—purl 7 stitches together patt—pattern(s) pm—place marker prev—previous psso—pass slipped stitch over p2sso—pass 2 slipped stitches over pwise—purlwise; as if to purl rem—remain(s); remaining rep(s)—repeat(s); repeating rev St st—reverse stockinette stitch (p rightside rows; k wrong-side rows) rnd(s)—round(s) RS—right side sc—single crochet sk—skip sl—slip sl st—slip(ped) stitch sp(s)—space(s) ssk—slip 1 knitwise, slip 1 knitwise, knit 2

slipped stitches together through back loops (decrease) sssk—slip 3 stitches one at a time as if to knit, insert the point of the left needle into front of slipped stitches, and knit these 3 stitches together through their back loops (decrease) ssp— slip 1 knitwise, slip 1 knitwise, purl 2 slipped stitches together through back loops (decrease) st(s)—stitch(es) St st—stockinette stitch tbl—through back loop tch—turning chain tog—together tr—treble crochet ttr—triple treble crochet WS—wrong side wyb—with yarn in back wyf—with yarn in front yo—yarn over yo twice—bring yarn forward, wrap it counterclockwise around the right needle, and bring it forward again to make two wraps around the right needle *—repeat starting point ( )—alternate measurements and/or instructions [ ]—work bracketed instructions a specified number of times

Techniques Chain-Edge Cast-On This cast-on method is worked with a crochet hook and can be used in one of two ways: as a decorative cast-on that forms a tidy chain and perfectly matches the bind-off row, or as a provisional cast-on. If the decorative cast-on is desired, use the working yarn for the crochet chain. For a provisional cast-on, use waste yarn for the chain and then knit a plain row with the working yarn (the provisional cast-on is not complete until there is a row of working yarn stitches on the needle). Place a slipknot on crochet hook. Hold knitting needle and yarn in your left hand and hook in your right hand, with yarn under needle. Place hook over needle, wrap yarn around hook and pull loop through loop on hook (Figure 1). *Bring yarn to back under needle, wrap yarn around hook, and pull it through loop on hook (Figure 2). Repeat from * until there is one fewer than the desired number of stitches on needle. Slip loop from hook to needle for last stitch.

Figure 1

Figure 2

—continued om page 108 106

KNITTING TRADITIONS


Textured Stitches to Swatch and Explore! CELEBRATE ESTONIAN KNITTING

l, u f i t u sy a a e e b e e t h t a e Cr work itting! r o l o c e intricat h slip-stitch kn it way—w

Merike Saarniit treasures the richness and creativity of her Estonian textile heritage. Reading the complex knitting patterns in her Estonian stitch dictionaries, Merike fell in love with the innovative designs and endless variations. Learn to knit these beautiful patterns in this video workshop! In addition to the traditional stitches, you’ll discover how Merike’s innovative cast-on and selvedge treatments transform a swatch into a useful start for a hat, cuff, or even a sweater. With Merike’s guidance, you will knit: t4USFUDIZEFDPSBUJWFFMPOHBUFETUJUDIFT t4VSQSJTJOHTUJUDINBOJQVMBUJPOT t4FWFSBMLJOETPGOVQQT t&MFHBOUIPSJ[POUBMBOEUSBWFMJOHQBUUFSOT t"OENPSF Plus! Follow along with Merike in this 90-minute video and make your own Estonian stitch sampler using the free pattern included with this workshop!

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WITH THIS 129-MINUTE VIDEO WORKSHOP, YOU WILL: • Master the basics through a comprehensive overview of slipped stitches. • Explore the five different stitch patterns comprising the included Santorini Cowl pattern. • Learn how to decipher charts and special abbreviations. • Gain confidence to choose the best yarn and color palettes with ease.

Order online at www.InterweaveStore.com KNITTING TRADITIONS

107


—continued from page 106

Embroidery Daisy Stitch Bring threaded needle out from back to front at center of a knitted stitch. *Form a short loop and insert needle back where it came out. Keeping loop under needle, bring needle back out in center of next stitch over. Beginning each stitch at the same point on the knitted background, repeat from * for desired number of petals (six shown).

Straight Stitch *Bring threaded needle out from back to front at base of knitted stitch(es) you want to cover. Insert needle at top of stitch(es) you want to cover. Repeat from *.

Long-Tail Cast-On Also called the Continental method, this cast-on creates a firm, elastic edge that’s appropriate for most projects. This method is worked with one needle and two ends of yarn, and it places stitches on the right needle. The resulting edge is smooth on one side (the side facing you as you work) and knotted or bumpy on the other (the side facing away from you as you work). Most knitters choose to designate the smooth side as the “right” side. Leaving a long tail, make a slipknot and place on a needle held in your right hand. Place thumb and index finger of your left hand between the yarn ends so that the working yarn is around your index finger and the tail is around your thumb, secure the ends with your other three fingers, and twist your wrist so that your palm faces upward, making a V of yarn around your thumb and index finger (Figure 1). *Bring needle up through loop on thumb (Figure 2), grab the first strand around index finger with needle, and go back down through loop on thumb (Figure 3). Drop loop off thumb and, placing thumb back in the V configuration, tighten resulting stitch on needle (Figure 4). Repeat from *.

Satin Stitch This stitch is ideal for filling in open areas, such as the center of leaves or flowers. Work closely spaced straight stitches, in graduated lengths as desired, and entering and exiting in the center of or at the side of the knitted stitches.

Figure 1

Figure 2

I-Cord With double-pointed needle, cast on desired number of stitches. *Without turning the needle, slide the stitches to other end of the needle, pull the yarn around the back, and knit the stitches as usual; repeat from * for desired length.

Kitchener Stitch Step 1: Bring threaded needle through front stitch as if to purl and leave stitch on needle. Step 2: Bring threaded needle through back stitch as if to knit and leave stitch on needle. Step 3: Bring threaded needle through first front stitch as if to knit and slip this stitch off needle. Bring threaded needle through next front stitch as if to purl and leave stitch on needle. Step 4: Bring threaded needle through first back stitch as if to purl (as illustrated), slip this stitch off, bring needle through next back stitch as if to knit, leave this stitch on needle. Repeat Steps 3 and 4 until no stitches remain on needles.

Figure 3

Figure 4

Make 1 (M1) Increases Left Slant (M1L) and Standard M1

With left needle tip, lift strand between needles from front to back (Figure 1). Knit lifted loop through the back (Figure 2).

Figure 1 Figure 2 Right Slant (M1R)

With left needle tip, lift strand between needles from back to front (Figure 1). Knit lifted loop through the front (Figure 2).

Figure 1 Figure 2 Purl (M1P)

For purl versions, work as above, purling lifted loop. —continued on page 110 108

KNITTING TRADITIONS


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Invisible (Provisional) Cast-On

Tassel

Place a loose slipknot on needle held in your right hand. Hold waste yarn next to slipknot and around left thumb; hold working yarn over left index finger. *Bring needle forward under waste yarn, over working yarn, grab a loop of working yarn (Figure 1), then bring needle to the front, over both yarns, and grab a second loop (Figure 2). Repeat from *. When you’re ready to work in the opposite direction, pick out waste yarn to expose live stitches.

Cut a piece of cardboard 4" (10 cm) wide by the desired length of the tassel plus 1" (2.5 cm). Wrap yarn to desired thickness around cardboard. Cut a short length of yarn and tie tightly around one end of wrapped yarn (Figure 1). Cut yarn loops at other end. Cut another piece of yarn and wrap tightly around loops a short distance below top knot to form tassel neck. Knot securely, thread ends onto tapestry needle, and pull to center of tassel (Figure 2). Trim ends.

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 1

Short-Rows (Knit Side) Work to turning point, slip next stitch purlwise (Figure 1), bring the yarn to the front, then slip the same stitch back to the left needle (Figure 2), turn the work around and bring the yarn in position for the next stitch—one stitch has been wrapped, and the yarn is correctly positioned to work the next stitch. When you come to a wrapped stitch on a subsequent row, hide the wrap by working it together with the wrapped stitch as follows: Insert right needle tip under the wrap (from the front if wrapped stitch is a knit stitch; from the back if wrapped stitch is a purl stitch (Figure 3), then into the stitch on the needle and work the stitch and its wrap together as a single stitch.

Figure 2

Twisted Cord Cut several lengths of yarn about five times the desired finished cord length. Fold the strands in half to form two equal groups. Anchor the strands at the fold by looping them over a doorknob. Holding one group in each hand, twist each group tightly in a clockwise direction until they begin to kink (Figure 1). Put both groups in one hand, then release them, allowing them to twist around each other counterclockwise. Smooth out the twists so that they are uniform along the length of the cord. Knot the ends (Figure 2).

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 1 Figure 3 110

KNITTING TRADITIONS

Figure 2


Stop to Shop ALASKA The Rookery -- Kodiak www.therookeryfibershop.blogspot.com Kindle your fiber fascination. We carry quality yarns, fabrics, threads, buttons and other fiber art supplies for the fiber enthusiast. 104 Center Ave., Suite 100 B (907) 486-0052

ARIZONA Purl in the Pines, LLC—Flagstaff www.purlinthepines.com We are a full-service yarn shop catering to the fiber enthusiast. Knitters, crocheters, weavers and spinners – Fiber, Fun, Friends, and Food! 2544 N. 4th St. (928) 774-9334

CALIFORNIA A Yarn Less Raveled—Danville www.ayarnlessraveled.com Everything you need for your knit/crochet projects– beautiful yarns, patterns, needles, notions, and support to make your project a success. Classes of all levels! 730 Camino Ramon, Suite 186 (925) 263-2661

Once Around—Mill Valley www.oncearound.com The felting, stamping, embroidery, fabric-painting, wreathmaking, embossing, scrapbooking, decoupage, candle-crafting, bookbinding, glitter, sewing, knitting and, more . . . ARTS and CRAFTS STORE. 352 Miller Ave. (415) 389-1667

Uncommon Threads—Los Altos www.uncommonthreadsyarn.com Beautiful yarns from around the world. 293 State St. (650) 941-1815

COLORADO Gypsy Wools—Boulder www.gypsywools.com Specializing in natural fibers, hand-dyed, handpainted, and natural color. Exotics, rare and heritage breed fibers, and unusual custom spun yarns. We’re not your average yarn store. 3216 Arapahoe Ave., Ste. D (303) 442-1884

The Recycled Lamb—Golden www.recycledlamb.com The Recycled Lamb has been serving the needs of knitters and crocheters for over 30 years. We carry an extensive selection of yarn and fiber, books and patterns, and you’ll love our friendly, knowledgeable staff! 2081 Youngfield St. (303) 234-9337

Wild Yarns—Denver www.wildyarns.com Knit and crochet supplies and classes. Yarn from Colorado and the West. 1227 21st Street (303) 433-3762

I DA H O Alpaca Direct—Hayden www.AlpacaDirect.com Huge selection of luxury yarn, roving, and knitting supplies. Classes and support. 1016 W. Hayden Ave. (208) 209-7079 (888) 306-0111

Knit-n-Crochet—Coeur D’Alene www.knit-n-crochet.com Friendly service and inviting atmosphere. Come in and see, or shop online, our large selection of yarn, needles and accessories. 600 W. Kathleen Ave. #30 (208) 676-YARN (9276)

MICHIGAN Nautical Yarn—Ludington www.nauticalyarn.com When you walk into our turn-of-the-century store and see the HUGE selection of yarn, you’ll be in heaven. 108 South Rath Ave. (231) 845-9868

NEW JERSEY A Stitch In Time—Farmingdale www.sityarn.com A charming and friendly shop offering yarn, patterns, and notions for knitting and crocheting enthusiasts. Come in and get inspired! 93 Main St., Ste. 100A (732) 938-3233

Woolbearers—Mount Holly

spinning, weaving, knitting, crocheting, felting and rug hooking - gifts and antiques! 466 Brookside Village Wy., Ste. 8 (865) 436-9080

W A S H I N G TO N Paradise Fibers—Spokane www.paradisefibers.com Terrific selection of wool yarn, knitting needles, wheels, and looms. Order online or stop in. Sameday shipping! 225 W. Indiana Ave. (509) 536-7746

WISCONSIN The Dragonfly Yarn Shop—Janesville www.dragonflyyarnshop.com Wool and luxury fibers. Addi and Crystal Palace needles. Lessons by the hour. Home of the Pirouette! 1327 N. Wright Rd., Ste. 5A (608) 757-9228

W YO M I N G The Fiber House—Sheridan

www.woolbearers.com Full-service knitting, spinning, weaving, and dyeing shop specializing in handpainted fiber and yarns, spinning, and weaving equipment. 90 High St. (609) 914-0003

www.thefiberhouse.com Fleece to fashion and fun! Local alpaca yarn. Books, notions, classes, and 30+ yarn lines! info@thefiberhouse.com. 146 Coffeen Ave. (307) 673-0383

N E VA DA

The Knitting Connection

Sin City Knit Shop — Las Vegas

www.woobeeknitshop.net (307) 760-2092 Products include Brown Sheep, Waverly, Jean Greenhowe, Addi, and Skacel.

www.sincityknitshop.com Largest & friendliest shop in LV— Knit Dr & Crochet Dr —open knitting & crocheting—classes & free workshops—monthly newsletter & calendar of events 2165 E. Windmill Lane, Suite 200 (702) 641-0210

OREGON Knotty Lady Yarns LLC – Roseburg www.KnottyLadyYarns.com The premier location for your fiber needs in Western Oregon. The best stocked, fairest prices & most comprehensive teaching facility. 642 S.E. Jackson Street (541) 673-2199

P E N N S Y LVA N I A Gosh Yarn It!—Kingston www.goshyarnitshop.com A beautiful yarn boutique in Northeastern PA. Visit us for fine yarn, patterns, notions, and knitting & crochet classes. 303 Market St. (570) 287-9999

Natural Stitches—Pittsburgh www.naturalstitches.com Best selection of natural fibers in Pittsburgh. Knowledgeable staff. Open 7 days. Evenings, too! 6401 Penn Ave. (412) 441-4410

TENNESSEE Smoky Mountain Spinnery—Gatlinburg www.smokymountainspinnery.com Come see our newly expanded 3000 sq. ft. shop -

Woobee KnitShop

Classifieds Travel CRAFT CRUISES—Join us on a knitting Cruise! Travel with like-minded people while learning new skills, meeting locals and shopping for yarn. Visit www.craftcruises.com or call (877) 97-CRAFT. G R E AT B R I TA I N W O O L L E N CRAFT TOUR. June 17-28, 2016. www. fibergarden.com/travel. (715) 284-4590.

Ad Index Brown Sheep Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Cascade Yarns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C4 Feral Knitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Halcyon Yarn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Kelbourne Woolens (The Fibre Co) . . . . . . . . . 5 Mango Moon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Oomingmak, Musk Ox Producers . . . . . . . . . 91 Southeastern Animal Fiber Fair . . . . . . . . . . . 91 The Woodstock Fleece Festival . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Treenway Silks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 KNITTING TRADITIONS

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Sources for Supplies Blacker Yarns Pure Manx Loaghtan Wool www.blackeryarns.co.uk (Manx Loaghtan Boot Socks) Brown Sheep Wildfoote, Nature Spun, Cotton Fine www.brownsheep.com (Vintage Sport Socks, Turbanesque Child’s Hat & Muff, Pincushion, Knitted Like a Lemon) Cascade Yarns Cascade 220 Heathers, Heritage, Cascade 220 www.cascadeyarns.com (Muffatees for a Man, Going in Circles Socks, Penzance Fair Hat & Carousel Bag)

Lorna’s Laces Helen’s Lace www.lornaslaces.net (Lucy’s Stars and Diamonds Stole) Madelinetosh Pashmina www.madelinetosh.com (English Spencer)

Golden Crown Suri Alpaca www.windyvalleymuskox.net (Simple in Russian Lace Scarf)

Rowan Fine Tweed www.knitrowan.com (Wedge Pattern in Three Colours)

JaggerSpun Zephyr Wool-Silk www.jaggeryarn.com (Hiddenite Shawl)

Treenway Silks Jorie II www.treenwaysilks.com (Victorian Silk Reticule)

Jamieson & Smith 2-Ply Jumper Weight www.shetlandwoolbrokers.co.uk (Orkney Fair Isle Tam)

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Knit Picks Lindy Chain, Palette, Aloft, Stroll, Curio www.knitpicks.com (Zouave Sleeveless Jacket, Leafy Reticule, OldFashioned Shell and Feather Pattern, Wedge Pattern in Three Colours, Jewel Stitch, Very Narrow Lace, Fleur-de-Lis Lace)


Explore world knitting without leaving home • 21 PROJECTS from cultures that create “slow cloth” • Colorwork, cables, folk motifs, and lace from Asia, Africa, Europe, Oceania, and South America • Textile adventures and techniques from intrepid fiber artists

Order the magazine at

bit.ly/folk-knitting



Knitting traditions fall 2015