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WireJewelry START TO

More than

30 INSPIRING PROJECTS BRACELETS • NECKLACES • EARRINGS • MORE

43

skillbuilding techniques Wire-weaving Chain mail Viking knit Enameling

and more! HOW TO make your own findings Tips for preventing dents and dings

FINISH


from the editor Editor Julia Gerlach Senior Art Director Lisa A. Bergman Editorial staff Cassie Donlen, Randy Rehberg,

Erica Swanson, Connie Whittaker Contributing Editor Stacy Werkheiser Editorial Assistant Lora Groszkiewicz Graphic Designer Lisa M. Schroeder Photographer Bill Zuback Illustrator Kellie Jaeger Production Coordinator Jodi Jeranek Editorial Director Diane M. Bacha

EDITORIAL Call (262) 796-8776 or write to: Editor, Bead&Button P.O. Box 1612 Waukesha, WI 53187-1612

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Wired for creativity A line, a curve, a twist, a flourish. Form, shape, structure. From rough and rigid to moveable and malleable, the design potential inherent in a piece of wire is limitless. You can wrap it, weave it, twist it, tie it, braid it, loop it, and much more. Put lame to it to change its shape or coil and cut it to make the jump rings for a piece of chain mail. Whether you like bold, simple shapes or intricately detailed structures, wire ofers an intensely lexible avenue to self expression. But you can’t expect to simply pick up a spool of wire and get it to do exactly what you want right away. Beginners and even experienced wireworkers sometimes get stymied by broken, kinked, or scratched wire. Rather than giving up, the wise maker knows that practice and learning are the keys to successful creation. In Wire Jewelry Start to Finish, we put together a wide range of helpful information, tips, and how-tos to help you understand the materials that are available, which tools to use, and the techniques that can help you realize your vision.

THIS is your ULTIMATE GUIDE to making beautiful wire jewelry!

To further your skill development, we selected more than 30 projects that explore a host of fundamental wireworking techniques. Projects in “Beyond the basics” underscore essential skills like shaping, wrapping, forging, and coiling. In “Make your own indings,” you will learn to craft beautiful earwires, clasps, and cones to give your designs a handmade inish that is uniquely your own. The “Playing with ire” section introduces three key techniques you can do with a handheld torch, namley balling up the end of a wire for an elegant inish, soldering wire ends for a permanent join, and adding color with enamel. In “Wire weaving” you’ll learn how to create wonderful textures and patterns by weaving thin wires around thicker ones. In addition, you’ll ind tutorials on Viking knit and a basic braid, both of which create fabulous necklace ropes to wear alone or to support your favorite pendant. Finally, the chain mail section introduces seven diferent weaves that you can use to make all sorts of designs with a modern touch. So whether your style is classic or contemporary, delicate or daring, you will ind the inspiration and instruction you need for your wireworking journey with Wire Jewelry Start to Finish.

Looking for even more wire jewelry projects? Visit our website, FacetJewelry.com, where we post exciting jewelry-making projects, how-tos, and videos every day. Want to go beyond wire? Branch into other media by learning to use metals, resin, iber, beads, clays, and more. The Facet website is your 24/7 resource for jewelry-making projects, how-to instruction, and inspiration.

Art and Production Manager Mike Soliday Circulation Manager Kathy Steele Single Copy Specialist Kim Redmond Wire Jewelry Start to Finish (ISBN 0-09281-01154-5-66) is published by Kalmbach Publishing Co., 21027 Crossroads Circle, PO Box 1612, Waukesha, WI 53187-1612. Single copy prices (U.S. funds): $14.99 in U.S.; $14.99 in Canada and other foreign countries, payable in U.S. funds drawn on a U.S. bank. Canadian price includes GST. BN12271 3209RT Printed in the U.S.A.

©2016, Kalmbach Publishing Co. All rights reserved. Any publication, reproduction, or use without express permission in writing of any text, illustration, or photographic content in any manner is prohibited except for the inclusion of brief quotations when credit is given

The designs in Wire Jewelry Start to Finish are for your personal enjoyment and may not be taught or sold without permission.

SEPTEMBER 2016

3


contents Beyond the basics

Classic curves set

Twining wires bracelet

Bicycle pendant

Get in the groove

Embrace life pendant

Blossoming bracelet

17

20

22

24

26

29

8 14 15

Getting started Basic techniques Preventing nicks

Make your own findings

Special features Stone supports: The Art of Sabrinah Chappell Gallery: Wire-woven wonders

46 73

Basic clasps and closures

Decorative clasps

Earring education

Coiled cone earrings

49

54

56

58

Wire weaving

3 Essential weaves

Build a wire bangle

Fern weave pendant

Trinity ring

Free-form lower pendant

Fine-scale earrings

80

82

85

90

94

98

Jump ring basics

3 Essential chain mail weaves

Byzantine fringe necklace

Layered chains

Reversible chain reaction

Modern warrior wear

109

110

112

114

116

119

Chain mail


Coiled-wire cuf

Gemstone hoop earrings

Ampliied brilliance pendant

Arch and craft earrings

Avenging angel pendant

32

34

37

40

43

Playing with fire

Balling up wire

Natural order necklace

Easy torch-ired enamel necklace

Celtic challenge bracelet

61

62

66

70

Viking splendor necklace

Basic braided spiral necklace

100

104

Lucky 7 ring

122


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WIRE JEWELRY START TO FINISH


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techniques

GETTING STARTED

Working with wire Today’s home-based jewelry maker has an amazing array of materials and tools to choose from compared to days past. A wide variety of wire is available in bead stores, at craft and hobby shops, as well as on the Internet. One can ind diferent metals and styles of wire, including round, half-round, square, twisted, patterned, and more. Listed here is a brief description of some of the most popular wire types on the market. It is generally acceptable to mix metals in your projects. One caveat — if you’re selling your pieces, it’s imperative that you disclose the materials you’ve used. Also, you need to consider tarnish rates. While it’s not going to harm the metals to use them together, they will oxidize at diferent rates, and a year later, it might not look the same as the day you made it.

Silver Sterling silver is an alloy containing 92.5% silver with the balance usually being copper or nickel. Sterling tarnishes rather easily, but oxidation can be controlled somewhat by keeping it stored in an airtight sealable bag. Fine-silver wire is 99.9% silver and is softer than sterling silver wire. It is best used for wrapping or weaving. It will also tarnish over time, though not as rapidly as sterling. Argentium silver is an alloy that contains germanium, which gives the metal some tarnish resistance. It will tarnish somewhat over time, however.

Gold-illed The term gold-illed is misleading because instead of having a core of gold, as the name suggests, it actually has a core of base metal that is covered with a layer of 10K or higher gold. Gold must account for at least 1/20 the weight to be called “gold-illed.” Gold-illed wire is relatively expensive compared to some other wires, but it maintains its color and shine without tarnishing, although over time the gold may wear of, especially in areas that encounter a lot of friction.

Copper Raw copper wire is solid copper without any coating. Because it is relatively inexpensive and easy to ind, copper is often used as practice wire before moving on to precious metals. Patina can be added to copper to darken it or turn it blue or green. To maintain color, seal the wire with lacquer or microcrystalline wax.

8

WIRE JEWELRY START TO FINISH

German jewelry wire consists of a copper core plated with another metal, usually silver or gold, and is an economical option to precious metals. Although the plating will eventually wear of, this most likely would take several years. Coated copper, as the name suggests, is copper that is coated with one of a number of possible coatings, often a colorful vinyl or plastic. Some coated wire is touted as “permanently colored,” but the coating could scratch of, so handle it carefully or coat tools with tape or a rubberized tool dip. It is sometimes also called craft wire or enameled wire. Some of these wires are tarnishresistant and maintain their shine well over time.

Wire gauges Gauge is the measure of a wire’s diameter or thickness. There are two diferent gauge systems that are used for wire: The American Wire Gauge (AWG, also known as Brown & Sharpe) is usually used for nonferrous metals such as silver and gold; the Standard Wire Gauge (SWG, also known as British Standard or Imperial Standard) is used for base metals. The diameters of the gauges are not the same, so it’s important to know which system is being used to describe the wire you’re using. Below is a chart showing the diferences between the gauges for a sampling of wire sizes.

Gauge

AWG

SWG

Aluminum

16

1.29 mm

1.63 mm

Aluminum wire is a lightweight wire that usually comes anodized or coated to a brilliant array of colors. The color may scratch of, so handle the wire with care (Preventing nicks and dings, p. 15).

18

1.02 mm

1.22 mm

20

0.81 mm

0.91 mm

22

0.64 mm

0.71 mm

24

0.51 mm

0.56 mm

26

0.40 mm

0.46 mm

28

0.32 mm

0.38 mm

30

0.26 mm

0.32 mm

Brass Brass wire is an alloy of copper and zinc. Diferent manufacturers ofer alloys with varying percentages of these metals. Many people like brass as a low-cost substitute for gold because it has a similar color and luster when shiny. Brass tarnishes rather easily but can be sealed with lacquer or microcrystalline wax. Jeweler’s bronze is a popular brass alloy often used in jewelry. Contrary to the name, it is actually an alloy of copper and zinc, not copper and tin, which is what true bronze is made of.

WIRE SHAPES


Temper When buying wire, you’ll see descriptions such as “dead-soft” or “half-hard.” This refers to the temper, or hardness, of the particular wire. Sometimes you’ll want your wire to be as soft as possible; sometimes you’ll want more strength or rigidity. It’s always possible to make a metal harder by hammering or twisting it, and to make it more lexible by annealing.

Annealing As you work with you wire, you’ll notice that it will become less lexible and less responsive. This efect, called work-hardening, is due to the crystalline structure of the wire becoming compressed, and therefore rigid. Sometimes work-hardening is a beneit. When you’re making ear wires, for example, you’ll deliberately work-harden the wire to increase its resiliency. But many times, if you push your wire too far, it will break. The easiest way to return your wire to a workable state is to anneal it. A typical annealing station should have: • Fireproof surface (irebrick, charcoal block, or a soldering pad). Some jewelry suppliers sell a nifty device called an annealing pan, which is illed with a pumice medium. • Butane torch • Two glass dishes with water • Pick pot with pickle (see “Pickle,” right) • Copper tongs

In lux

How to: Because wire (especially the iner gauges) can easily melt during annealing, irst wrap the wire into a coil and secure the ends, making it as much as possible a solid piece of metal. Set your wire on a ireproof surface. Use the torch with a bushy, reducing lame to heat the wire evenly; keep the lame moving until the wire glows a dull (for silver) to cherry (for brass or copper) red. (It’s easier to see if you dim the lights.) Be careful that you don’t overheat the wire. When the piece reaches that color, remove the lame. Use copper tongs to quench the wire in water, then place it in the pickle for about ive minutes. Rinse the wire in a second dish of water. There are some common “tricks” that will help you tell when your wire is annealed: • Watch the lame instead of the wire. When the lame changes from blue to orange, the wire is annealed. • Make a mark on the wire with permanent marker; when the mark disappears, the wire is annealed. • Paint a bit of paste lux onto the wire; when it turns clear, the wire is annealed.

Pickle Heating most alloys and base metals with a torch leaves them with a blackened, oxidized surface. To clean the wire, use a pickle solution warmed in a small crock pot (reserved for nonfood use, of course!). How to: In the crock pot, combine roughly one part powdered pickle (sodium bisulfate, available through most jewelry suppliers) to eight parts

distilled water. Stir with copper tongs until the pickle dissolves, and warm the solution. Always use copper, plastic, or wooden tongs to move your piece in and out of pickle — dipping iron or steel in the pickle turns it into a copper-plating bath! When the pickle turns blue and doesn’t clean your metal as quickly as it used to, it’s spent; neutralize it by adding baking soda until it stops bubbling, then call your local authorities for disposal regulations.

Work-hardening If you’re going to use wire in a structural way, it is often beneicial to harden it. There are a few ways to do this. One option is to form the wire into the desired shape and then hammer it. If you also want to latten it somewhat, use a chasing hammer or a ball-peen hammer. If you want to harden it without lattening it, use a plastic or rawhide mallet. Another option is to run the wire through a pair of nylon-jaw pliers. This also straightens the wire, so you would do this before shaping or bending it. If you want to harden wire without lattening it, try this: Insert one end into the chuck of a pin vise. Holding the other end of the wire irmly with latnose pliers, rotate the pin vise back and forth until the desired hardness is reached.

Sterling silver is vulnerable to irestain, a particularly resilient form of heat-induced oxidation. Therefore, when working with sterling silver, you’ll need to lux the wire before annealing it.

SEPTEMBER 2016

9


techniques

GETTING STARTED

Forging Although the word “forging” evokes images of an old-fashioned blacksmith working at an anvil, jewelry-scale forging isn’t too far removed from those roots. While jewelers’ hammers aren’t as heavy duty as those found in a blacksmith’s workshop, the theories and techniques are similar. Both reshape metal and wire by using localized compression. By using controlled force with the hammer you can shape, stretch, and compress metal without adding or removing material.

Cross-peen hammers have a wedge-shaped face that can range from narrow and sharp to wide and rounded. The face of a cross-peen hammer creates a long, narrow oval shape when it strikes metal. The cross-peen stretches and moves metal away from the strike in two directions — in front of and behind the hammer. Striking surfaces To forge properly, the hammer must be used in conjunction with another solid steel surface, such as an anvil or bench block (below).

Forging tools When forging, hammers compress the metal at the strike point and stretch the metal adjacent to it. Light hammer blows work best when forging; they’ll give you more control until you get the hang of it. However, the shape of the hammer face determines the direction of stretch. The hammers used to make jewelry can be broken into two categories: ball peen and cross peen. Ball-peen hammers have round-faced ends. Some are rounder, like the ball end of a chasing hammer, while others have a shallower dome, like the rounded end of a planishing hammer. Each of these hammers produces a round impression when it strikes metal. The ball-peen hammer stretches and moves metal out and away from the strike point evenly in all directions.

How to: Using a clenched ist to hold the hammer reduces your control over the tool, and you will quickly tire. Lightly pinch the handle between your thumb and the second joint of your index inger; extend your thumb toward the head of the hammer, and use your remaining ingers to gently stabilize the tool. Your grasp should be loose and comfortable. Keep your forearm and wrist straight. Lift your arm from the shoulder or elbow, keeping the hammer face parallel with your work. Use gravity, and drop the hammer rather than exerting force by swinging it. With practice, hand-eye coordination will develop and improve your aim. Your hammer strikes should overlap and be uniform in force. Gradually you will see the shape and thickness of the metal changing.

The hammer is used for inishing as well as shaping. For coarse work, it moves the metal and roughs in the shape. As the hammer blows workharden the metal, the efect of each blow is slightly diminished and the surface becomes further reined. The hammer should be applied more lightly and precisely to create a inely inished surface.

Shaping tools Pliers are used for holding, bending, and shaping wire and for opening and closing loops and jump rings. Keep in mind that there is a diference between the rough, grooved pliers you’d pull out of your household toolbox and jewelry-grade pliers, which won’t mar your work when used properly. Chainnose pliers have lat jaws used to bend and shape wire and open and close jump rings. Closely related to chainnose pliers are bentnose and latnose pliers. Like chainnose pliers, these tools have smooth inner jaws to help you grasp wire or components without leaving marks. Their specialized shapes help you get a comfortable grip in narrow or awkward spaces. Roundnose pliers have round jaws that taper to a point. They are used to shape wire and form loops. Nylon-jaw pliers have a protective layer on the jaws, which keeps them from marking soft metal or wire. They can be used to hold pieces while you work with other pliers or for straightening wire.

Cutters bench block chasing hammer

The most basic cutters are diagonal wire cutters, which are used to trim narrow gauges of wire to the desired length. As the name implies, these cutters trim the wire at an angle, leaving a point at the tip of the wire. If you do a lot of wirework or would like a neater inish to your wire ends, lush cutters may be a good option.

anvil planishing hammer

cross-peen or riveting hammer

10

WIRE JEWELRY START TO FINISH


nylon-jaw pliers

roundnose pliers

Depending on the type or brand, these cutters leave less of a bevel on the end of your wire or eliminate the bevel on one side. Usually these pliers work better with thinner gauges of wire. To cut heavy gauges of wire, use only heavyduty wire cutters to avoid ruining the blades of your jewelry-making wire cutters.

latnose pliers

chainnose pliers

lush cutters diagonal wire cutters

Stepped roundnose pliers, also sometimes called bail-forming, wire-shaping, or coiling pliers, come in a variety of sizes, and because the jaws of these pliers aren’t tapered, they are especially useful for making loops, coils, and curves of consistent shape and size. Stepped pliers generally have three or six steps, so with a single, versatile tool you can eliminate that many sizes of mandrels from your tool bag. Mandrel pliers have jaws in other shapes, like triangles, squares, and ovals, which allow you to easily produce consistent shapes with the convenience of a handheld tool. With a jig you can make a pattern with pegs that allows you to create and reproduce

bentnose pliers

heavy duty wire cutters

stepped roundnose pliers

speciic wire shapes — exactly. When you get the same result time and again, it’s much easier to create production-style links, components, and matched pairs, which are standard challenges in jewelry making.

mandrel pliers jig

SEPTEMBER 2016

11


techniques

GETTING STARTED

Filing Filing is a must when working with lat ends or heavy gauges of wire. When crafting your own ear wires, lush-cut ends should be iled for comfortable wear. Ends that need to be fused must make solid contact and often need iling. There are a lot of options for fulilling your iling needs. Emery boards are inexpensive, but they don’t ofer much control over the level of grit unless you go to a beauty supply outlet and buy in large quantities. For an alternative to emery boards try graduated-grit iles, sanding needles, and abrasive tapes. Another accessible option is a multi-side nail bufer, which ofers more ultra-ine grit options. Wire rounders, which smooth and taper wire ends using a cup burr, ofer a fast, easy way to ile ends. The only short-coming of rounders is that they’re available in a limited range of sizes, and a 1.2 mm rounder doesn’t have much efect when used for 20-gauge (0.8 mm) wire. A more permanent, reliable, and versatile option is an inexpensive set of small metal iles that will last for years.

Patination Patina, usually liver of sulfur, is a quick oxidation agent that darkens silver, copper, or bronze in minutes. Wrapped, coiled, woven, and twisted wires are enhanced when the recesses are darkened and the raised “highlight” areas are polished clean. If you adjust the temperature of the solution, change the soak time, or add ammonia, vinegar, or other acids, you can achieve a rainbow of patina colors. Adding color without polishing the highlights lends a dark industrial mystique. You can use many agents other than liver of sulfur. Hard-boiled eggs provide a chemicalfree patina. Simply cut the egg in half, leave the shell intact, and place the halves into a sealed container with your jewelry until the desired color is achieved. Egg patina is tough to polish of and leaves a deep brown inish. Black Max and Silver Black are oxidizing solutions made from sulfuric acid. Because they are acids, they’re pretty toxic, quite smelly, and diicult to dispose of. In contrast, liver of sulfur can be allowed to sit out and lose its yellow color and then be used to water a plant. When working on a design that has a lot of layers, use this tip from Lisa Niven Kelly of beaducation.com: Oxidize the wire before beginning the project, and polish each layer as you add it. That way underlying layers have a full range of highlights, from dark to shiny. 12

WIRE JEWELRY START TO FINISH

If you oxidize a layered project after it is constructed, the bottom layers will be obscured and impossible to polish.

Polishing Even if you don’t apply a patina, polishing reines your design and gives it a more professional look. Polishing encompasses a wide variety of methods and tools. Very ine steel wool (0000) is inexpensive and easy to source, but it leaves behind a lot of sharp, messy ibers and tends to snag on wire jewelry. A soft brass or steel brush is highly efective on textured or detailed surfaces. It’s a fast way to remove a lot of oxidation quickly, but it can leave a brushed texture when used on large lat surfaces. The Pro Polish Pad is a small, square foam pad with a micro-abrasive surface impregnated with a polishing compound. Pro Polish Pads do a remarkable job of removing chemical oxidation from wire and sheet metal, and they’re also great for removing tarnish from inished jewelry. Because Pro Polish Pads have no ibers to snag, they are a superior option for polishing coiled, woven, twisted, or textured wire. After cleaning with a Pro Polish Pad, give your jewelry one last swipe with a polishing cloth. Polishing cloths, like a Sunshine Cloth, are the inal step for inishing, giving a mirror shine to the surface of metal and wire jewelry.

The only other inish that equates to the high shine from a polishing cloth comes from using a tumbler. Many jewelers use a basic rotary tumbler illed with mixed steel shot. After 10 minutes in a rotary tumbler, jewelry is transformed. Artists who cut their own jump rings also use a tumbler to burnish, clean, work-harden, and de-bur the rings and to polish assembled chain, which is challenging to clean any other way. Another tumbler option is a vibratory tumbler, which uses a shaking motion that is gentler and less likely to bend, tangle, or overwork the contents. Vibratory tumblers ofer the option of tumbling without water, using softer abrasive media (such as walnut shells or plastic), and tumbling very large quantities of material at the same time.

Maintaining shine & patina Since metals react to the environment, polishing and applying patina is never the last step. For instance, when applied to bronze and copper, a patina will not remain constant; contact with skin, oils, water, and air change the color. To avoid stripping of a patina or changing the colors, jewelry requires a clear sealant. Wax, lacquer, or clear acrylic are common sealants. Determining which sealant to use depends on the other elements used in the jewelry design. Before applying most lacquers and acrylics, you need to clean the surface with acetone, which could change the color or ruin the inish of certain beads and indings. Don’t apply lacquer or acrylic


A just completed design is likely to look like this — bright and shiny but not quite inished.

What a diference! Patina darkens the designs considerably but also reduces contrast.

The perfect match: Patina and polishing. These pieces were polished in a tumbler, but you can achieve similar results with the other techniques discussed here.

to beads, especially gemstones, to avoid the risk of dulling the inish. Designs made exclusively of metal can be sealed using whichever method is most appealing. Although wax usually has no negative efect on beads, it is labor-intensive to use since it must be applied and then bufed into the surface

to restore the shine. On jewelry with a lot of recessed or textured areas, applying wax and polishing is not practical. But waxing is a potential solution for protecting designs that are lat and not too detailed. Once you’ve inished, polished, and worn a piece of jewelry, it is likely to spend some time stashed in a jewelry box or plastic bag. To prevent tarnishing and to save yourself the chore of future polishing, include a few anti-tarnish strips wherever jewelry is stored. These small squares of chemically treated paper are efective at protecting jewelry from becoming tarnished. A cheap and easy alternative: white chalk. Chalk acts like a wick, absorbing moisture from its environment for a few months before becoming damp and pasty and needing replacement.

A quick way to put shine on lightly tarnished jewelry is to put a bit of dish soap in your palm, add a few drops of water, and then rub the jewelry briskly, adding more water as needed to spread the soap around the surface. After a few minutes, use hot water to rinse the piece, and lay it out on a paper towel to dry. This low-tech method makes a diference you can see immediately. You can also use one of the many dips and cleaners made exclusively for jewelry, but always test chemical solutions on beads and metals similar to the ones in the inished design. Do not test these products on the design itself until you know it is safe. Follow all directions carefully, and never put any unknown materials into a chemical solution. C

SEPTEMBER 2016

13


techniques

BASIC TECHNIQUES

Coiling Wire can be wrapped around a mandrel or other core to make a coil, which may be decorative, functional, or both. Wire-coiling tools like the Coiling Gizmo make the job fast and easy, but for small jobs or when you’re coiling directly onto a wire that you’ll use in your project, you can do it by hand.

3 Leaving a bit of space between the rotations will give you an open spiral (left); leaving no space will give you a tight spiral (right).

To make a coil, hold the coiling wire perpendicular to the core or mandrel. Wrap the wire around the core until the coil is the desired length. Keep the wraps close to each other to prevent gaps in the coil.

Plain loop

LOOPS AND WRAPS 1 If making a plain loop above a bead, trim the wire 3⁄8 in. (9.5 mm) above the bead. Using chainnose pliers, make a right-angle bend close to the bead. If working with a naked piece of wire, make a bend 1⁄4 in. (6.5 mm) from the end.

When you inish wrapping one wire around another, use lush cutters to trim the wrapping wire close to your work. Whenever possible, trim and tuck wire on the back of your work to hide the cut end and prevent snags.

Twisting square wire gives it a pretty, ornate look. You can twist wire with an electric drill or with a pin vise. You’ll get the most consistent results if you twist relatively short lengths of wire (10 in./25.4 cm or less) at a time.

4 Grasp the loop with chainnose pliers. 5 Wrap the wire tail around the stem, covering the stem between the loop and the top bead. Trim the excess wrapping wire, and press the end close to the wraps, using chainnose or crimping pliers.

Trimming and tucking wire

Twisting square wire

3 Reposition the pliers’ lower jaw snugly in the curved wire. Wrap the wire down and around the bottom jaw of the pliers. This is the irst half of a wrapped loop.

2 Grab the tip of the wire with roundnose pliers, and roll the wire to form a half circle. Release the wire. 3 Reposition the pliers in the loop and continue rolling, forming a centered circle above the bead.

Set of wraps above a top-drilled bead 1 Center a top-drilled bead on 3 in. (76 mm) of wire. Bend each end of the wire upward, crossing the ends into an X above the bead.

To twist wire, insert one end into the chuck of a pin vise or electric drill. Holding the other end of the wire irmly with latnose pliers, rotate the pin vise or gently press the trigger of the electric drill to turn it on. Continue until the twist is consistent along the length of the wire.

Wrapped loop

2 Using chainnose pliers, make a small bend in each wire so the ends form a right angle.

1 If making a wrapped loop above a bead, make sure there is at least 1¼ in. (32 mm) of wire above the bead. With the tip of your chainnose pliers, grasp the wire directly above the bead. Bend the wire above the pliers into a right angle. If working with a naked piece of wire, make a bend 1¼ in. (32 mm) from the end.

3 Wrap the horizontal wire around the vertical stem as in a wrapped loop. Trim the excess wrapping wire. To attach this unit to another component, make a wrapped loop with the wire stem.

4 The inished loop should be nicely rounded.

Forming spirals 1 Grasp the end of a wire with the tips of a pair of roundnose pliers, and rotate the pliers to form a small loop. 2 Grasp across the loop with chainnose or latnose pliers, and use your ingers to guide the wire tail around the loop. Continue rotating until the spiral is the desired size.

2 Position the jaws of your roundnose pliers in the bend. Bring the wire over the top jaw of the pliers. 14

WIRE JEWELRY START TO FINISH


TRICKS AGAINST NICKS

techniques

Preventing nicks and dings Learn 8 tricks for preofessional-looking results. by Addie Kidd After painstakingly working wire, the last thing you want is to see dents or nicks in your piece. Remember, pliers are hard and have sharp edges. Covering those edges to soften them or using alternatives to hardened steel can help you avoid marring your wire, especially if it’s colored or coated. Here are some tips for creating cleaner, more professional-looking wire jewelry. • Plain old masking tape wrapped around the jaws of your pliers will cover the edges. But blue painters tape comes of easily and leaves behind less sticky residue (a). • Moleskin or Molefoam is a soft, adhesive fabric product used to cushion your feet. Cut it to it your pliers, remove the backing paper, and apply. Molefoam has more cushion than moleskin (b). • Try covering your wire with a scrap of fabric while you work it. It can be tricky to learn how best to hold the fabric as you’re using your pliers, but you get instant protection without any preparation (c). Plus, there’s no adhesive to remove later. • Plasti Dip and Tool Magic are liquid-rubber products that were intended to be used on the handles of tools. But they also cover pliers jaws really well (d). They’re my favorite coverings for pliers, though they require forethought. You can get liquid rubber at the hardware store or perhaps at your local bead shop. Follow the package’s instructions for applying the product. After a couple hours of drying time, your rubbercovered pliers will be ready to use. The bonus is that you can rip the stuf of when you’re done, and you’re back to your original pliers.

Getting unstuck To remove residual adhesive from your pliers, try rubbing alcohol, nail polish remover, or Goo-Gone.

• Nylon-jaw pliers are a popular alternative to wrapping your pliers. Because they’re made of soft nylon, they don’t scrape colored wire. Unfortunately, because nylon’s so soft, these pliers are only made as large forming pliers, which are diicult to use for making details.

a

Whether you choose to wrap your pliers or not, keep these additional tips in mind: • Always use the right pair of pliers for the job. Flat pliers make corners; round pliers make curves. If you use angular pliers to create a luid bend, expect gouges. You may need to change your pliers multiple times while creating a single piece of jewelry, but the efort is worth it.

b

• Use only enough pressure to achieve your bend. You don’t need an unbreakable grip on the wire — that will only squeeze and distort it. Instead, hold it gently, with just enough pressure to ensure that it won’t slip from the pliers (causing a possible scratch) as you bend it. Because copper is softer than silver, it’s a good metal to practice this on. If you can create a good-looking bend in copper without denting it, you’ll have no problem working with silver. • When you can, bend a wire only once. Sure, wire’s malleable and will bend and rebend. But after too many corrections, the wire won’t look as clean as if you’d just bent it once. Experiment on a piece of scrap wire or a cheaper alternative, like copper. Then translate what you learned from your test runs into a sleek inal piece.

c

Even with all of these tricks, the best tip I could possibly give you is to simply practice. Learn your tools and materials well enough to work with them conidently. Good luck and happy wireworking! C Addie Kidd is a photographer, doula, and metalsmith. Vist her website, addiekidd.com, to learn more.

d

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Beyond the basics 16

WIRE JEWELRY START TO FINISH


CLASSIC CURVES

set

Create simple, shapely links to form a chain necklace that clasps in the front or the back plus a matching bracelet and ring. by Agnieszka Anusiewwicz

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Using a permanent marker, mark both jaws of your roundnose pliers at the point where they measure 2 mm in diameter. All loops and bends for these projects will be made at this point on the pliers, unless otherwise indicated.

Necklace 1 Flush-cut a 23⁄8-in. (60 mm) piece of 14-gauge wire. Using your marked roundnose pliers, make a loop at each end of the wire, turning the loops in opposite directions (a). 2 Holding the roundnose pliers parallel to your work surface, grasp the wire just below one loop (b). Bring the wire up and around one jaw of the pliers so that the wire curves around the body of the loop (c).

tip

Not sure which direction to bend the wire? If the opening of the loop is on the left (as shown), bring the wire up and to the left. If the opening is on the right, curve the wire to the right.

MATERIALS all projects

• 2 pairs of chainnose, flatnose, and/or bentnose pliers (optional) • roundnose pliers • flush cutters strong enough to cut 18-gauge (1.0 mm) wire • permanent marker • steel bench block or anvil • hammer • liver of sulfur solution (optional) • tumbler with steel shot and burnishing compound or dish soap (optional)

a

necklace

• 65 in. (1.7 m) 14-gauge (1.0 mm) round copper wire bracelet

• 34 in. (86.4 cm) 14-gauge (1.0 mm) round copper wire ring

• 4 in. (10.2 cm) 14-gauge (1.0 mm) round copper wire • wine cork or ring mandrel

b

c

Continue bending the wire around the pliers to create an elongated S-shape (d). 3 Again using your roundnose pliers, grasp the wire just below the other loop (e). Bend the wire as before so that it curves in the opposite direction of the irst loop (f). The component is complete when both loops touch the center of the wire and the S-shape is balanced and symmetrical (g). The link should measure approximately 3/4 in. (19 mm) long.

d

e

f

g

h

i

4 Place the component on a bench block, and hammer it to latten (h). 5 Work as in steps 1–4 to make a total of 26 components. 6 Using your ingers or two pairs of chainnose, latnose, and/or bentnose pliers, open one side of a component. Link it through another (i), and close the irst component. Repeat to create a chain of all 26 components.

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WIRE JEWELRY START TO FINISH


j

Hook clasp 7 Flush-cut a 21⁄2-in. (64 mm) piece of 14-gauge wire. Make a loop on just one end. Using the largest part of your roundnose pliers (not the marked point), work as in step 2 to create just one half of an S-shape. Form the straight end of the wire into a diagonal line as shown (j). 8 Again using the largest part of your roundnose pliers, grasp the straight end of the wire at its midpoint. Bring the wire around one jaw of the pliers in the opposite direction as the loop (k). Continue bending the wire around the pliers until the end of the wire touches the bottom half of the S-shape (l). 9 Using the tip of your roundnose pliers, grasp the end of the wire, and bend it slightly outward (m).

k

10 Hammer the hook clasp to latten it. Open the bottom half of the S-shape, link it through the last component in the necklace chain, and close it (n).

Ring

Finishing

2 Using your marked roundnose pliers, make a loop at each end of the wire, turning the loops in opposite directions as in (a).

11 If desired, patinate the piece with liver of sulfur (Getting Started, p. 8), and tumble-polish to inish (Getting Started). To wear, slide the hook clasp through the chain, allowing several components at the end to dangle. The necklace may be clasped in the front or back.

3 Work as in steps 2–3 of “Necklace” to make a curve at each end (o), forming an elongated S-shape. 4 Center the wire on a wine cork or ring mandrel at the desired size, and bring the ends around it (p).

Bracelet Follow the steps for “Necklace” to make 13 components, and then work as in “Hook clasp” and “Finishing.”

tip

I use a 17 mm cork, which results in a size 7 ring.

Continue bending the wire around the cork or mandrel until the ends are aligned in an S-shape (q). 5 Place the ring on your inger, and manipulate the S-shape to adjust the it. Patinate and tumble-polish if desired. C Agnieszka Anusiewwicz lives in Poland and has always been interested in handicrafts. One day when browsing the internet, she found information about making handmade jewelry. Since then, she has ventured into various jewelry making techniques but mostly enjoys working with wire and gemstones. Contact Agnieszka at eyebright@interia.pl or visit her blog at eyebrightjewelry.blogspot.com.

n

m

p

1 Cut a 4-in. (10.2 cm) piece of 14-gauge wire. Place it on a bench block, and gently hammer to latten the wire.

l

o

q

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TWINING WIRES

bracelet

Embrace your favorite large round beads with spiraling bead caps and winding wire wraps. by Eva Marie Sherman

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WIRE JEWELRY START TO FINISH


MATERIALS bracelet

• copper wire, round - 3 in. (76 mm) 16-gauge (1.3 mm) - 112 in. (2.8 m) 20-gauge (0.8 mm) • 8 14 mm round beads • 7–8 18-gauge (1.0 mm), 4 mm inner-diameter (ID) jump rings • 2 pairs of chainnose, flatnose, and/or bentnose pliers • roundnose pliers • wire cutters • steel bench block or anvil • hammer

a

b

c

d

1 Cut a 14-in. (35.6 cm) piece of 20-gauge wire. Using roundnose pliers, grasp the wire at the center, and make a wrapped loop (Basic techniques, p. 14), but do not trim the excess wrapping wire (a). 2 On the vertical wire, string a 14 mm round bead, and make another wrapped loop, but do not trim the excess wrapping wire (b). 3 Using chainnose pliers, grasp the irst loop. With the wrapping wire from this loop, make ive or six concentric wraps around the base of the loop to form a spiral bead cap (c). Apply even tension and pressure to keep the wraps close together, and do not trim the excess wrapping wire when you inish.

10 Cut a 3-in. (76 mm) piece of 16-gauge wire. On one end, make a small loop. Shape the wire into an elongated S-shape with both halves of the S closed of. End with a slight outward bend to form an S-hook clasp, and trim any excess wire. Place the hook on a bench block or anvil, and hammer it to latten (g).

4 Work as in step 3 for the other loop (d).

11 Slide the bottom half of the S-hook into the loop of the last link in the chain, or use a jump ring to attach the hook to the link. Open the top half of the S-hook slightly so that it can pass through the jump ring between the dangle and the last link on the other end of the chain. C

5 Guide one of the wires toward the opposite loop by gently curving the wire around the bead. Make one complete wrap around the base of the loop, and trim this wire (e). 6 Work as in step 5 with the other wire, curving it around the bead somewhat parallel to the irst wire (f). 7 Repeat steps 1–6 to make a total of seven wire-wrapped links, or as many as desired. 8 Open a 4 mm jump ring (Jump ring basics, p. 109), attach two links, and close the jump ring. Repeat to join all seven links into a chain. 9 To create a dangle, repeat steps 1–6 to make one more link, but latten one loop against its spiral. At one end of the chain, use a jump ring to attach the dangle to the last wire-wrapped link.

e

Eva Marie Sherman began beading as a way to spend time with her daughters but soon became hopelessly addicted. In 2005, she traded her architecture career for the opportunity to open Grand River Bead Studio in Cleveland, Ohio. Find her newly released book Cool Copper Cufs: 25 wire and metal projects along with her Organic Wire and Metal Jewelry book, co-authored by Beth Martin, at JewelryandBeadingStore.com. Contact Eva at evasherman@sbcglobal.net, or visit grandriverbeads.com.

f

g

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BICYCLE

pendant

Go for a spin with annealed steel wire and buttons that function as wicked wheels for this oversized charm. by Anette Gomez

Wire bicycle MATERIALS pendant on a chain necklace

• 18 in. (45.7 cm) 19-gauge (0.9 mm) annealed steel wire • 2 3 ⁄4-in. (19 mm) buttons with four openings (La Mode, style 26302; JoAnn Fabric and Craft Stores) • 16 in. (40.6 cm) chain, 3 mm links (silver) • 3 3–4 mm jump rings (silver) • 1 lobster claw clasp with eye (silver) • heavy-duty pliers: flatnose, bentnose, and roundnose • 2 pairs of jewelry-grade pliers: chainnose, flatnose, and/or bentnose • flush cutters strong enough to cut 19-gauge (0.9 mm) annealed steel wire • metal file • white chalk (optional) • steel wool, #0000 (fine) • stiff jewelry-cleaning brush • drop cloth • Krylon Colormaster Crystal Clear Acrylic Gloss Spray

1 Cut an 18-in. (45.7 cm) piece of 19-gauge wire. File both ends of the wire, and then ile the entire length of the wire along one surface, making this side a bit shinier.

2 With the shiny side facing up, use latnose pliers to grasp the left end of the wire. Using your ingers, bend the long end of the wire up and over the pliers, forming a 45-degree angle (a).

tip

tip

You can use 20-gauge sterling silver plated copper wire if you ind the dark annealed steel wire to hard to manipulate. Before you begin working, run your ingers over it a few times to work harden it. Plated wire usually has an anti-tarnish coating, so you won’t need to clean and seal it in as in steps 16–17.

a

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WIRE JEWELRY START TO FINISH

Keep the angle “soft” rather than sharp and pointed. 3 Using latnose pliers, grasp the long end of the wire right next to the 45-degree angle, and bend the wire down toward the starting end (b). This creates a triangular-shaped bike seat.

b

4 Bend the wire below the seat so that it extends straight down (c). 5 String the wire through an opening of a 3⁄4-in. (19 mm) button, and slide the button about 1 in. (25.5 mm) away from the bike seat.

tip

If desired, mark this and other measured points on the wire with white chalk. Bend the wire up toward the seat, capturing the button in the bend (d). Use latnose pliers to squeeze the wire tight around the button, creating the back wheel.

c

d


e

f

j

g

k 10 About 3⁄4 in. (19 mm) above the wraps, grasp the wire with latnose pliers, and bend the wire to the left at a 90-degree angle (i).

tip

This bend should be about even with the bottom of the bike seat.

o 6 Make three wraps above the wheel, using bentnose pliers to pull the wraps tight. End with the wire pointing to the left (e). 7 About 1⁄2 in. (13 mm) from the wraps, grasp the wire with roundnose pliers. Pull the wire around the pliers to form a downward-facing loop, and end with the wire pointing once again to the left (f). 8 String the wire through an opening of another button, and slide the button to about 3⁄4 in. (19 mm) from the loop. Bend the wire up and to the right, toward the bike seat (g). Use latnose pliers to squeeze the wire tight around the button, creating the front wheel. 9 Make three wraps above the wheel, and end with the wire pointing straight up (h).

11 About 1⁄2 in. (13 mm) from the 90-degree angle, grasp the wire with latnose pliers, and bend the wire over the pliers and to the right (j). This begins the left handlebar. 12 About 1 in. (25.5 mm) from the previous bend, grasp the wire with latnose pliers, and bend the wire under the pliers and to the left (k). This begins the right handlebar. 13 Make four wraps below the handlebars, and end with the wire pointing to the right (l). 14 Where the wire crosses below the bike seat, make four wraps up toward the seat. Trim and tuck the excess wire (Basic techniques, p. 14), making sure to ile the end of the wire before tucking (m). 15 Using latnose pliers, squeeze the left and right handlebars near the center where they meet (n). Grasp the end of each handlebar, and twist three times in a clockwise direction. Bend both handlebars slightly inward toward the bike seat (o).

h

l

Finishing 16 Use steel wool to clean the wire and a stif jewelry-cleaning brush to remove any steel wool particles or chalk marks that may be left behind. 17 Lay down a drop cloth in a well-ventilated area, and place the pendant on the cloth. Using a sideto-side sweeping motion, spray the pendant with acrylic gloss. Flip the pendant, and spray the back surface. Apply a total of four coats of gloss to each surface, waiting at least 10 minutes between coats.

i

m

n

Anette Gomez is a local artisan of Fruita, Colorado. She loves all kinds of crafts, but wire jewelry is her passion. She was inspired to make wire bicycles because of all the cycling enthusiasts in her town, many of whom now express their hobby with one of Anette’s pendants. She consigns her wire jewelry and other crafts at The Vintage Common in Fruita. Contact her at anette44g@yahoo.com, or visit pinterest.com/anette44g/anettegomez-wire-jewelry-gallery.

18 Grab both metal buttons, and slightly pull outwards to spread them apart from each other a bit. 19 Cut a 16-in. (40.6 cm) piece of chain. Open two 3–4 mm jump rings (Jump ring basics, p. 109), and attach half of the clasp to each end of the chain. Once the pendant is completely dry, open a third jump ring, and attach the handlebar that had been previously pointing left to the center link of chain. C

Picking your pliers Annealed steel wire is sturdy stuf and can mar jewelry-grade tools, so use heavy-duty pliers and cutters, like what you might ind at a hardware store. Reserve these tools for working with steel wire; use your jewelry pliers for opening and closing jump rings and the like.

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GET IN THE GROOVE

bracelet

Wire welcomes beads with an open embrace. by Jean Hickok

24

WIRE JEWELRY START TO FINISH


a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

MATERIALS bracelet

• 8 in. (20.3 cm) 12-gauge (2.1 mm) round wire, half-hard • 2 in. (51 mm) 16-gauge (1.3 mm) round wire, half-hard • 1 yd. (.9 m) 16-gauge (1.3 mm) twisted wire, dead-soft • 24 in. (61 cm) 24-gauge (0.5 mm) wire • 250–275 2 mm round crystals or seed beads • 6 5–8 mm spacers with holes large enough to fit over 12-gauge (2.1 mm) wire • 3⁄32-in. (2 mm) steel mandrel or 10 in. (25.4 cm) 10-gauge (2.6 mm) wire • bench block • nylon hammer • chainnose pliers • roundnose pliers • heavy-duty wire cutters

Coiled twisted wire provides a perfect place to nestle tiny round crystals for a neatly designed bracelet that supplies just the right amount of sparkle. 1 Cut a 1-yd. (.9 m) piece of 16-gauge twisted wire, and coil it around a 3⁄32-in. (2 mm) mandrel, leaving 3 mm of space between the coils (a). Remove the coil from the mandrel. 2 Cut an 8-in. (20.3 mm) piece of 12-gauge wire. Using roundnose pliers, make a simple loop at one end. Hammer the loop with a nylon hammer to harden it (b). 3 Cut a 24-in. (61 cm) piece of 24-gauge wire. Wrap the end of the 24-gauge wire three or four times around the 12-gauge wire, right next to the simple loop (c).

4 String three spacers over the 24- and 12-gauge wire, and over the 24-gauge wire wraps (d). 5 Slide the twisted wire coil onto the 12-gauge wire, pushing it next to the spacers (e). 6 On the 24-gauge wire, string 2 in. (51 mm) of 2 mm round crystals. Wrap the crystals around the 12-gauge wire, positioning them between the coils of the twisted wire (f). Repeat until you reach the end of the coil, making the crystals lush with the end of the coil. 7 Wrap the 24-gauge wire three or four times around the 12-gauge wire (g), and string three spacers over the 12-gauge wire and the 24-gauge wire wraps. Trim the 24-gauge wire.

8 Make a simple loop after the spacers at the end of the 12-gauge wire. 9 Gently bend the bracelet into a C shape, until there is a 1-in. (25.5 mm) gap between the two loops. 10 Cut a 2-in. (51 mm) piece of 16-gauge wire. Using roundnose pliers, form a hook clasp (h), and hammer to harden it. Open the unhardened 12-gauge loop, attach the hook, and close the loop. C Jean Hickok loves all things wire. You can e-mail her at jeanhickok@ hotmail.com or visit jeanhickok. zenfolio.com to see more of her work.

Design notes • If desired, patinate (Getting Started, p. 8) the twisted coil using liver of sulfur and following the manufacturer’s instructions. • To give this bracelet a more casual feel, or if you want a wider color selection, use 110 seed beads in place of the 2 mm round crystals. • To adjust the size of the bangle, cut the 12-gauge wire 1 in. (25.5 mm) longer than the desired inished length.

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MATERIALS necklace

EMBRACE LIFE

pendant Give yourself (or a friend) a spiritual hug with this symbol of healing energy. by Chris Gatzow

• copper wire - 18–24 in. (45.7–61 cm) 16-gauge (1.3 mm) - 18 in. (45.7 cm) 24-gauge (0.5 mm) • 1 6 mm round crystal (Swarovski #5000, crystal silver shade) • 2 5–6 mm jump rings (optional) • 20 in. (50.8 cm) 5 ⁄16-in. (6 mm) deerskin leather strand (medium brown; www.thelipstickranch.com) • 2 pairs of chainnose, flatnose, and/or bentnose pliers • roundnose pliers • flush cutters strong enough to cut 16-gauge (1.3 mm) wire • Now That’s a Jig! Startr Kit (www.brendaschweder.etsy.com) • Now That’s a Jig! accessories (www.brendaschweder.etsy.com) - PatternPunchr - CornerTaks - SwiveLok - WireLiftr • EmbraceLife template printed on vellum paper (www.now-thats-a-jig.com) • steel bench block or anvil • hammer • metal file • liver of sulfur (optional) • steel wool, #00 (optional)

I originally spied this symbol on Pinterest. After some research, I discovered its source — Zibu: The Power of Angelic Symbology by Debbie Zylstra Almstetd. She’s created 88 symbols representing healing energies, but this one is by far the most popular.

Jig setup 1 Download the EmbraceLife template at now-thats-a-jig.com, and print it on vellum paper at actual size (100%). Place the pattern on the jig bed, aligning the corner holes. Use the PatternPunchr to punch through the corner holes, and insert CornerTaks. 2 Use the Pattern Punchr to punch holes on the template, and screw in the appropriate pegs (a). Punch the hole for the SwiveLok as indicated on the template, and partially screw it in (b). 26

WIRE JEWELRY START TO FINISH


a

e

d

g

Pendant 3 Flush-cut a 12-in. (30.5 cm) piece of 16-gauge wire. Leaving a 1-in. (25.5 mm) tail to the right, place the wire between the SwiveLok and the bottom 1⁄4-in. (6.5 mm) peg. Turn the SwiveLok clockwise to trap the wire, and tighten the screw (c). 4 Curve the longer end of the wire up and over the 3⁄4-in. (19 mm) peg, and bring it clockwise around the right 1⁄4-in. (6.5 mm) peg (d). Continue clockwise around the top 1⁄4-in. (6.5 mm) peg, and then clockwise

c

b

f

h

i

around the left 1⁄4-in. (6.5 mm) peg (e). Continue clockwise around the 3⁄4-in. (19 mm) peg (f). Flush-cut the wire at the 3 o’clock position (g). Do not trim the 1-in. (25.5 mm) starting tail.

6 Returning to the end of the wire you cut at the end of step 4, gently form the wire into an open spiral (Basic techniques, p. 14). Using your ingers, bring the other end through the center of the spiral (i).

5 Loosen the SwiveLok, and turn it away from the trapped wire and starting peg. Lift the piece of the pegs with the WireLiftr (h). Flip the piece so that the 1-in. (25.5 mm) tail is now pointing to the left. This will be the front of your pendant.

7 Use roundnose pliers to shape the 1-in. (25.5 mm) starting tail upward, and lush-cut it as indicated on the template (j).

j

8 Place the piece on a bench block, and hammer it to latten the wire (k). Hammer only gently over the

k

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l

o

m

p

intersections of the wire. File the ends of the piece smooth.

13 Place the hook clasp on a bench block, and hammer to latten it (o).

Hook clasp

Jump rings (optional)

9 Reposition the SwiveLok and appropriate pegs for the hook clasp, as indicated on the template.

You can use two 5–6 mm prefabricated jump rings, or else make your own by following the steps below.

10 Flush-cut a 6-in. (15.2 cm) piece of 16-gauge wire. Leaving a 1-in. (25.5 mm) tail to the right, place the wire between the SwiveLok and the 1⁄4-in. (6.5 mm) peg. Turn the SwiveLok clockwise to trap the wire, and tighten the screw (l).

14 Screw in the 1⁄4-in. (6.5 mm) peg for making jump rings, as indicated on the template.

11 Curve the longer end of the wire clockwise around the 1⁄4-in. (6.5 mm) peg and counterclockwise around the 1⁄8-in. (3 mm) peg. Flush-cut the wire where it intersects itself, and curve the 1-in. (25.5 mm) tail up toward the 1⁄8-in. (3 mm) peg (m). Flush-cut the tail as indicated on the template. 12 Lift the hook clasp of the pegs. Using roundnose pliers, form a tight outward-facing loop at the tip of the clasp (n).

15 Flush-cut a 6-in. (15.2 cm) piece of 16-gauge wire, and coil it around the peg at least three times (p). Flush-cut two jump rings from the coil, and ile the ends.

WIRE JEWELRY START TO FINISH

q

r

s

t

round crystal on the wire, and place the crystal over the center opening of the pendant.

tip

The hole of the crystal should be oriented vertically, not horizontally, on the pendant.

Patina (optional) 16 Prepare a liver of sulfur bath according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Patinate the pendant, hook clasp, jump rings, and 24-gauge wire (Getting started, p. 8) to darken. Rinse and dry the pieces and then buf with steel wool to allow a warm copper color to shine through (q).

Embellishment and assembly 17 Cut an 8-in. (20.3 cm) piece of 24-gauge wire. Center a 6 mm

28

n

With each end of the wire, make several wraps around the intersections of the pendant (r). Trim and tuck the tails (Basic techniques). 18 Cut a 5-in. (12.7 cm) piece of 24-gauge wire and a 20-in. (50.8 cm) piece of deerskin leather. On one end of the leather, string the hook clasp, folding over a 1-in. (25.5 mm) tail to capture the clasp. Make four or ive wraps around the fold (s), hiding the starting end of the wire

under the wraps. Trim the other end under the leather tail (t). Cut another 5-in. (12.7 cm) piece of 24-gauge wire, and repeat on the other end of the leather, creating a loop for the clasp to it into. 19 Open the two jump rings (Jump ring basics, p. 109), and attach the top of the pendant to the center of the leather. Close the jump rings. C Chris Gatzow is a footwear designer who discovered jewelry making about 10 years ago. She sells her designs online and at craft shows. You can ind more of her work on Facebook, Instagram, and Etsy by searching for her business name, RockYourSparkle.


BLOSSOMING

bracelet See how your garden grows with the help of a new bracelet jig and a trio of altered bead cones. by Alison Jayne Layton

Bracelet band 1 Hold one edge of the bracelet jig with your nondominant hand. Along the other edge, insert the narrow end of a peg into a hole one row in. Secure the peg on the inside of the jig with a fastener. 2 Wrap a lexible tape measure around your wrist to determine the desired length of your bracelet. Place the end of the tape measure next to the irst peg (a), and wrap it around the jig until you reach that length. Count the number of holes (including the one with the irst peg)

for this length bracelet, and then secure the appropriate number of pegs into the same row of the jig (b).

tip

This inished bracelet measures 61â „2 in. (16.5 cm) and uses 16 pegs. If your bracelet requires more pegs than you have on hand, make a note of the number of pegs you still need. Later you can remove pegs from the start of the bracelet band to add to the end.

a

b

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Materials bracelet

• Artistic Wire (silver plated) - 24 in. (61 cm) 18-gauge (1.0 mm) - 24 in. (61 cm) 24-gauge (0.5 mm) • 3 15 x 11 mm tulip-style flexible bead cones (antique silver) • 6 mm round crystals (Swarovski #5000) - 1 color A (tanzanite) - 2 color B (light rose) • chainnose pliers • roundnose pliers • flush cutters strong enough to cut 18-gauge (1.0 mm) wire • Artistic Wire 3D Bracelet Jig with 16+ pegs and fasteners • flexible tape measure • 4.5 mm mandrel, such as stepped pliers, crochet hook, or pen

c

d

e

f

g

h

All supplies available from That Bead Lady, (905) 954-1327.

3 Cut a 24-in. (61 cm) piece of 18-gauge wire, or work with the wire directly from the spool. Leaving a 11⁄2-in. (38 mm) tail, place the wire above the irst peg, and hold it in place with your thumb.

6 After the inal wrap, bring the wire toward the edge of the jig, and trim the wire 11⁄2 in. (38 mm) from the last peg. Remove the pegs from the jig to release the bracelet band.

Clasp: Eye 4 Make two clockwise wraps around the irst peg, and then bring the wire down between the irst and second pegs (c). 5 Make one counterclockwise wrap around the second peg, and then guide the wire between the second and third pegs. Make one clockwise wrap around the third peg, and then guide the wire between the third and fourth pegs. Continue in this manner to make one wrap around each remaining peg (d).

tip

It may be more comfortable to rotate the jig as you make the wraps. However you choose to do it, make sure your wraps are tight and pushed down to the base of the pegs.

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WIRE JEWELRY START TO FINISH

7 Flush-cut the starting tail close to the irst loop. Grasp the loop with chainnose pliers, and gently rotate the pliers to turn this loop perpendicular to the others (e).

Clasp: Hook 8 Using your chainnose pliers, grasp the ending tail near the inal loop, and bend the tail away from you to form a 90-degree angle (f). 9 Position a 4.5 mm mandrel next to the 90-degree angle, and pull the wire around it (g). Continue pulling the wire around the mandrel until it is parallel with the bracelet band. Flush-cut the wire where it aligns with the midpoint of the last loop. Grasp the end of the wire with roundnose pliers, and roll the wire into an outward-facing loop (h).

i 10 Slide the hook into the eye, and apply a very gentle pressure to the sides of the bracelet band to form a slight oval shape (i). Set aside.

Blossoms 11 Slowly open the petals of a bead cone until the blossom can lie lat on your work surface (j). Repeat for the remaining two cones.

12 Cut a 4-in. (10.2 cm) piece of 24-gauge wire. Grasp one end of the wire with roundnose pliers, and rotate the pliers to form a loop. Continue rotating the pliers four or ive times to form a short coil at the end of the wire (k).


j

tip

Keep the working wire at the tip of the pliers, allowing the coil to extend away from the pliers (so your coil doesn’t become cone shaped). Keep the loops snug to each other, as in a compressed spring. Do not trim the straight wire from the coil. 13 Repeat step 12 to cut and coil the ends of ive more wires. 14 String a color A 6 mm round crystal and an open blossom over the straight ends of two of the wires (l). Thread these wires through the center loop of the bracelet band, and separate the wires.

k 15 With one wire, make several wraps around one side of the loop, and make at least one wrap outside of the loop, until you have a 2-in. (51 mm) tail left. Repeat with the other wire.

tip

l

tip

It’s okay if these wraps look “messy” compared to the previous wrapping in this project. The goal is to secure the blossom tightly to the bracelet band, and irregular wraps will add to the organic look.

Work this step slowly to ensure that you don’t form any kinks that may cause the wires to break.

Trim and tuck the wire tails (m) (Basic techniques, p. 14).

16 Wrap the tails around the “stem” formed between the bracelet band and the blossom.

17 Repeat steps 14–16 with the remaining wires and color B crystals, attaching a blossom to each side of the center and skipping one loop in between blossoms. C

m Alison Jayne Layton is inspired by the shorelines and heather-covered mountains of her beloved Scotland. She is a Swarovski Authorized Instructor, always creating with Swarovski crystals and wire in one form or another. Alison is a regular contributor to a number of national publications and is the store manager, designer, and instructor at That Bead Lady in Newmarket, Ontario, Canada. Contact her at stonescapesjewellery@ rogers.com, or visit facebook.com/ stonescapesstudio.

Design options • You can easily transform this bracelet into a bangle! Start with a longer length of 18-gauge wire and more pegs on the jig so that the bracelet band will be large enough to slide over your hand. Trim the tails at both ends, as you did for the eye of the clasp. Stack the end loops, and bind them together with 24-gauge wire. Attach a blossom over the join. • Alternatively, use a diferent style of lower components, like these colorful laser-cut leather blossoms by Lillypilly Designs. To match the more rustic look, this bangle features antique bronze-colored wire and brass spacers.

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COILED-WIRE

cuff

Bend a long piece of 16-gauge wire to form a simple cuf frame, create two types of decorative shapes, and then attach the shapes to the cuf using thinner wire. Along the way, you’ll learn the basics of wire coiling and wrapping, and you’ll end up with a beautiful bracelet you can brag about. by Sonia Kumar

a

MATERIALS bracelet

• 16½ in. (41.9 cm) 16-gauge half-hard wire • 24 in. (61 cm) 16-gauge dead-soft wire or Artistic Wire • 20 in. (51 cm) 20-gauge dead-soft wire or Artistic Wire • 90 in. (2.3 m) 24-gauge half-hard wire • nylon-jaw pliers • roundnose pliers • diagonal wire cutters • bench block or anvil • hammer

b 1 To make the frame: Cut a 16½-in. (41.9 cm) piece of 16-gauge halfhard wire. Using nylon-jaw pliers, make a right-angle bend 1¼ in. (32 mm) from one end (a). 2 Make a right-angle bend 7 in. (18 cm) from the irst bend. Make a right-angle bend 1 in. (25.5 mm) from the last bend (b). 3 On each wire end, make a loop. Open one loop, and connect the ends. Close the loop (c). On a bench block or anvil, hammer the cuf. 4 To make an S coil: Cut a 4-in. (10.2 cm) piece of 16-gauge dead-soft wire. Wrap one end

32

WIRE JEWELRY START TO FINISH

c of the wire around the smallest part of your roundnose pliers. Make a successively larger spiral (d). 5 Repeat on the other end, turning the wire in the opposite direction. Use roundnose pliers to spread out the center of each coil. Hammer the coils (e). Make six S coils. 6 To make a heart coil: Cut a 2-in. (51 mm) piece of 20-gauge wire. On each end, make a spiral as in step 4 (f). 7 Center the wire around one jaw of your roundnose pliers, pulling the ends together to form a heart shape. Spread out the center

d of each coil (g). Hammer the coils. Make 10 heart coils. 8 Cut 45 in. (1.1.m) of 24-gauge wire, and wrap it around one long side of the cuf three to six times, leaving a 1-in. (25.5 mm) tail. Attach the bottom of an S coil by wrapping the 24-gauge wire ive to 10 times around the coil and the cuf. Wrap the 24-gauge around the cuf for another ½ in. (13 mm) (h). 9 Attach a heart coil as in step 8. Wrap the 24-gauge wire around the cuf for another ½ in. (13 mm) (i). 10 Continue wrapping and attaching S coils and heart coils.


Design alternative You can make a quick pair of coiled earrings without a huge time investment. Add a few beads for a lash of color.

e

f

h

g

11 Repeat steps 8–10 on the other long side. Trim and tuck the ends of the 24-gauge wire (Basic techniques, p. 14) (j). C Contact Sonia Kumar in care of Bead&Button magazine. i

j

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GEMSTONE HOOPS

earrings Deck out a pair of shapely hoop earrings with the many hues of your favorite variegated gemstone. by Bonnie Riconda

Frame MATERIALS earrings

• 14K gold-filled wire - 14 in. (35.6 cm) 18-gauge (1.0 mm) - 8 ft. (2.4 m) 26-gauge (0.4 mm) • 2 7–8 mm faceted gemstone briolettes (tourmaline) • 200–220 2 x 2–3 x 5 mm faceted gemstone rondelles, assorted sizes (mixed variegated tourmaline) and/or 110–60 seed beads in coordinating colors • 2 pairs of chainnose, flatnose, and/or bentnose pliers • roundnose pliers • flush cutters strong enough to cut 18-gauge (1.0 mm) wire • permanent marker • steel bench block or anvil • hammer • 9–10 mm round form, such as a pen or thin marker • metal file or wire rounder

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WIRE JEWELRY START TO FINISH

1 Flush-cut a 51⁄2-in. (14 cm) piece of 18-gauge wire. On each end of the wire, make a plain loop (Basic techniques, p. 14).

tip

3 With chainnose pliers, grasp each loop, and bend and rotate them straight up so each eye is perpendicular to the frame. Adjust the shape of the frame as necessary so that the loops are about 5⁄8 in. (16 mm) apart.

For identically shaped earrings, repeat each step of the “Frame” and “Hook” right away rather than waiting until you’ve completed the irst earring to make the second.

4 Place the frame on a bench block, and hammer to latten the main body of the frame slightly. Then hold each loop lat against the bench block, and hammer to latten (b). After hammering, reshape the frame if necessary.

2 Using a permanent marker, mark the midpoint of the wire between the two loops. With chainnose pliers, bend the wire at a 110-degree angle on the mark. Using your ingers, gently shape the sides into a wide teardrop shape, about 13⁄4 in. (44 mm) across at its widest point (a).

Hook 5 Flush-cut a 11⁄2-in. (38 mm) piece of 18-gauge wire. Place the wire over a 9–10 mm round form, such as a pen or thin marker, and pull the wire down the sides to form a curve. Using roundnose pliers, make an upward-facing loop on one end of the wire (c).


a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

6 Open the loop (Basic techniques), attach a loop of the frame, and close the loop. Using your ingers, bend the other end of the wire at a 90-degree angle to it through the opposite loop of the frame (d). 7 Remove the hook from the frame, and hammer the hook to latten. Use a ile or wire rounder to completely smooth the end of the wire that will pass through the ear (e). Return the hook to the frame.

Inner beading 8 On your work surface, sort the gemstone rondelles and/or seed beads by approximate size: large, medium, and small.

9 Cut 4 ft. (1.2 m) of 26-gauge wire. Leaving a 3-in. (76 mm) tail, make ive wraps around the frame, starting at the 11 o’clock position and wrapping counterclockwise (f).

tip

If you’re more comfortable working in the other direction, start at the 1 o’clock position and wrap clockwise. 10 String a medium-sized bead. Slide the bead up to the previous wraps, position it on the inside of the frame, and make two wraps around the frame (g).

11 String two small beads. Slide the beads within ⁄ in. (6.5 mm) of the frame, and bend the wire on either side of the beads to form a double stem (h). Holding the long end of the wire against the frame, gently twist the beads two or three times to create a twisted stem (i).

14

tip

Do not overtwist the wire, as it could break. Make two wraps around the frame.

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j

k

l

m

n

o

12 String a large bead. Slide the bead up to the previous wraps, position it on the inside of the frame, and make a wrap around the frame. Now make several wraps around the bottom of the bead, ending with the long end of the wire pointing toward the single wrap around the frame (j).

tip

It’s okay if these wraps look somewhat “organic” compared to the more regular wraps made around the frame. Make one or two additional wraps around the frame. 13 Continue working as in steps 10–12, changing up the order of the beaded embellishments as desired. When you reach the center of the frame, add a 7–8 mm briolette as you did the large bead in step 12, making sure that the wide end of the briolette is to the inside of the frame (k).

14 Continue working as in steps 10–12, ending with ive wraps around the frame at the 1 o’clock (or 11 o’clock) position. Trim and tuck the 3-in. (76 mm) tail at the starting end of the frame (Basic techniques), but do not trim the long end of the wire.

36

WIRE JEWELRY START TO FINISH

Outer beading 15 Loosely wrap the long end of the wire around the ive wraps just made, and end with your wire pointed toward the outside of the frame (l). 16 String three small beads. Position them on the outside of the frame, and make a wrap around the frame between the last two beaded embellishments (m). 17 Work as in step 16 to add three small beads to the outside of the frame between each of the next few beaded embellishments. As you near the center of the frame, switch to two medium beads (n) or even one large bead (o).

tip

If adding a large bead, wrap around the bottom of the bead as you did in step 12. 18 Continue working as in step 16, reversing the size of the beads, until you reach the starting ive wraps. Loosely wrap the long end of the wire around these wraps, and then make ive wraps around the frame above the starting wraps. Trim and tuck the wire tail. 19 Add the inner and outer beading to the other frame. C

Bonnie Riconda’s jewelry showcases her love of bright colors, an interest in light and airy designs, and a passion for all things hand-created. After earning a BFA in 1998 and an MFA in 2000, she started her own jewelry business, Calico Juno Designs. With the help of some great girls who make up her design team, Calico Juno Designs now features more than 1,500 jewelry pieces, all still handmade in the studio. Her work has been featured in numerous magazines, including InStyle, Lucky, Marie Claire, Seventeen, Glamour, The Knot, Cosmo Girl, and Good Housekeeping. Contact Bonnie at calicojunodesigns@msn.com, or visit calicojunodesigns.com.


AMPLIFIED BRILLIANCE

pendant

Wrap a picture-perfect faceted gemstone in a 14k gold-wire frame. by Anna Lemons

prongs at other positions, provided they are evenly spaced.

a 1 Calculate the length you need to make your wire bundle by measuring your gem’s circumference and adding 3 in. (76 mm) for the bail. In the pendant shown, a 2-in. (51 mm) circumference plus 3 in. (72 mm) for the bail equals a total of 5 in. (12.7 cm). Now determine the number of wires (placed on top of each other)

needed to correspond to the depth of the gem’s pavilion — the distance from its girdle to its culet (see “Anatomy of a gemstone,” p. 39). For the 14 mm citrine shown, six 5-in. (12.7 cm) pieces of square wire were laid on top of each other to match the depth of the gem. After cutting the appropriate number of wires, clean and

b straighten them by rubbing them with a polishing cloth several times. 2 Using the gem’s circumference measurement, incrementally mark four prong placements with a water-soluble marker or pen. In the pendant shown, prongs are placed at 1, 4, 8, and 11 o’clock positions around the gem. You can place the

3 Lay your wires side-by-side so they are lush with each other. Starting from the exact center, begin a threewrap bind using a 5-in. (12.7 cm) piece of half-round wire, round-side up (a). Finish three wraps, but do not cut the tail of the wire; the tail will come into play in step 6. 4 Hold the wire bundle horizontally, with the wire tail from the binding extending upward. Use your ingers to grab the bottommost wire in the bundle, on the right side of the binding, and bend it down at a 90-degree angle (b). On this wire,

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What is gold-filled wire, anyway? For those of you who love the warm, silken appearance of gold but want to keep the costs of your jewelry making endeavors afordable, gold-illed wire is just what you need. To give a comparison, round 22-gauge 14k gold wire — depending on the gold market — currently costs about $45 per foot (30.5 cm). A foot of gold-illed wire currently costs between $1 and $2.

MATERIALS pendant

• 1 14 mm round faceted gem • 30 in. (76.20 cm) 14k gold-filled wire: 22-gauge, square, half-hard • 32 in. (81.28 cm) 14k gold-filled wire: 22-gauge, half-round, half-hard • chain • fabric tape measure • wire cutters • polishing cloth • water-soluble marker or pen • pliers: flatnose, roundnose, and chainnose • ring mandrel, fat marker, round dowel, or other small round object • metal file

Contrary to its name, gold-illed wire is actually gold overlay. A thin layer of karat gold is heat- and pressurebonded to a brass core. The layer of karat gold makes the wire tarnish-resistant, and it should be cared for just like the expensive version. Gold-illed wire should be bufed with a soft, clean cloth (such as lannel) and should be stored in a dry place. Placing tissue paper around your gold-illed wire will minimize exposure to humidity and prevent scratching while it’s being stored.

c

e measure 6 mm away from the bundle, grasp this location with latnose pliers, and bend the wire upward at a 90-degree angle (c). Measure 6 mm from this second bend and create a third 90-degree angle bend downward. The wire should now resemble a zigzag pattern (d). 5 Use latnose pliers or your ingers to pinch the zigzag shape together and align the rest of the wire so it is parallel with the wires in the bundle (e). Keep the prong wire lush against the bundle. Use the tail (the wire that is extending upward) to cross over the back of the bundle and create a three-wrap binding on the other side of the prong. Cut the wire ends, and 38

WIRE JEWELRY START TO FINISH

press them both against the inside of the bundle using latnose pliers (f). Continue to make three other prong units exactly like this one; evenly space them along the length of the wire bundle. (Note: You may need to create more of these units or allow more space between them, depending on the size and shape of your gemstone.) 6 Use a ring mandrel, fat marker, or round dowel to form the wire bundle into a circle with the cut ends facing the interior. The size of the bezel should be slightly smaller than the circumference of the gem to hold it securely. At the closure of the circle, use latnose pliers to grasp one side of the wire bundle. Bend this side

d

f straight up at a 45-degree angle. Repeat with the other side of the wire bundle (g). Make sure the prongs are evenly spaced and that your bail will be centered. Also, check to see that your gem will sit in this bezel without falling through. Adjust accordingly. Bind the top wire bundles together two to three times using a 6-in. (15 cm) piece of half-round wire (h). Do not cut the end of this binding wire. 7 Hold the bezel with the side that you choose to be the back facing you. Using the large diameter of a roundnose pliers or the handle of the pliers, form one rounded bend in the two back wires that are facing you (i). Make sure this bail will accommodate your chain.

g At the base of this curvature, bend the two wires away from the pendant at a 45-degree angle (j). Pinch the base (the 45-degree angle) of these two wires against the back wires of the pendant. Bind them all together with a three-wrap binding using a 6-in. (15 cm) piece of half-round wire (k). Trim and tuck the tail of the binding wire (Basic techniques, p. 14), pressing it down against the side of the binding wraps. Also trim and tuck the tails of the bail wires against the binding wraps. This step will ensure the bail doesn’t come apart with wear and tear. Bend the remaining bundle wires out to either side at 90-degree angles — half to one side, half to the other as shown in photo l.


h

i

l

k

j

m

n

GIRDLE CROWN

TABLE

FACET JUNCTION

p

o 8 Bend your prongs outward slightly, and set your gem in place (l). Hold the gem evenly and irmly inside the bezel. Use your roundnose pliers to roll each prong up and over the gem. Don’t try for an extremely tight it just yet. Once all prongs are positioned over the gem, use chainnose pliers to press them down against the gem (m). Slowly apply even pressure to all four sides until the prongs are secured around the gem; the gem shouldn’t rock in the bezel. 9 The remaining wires at the top are used as decoration. In the pendant shown, three wires from the left were brought across the front to the right, trimmed, and tucked beneath the bezel (n). The wires from the

right were formed into a loop in the center of the pendant (o), and three tendrils were curled with roundnose pliers and left hanging down (p). This step is best done free-form, so visualize a design that is appealing to you and have fun putting the inishing touches on your pendant. File any wire ends that could irritate the wearer and smooth any nicks made by your pliers during construction. Then slide the pendant on a chain and enjoy! C

PAVILION CULET

Anatomy of a gemstone This citrine is brilliant-cut, but many of the terms noted here are universally applicable to other lapidary cuts as well. Add these words to your jewelry making vocabulary, and you’ll impress your friends and family with your knowledge of a faceted gemstone’s many faces.

Anna Lemons is a self-taught jewelry artist and visual arts instructor. Contact her in care of Bead&Button magazine.

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ARCH AND CRAFT

earrings

Use ine-gauge wire like thread to add dozens of tiny beads to an arched earring frame. by Penny Dixon

4 in (10.2 cm)

3 ⁄4 in. (19 mm)

110° 70° 3

igure 1 40

WIRE JEWELRY START TO FINISH

igure 2

⁄16 in. (5 mm)

1 ⁄2 in. (13 mm)

igure 3


Frame 1 Cut an 8-in. (20.3 cm) piece of 20-gauge wire. With a permanent marker, mark the wire at its midpoint. Using chainnose or latnose pliers, bend the wire on the mark at a 45-degree angle (igure 1).

8 Pass through the next nearest SuperDuo, string an 110, make two wraps, and pass back through the 110 (igure 4, e–f). Repeat three times (f–g), noting that you are connecting the inner and outer arches.

2 On each side, mark the wire 3⁄4 in. (19 mm) from the bend. Bend the wire at a 110-degree angle at each mark. Mark the wire 3⁄16 in. (5 mm) from each new bend, and bend the wire at a 70-degree angle (igure 2). This creates a stylized W-shape.

9 String a SuperDuo, centering it at the top of the two arches (igure 4, g–h). String an 110, make two wraps, and pass back through the 110.

3 Using your ingers, curve the inside and outside of the W to create a pair of parallel arches. The inner arch should measure 1⁄2 in. (13 mm) wide at its base (igure 3).

10 Add beads to the second half of the frame to make it a mirror image of the irst. Note that this time you will be stringing the SuperDuos as you bead the inner arch and then passing through the open holes of those SuperDuos as you bead the upper arch. End with ive wraps close to where the frame wires cross.

Frame beading 4 Cut a 27-in. (68.6 cm) piece of 28-gauge (wrapping) wire. Leaving a 3-in. (76 mm) tail, make ive wraps around the upper arch where the frame wires cross (igure 4, point a).

11 String an 110, pass through the open hole of the center SuperDuo, string an 110, and make ive wraps around the starting wraps (igure 5). Trim and tuck the wire tails (Basic techniques, p. 14).

5 String an 110 seed bead, a SuperDuo, and an 110. Slide the beads up to the previous wraps, position the beads on the inside of the frame, and make three wraps (igure 4, a–b). Repeat four times to reach the corner (b–c).

Embellished drop

6 Make wraps around the frame to reach the next corner, and then make three wraps around the inner arch (igure 4, c–d). This span of unbeaded wrapping will be called the “corner wraps.”

MATERIALS earrings

• Parawire (bronze) - 16 in. (40.6 cm) 20-gauge (0.8 mm) - 92 in. (2.3 m) 28-gauge (0.32 mm) • fire-polished beads (Czech) - 2 6 mm (Persian turquoise-bronze Picasso) - 4 4 mm (Persian turquoise-bronze Picasso) - 2 3 mm (moondust-turquoise) • bicone crystals (Swarovski, olivine AB) - 4 4 mm - 2 3 mm • 3 g 2.5 x 5 mm SuperDuo Beads (opaque-ultra luster green) • seed beads (Miyuki 4203, Duracoat galvanized yellow gold) - 2 g 110 - 1 g 150 • 1 pair of 16 mm ear wires (brass) • 2 pairs of chainnose, flatnose, and/or bentnose pliers • roundnose pliers • wire cutters • permanent marker

12 Cut an 11-in. (27.9 cm) piece of wrapping wire. Leaving a 3-in. (76 mm) tail, make three wraps at the center of one set of corner wraps (igure 6, point a). String an 110, a 4 mm bicone crystal, an 110, a 6 mm ire-polished bead, an 110, a 4 mm bicone, and an 110. Make two wraps at the center of the other corner wraps, and pass back through the last 110 (a–b).

6 mm fire-polished bead

4 mm fire-polished bead 3 mm fire-polished bead

7 String an 110, pass through the open hole of the nearest SuperDuo, string an 110, make two wraps, and gently pass the wire back through the last 110 strung (igure 4, d–e).

4 mm bicone crystal

3 mm bicone crystal 2.5 x 5 mm SuperDuo bead a h

110 seed bead 150 seed bead

g

b

f b

e

a

d c igure 4

igure 5

igure 6 SEPTEMBER 2016

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f e

g

a

h

b a

d

c

c

b igure 7

igure 8

igure 10

a

c

f b e d igure 9

13 Make an arch of SuperDuos as follows: • String two 150 seed beads, an 110, and two 150s, and pass back through the third 110 added in the previous step (igure 7, a–b). • String a 150, four SuperDuos, and a 150, and pass back through the second 110 added in the previous step (b–c). • String two 150s, an 110, and two 150s, and pass back through the irst 110 added in the previous step (c–d). • Make ive wraps around the corner wraps, and pass back through the last 110 added and the open hole of the last SuperDuo (d–e). • String an 110, and pass through the open hole of the next SuperDuo (e–f). Add an 110 before each of the following two SuperDuos (f–g). • Pass through the last remaining 110, and make three wraps around the corner wraps (g–h). Trim and tuck the wire tails.

42

WIRE JEWELRY START TO FINISH

14 Cut an 8-in. (20.3 cm) piece of wrapping wire. Leaving a 3-in. (76 mm) tail, make two wraps between the 6 mm ire-polished and an adjacent 110 (igure 8, point a). Make a drop as follows: • String an 110, a 4 mm ire-polished bead, an 110, a 3 mm ire-polished bead, an 110, a 4 mm ire-polished bead, and an 110. Make two wraps between the 6 mm ire-polished and its other adjacent 110, and pass back through the last 110 added (a–b). • String three 150s, a 3 mm bicone crystal, and three 150s. Pass down through the opposite 4 mm ire-polished bead (b–c). • String three 150s, pass back through the 3 mm bicone, and string three 150s. Make two wraps between the nearest 4 mm ire-polished bead and 110 (igure 9, a–b). 15 Work another arch of SuperDuos as follows: • String a 150, three SuperDuos, and a 150, and make a wrap between the opposite 110 and 4 mm ire-polished bead (igure 9, b–c). • String two 150s and an 110, and pass through the open hole of the nearest SuperDuo (c–d). Add an 110 before each of the following two SuperDuos (d–e). String an 110 and two 150s, and make three wraps between the nearest 110 and 4 mm ire-polished bead (e–f). Trim and tuck the wire tails.

igure 11

Finishing 16 With the tip of your chainnose pliers, grasp one of the frame wires near where they cross. Bend the wire straight up, and make the irst half of a wrapped loop (Basic techniques). Again using the tip of your chainnose pliers, bend the end of the wire downward at the bottom of the loop, creating a double stem for the loop (igure 10). 17 With your nondominant hand, grasp the loop with chainnose or latnose pliers. With the other frame wire, make two wraps around the double stem of the loop. Trim and tuck this wire close to the wraps (igure 11). Trim the remaining frame wire close to the wraps under the loop. 18 Open the loop (Basic techniques) of an ear wire, attach the earring, and close the loop. Make a second earring. C Penny Dixon became captivated with bead weaving and wirework six years ago. She enjoys the constant learning and limitless creativity that can happen with a little bit of metal and some beautiful beads. Teaching and being a TrendSetters designer for Starman, Inc. have only enhanced her love for art and design. Email her at pendixon@gmail.com, or visit pennydixondesigns.com.


AVENGING ANGEL

pendant

Sculpt a classic mythological archetype with little more than a long piece of wire and a pair of pliers. by Kelly Tibbetts

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MATERIALS pendant with chain necklace

• Artistic Wire (gunmetal bronze) - 45 in. (1.1 m) 22-gauge (0.6 mm) - 6 in. (15.2 cm) 26-gauge (0.4 mm) • 1 6 mm crystal pearl (Swarovski, iridescent green) • 16 in. (40.6 cm) peanut chain, 3 mm links (copper) • 4 3–4 mm jump rings (copper) • 1 hook-and-eye clasp (copper) • 2 pairs of chainnose, flatnose, and/or bentnose pliers • roundnose pliers • wire cutters • permanent marker (optional) • sharpened pencil

This piece consists of a series of ascending and descending loops formed around roundnose pliers. You may wish to practice this technique with scrap wire irst. 1 Cut 45 in. (1.1 m) of 22-gauge wire, or work with the wire directly from the spool. Using roundnose pliers, grasp one end of the wire at the midpoint of the pliers. Rotate the pliers to form two loops around one jaw (a). 2 Hold the pliers perpendicular to your work surface so that the jaw with the loops is on the bottom and the long end of the wire is directed downward. Bring the wire up behind both jaws and over the top jaw so that the wire is once again directed downward (b). 3 Remove the pliers from your work, and insert the bottom jaw into the partial loop made in the previous step. Bring the wire up behind both jaws and over the top jaw so that the wire is directed downward (c). This completes three ascending loops. 4 To begin the descending loops, keep the pliers where they are in your work. Bring the wire under the bottom jaw so that the wire is now directed upward (d). 5 Remove the pliers from your work. Insert the top jaw into the bottom portion of the partial loop made in the previous step and the second ascending loop; insert the bottom jaw into the irst ascending loop. Bring the wire down in front of both jaws (e) and under the bottom jaw so that the wire is again directed upward.

44

WIRE JEWELRY START TO FINISH

a

b

c

d

e

f

6 Remove the pliers from your work. Insert the top jaw into the partial loop made in the previous step and the irst ascending loop. Bring the wire down and around the top jaw. This completes three descending loops. 7 Remove the pliers from your work. Insert the top jaw into the second of the ascending and descending loops; insert the bottom jaw into the irst (f). Bring the wire up behind both jaws and over the top jaw so that the wire is again directed downward. 8 Work as in step 3 to make a total of nine ascending loops. Your loops may begin to twist as you work; you will straighten them later. 9 Work as in steps 4–6 to make a total of nine descending loops (g).

g

10 Work the following loops: • Four ascending and four descending loops • Three ascending and three descending loops • Seven ascending and seven descending loops • Three ascending and three descending loops • Four ascending and four descending loops • Nine ascending and nine descending loops • Three ascending and three descending loops 11 After the last loop, bring the wire around the pliers one last time to double the loop, mirroring the irst loop from step 1. Trim the excess wire. h

On your mark To help keep your loops the same size, you may wish to mark the midpoint of the pliers with a permanent marker. Form all loops at this point.


i

k 12 Using your ingers or roundnose pliers, straighten out any twists in your work, and align the lowermost loops (h). 13 Cut a 6-in. (15.2 cm) piece of 26-gauge wire. Holding a short tail with one hand, feed the wire through each of the lowermost loops (i). Begin forming your work into a circle, and then go through the same loops again (j). Gently pull the tails on each end until there is only a small opening at the center of your work (k). 14 Wrap one end of wire around an adjacent loop to securely join the ends of your work and also to anchor this end of the wire. Trim and tuck the wire (Basic techniques, p. 14). 15 On the other end of wire, string a 6 mm pearl (l). Lay the pearl over the small opening at the center of your work, and wrap the wire around an opposite loop to secure the pearl in place and anchor this end of the wire. Trim and tuck the wire.

j

l 16 The two sets of nine ascending/descending loops are the angel wings. Using a sharpened pencil, gently pry apart the sides of the wings (m). Shape the wings as desired, pinching the ends to form wingtips. Using latnose pliers, twist the wingtips upward so that the end loops can be used to attach chains. 17 The set of seven ascending/descending loops is the tail. Shape the tail as you did the wings. Using latnose pliers, twist the end of the tail slightly to one side. 18 Using latnose pliers instead of a pencil, shape the remaining work, adjusting the loops to ill in any sparse areas and to give your angel depth. The two sets of ascending/descending loops between the wings are the ears. Using latnose pliers, twist the end of each ear inward.

m tach the other chain to the other wingtip. Use two more jump rings to attach half of the clasp to the remaining end of each chain. C Kelly Tibbetts launched Black Dog Jewelry together with Rosa, the actual “black dog” of the venture, to create artisan designs featuring wire wrapping, precious metal clay, polymer clay, and wearable and sculptural sea glass. Kelly makes; Rosa critiques, usually with a happy wag of the tail. Their seaside community of Vero Beach, Florida, ofers the perfect backdrop for discovering little treasures that are transformed into pieces that exude charm, wit, and beauty. Contact Kelly via email at kelly@blackdogjewelry.com, or visit blackdogjewelry.com.

19 Cut two 8-in. (20.3 cm) pieces of chain. Open a 3–4 mm jump ring (Jump ring basics, p. 109), and attach one chain to a wingtip. Repeat to at-

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Artist Profile

THE ART OF SABRINAH CHAPPELL

Stone supports Every maker, admirer, or wearer of jewelry knows the feeling of being transixed by a particular component or inished piece; Sabrinah Chappell knows why it happens. “Everything, including people and gemstones, vibrates at a certain electromagnetic frequency,” she says. “The vibrations of a stone can resonate with our own, shifting and harmonizing our energy to provide balance and healing for the body, mind, and spirit.” To some, that may sound a bit New Age-y, but the idea is ancient. Sabrinah points out that early sailors carried aquamarine to prevent drowning, the ancient Greeks trusted hematite to protect them during battle, and references to healing stones can be found in the centuries-old Ayurvedic traditions of India as well as Chinese medicine. And, she says, it might explain a thing or two about our own personal aesthetics. I caught up with Sabrinah to learn more about her thoughts on the topic.

?

Have you personally experienced healing through your work? And have your customers? What kind of feedback do they give you? Jewelry is a perfect way to keep healing stones close to you where they provide the most beneit. When I create my jewelry, I have a lot of handto-stone time invested just due to the nature of 46

WIRE JEWELRY START TO FINISH

Gemstones ofer powerful beneits when hand-picked for the wearer. by Stacy Werkheiser

weaving. While handling that stone there is a type of journey that takes place. A lot of energy is transmitted back and forth as the piece develops, and I set the intention to mold a healing piece each and every time. I am the luckiest person because I get to experience the beneits of healing gems every day. During my pregnancy I created and wore a pendant of rose quartz and rainbow moonstone. I had a perfect pregnancy and beautiful birth experience and I believe the supportive and protective energies of these stones helped tremendously. I have had many clients drawn to certain pieces and would say something like, “Wow, I’ve never been drawn to this color…” or, “I just can’t leave without taking this piece with me…” and when I explain what they can expect from the stone, they are quite surprised to ind out that the stone will provide the exact support that they’ve been looking for. People who understand energy transmission are most likely to beneit from it. It’s really amazing to watch the selection process between a person and my jewelry. It’s more like the jewelry chooses the person rather than the other way around.

?

You’re big into customization, tailoring a piece of jewelry exactly to its wearer. What is the power of customization? If a client has a particular ailment, customization provides a way to get a speciic stone and its healing beneits into their jewelry. I love creating custom pieces more than anything else, especially when a client allows for a bit of creative freedom. There is always a challenge with customization because I’m creating a piece that someone else has thought up. I have to ind a way to transform that vision into a piece of jewelry that they love. It’s fun to watch the piece change as ideas are combined. Creating custom jewelry is not always easy, but it’s the most rewarding thing to see a client admire his or her one-of-a-kind piece, which was designed and created speciically for them. Creating custom jewelry using healing stones is a very special and intimate process. It’s what I believe to be my true passion.

?

Your “Water” collection was showcased at the Spring 2015 New York Fashion Week. What about your work do you think caught their attention? I create many statement pieces and for Fashion Week, it needs to be big and bold. I ofer jewelry that is really unique and will work with a lot of diferent styles of clothing, which is great for the runway. In the times that I participated in Fashion Week, I always collaborated with a clothing


designer and it was really neat to see my jewelry take on diferent “personalities” as it was matched with diferent garment styles.

design sketches. I just got back into the studio about two months ago, and I am working on some great new projects inspired by the stars.

?

NYFW provides a lot of opportunities to network with other designers and meet store owners and potential clients. It is also just a great opportunity to show the world what you have to ofer. The time my jewelry was on the runway was only a few minutes, but it looked fabulous and gave my business a lot of exposure. Plus, I got some great professional photos.

Tell me a little about the collection, for instance, what’s behind the name “Water”? What’s behind your own connection to water and the sea? For my “Water” collection, I wanted to hit all the aspects of the sea. I wanted to represent the colors, the creatures, relections, and movement of water. I used a lot of pearls, metallics, and blues in this collection, and almost all of the stones have tranquil, nurturing, and serene energies which provide a connection between the body and the sea. Like most people, I love the water. I have always been drawn to it and always very interested in learning about everything that lives beneath its surface. It is just so beautiful, quiet, and peaceful there. As a child my dream job was to study a pod of whales, follow them, photograph them. We named our daughter Alora Marine, which translates to Dream of the Sea. The ocean has always been the place where I feel the most grounded and connected to everything.

?

What have you been up to since “Water”? Where does a designer even go after being featured at NYFW? Right after NYFW I found out I was expecting, and my focus shifted to having a relaxed and healthy pregnancy. I had to stay away from some of the chemicals and solder I used in my studio, so I took a little break and worked on some other creative projects like a glass mosaic for the nursery. I felt very creative during this time and did a lot of

?

Now let’s get at your roots — when and how did you irst bring wire to stone? About 10 years ago I started to experiment with wire. I hated it at irst because I wasn’t good at it. My pieces just looked like a tangled mess. It took a lot of research, time, and practice to develop an organized style and clear intentions when it came to design.

?

How did making jewelry go from there to being a full-time career? At the time I was working as a CAT scan technologist and was gifting a lot of jewelry to women who were getting married. It became apparent that a lot of people would pay for my work. I started selling my jewelry at very small shows, then juried shows, and just built up from there. Social media like Facebook and LinkedIn provided a lot of great opportunities for my business.

?

What do you think would most surprise people about your work? What do you think would least surprise them? I think most people would be very surprised at what actually goes into designing and creating a piece of hand-woven jewelry. There are so many steps involved in the design process and quite a few times that things don’t work out the way they were originally planned. I think it’s also surprising, even to me, that some major pieces just kind of happen without a plan. Most people are not surprised that statement pieces take a VERY long time!

?

What advice to you have for other wireworkers, jewelry makers, and anyone else who might be interested in the kind of work you do? If your goal is to create wire jewelry, my advice would be to have a lot of patience with yourself and give it many tries before deciding it’s not for you. Invest in quality tools, and force yourself to try a new tool every once in a while. Believe me when I say it could change your life! Also, trust in the creative process. Like everything else, creating jewelry is meant to be a journey. Developing a unique style and great craftsmanship does not happen overnight. Give yourself permission to take all the time you need. C See more of Sabrinah’s work on pp. 75 and 90 and visit her website, sabrinahsart.com. Stacy Werkheiser is a contributing editor for Bead&Button magazine. Contact her in care of Bead&Button.

SEPTEMBER 2016

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Make your own findings

48

WIRE JEWELRY START TO FINISH


MAKE YOUR OWN CLASPS

Handmade clasps and closures Making your own clasps means that you’ll always have the right inding to suit your individual work.

techniques

MATERIALS • • • •

18-gauge wire, half hard chainnose pliers roundnose pliers wire cutters

by Addie Kidd

S-HOOK CLASP

c

a

b

d

e

1 Cut 4 in. (10.2 cm) of wire. Use your roundnose pliers to make a small loop at one end. Repeat on the other end, with the loop facing the opposite direction (a).

4 Repeat step 3 on the other end, but again in the opposite direction (d). Use your roundnose pliers to adjust the S-hook as necessary and tighten the openings.

2 Holding one tip of your pliers inside the loop and the other tip against the base wire, bend the base wire against the pliers to form a slight curve (b). Repeat on the other end.

5 Optional: For a more inished look, and to strengthen your hook, lightly hammer the edges of the hook’s curves to slightly latten them (e).

3 Hold the wire midway down your roundnose pliers, gripping against the curve you just formed. Bend the base wire against the pliers until the wire nearly touches the curve (c).

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techniques

MAKE YOUR OWN CLASPS

TRADITIONAL HOOK & EYE

Hook 1 Cut 6 in. (15.2 cm) of wire. Grasp the wire 2 in. (51 mm) from one end between the tips of your roundnose pliers. Bend both ends of the wire around the jaw until they are parallel, forming a small rounded bulb (a). 2 Bend the longer wire at a right angle 1 in. (25.5 mm) from the bulb (b). Form a wrapped loop (Basic techniques, p. 14), wrapping around both wires (c). Trim the tails (d).

50

WIRE JEWELRY START TO FINISH

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

j

k

3 Using roundnose pliers, gently bend just the bulb end back along a slight curve (e). 4 Position roundnose pliers halfway down the parallel wires, and with the bent tip pointing out, form the hook’s loop around the pliers (f). Adjust until the end is near the wrapped loop, and the hook has a pleasing curve (g).

Eye 5 Cut 3 in. (76 mm) of wire. Using roundnose pliers, make a small loop 3â „4 in. (19 mm) from one end, and bend both ends back until they are parallel to each other (h). 6 Make a larger loop with the longer wire end (i). Wrap the remaining long end around the wires where they cross (j). Trim both tails (k).


TOGGLE CLASP

c

Toggle bar 1 Cut 6 in. (15.2 cm) of wire. With chainnose pliers, grasp the wire 1 in. (25.5 mm) from the end, and make a 90-degree bend. 2 Using roundnose pliers, grasp the wire 1⁄2 in. (13 mm) from the irst bend and bend the wire 180 degrees (a).

a

b

d

e

6 Make a wrapped loop (Basic techniques, p. 14), wrapping tightly around both wires (d). Trim the tails (e). 7 Optional: For a more inished look, and to strengthen your toggle, lightly hammer the bar to slightly latten it and lare just the edges (f).

Toggle ring 3 To match the other side, measure ½ in. (13 mm) from the center, and bend the wire 180 degrees. 4 Using chainnose pliers, make a 90-degree bend in the working wire to mirror the other half of the wire (b).

Cut 5 in. (12.7 cm) of wire. Follow steps 1 and 2 of the traditional eye (p. 50), but use the extra wire to make a larger loop to accommodate your toggle bar. The loop should be sized so that the bar can’t slip out unless it’s turned sideways.

f

5 Grasp the working wire 1⁄8 in. (3 mm) from the last bend, and bend it to begin a wrapped loop (c).

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techniques

MAKE YOUR OWN CLASPS

ANGULAR HOOK AND EYE

Hook 1 Cut 4 in. (10.2 cm) of wire. With chainnose pliers, grasp the wire 1½ in. (38 mm) from one end. Bend the wire up against both sides of the pliers to form a squared U. With the same point on your pliers, grasp the shorter part of the wire at the bend and repeat the bend to form a diamond shape (a). 2 Wrap the shorter end around the longer end, making a diamond-shaped wrapped loop (b). Trim the tail. 3 Bend the wire away from the wrapped loop to mimic the diamond shape. Position your pliers 3⁄8 in. (9.5 mm) from the wrap, and bend it 90 degrees (c).

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WIRE JEWELRY START TO FINISH

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

4 Grasp the wire ½ in. (13 mm) from the last bend and repeat the bend.

8 Grasp the wire ¼ in. (6.5 mm) from the last bend, and make a 90-degree bend.

5 Repeat step 4 (d).

9 Repeat step 8 twice to form a larger diamond that will be the eye (g).

6 Grasp the wire 3⁄8 in. (9.5 mm) from the last bend, and bend out. Trim the wire 1⁄4 in. (6.5 mm) from the last bend. Bend the ¼-in. (6.5 mm) section on top of itself, and pinch it closed (e).

Eye 7 Cut 5 in. (12.7 cm) of wire. Grasp the wire 11⁄2 in. (38 mm) from the end, and follow step 1 of the angular hook to form a small diamond. Bend both wire ends up so that they’re parallel. Leaving a small stem, use chainnose pliers to bend the longer wire out to begin the larger diamond-shaped eye (f).

10 Holding the eye and the shorter wire together, wrap the longer wire around both wires to secure the loops (h). Trim both wire tails. 11 If desired, hammer the hook and eye as in step 7 of the toggle bar.


ANGULAR SPIRAL HOOK

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

j

k

1 Cut 6 in. (15.2 cm) of wire. Grasp the end with your chainnose pliers, and make a 90-degree bend (a). 2 Grasp the wire just a little farther from the bend, and make a 90-degree bend. Repeat (b). 3 Continue until you’ve created an open, squared spiral that is 3⁄8 in. (9.5 mm) wide (c). 4 Grasp the wire where you want to make the last corner, and bend at an angle, away from the spiral (d).

5 Grasp the wire just below the last bend and angle it away to form a small stem (e).

8 Grasp the working wire where it aligns with the wraps and bend the wire away from the loop (i).

6 Make a small diamond-shaped loop following step 1 of the angular hook (f). Use the long tail to make a wrapped loop around the stem (g). Don’t trim the tail.

9 Trim the wire 1⁄4 in. (6.5 mm) from the last bend. Bend the ¼-in. (6.5 mm) section on top of itself, and pinch (j).

7 Bend the wire along the open side of the spiral, paralleling its line (h). Make three 90-degree bends around the base spiral to form the four sides of the hook.

10 If desired, hammer the hook as in step 7 of the toggle bar (k). C

Addie Kidd is a photographer, doula, and goldsmith. To learn more, visit addiekidd.com.

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techniques

CUSTOMIZE YOUR CLASP

Embellished hook clasp Learn how to use wireworking techniques to create a decorative hook clasp. by Erin Paton

A hook clasp is quick to make, easy to use, and holds necklaces securely. Once you learn how to make a basic hook clasp, your options are wide open — you can embellish your hook clasps with any combination of wire and beads, matching each clasp to the necklace it’s intended for.

3 Using roundnose or bentnose pliers, grasp across the loop, next to the bead (b). Using your ingers, push the wire around the bead, repositioning the pliers as necessary. The wire should fully encircle the bead, holding it in place. Continue spiraling the wire around the bead until you’ve formed three full rotations (c).

Bead spiral 1 Cut a 5-in. (12.7 cm) piece of 20-gauge wire. 2 Using the tips of your roundnose pliers, make a small open loop at one end of the wire (a). Slide a 3 mm bead onto the loop.

MATERIALS • sterling silver wire - 5 in. (12.7 cm) 20-gauge (0.8 mm), round, half-hard - 10 in. (25.4 cm) 24-gauge (0.5 mm), round, dead-soft - 8 in. (20 cm ) 28-gauge (0.32 mm), round, dead-soft • 1 3 mm sterling silver bead • 1 2-in. (51 mm) sterling silver head pin • 1 5–7 mm pearl or other bead for dangle (optional) • necklace extender chain, approximately 2 in. (51 mm) long (optional) • chainnose pliers • roundnose pliers • wire cutters

4 Wiggle the bead to make sure it’s secure in the spiral. If necessary, use pliers or your ingers to tighten the spiral to prevent the bead from falling out. 5 Using chainnose pliers, pull the spiral’s outermost wire away from the spiral a bit — you need only enough space to it 24-gauge wire through. Later, your necklace chain will attach to this spot. If necessary, use nylon-jaw pliers to adjust the spiral.

Coiled embellishment 6 Wrap the spiral’s tail wire halfway around a mandrel, wooden dowel, or pen that’s about 8 mm in diameter to make a curve in the wire.

a

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WIRE JEWELRY START TO FINISH

7 Place the curve of the wire on a bench block or anvil. Using a chasing hammer and being careful not to hammer the bead, lightly hit the curve to latten (d) and work-harden it. 8 Using lush cutters, cut an 8-in. (20.3 cm) piece of 28-gauge wrapping wire and a 4-in. (10.2 cm) piece of 24-gauge core wire. 9 Leaving a short tail, use the wrapping wire to make a coil (Basic techniques, p. 14) around the core wire, starting about 11⁄4 in. (32 mm) in from one end of the core wire. Make the coil about 5⁄8 in. (16 mm) long. Trim the short wrapping-wire tail, but don’t cut the longer wrapping wire. 10 Using the 11⁄4 in. (32 mm) unwrapped tail of the core wire, make three tight wraps around the hook wire (e). These wraps should be just above the spiral and below the hook’s lattened curve. If necessary, slide these wraps into position.

b

11 Slide the coil down to meet the three wraps around the hook. Then, carefully wrap the coiled wire around the hook wire, making three full rotations (f). 12 If you have coil remaining on the core wire, trim it with lush cutters and slide it of. If the coil is too short, use the wrapping wire to make the coil longer. Trim the wrapping wire. Using the remaining unwrapped core wire, make three tight wraps around the hook wire. Use chainnose pliers to adjust any wraps that may need tightening. Use lush cutters to trim both tails of the core wire.

Hook formation 13 Hold the mandrel against the partially curved hook, opposite the spiral, just above the coiled embellishment. Using your ingers, wrap the hook wire around the mandrel until it’s pointing downward toward the hook’s spiral. 14 Cut the hook wire so the end is about lush with the bottom of the spiral. Then, hammer the curve and the end of the hook wire, using a

c


d chasing hammer and a bench block or anvil. You can also hammer more in certain areas to create interest (g). 15 Use needle iles and sandpaper, or a lubricated cup bur (sized to it your wire) in a lex shaft, to smooth and round the ends of the wire.

e 18 To add a dangle to the extender chain, string a pearl and one or more accent beads onto a head pin. Using roundnose pliers, make the irst half of a wrapped loop. Attach the uninished loop to the end of the extender chain, and inish the wraps. Use sandpaper to smooth any rough edges on the cut wire.

f

g

Cool clasps I like to take my jewelry to a higher level by customizing each clasp to match the necklaces I make. Here are four examples of embellished hook clasps. They all start with a simple modiied spiral hook clasp. Experiment to come up with custom variations of your own!

Assembly and inishing 16 Cut a 3-in. (76 mm) piece of 24-gauge wire. On one end of the wire, use roundnose pliers to make the irst half of a wrapped loop (Basic techniques). Attach the uninished loop to the last link in your necklace’s chain. Complete the wraps. Slide an accent bead (mine is 3 mm) onto the wire, and make the irst half of a wrapped loop with the remaining wire. Slide the uninished loop into the opening between the hook’s spirals. Complete the wraps, and trim the wire. 17 If desired, follow the instructions in step 16 to connect an extender chain to the necklace on the end opposite the hook clasp.

19 Patinate the clasp, if desired (Getting started). You can use a liver of sulfur patina to enhance the contrast of the clasp. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions to prepare the solution. Dip your hook clasp, extender chain, and necklace into the solution, and rinse. Repeat this dipping and rinsing until the desired color is achieved. You can then use ine 0000-grade steel wool or a polishing cloth to remove the patina from the clasp’s high spots. C

A small spiral on the wrapped-briolette dangle coordinates with the three swirls that delicately embellish the hook clasp.

Colorful stones replace the simple metal beads where the hook clasp and extender chain attach to the necklace chain. Three drop beads create an opulent inish.

An exaggerated rotation of this hook clasp’s outer spiral provides a perfect place to add decorative wire-wrapped stone beads.

Because this hook’s spiral is bead free, the clasp has a lighter look. Stone and metal beads highlight the attachments to the necklace chain.

Erin Paton lives in Bangalee, New South Wales, Australia. See another project by Erin on p. 98. Contact her at earringsbyerin@gmail.com.

tip

When paired with a hook clasp, extender chains provide size-adjustment options for a necklace. If you’d rather skip the extender chain and decorative dangle, you can attach a large soldered jump ring opposite your hook clasp.

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techniques

MAKING EAR WIRES

Earring education Learn to make three styles of ear wires, and you’ll never need to buy prefab again. by Barb Switzer kidney basic

Whether you plan to submit your earrings to juried shows or you just want to spend less money on jewelry indings, making your own ear wires is a great way to broaden your jewelry-making skills.

long

MATERIALS basic ear wires

• 3½ in. (89 mm) 20-gauge wire, half-hard • pen, mandrel, or pliers with a ¼–5 ⁄16-in. (6–7 mm) diameter kidney ear wires

• 5 in. (13 cm) 22-gauge wire, half-hard • pen, mandrel, or pliers with a 3 ⁄8 -in. (10 mm) diameter long ear wires

• 5 in. (12.7 cm) 20-gauge wire, half-hard • pen, mandrel, or pliers with a ¾-in. (19 mm) diameter all projects

• • • •

roundnose and chainnose pliers flush cutters bench block chasing hammer, or rawhide or plastic mallet • fine file or emery board • fine-tip marker

a

BASIC EAR WIRE 1 Cut a 1½-in. (38 mm) piece of 20-gauge half-hard wire. Use a inetip marker to mark the center of the wire. Bend the wire around an object with a ¼–5⁄16-in. (6–7 mm) diameter to form a U (a). 2 Using the tips of your roundnose pliers, make a loop at one end of the wire (b).

b 3 At the other end of the wire, bend the last 1⁄8 in. (3 mm) up at a 45-degree angle (c). Use a ine ile or emery board to smooth the end. 4 To strengthen and latten the top curve of the wire, use a chasing hammer to lightly hammer the curved portion on a bench block (d).

Design option Hammer without lattening If you prefer the proile of the wire to remain round instead of being lattened, use a rawhide or plastic mallet instead of a chasing hammer.

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WIRE JEWELRY START TO FINISH

c

Add a wire coil to the front of the long earring wires.

d


b

a

KIDNEY EAR WIRE 1 Cut a 2-in. (51 mm) piece of 22-gauge half-hard wire, making lush cuts at both ends. Using a ine-tip marker, mark the wire 3⁄8 in. (9.5 mm) and 13⁄8 in. (35 mm) from the right end of the wire. 2 Bend the wire around an object with a 3⁄8-in. (9.5 mm) diameter, positioning the 13⁄8-in. (35 mm) mark on the left side of the curve (a). The ends will be uneven (b).

roundnose pliers just above the 3⁄8 in. (9.5 mm) mark. Pull the wire end up toward the top of the curve (c). Make a slight bend before the curved bend to make the previous curve more pronounced. Using chainnose pliers, grasp the wire just beyond the mark, and bend the wire tail at a 90-degree angle (d). 4 At the other end of the wire, bend the last 1⁄8 in. (3 mm) at a 45-degree angle (e).

3 To work-harden the wire, use a rawhide or plastic mallet to hammer the curve on a bench block. File the short end smooth using a ine ile or an emery board. On the longer end of the wire, position the tip of your

5 Hammer the earring wire lightly until it is slightly springy.

e

f

small hook (f). Make sure to adjust the wire so there’s tension between the hook and the 45-degree bend at the other end of the wire (g).

b

LONG EAR WIRE 1 Cut a 2-in. (51 mm) piece of 20-gauge half-hard wire. Mark the center of the wire with a ine-tip marker. Using a ine ile or emery board, round one end of the wire. Bend the wire around an object with a ¾-in. (19 mm) diameter (a). e

d

7 Hammer the U at the top as in the basic earring wire.

6 Using roundnose pliers, grasp the last 1⁄16 in. (2 mm) of the 90-degree bend, and make a

a

c

2 Using chainnose pliers, grasp the wire to one side of the center mark. Push the wire toward the other half of the circle. Repeat on the other side of the center mark (b).

c 3 Using roundnose pliers, make a small loop on the uniled end of the wire (c). 4 Using chainnose pliers, grasp ⁄ in. (5 mm) of the iled end of the wire and bend it up at a 45-degree angle (d).

3 16

d Barb Switzer has been making jewelry for 20 years, specializing in wire. She teaches around the country, bonding with jewelry makers and beaders who share her passion. To contact Barb, email her at beadswitzer@gmail.com.

5 Place the top half of the earring on a bench block, and use a chasing hammer to gently hammer the bend (e). Hammer the angled end lightly. Reine the shape if necessary. C

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COILED CONE

earrings

Accent a pair of DIY cones with chain tassels, Swarovski crystals, and a decorative wire wrap. by Sandra Lupo

tip

To watch a demo of the Conetastic Cone Mandrel Tool Set, go to youtube.com, and search for “Artistic Wire Conetastic.”

Hold the wraps down against the mandrel with your index inger and thumb to keep the wraps tight. Your inished cone will consist of approximately 12–14 wraps around the mandrel.

Cones Refer to (a) as you work the following steps. 1 Insert the medium-sized inverted cone mandrel into the top of the Conetastic tool, and secure with the included hex wrench. 2 Working of the spool of 18-gauge wire, insert the end of the wire into the guide hole in the mandrel so that a 1-in. (25.5 mm) tail extends from the hole. Bend the wire at the hole to secure. 3 Holding the long end of the wire in your hand, wrap the wire around the mandrel, keeping the wraps close together. Continue wrapping for a cone that measures 17 mm long, with a base that is 10 mm wide and a tip that is 7 mm wide.

a

58

WIRE JEWELRY START TO FINISH

b

4 When your cone is the proper size, trim the wire from the spool. Trim the wire extending from the guide hole, and remove the mandrel from the tool to release the cone. Flush-cut the wire at the tip and the base of the cone. 5 Repeat steps 2–4 to make a second identical cone.

Earring assembly 6 Using lush cutters, trim one 6–7 mm jump ring from the tip of each cone. Open each jump ring (Jump ring basics, p. 109), and attach a 13 x 6.5 mm briolette (b). Set aside.

c


MATERIALS pair of earrings

More cones, more earrings!

• Artistic Wire - 1 2-yd. (1.8 m) spool of 18-gauge (1.0 mm), round (rose gold) - 20 in. (50.8 cm) 20-gauge (0.8 mm), twisted (antique brass) • Swarovski crystals - 2 13 x 6.5 mm briolette pendants (#6010, erinite) - 2 8 mm rondelles (#5040, erinite) - 4 6 mm bicones (#5328, crystal golden shadow) • 20 in. (50.8 cm) chain, 2–3 mm links (antique brass) • 1 pair of ear wires (copper) • 2 pairs of chainnose, flatnose, and/or bentnose pliers • roundnose pliers • flush cutters strong enough to cut 18-gauge (1.0 mm) wire • Conetastic Cone Mandrel Tool Set • Conetastic Inverted Cone Mandrel (set of 3)

Make cones from tightly coiled wire for a fun variation on these earrings! Using a Coiling Gizmo with a 1.6 mm crank, make a 3-in. (76 mm) coil of 28-gauge oxidized wire for each earring. String the coil onto a spool of 22-gauge wire. Attach the desired cone mandrel into the Conetastic tool, and insert the end of the 22-gauge wire into the guide hole. Form a cone, ending with a few wraps of just the 22-gauge wire. String chains on an eye pin, add the cone and any decorative beads, and inish with a wrapped loop and an ear wire.

tip

Check the tip of each cone. If cutting the jump ring has made the tip of the cone jagged, lush-cut the end of the wire. If necessary, use chainnose pliers to tuck in the wire if it’s not in line with the rest of the cone. 7 Cut a 10-in. (25.4 cm) piece of chain, and then cut it into eight 1–11⁄2-in. (25.5–38 mm) lengths. 8 Cut 10 in. (25.4 cm) of 20-gauge twisted wire. At one end, make the irst half of a wrapped loop (Basic techniques, p. 14). String each chain into the loop (c), and complete the wraps (d). 9 On the other end of the wire, string a 6 mm bicone, a cone (wide end irst), an 8 mm rondelle, and another 6 mm bicone (e). Pull the wrapped loop all the way into the cone so that the bottom bicone is hidden inside. 10 Make the irst half of a wrapped loop, and string an ear wire into the loop. Complete the

Conetastic products available at www.artisticwire.com or wherever Beadalon products are sold.

wraps between the loop and the top bicone, and then continue making loose wraps down the length of the cone (f).

attach a jump ring with briolette from step 6. Close the jump ring (g).

tip

12 Repeat steps 7–11 to assemble the second earring. C

Anchor the wire by wrapping around and between the top bicone and rondelle before wrapping around the cone. Use your ingers for this wrapping; pliers could slip and mar the outside of the cone. When you reach the bottom of the cone, use chainnose, latnose, or bentnose pliers to tuck the end of the wire up inside the bottom of the cone. 11 Trim a few links from a central chain, and

Sandra Lupo teaches wire, bead, and metalwork techniques at local museums, art workshops, the Bead&Button Show, and wherever creative people gather. As an inventor, Sandra is excited to share her creativity with how-to projects and demos of her Conetastic Cone Mandrel Tool Set and accessories. To learn more about Sandra or to contact her, visit sandsstones.com.

e

d

f

g

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Playing with fire PROJECTS USING A TORCH

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BALLING UP WIRE

techniques

Elegant endings Balling up wire is a quick and useful technique for making head pins, wire accents, ear wires — all it requires is a torch.

Balling up wire is a quick and useful technique — you can use it to make head pins, wire accents, and ear wires, and to add a smooth, inished look to your wirework projects. How to: Cut a piece of wire. Use cross-locking tweezers to grasp the wire at its midpoint, and dip the end of the wire in lux. Hold the wire vertically, and light a handheld butane (easiest) or oxygen/gas torch. Lower one end of the wire into the lame, just beyond the tip of the inner blue cone. After a ball forms at the end of the wire, remove the lame, turn of the torch, and then quench, pickle, rinse, and dry the wire.

TYPE OF METAL

Tips for balling up wire While the technique is roughly the same for most metals, here are some small ways to tweak the process to ensure that your wire balls up smoothly every time. When in doubt, use lux. Some metals, like ine silver, don’t require lux when balling or soldering. However, lux may be useful even if not required. A barrier lux (like Prip’s) keeps oxygen from reaching the surface of the metal (which reduces oxidation) and may help reduce pitting. None of the samples below were luxed or pickled, and show the oxidation and pitting that

RESULTS

Fine silver

Smooth, round ball

Argentium sterling silver

FLUX/PICKLE No flux or pickling needed

can occur. To remove the oxidation, place the piece in pickle to clean it (Getting started, p. 8). Use a reducing lame. Most thingauge wire doesn’t need much heat to ball up. Use a softer, reducing lame to prevent some oxidation and to avoid heating the wire too quickly. Keep it vertical. Straighten the end of your wire before balling it up, and make sure the wire is completely vertical in your cross-locking tweezers. This will ensure that your ball is rounder and centered on the wire.

TORCH NEEDED

Metal follows heat. Hold the tip of the inner blue cone of your lame directly above your wire end. As the end starts to ball up, move the lame to keep it just above the ball until your ball is the desired size. Remember gauge limitations. Most precious metals and some base metals (like copper and brass) 18-gauge (1.0 mm) or smaller will ball up easily with a hand-held butane torch. For wires thicker than 18-gauge, consider using an oxygen/ gas torch to get the best result. C

OBSERVATIONS

Hand-held butane torch

Very easy to ball up; requires minimal preparation and clean-up

Smooth, Flux optional, may require slightly oblong pickling ball

Hand-held butane torch

Easy to ball up; any discoloration can be easily removed with pickle

Sterling silver

Moderately pitted oblong ball

Flux and pickling recommended

Hand-held butane torch

Heavy oxidation and some pitting; flux reduces oxidation and pitting

Platinum sterling silver

Slightly pitted oblong ball

Flux and pickling recommended

Hand-held butane torch

Some discoloration and minimal pitting; use flux and pickle

Copper

Slightly pitted oblong ball

Flux and pickling recommended

Hand-held butane torch

Heavy oxidation and some pitting

Brass

Moderately pitted oblong ball

Flux and pickling recommended

Hand-held butane torch

Light oxidation and some pitting

Steel

Smooth, No flux or slightly oblong pickling needed ball

Oxygen/gas (propane, acetylene, etc.) torch

Needs more intense heat; some sparking may occur; do not pickle!

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NATURAL ORDER

necklace

Capture the beauty and mystery of the natural world in this piece that’s both organic and highly symmetrical. by Nicola Beer

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b

a

c

MATERIALS necklace

e

d Symmetry is the key to this piece. At the end of every step, make sure that all bends, twists, loops, and wraps are as symmetrical as you can make them before moving on to the next step. Starting with step 9, you can deviate from the instructions to customize the design; this project lends itself well to adaptations. But this piece isn’t just about symmetry; it’s also about free, lowing movement. Use your ingers to work the wire whenever possible. This will give the design a more organic look and avoid unnecessary tool marks on the wire. If necessary, use roundnose pliers to tweak any shaping that can’t be managed with your ingers.

2 Fill a large bowl with water, and set up your torch next to the bowl. Switch on the torch, and lock the lame at its highest setting. Using insulated tweezers, grasp one of the wires, and insert one end into the hottest part of the lame at a 90-degree angle. Hold the wire in place until it starts to glow bright yellow, and green sparks form in the lame. This indicates that the copper has reached its melting point, and you will see the end begin to ball up. Once a ball has formed at the tip of the wire (a), drop the wire into the quenching bowl. In the same way, ball up each end of all four wires. Don’t worry about the discoloration (ire scale) on the wire for now.

Centerpiece

3 Bend one of the long wires in half so that both balled ends meet and a soft U-shape is formed at the other end. Using chainnose or latnose pliers, gently squeeze the U-shape to form a closed “prong” (b).

1 Flush-cut two 12-in. (30.5 cm) and two 6-in. (15.2 cm) pieces of 18-gauge wire, and straighten them with nylon-jaw pliers.

tip

Copper wire is used for this piece, as it can be balled up with a torch, but you may use any soft wire. Coated craft wire cannot be melted to create the balled effect but can still be used to make the project. Sterling silver is also an excellent option, as this design uses an economical amount of wire while creating a substantial inished piece.

tip

It is easier to form the prong with small, controlled squeezes rather than one hard squeeze. Make sure that the prong isn’t twisted.

4 Pull the ends of the wire away from each other to create “wings” with the prong at the center (c). Shape the wings as necessary so that the curves are symmetrical and the prong is straight.

• copper wire - 57 in. (1.4 m) 18-gauge (1.0 mm) - 40 in. (1 m) 24-gauge (0.5 mm) • 1 8 mm round bead (kyanite) • 36 3 mm faceted rondelles (kyanite) • 4 5–6 mm jump rings (copper) • 1 hook-and-eye clasp (copper) • 2 pairs of chainnose, flatnose, and/or bentnose pliers • nylon-jaw pliers • roundnose pliers • flush cutters strong enough to cut 18-gauge (1.0 mm) wire • bowl of water for quenching • butane or oxygen/gas torch • cross-locking or insulated tweezers • 3 mm and 10 mm dowels, or stepped bail-making pliers with 3 mm and 10 mm barrels • pickle solution with pickle pot, such as a crock pot or container on a hot plate • copper, wood, or plastic (not steel) tongs • if tumbling: tumbler with steel shot and burnishing compound or dish soap • if patinating: liver of sulfur solution

5 Using a 3 mm dowel or the 3 mm barrel of stepped bail-making pliers, make a clockwise loop in the left wing 11⁄2 in. (38 mm) from the center of the prong. Repeat to make a counterclockwise loop in the right wing (d). 6 Center the other long wire on a 10 mm dowel or the 10 mm barrel of stepped bail-making pliers, and bring the ends around to form a loop (e).

tip

The 8 mm round bead will sit inside this loop. If using a different sized bead, make the loop 2 mm larger than the bead.

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f

g

h

i

j

k 7 On your work surface, bring together the two longer wires, centering the 10 mm loop over the prong. With your nondominant hand, pinch the loop and the prong. With your dominant hand, grasp the very end of the left loop wire. Twist this wire several times around the left prong wire, going no farther than the 3 mm loop in the prong wire. Repeat on the right side of the piece (f). 8 Cut a 4-in. (10.2 cm) piece of 24-gauge wire. Leaving a short tail, make four wraps around one side of the 10 mm loop. String the 8 mm bead, centering it in the loop (g), and make four wraps around the other side of the loop. Trim and tuck the wire tails. 9 Grasp the end of the left loop wire, gently curve it back toward the loop, and bring it down and over the front of the piece. The wire should cross about halfway between the 3 mm loop and the prong. Repeat on the right side of the piece (h). 64

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l 10 Bring both wires under the design, and bend them upwards at the back so that the ends now point up (i). The wire movements made in the previous step should now resemble arches that pass slightly behind the 3 mm loops. 11 Insert one of the shorter wires through the left arch and 3 mm loop from back to front so that the wire extends 2 in. (51 mm) from the two elements (j). Holding the 2-in. (51 mm) section of the wire in place, loosely wrap the longer end of the wire once where the left arch crosses the left prong wire. End with this wire pointing downward. Repeat on the right side of the piece (k). 12 Working with the same wires, twist each one around the prong wire — these twists should mirror (not parallel) the existing twists — until they cross behind the prong (l). Curve each wire over the front of the design, toward the back. Now curve each wire forward and through its

m corresponding arch. End with these wires pointing down (m).

tip

You should now have two wires pointing up, two wires pointing down, and two wires each pointing to the left and right. 13 Working with the two wires pointing up: Curve these wires down and over the front of the design (n). Continue looping these wires down and around and then up and over the design until the ends of the wire are short and exit alongside the prong (o).

14 Working with the same wires, grasp each end with roundnose pliers, and rotate your wrist to loosely spiral the wire inward. Repeat with the two others wires that are pointing down (p).


n

15 On the left and right, spiral the shorter wires as before (q). 16 With the remaining two wires, form a series of graduated overlapping loops, starting small and growing larger (r). Spiral the ends of the wire as before (s). Your neck chains will attach to these spirals, so make sure that the balled ends are closed into a tight loop through which there is suicient space to insert a jump ring or other connector. 17 Check your design for loose wires, making any last adjustments to the symmetry.

Finishing 18 To remove ire scale: Prepare a warm pickle solution (Getting started, p. 8) in a crock pot or container on a hot plate. Using copper, wood, or plastic (not steel) tongs, place your work in the solution until all discoloration has disappeared. Remove and rinse the piece.

o

p

q

r

s

19 If desired, tumble-polish (Getting started) and patinate your work with liver of sulfur (Getting started).

Neck chains Use jump rings or other connectors to attach the desired neck chain to the inal spiral on each side of the centerpiece. In the necklace shown, the neck chains consist of alternating igure-8 links and beaded connectors. 20 To make igure-8 links: Flush-cut a 3â „4-in. (19 mm) piece of 18-gauge wire. Using roundnose pliers, grasp one end of the wire, and roll it inward until it touches the center of the wire. Repeat on the other end of the wire, rolling the loop in the opposite direction. Repeat to make a total of 28 igure-8 links. 21 To make beaded connectors: Cut a 3-in. (76 mm) piece of 24-gauge wire. Make a wrapped loop (Getting started) on one end. String three 3 mm rondelles, and make another wrapped loop. Repeat to make a total of 12 beaded connectors.

22 Open and close the igure-8 links to make a chain of two igure-8s alternating with one beaded connector. End with a total of 14 igure-8s and six beaded connectors in the chain. Repeat to make a second chain. 23 Use two 5–6 mm jump rings (Jump ring basics, p. 109) to attach each chain to the inal spiral on each end of the centerpiece. Use two more jump rings to attach half of the clasp to the remaining ends of the neck chains. C Nicola Beer is a silver clay and wire artist. She regularly contributes to both UK and U.S. jewelry magazines and publishes her own tutorials. Nicola is inspired by fairy tales, legends, and nature to produce enchanting and whimsical designs. Her style of teaching focuses on precise, professional inishing and ways that students can use new techniques in their own work. Contact Nicola at nic.beer@hotmail.co.uk, or visit facebook.com/ rubycurlsjewellerydesigns. SEPTEMBER 2016

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EASY TORCHFIRED-ENAMEL

necklace

Use a butane torch to fuse enamels to ine silver. by Jill Erickson

Enameling, the process of fusing glass to metal, traditionally requires a kiln, specialized tools, and a dedicated workspace. This easy way to enamel employs a low-cost, handheld butane torch to fuse the enamels to the balled ends of ine-silver wire, creating dots of color. The 1-in. (25.5 mm) pieces of wire are then twisted onto sterling silver chain to create a fringe of colorful dangles. Complete the necklace with a handmade S-hook clasp. There are some safety concerns when working with enamels. Enamels are inely powdered glass 66

WIRE JEWELRY START TO FINISH

particles, minerals, and ceramic pigments, so take care to avoid ingesting them. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions when using enamels, and work in a clean, well-ventilated workspace. Don’t smoke or handle food when you are working with enamels. For a brief overview of the properties of enamels, see “Understanding enamels,” p. 69.

Preparation 1 Use glass baby-food jars, plastic condiment cups, or a mortar and pestle to clean the enamel

powders. Wash each color of enamel powder separately by placing the powder in a container, adding water, and stirring (a). Let the enamel settle, and then pour of the milky water that rises to the top. Repeat until the water remains clear (b). 2 Pour of the clear water and spread the washed enamel powder on stacked sheets of clean paper to expedite the drying time. When the powder is dry, fold a crease in the paper and pour the powder into a small glass container that has a lid


MATERIALS necklace

a

b

c

or stopper. Label the containers with the enamel color names or codes.

3 Cut 60 1¼-in. (32 mm) pieces of 18-gauge ine-silver wire. If you would like a set of torchired enamel jewelry, see “Make matching earrings,” p. 68.

of each wire in cross-locking tweezers and use a handheld butane torch to ball up both ends (see “Balling up wire,” p. 61). Each ball should be approximately 1⁄16 in. (1.5 mm) in diameter (c). Butane torches have a limited fuel capacity, so you will need to reill the torch with butane. For faster results, you can substitute a torch that uses cylinders of compressed gas and oxygen.

4 Fine silver will not oxidize when it’s heated, so you don’t need to lux the wire. Hold the center

5 Secure strips of masking tape, adhesive-side up, to a glass sheet. Pour Klyr-Fire, an enamel-holding

Wire dangles

• enamel powders: lead-free, 80 mesh, medium temperature and expansion - 17 g (sample size) clear - 17 g each of the colors of your choice • 81 ⁄2 ft. (2.6 m) fine-silver wire, 18-gauge (1.0 mm), round, dead-soft • 5 in. (12.7 cm) sterling silver wire, 18-gauge (1.0 mm), round, dead-soft • 16–18 in. (40.6–45.7 cm) sterling silver chain, 3 ⁄16-in. (5 mm)-inside-diameter links • cleaning containers: glass jars, plastic cups, or mortar and pestle • small glass containers with stoppers • wire cutters • roundnose pliers • cross-locking tweezers • handheld butane toch with butane refill; or gas torch • glass sheet (optional) • Klyr-Fire fusing glue • sandpaper, 400 grit • steel block • planishing hammer

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d

e

f

g

h

Make matching earrings Cut eight 11⁄4-in. (32 mm) pieces of 18-gauge ine-silver wire. Ball the wire ends and enamel them as you would for the necklace. Cut two 1½-in. (38 mm) pieces of 18-gauge sterling silver wire. Shape the pieces into a pair of basic ear wires (see “Earring education,” p. 56). Use the eight enameled-ball wires to make the earring dangles. Attach three wires to a single chain link. Open the loop of an ear wire and attach the chain link. Attach another wire to the ear-wire loop and close the loop. Repeat to make the second earring.

agent, into a small glass container, and adhere the bottom of the glass container to the tape. Also adhere small glass containers of clear enamel powder and a selection of colored enamel powders to the tape. 6 Hold a wire near one end with cross-locking tweezers, and dip the other balled end in KlyrFire. Heat the Klyr-Fire-coated end, and dip it into the clear enamel while it is still hot. Heat the clear enamel until you see an orange glow (d). The coating of clear enamel serves as a barrier to prevent the silver from interacting with the minerals in the colored enamels. Such interactions can cause the enamels to look cloudy and unappealing, especially when you use enamels that contain cadmium, such as yellows, oranges, and reds. 7 To add color, dip the balled end in a colored enamel powder while it is still hot, and heat it until you see and orange glow. Continue heating and dipping until the balled end is approximately 1⁄8 in. (3 mm) in diameter (e). Do not expect to be able to precisely control the size or the color. Experiment with layering one color over another (f). Repeat until you have coated all the balled

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ends on each wire with enamel. Allow the wires to cool.

Assembly 8 Cut a 16–18-in. (40.6–45.7 cm) piece of sterling silver chain. Set the remaining chain aside. Set half of the wires aside. Thread one wire through the center link of the chain, and then bend the wire into a U (g). Push the enameled balls past each other. Repeat to attach two more wires to the same link (h). Use half of the wires and work from the center link toward one end of the chain, adding three wires per link. Repeat with the remaining wires on the other side of the center link.

S-hook clasp 9 Cut a 2-in. (51 mm) piece of 18-gauge sterling silver wire. Use 400-grit sandpaper to smooth the ends. 10 Use roundnose pliers to grasp the wire ½ in. (13 mm) from one end. Bend the wire around one jaw of the pliers (i). Repeat on the other end to create an S-shaped hook (j). Use the tip of the pliers to make a slight bend at each end of the S (k). Hold half of the hook on a steel block and use


i

k

j

Understanding enamels l a planishing hammer to work-harden the curved portion of the hook (l). Repeat on the other half of the hook. 11 Use roundnose pliers to make a small loop on one end of the S-hook clasp. Slide the end link of the necklace over the loop, resting the link in one curve of the S. Attach an enameled wire to the small loop. Use pliers to close the small loop and to squeeze this side of the hook closed. C

What are enamels made of? Enamel formulas are made from a combination of minerals such as silica, potassium nitrate, soda ash, borax, calcium carbonate, and lead. Man-made ceramic pigments are added to control the color. It is safer to work with lead-free enamels, like those used in the featured project.

What forms are enamels sold in? You can purchase enamel in many forms, including lump, liquid, and powder. The powders are available in assorted degrees of coarseness, which are designated by a “mesh” number. The lower the mesh number, the more coarse the powder. The powders I used in the featured project are a standard 80 mesh.

Are all enamels transparent? A former associate editor with Art Jewelry magazine, Jill Erickson is a jewelry-making teacher who has written and edited hundreds of how-to project articles for the jewelry-making enthusiast on a spectrum of media, including enamels, metal clay, polymer, metals, lapidary, resin, and more. Email her at jill@jlerickson.com or visit jlerickson.com.

Enamels can be purchased in transparent, opaque, or pearlescent formulas.

What is flux enamel? Clear enamels are sometimes referred to as “lux.” This is not the same as the lux that is used for soldering.

Why are enamels made in soft, medium, and hard fusing formulas? For proper adhesion, the metal on which enamel is ired must expand and contract at a slightly higher rate than the rate at which the enamel expands and contracts. Because diferent types of metals have varying ranges of iring and expansion, enamels are manufactured in soft, medium, and hard fusing formulas. For this project, I used enamel powders that are formulated for medium temperature and medium expansion, which is the appropriate choice for silver, gold, or copper.

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CELTIC CHALLENGE

bracelet Push your chain making to the next level by soldering silver links. by Howard Siegel


a

b

d

MATERIALS bracelet

• 52 in. (1.3 m) sterling silver wire, 16-gauge (1.3 mm) round, half-hard • 54 in. (1.4 m) sterling silver wire, 16-gauge (1.3 mm), half-round, half-hard • 1 three-strand tube clasp • wire cutters • mandrels: 1 ⁄2 -, 7 ⁄16 -, and 1 ⁄8-in. (13, 11, and 3 mm) diameters • flex shaft • clothespin: spring style • clamp block or ring clamp • bench block • jeweler’s saw: 4-in. (10.2 cm) depth • 2/0 saw blades • jump-ring-cutting tool (optional) • 2 pairs of chainnose pliers • roundnose pliers • torch • easy paste solder • fire-resistant surface (soldering pad, firebrick, or charcoal block) • pickle pot with pickle • copper tongs • paintbrush with fine tip • tumbler with steel shot and burnishing compound

1 Wind 16-gauge round sterling silver wire around a 1⁄2-in. (13 mm)diameter mandrel. Use a spring-style clothespin to hold and apply tension to the wire as you wind the coil. Make a coil of 14 jump rings (a). 2 Wind 16-gauge round sterling silver wire around a 1⁄8-in. (3 mm)diameter mandrel, using a springstyle clothespin to hold and apply tension to the wire as you wind the coil (b). Make a coil of 32 jump rings. 3 Wind 16-gauge half-round sterling silver wire on its edge around a 7⁄16-in. (11 mm)-diameter mandrel. Use a clamp block (two pieces of wood bolted together) or a ring clamp to keep the half-round wire from turning of its edge as you make the coil (c). Make a coil of 32 jump rings.

c

e 4 Place a coil in the V of your bench block, and use a jeweler’s saw with a 2/0 blade to cut the coil, making jump rings (d). (Alternatively, cut the coil using a jump-ring-cutting tool; Jump ring basics, p. 109.) Cut all three coils. 5 Use two pairs of chainnose pliers to close each 1⁄2-in. (13 mm) jump ring (Jump ring basics), making sure that the cut edges of each are lush and tightly closed. 6 Lay the 1⁄2-in. (13 mm) jump rings on a soldering pad, with the cut edges, or seam, facing toward you. Use a ine-tip paintbrush to apply a small amount of easy paste solder (see “Paste solders,” p. 72) to the interior of the join of each jump ring (e). Light your torch. To heat a jump ring uniformly, move your torch in a circular motion around the ring (f). Watch the join carefully. When the solder lows, immediately remove the lame. Quench and pickle the jump ring. Repeat with all the 1⁄2-in. (13 mm) jump rings.

f 7 Use two pairs of chainnose pliers to close each half-round-wire jump ring, making sure that the cut edges are lush and tightly closed. Lay the jump rings on the soldering pad, with the lat surface of each against the soldering pad. Position the jump rings in pairs, aligning the seam of the irst jump ring with the seam of the second, so they form a igure 8 (g). By aligning the jump rings’ seams, you’ll be able to solder all three joins in a single soldering operation. Use a ine-tip paintbrush to apply a small amount of easy paste solder to the joins. Heat one pair of jump rings with the torch. Quench, pickle, and rinse the igure 8. Repeat until all the half-round-wire jump rings are soldered into pairs. 8 Use the surface of a clothespin that is approximately 3⁄8 in. (9.5 mm) wide as a rectangular forming tool. Place a igure 8 on the lat side of the clothespin, centering the soldered join on the tool (h). Bend each side of the igure 8 over the edge of the clothespin at a right angle. Repeat for the remaining igure 8s.

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i 9 Place a formed igure 8 on the workbench, with the bent arches facing up. Place a 1⁄2-in. (13 mm) jump ring on the igure 8 between its upward-facing arches (i). To make the Celtic link, use your ingers to carefully bend each of the upright arches down over the 1⁄2-in. (13 mm) jump ring until they meet in the center. If the arches do not meet exactly, use roundnose pliers to gently reposition them (j). Repeat to assemble each Celtic link. 10 Only one side of each Celtic link is soldered. When you’re assembling the chain, position the links so that the soldered side of each is on the inside of the bracelet. Open all the 1⁄8-in. (3 mm) jump rings. Thread an 1⁄8-in. (3 mm) jump ring through two Celtic links, and close it. Repeat with two more 1⁄8-in. (3 mm) jump rings (k). Repeat until there are ten links in the chain. Check the it of the chain around your wrist. If it’s too short, make and add another Celtic link.

g

h

j

k

11 Select a three-strand tube clasp that is about the same width as the Celtic links. Connect the clasp to the chain with three 1⁄8-in. (3 mm) jump rings on each side (l). 12 When the chain is completely assembled, tumble-polish it (Getting started, p. 8) for about an hour. Run the chain through your hands to ensure that there are no burs remaining on the chain. If you ind some burs, tumble the chain for another hour. C Howard Siegel is a jewelry maker specializing in chain making. Contact him at hjsiegel29@gmail.com.

l

Paste solders Paste solder is a combination of solder and lux. When you use it, you don’t have to worry about over- or underluxing a solder join, but you have to make sure you select the right paste solder for your project. Some easy paste solders look silver and may even be labeled “for silver” but are up to 96 percent tin, with only small amounts of silver. They release toxic fumes if you overheat them, and pickling them is not recommended. You can identify these paste solders by their low melting temperature of 430°F (221°C). Silver paste solder in an easy grade, which you’ll use in the featured project, melts at 1145°F (618°C) and can be pickled. While silver paste solder prevents you from over- or underluxing a solder join, the lux will only cover the area where you place the paste solder, so the rest of the jump ring will be exposed to oxidation and irescale.

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gallery

Phoenix Featuring three large labradorite stones, this piece is entirely handmade, with the exception of the decorative end caps, phoenix emblems, and feathers on the focal piece. Jose Cardenas facebook.com/ fourthmonkeyprovincejewelry 73


gallery

Thistle Awarded Best In Show in BeadDreams 2014, this neckace features a stylized thistle focal point. Sarah Thompson sarah-n-dippity.com

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Hippolyta’s pride Featuring a muted but gorgeous purple-pink tourmaline gemstone, this pendant is wirewrapped in antiqued copper and has a purple silver foil glass bead to accessorize it. Daryl Adams adamshandcraftedjewelry.com

Dewdrops Delicate wire tendrils gently caress faceted gemstone drop beads for earrings that are reminiscent of a spring morning. Sabrinah Chappell sabrinahsart.com

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gallery

Aglow The lash and ire of labradorite and moonstone take center stage in this dimensional wire-woven pendant design. Jose Cardenas facebook.com/ fourthmonkeyprovincejewelry

Blue-green allure A stunning chrysocolla gemstone, which gets its intense color from oxidized copper, is the centerpiece of this wirewoven pendant. Chrysocolla is said to improve heartfelt communication. Julie Lockhart Hulick coparaingeal.com

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Hematite peacock A coiled and wire-woven peacock surrounds a handmade purple glass bead. Carolyn Conley beadsbyccdesign.com

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gallery

Wire-woven bangles These free-form wire-woven bangles are also braided for a complex one-of-a-kind look. Kaska Firor designsbykaska.com

Aurelia The rosy hues of a rhodonite cabochon and natural ruby beads pair beautifully with copper wire and a textured cuff. Daryl Adams adamshandcraftedjewelry.com

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Wire weaving

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techniques

WIRE WEAVING

3 Essential wire weaves Create gorgeous designs with amazing detail, texture, and strength by lashing thin-gauge wire around thicker wires. The look is intricate but the technique is easy to learn. by Kaska Firor The wires used in this style of weaving fall into two diferent categories. The frame wires give a piece of jewelry its form. After being shaped, the frame wires remain mostly stationary while the weaving wire wraps around them. The weaving wire is usually at least two gauges thinner than the frame wires. It holds the frame wires together and creates various textures. To learn the three weaves shown here, you’ll use 18-gauge (1.0 mm) wire for the frame wires and 26-gauge (0.4 mm) wire for the weaving wire. For these tutorials, I used copper wire for the frame wires and green craft wire for the weaving wire to increase visibility.

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DOUBLE-WEAVE RIBBON This ribbon is made with two frame wires. You’ll need approximately 24 in. (61 cm) of weaving wire for 1 in. (25.5 mm) of weave. 1 Place two frame wires side by side, leaving approximately 1⁄16 in. (1.5 mm) of space between them. Slip the end of the weaving wire between the two frame wires so that a short tail sticks up (a). 2 Hold the tail with the thumb of your nondominant hand, and wrap the weaving wire around the top (farthest from you) frame wire twice. Next bring the weaving wire toward you over the top of both frame wires (b). e

Righty or lefty? If you’re right-handed, hold the piece you are working on in your left hand and weave from left to right with your right hand (as shown in the photos). Work in the opposite direction if you are left-handed. The direction to wrap the weaving wire is always under the frame wires and away from you, or over the frame wires and toward you, regardless of which hand you use. 80

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3 Wrap the weaving wire once completely around the lower (closest to you) frame wire, then run it away from you under both frame wires (c). 4 Wrap the weaving wire once completely around the top frame wire and then bring it toward you across the top of both frame wires (d). 5 Repeat steps 3 and 4 until you reach your desired length (e).

DOUBLE-PLUS-ONE RIBBON This ribbon is made with three frame wires. You’ll need approximately 24 in. (61 cm) of weaving wire for 1 in. (25.5 mm) of weave. 1 Start by weaving a double-weave ribbon. Weave six times. When you get to step 4 (wrap once completely around the top frame wire) on the sixth weave, add the third frame wire at the top. The new frame wire should sit in front of the weaving wire. This new wire is now the top frame wire (f).


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i 2 Wrap the weaving wire completely around the top frame wire (g). 3 Bring the weaving wire toward you and over the top of the middle wire, then around the middle wire (h).

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SINGLE PLUS ONE RIBBON

4 Weave toward you over the middle and the bottom wire and then wrap completely around the bottom wire (i).

This ribbon is made with two frame wires. You’ll need approximately 12 in. (30.5 cm) of weaving wire for 1 in. (25.5 mm) of weave.

5 Repeat steps 1–4 until you reach your desired length (j).

1 Start with step 1 of the double-weave ribbon (k). 2 Wrap the weaving wire 25 times around the top frame wire like a coil (l). 3 Bring the weaving wire toward you over the top of both frame wires, then once completely around the lower frame wire, and then run it away from you under both frame wires, as if you were starting a double weave (m). Repeat step 2.

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4 Repeat step 3 until you reach your desired length (n). C Kaska Firor is an award-winning jewelry artist, teacher, and the author of Weaving Freeform Wire Jewelry (available at JewelryandBeadingStore.com). She sells her work at craft shows and teaches from her studio in Cincinnati and around the country. To see more of her work, visit facebook.com/designsbykaska. Turn to p. 78 to see a bracelet that features these weaves.

Customize it You can increase or decrease the number of weaves between the plus-one wrap for any of the ribbon styles, depending on the look you wish to achieve. SEPTEMBER 2016

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WOVEN ZIG ZAG PATTERN

bangle

Apply entry-level techniques to create a surprisingly sophisticated efect. by Swati Nigam

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MATERIALS bracelet

• sterling silver wire - 4–5 ft. (1.2–1.5 m) 16-gauge (1.3 mm), round, dead-soft - 10–12 ft. (3–3.6 m) 26-gauge (0.4 mm), round, dead-soft • files • flux • soldering block • hard solder • butane torch • bowl of water • pickle solution in pickle pot • bracelet mandrel • rawhide mallet • wire cutters • tumbler • liver of sulfer • steel wool • flatnose pliers

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hand as if you were putting on a bracelet. Hold the string snugly (a), and then cut it to the correct size.

and evenly. When the lux becomes glassy, concentrate the heat around the join until the solder lows (c). Quench, pickle, rinse, and dry the circle. Repeat to solder the remaining circles.

Many of the wire-weaving styles today, though beautiful, are intricate and complicated to make — not ideal for a beginner to wire weaving. However, not all wire weaving has to be diicult! With these woven bangles, the wire weaving only looks complicated. Whether you’re new to jewelry making and looking for a quick project, or you’re an experienced maker looking to pick up a new skill, these bangles are sure to please.

2 Cut ive pieces of 16-gauge sterling silver wire to the length of the string you measured (b). File both ends of each wire piece lat, then wrap each wire around a bracelet mandrel to form it into a rough circle. Bring the two ends of each wire together, and make sure the ends meet lush.

1 Determine the size of your inished bangle by wrapping a piece of string around your hand at its widest point. Position your

3 Flux the ends of one of the wire circles, and place it on a soldering block. Place a pallion of hard solder under the join. Heat the circle slowly

4 Place one of the circles on the mandrel and lightly tap it with a rawhide mallet to make it more consistent in shape (d). Repeat to shape all the remaining circles.

tip

The circles don’t need to be perfectly round at this stage; you’ll reine their shape later on.

5 Cut a 2–3-ft. (61–91.4 cm) piece of 26-gauge sterling silver wire to use as weaving wire. Wrap the wire two times around one circle clockwise, leaving a 1-in. (25.5 mm) wire tail (e). 6 Position a second circle to the left of the irst one, and run the weaving wire underneath the second circle. Wrap the weaving wire clockwise around the second circle twice (f). Weave tightly so the two circles sit right next to each other. 7 Repeat adding and weaving until you have woven all ive circles together (g).

Ending and beginning wire section When you are near the end of your weaving wire, leave a 1–2-in. (25.5–51 mm) tail at the end, and continue with a new piece of weaving wire from that position. Once you’ve reestablished the weave with the new weaving wire, trim the tail of the previous one. If you wrap tightly, the 26-gauge wire holds well even after it is trimmed. When you trim a wire tail, make sure to pull it up tightly against the circle wire with latnose pliers, and trim it lush to the circle it is wrapped around. Trim the tail on the outside of the circle wire so it won’t poke your wrist when the bangle is worn. Use the pliers to press the trimmed end down against the circle.

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g

Put some zing in your zig zag If you want to create a set of bangles with a bit of color to them, feel free to substitute colored craft wire for the weaving wire. Depending on the colors you choose, you can have stackable bangles to match any wardrobe!

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tip

Circle 1 is the circle you started with on the right, and circle 5 is the one you ended with on the left.

8 To complete a full weave, you need to weave back to circle 1. To do this, you must change the direction of your weaving wire. Run the weaving wire underneath circle 4, and wrap the weaving wire twice. Repeat for circles 3, 2, and 1, always weaving up from under the circle wire (h). Continue weaving right to left and then left to right until the

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weave is complete all the way around the bangle. 9 Place the woven bangle on the bracelet mandrel, and tap it with the rawhide mallet to give it a circular shape and to harden it (i). 10 If you want a shiny inish, put the bangle in a tumbler for 2–3 hours to harden and polish it (j). 11 If you wish to give the weaving depth by antiquing it, irst clean the bangle with steel wool. Dissolve a tiny bit of liver of sulfur in some

warm water. Dip the bangle in the liver of sulfur, and then quickly rinse it in cool water. Continue to dip and rinse until you have achieved your desired color (k). Dry the bangle, and lightly rub it with steel wool to highlight the wire weaving. Tumble the bangle for about an hour to harden and polish it. C Swati Nigam is a life coach and author of two books. Learn more about Swati at her website, thepurpleflower.com.


FERN WEAVE

pendant

Capture a striking cabachon with an earthy wire weave patterned after the unfurling of mountain ferns. by Julie Hulick

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MATERIALS pendant

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• round copper wire, dead soft - 3 ft. (0.9 m) 20-gauge (0.8 mm) - 20 ft. (6.1 m) 28-gauge (0.32 mm) • 1 45–48 mm cabochon (teardrop, marquise, or other pointed shape) • chainnose pliers • nylon-jaw pliers • roundnose pliers • wire cutters • flexible tape measure or ruler • permanent marker • plastic kumihimo bobbin • knitting needle, dowel, or other thin cylindrical form (optional) • liver of sulfur solution (optional) • tumbler with steel shot and burnishing compound or dish soup (optional)

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Fern weave 1 Choose a 45–48 mm cabochon that comes to a point at one or both ends. Teardrops, shields, marquise shapes, or more free-form pointed stones will all work. The following photos show a 47 mm long, 17 mm wide marquise labradorite. 2 Wrap a lexible tape measure around the outside of your cab to determine the length of weave you will need to go around the stone.

tip

Alternatively, align the point of your cab with the 0 on a ruler, and carefully roll your stone along the ruler until the entire perimeter has been measured. Although the cab shown measures 47 mm from point to point, the curves add a bit of length, so each side actually measures 50 mm, for a total of 100 mm (approximately 4 in.) all the way around. 86

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3 Cut 20 ft. (6.1 m) of 28-gauge wire, wind it onto a plastic kumihimo bobbin, and close the bobbin. This will be your weaving wire, and you will work with it attached to the bobbin. Cut four 9-in. (22.9 cm) pieces of 20-gauge wire. These will be your base wires. 4 Using a permanent marker, mark the midpoint of one of the base wires. Leaving a short tail, make four or ive wraps around the midpoint with the weaving wire (a).

tip

Make sure the weaving wire wraps up from the back and then down and over the front of the base wire. Check this every time the instructions tell you to attach a new weaving wire with a few wraps. 5 Align the second base wire under the irst. Bring the weaving wire down over the second base wire, up behind the bottom base wire, and

then between the base wires to exit the front of your work (b). 6 Align the third base wire under the second. Bring the weaving wire down over the third base wire, up behind the bottom base wire, and then between the two bottom base wires to exit the front of your work (c). 7 Align the fourth base wire under the third. Bring the weaving wire down over the fourth base wire and then up behind all four base wires (d). 8 Wrap the weaving wire down over all four base wires and then back up behind all four again (e). Be careful not to wrap the base wires too tightly; you’ll need some space between them as you continue weaving. 9 Repeat step 8 to create two parallel lines of weaving wire crossing the base wires perpendicularly.

10 With the weaving wire still exiting behind the base wires, bring the wire between the middle two base wires to the front of your work (f). Bring the weaving wire down over the two bottom base wires and then up behind the bottom three base wires. 11 Bring the weaving wire between the top two base wires to the front of your work (g). Bring the weaving wire down over the base wires, between the bottom two base wires, and up behind the top three base wires (h). 12 Bring the weaving wire down over the base wires, between the middle two base wires, and up behind the top two base wires (i). 13 Make three wraps around just the top base wire. This completes the irst “fern” motif of the weave. Using nylon-jaw pliers, compress the weave tightly (j).


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(m). Note that the outer two base wires on each side stay together; these will hold the cab into the frame from the back. The remaining four base wires will become a double-layered bail.

Bail – outer layer r

tip

You can also use a scrap piece of denim fabric to compress the weave. 14 Repeat steps 5–13, compressing the weave after each completed fern, until you reach the length needed for your cab. Slide the base wires through the weave to keep the weave centered on the base wires. Using nylon-jaw pliers, latten the completed weave on the base wires, and compress again. Trim and tuck the starting wire tail (Basic

techniques, p. 14), but do not trim the working wire from the bobbin.

Frame – front 15 Align the starting end of the weave with the point of your cab. Snugly wrap the base wires around the cab (k). Allow the weave to “lean in” toward the top surface of the cab (l); you do not want the weave at a 90-degree angle to the cab, or else the cab will pop out. 16 Remove the cab from the frame, and fan out the base wires as shown

17 Hold together the two inner base wires, leaving a bit of space between them for weaving. Bring the weaving wire across the back and around the other inner base wire (n). 18 Wrap the weaving wire once around this base wire (o), and then bring it across the front to the irst base wire. Wrap the weaving wire once around this base wire (p), and then bring it across the back to the other base wire (q). This is called ladder weave. 19 Continue working as in step 18 to wrap the base wires in ladder weave. Every few rounds, use

nylon-jaw pliers to compress the weave. When the weave is 13⁄8 in. (35 mm) long, trim the weaving wire from the bobbin (r).

Frame – back 20 Turn the frame to the back, and insert the cab. Bend the outer two sets of base wires down and over the top of the cab so that they sweep inward to almost meet (s). You want these wires to it snugly over the back of the cab.

tip

To achieve this, try removing the cab from the frame and pressing the wires deeper into the frame than you would be able to do with the cab in place. This ensures a tight it when you replace the cab. 21 Leaving a short tail, make four wraps with the weaving wire around one set of base wires (t). SEPTEMBER 2016

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u

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22 Bring the weaving wire up between the two sets of base wires, and make two full wraps around the other set (u). Bring the weaving wire up between the two sets of base wires, and make two full wraps around the irst set (v). Repeat 10–14 times to twine together the two sets of base wires. 23 You will now work with just one set of base wires: Make four wraps around the outer base wire, and then make two wraps around both base wires, as in (w). This is called zipper weave. 24 Continue working as in step 23 to wrap these two base wires in zipper weave. When the weave reaches the edge of the frame, curve the two base wires back inward so that they point toward the other end of the cab. Trim the weaving wire from the bobbin, leaving 24 in. (61 cm) to work with.

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25 With the 24 in. (61 cm) of weaving wire, make three or four wraps to bind the outer base wire to the bottom base wire in the frame, positioning these wraps between two fern motifs (x). 26 Continue working as in step 23 until the zipper weave is about 1 cm from the end of the cab. Trim the weaving wire and starting tail. 27 Work as in steps 23–26 for the other base wires, but do not trim the weaving wire when you inish (y). Do your best to make these base wires, the zipper weave, and the frame attachment a mirror image of the irst side. 28 Work as in step 22 three times to twine together the two sets of base wires.

29 Separate the two outer base wires, and bend them out of the way, as in (z). Work as in step 22 to twine together the inner base wires until the weave is 5–6 mm from the end of the cab (z). Do not trim the weaving wire. 30 Trim the two outer base wires 6 mm from the weave, and use roundnose pliers to curl them inward. Likewise curl the two inner base wires as shown (aa). 31 With the weaving wire, continue wrapping around the nearest inner base wire until the wrapping reaches the edge of the frame. Bind the base wire to the frame as before, and then wrap around just the base wire for 5 mm. Trim the weaving wire, and trim and curl the base wire as shown (bb). 32 Attach a 12-in. (30.5 cm) piece of weaving wire to the remaning innner base wire, and work as in step 31 to complete this base wire.

Bail – inner layer 33 Bend the ladder-woven base wires over the cab a bit to give you access to the two remaining base wires. Leaving a short tail, attach the weaving wire around one of the base wires with four wraps (cc). Using chainnose pliers, compress the wraps to the frame so they don’t slide up the base wire. Trim the starting tail. 34 Work as in step 22 for 10 mm to twine together the two base wires. As you work, slightly angle the base wires away from each other (dd). 35 Angle the base wires so that they are straight and parallel, and continue twining for 6 mm. 36 Using chainnose pliers, angle the base wires toward each other, and then straighten them again 10 mm from the twining (ee). Continue twining just past the point where the base wires become straight, and trim the weaving wire.


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Double-layered bail

tip

39 Bring the two front base wires tightly around the bottom of the bail and to the back of the cab so that they cross the remaining two base wires at a 90-degree angle (hh). With each of the wires that are sticking out to the sides, make two tight warps around the corresponding base wires that are pointing toward the back. Trim the wrapping wires, and use chainnose pliers to compress the wraps (ii). Trim the front base wires, and use chainnose pliers to compress the wraps.

Angle these base wires outward to hold the inner layer in place.

40 Trim the remaining two base wires 6 mm from the wraps made in the previous step. Using chainnose pliers, bend the tails up into the space at the bottom of the bail (jj).

37 You now have both layers of the bail ready to shape. The straight, ladder-woven base wires will form the outer layer; the angled, twined base wires will be the inner layer. Curve the inner layer toward the back of the cab, and insert the base wires under the ladder weave of the outer layer to form a loop (ff).

Keep this loop open and nicely shaped by wrapping it around roundnose pliers, a knitting needle, a dowel, or another thin cylindrical form.

38 Curve the outer layer around the inner layer, maintaining a gap between them. At the back of the cab, angle these two base wires outward (gg). You should now have two angled base wires at the front of the cab and two at the back.

41 If necessary, use chainnose pliers to squeeze together the base wire wraps made in step 39 to tighten the bail.

Finishing 42 If desired, patinate the pendant with liver of sulfur, and tumble-polish to inish (Getting Started, p. 14). String the pendant as desired. C

Julie Hulick has always been attracted to Earth’s most elemental objects — metal, gems, and small stones. These form the design aesthetic for her jewelry line, Copar Aingeal. This particular design was inspired by her childhood in the San Bernadino Mountains of California, where she watched the ferns grow and uncurl every spring. Contact Julie at julie@coparaingeal. com, or visit coparaingeal.com or coparaingealtutorial.etsy.com.

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TRINITY

ring

Wrap a three-pointed bead in a free-form wire setting, or choose any shape to grace the top of this ring. by Sabrinah Chappell

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MATERIALS custom-size ring

• 26 in. (66 cm) 18-gauge (1.0 mm) fine silver wire, round, dead soft • sterling or fine silver wire, round, dead soft - 4 ft. (1.2 m) 28-gauge (0.32 mm) - 30–42 in. (76.2–107 cm) 30-gauge (0.26 mm) • 1 15 mm triangular gemstone bead • 4–6 2 or 2.5 mm seamless ball beads (sterling silver) • chainnose or flatnose pliers • roundnose pliers • flush cutters strong enough to cut 18-gauge (1.0 mm) wire • bead reamer (optional) • bowl with water for quenching • small hand torch • insulated tweezers • fine-tip permanent marker • ruler • ring mandrel • liver of sulfur solution • solution of 1 cup water and 1 tablespoon baking soda • soft towel • steel wool, 000, or flex shaft or Dremel tool with 3M radial disk, 400 grit (blue)

Any shape bead can be used for this project, but try for one that measures about 15 mm wide. Make sure that the hole can accommodate three passes of 30-gauge wire; use a bead reamer if necessary. Keep an open mind about the wirework details across the top of your bead — the design doesn’t have to look exactly like the one shown here — and you will not be disappointed. Fine-silver 18-gauge wire is necessary to make balled ends. Sterling wire will work, but the ball will not get completely round, and you will need to pickle the wire to remove ire scale. The 28- and 30-gauge wires will become work-hardened as you weave. If your wire becomes “springy,” use your ingers to remove any kinks, and give the wire a good tug to help straighten it.

lame. Hold the wire in place to create a round ball that “climbs” up the wire. Flip the wire, and repeat on the other end. Try to keep each balled end the same size. Once you have a ball at each end, drop the wire into the quenching bowl. 3 Work as in step 2 to ball up the ends of the remaining three shank wires.

tip

Balling up each wire will reduce its overall length by about 2 cm, 1 cm from each end. Using a ine-tip permanent marker, mark the midpoint of each of the shank wires.

1 Flush-cut two 7-in. (17.8 cm) and two 6-in. (15.2 cm) pieces of 18-gauge wire. These will be the long and short shank wires.

4 Cut 4 ft. (1.2 m) of 28-gauge (weaving) wire, and bend the wire in half. Place one of the short shank wires into the bend; this will be called Wire 1. With the weaving wire, make a wrap around Wire 1 at the marked midpoint (a).

2 Fill a bowl with water, and set up a small hand torch next to the bowl. Switch on the torch, and lock the lame at its highest setting. Using insulated tweezers, grasp one of the shank wires, and insert one end vertically into the hottest part of the

5 Place a long shank wire above Wire 1, aligning the marks; this is Wire 2. Bring the weaving wire over and behind Wire 2, between Wires 1 and 2, and then up to the top of your work (b). This makes a wrap around Wire 2.

Ring shank

6 Place a short shank wire above Wire 2, aligning the marks; this is Wire 3. Make a wrap around Wire 3 (c). 7 Place the remaining long wire above Wire 3, aligning the marks; this is Wire 4. Make a wrap around Wire 4 (d). 8 Bring the weaving wire down behind your work and between Wires 2 and 3. Bring the weaving wire up, between Wires 3 and 4, and then down behind your work (e). This makes a wrap around Wire 3. In the same manner, make a wrap around Wire 2 (f) and Wire 1 (g). 9 This completes the irst motif of the weave. Notice that the ascending wraps appear longer in that they span two shank wires, but on the descent they wrap around only one. Continue wrapping in this manner for three or four motifs so that your shank wires are securely woven together.

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Keep your wraps tight. As the weave progresses, use your ingernail to gently slide it along the shank wires so that you are always wrapping close to the midpoint mark. SEPTEMBER 2016

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m 10 Determine the inside diameter of your desired ring size.

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Go to facetjewelry.com/ ringsizes for a free downloadable PDF listing ring sizes and their corresponding inside diameters. Use the following formula to determine the length of weave you’ll need for your ring shank: [Inside diameter + diameter of shank wire] x 3.14 For instance, for a size 7 ring, the inside diameter would be 17.2 mm, according to the chart. The diameter of the 18-gauge shank wires is 1.0 mm, so the math would look like this: [17.2 mm + 1.0 mm] x 3.14 = 18.2 mm x 3.14 = 57.148 mm

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Round up to the nearest whole number, in this case, 58 mm. This is the length of weave you’ll need for your ring shank.

your desired ring size. Crisscross the shank wires as shown (j), and pull tight to close the shank around the mandrel. Hold the ring securely in this position as you remove it from the mandrel.

position some of the shank wires close to each end of the hole. Note that in the following photos, the hole goes through the top-right corner of the bead.

11 Divide the weave length in half (here, that would be 29 mm). On a ruler, line up the marked midpoint of the shank wires with that number. Mark the start of your weave length (at 0 on the ruler) and the end of the weave length (58 for a size 7 ring), as in (h). 12 With the working end of your weaving wire, continue wrapping from the middle towards the end mark, keeping the weave pattern tight. Stop wrapping 3 mm from the end mark and do not cut the tail. Flip your work, and repeat the weaving pattern from the center to the opposite end of your shank wires (i). 13 Curve the shank wires around a ring mandrel, centering them on

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l

14 Curve two opposing outer shank wires across the body of the ring and under their neighboring shank wires (k). Note that one shank wire will be long and the other short. Check that your ring is still the desired size, and with each of the active wires, make two wraps around the corresponding side of the shank. Trim each wire under the shank, and press them into the shank with chainnose or latnose pliers.

Bead inclusion — shank wires 15 Place the 15 mm bead on top of the ring. The bead will eventually be secured to the shank wires with 30-gauge wire, so as you work the following steps, make sure to

16 Holding the stone tightly against the ring, curve two opposing outer shank wires across the face of the bead (l). Again, one shank wire will be long and the other short. Bend the short wire under the bead, and wrap it around a corner (m). Bend the long wire under the bead. Using roundnose pliers, turn the wire back on itself, and curve the wire across the face of the bead (n and o). 17 On the right side of the ring, curve the remaining short wire across the face of the bead, between the wraps of the previous wires (p), and arrange it inside the turn on the underside of the bead. 18 On the left side of the ring, curve the remaining long wire across the


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face of the bead, following the curve of the existing wires. Using roundnose pliers, turn the wire back on itself to form a loop on top of the bead (q). 19 On the right side of the ring, curve the last wire across the bead as shown (r). Curve the wire around the back of the bead all the way to the starting side, and end on the front of the bead (s). 20 On the left side of the ring, curve the last wire around the bottom of the bead as shown (t). Using roundnose pliers, make a turn in the wire so that it loops around the balled end of the previous wire, and end on the back of the bead (u). The bead is now held in place by all the shank wires.

Bead inclusion — ine-gauge wires 21 Cut a 6-in. (15.2 cm) piece of 30-gauge wire, and bend the wire in half. Slide the 30-gauge wire around a couple of the shank wires near the bead hole (on top of the bead) so that the shank wires it inside the bend. Working with both ends of the 30-gauge wire, make a wrap or two around these shank wires, and then pass through the bead hole (v).

tip

In the photos, there are four shank wires next to the bead hole. You can wrap around all four at once, or wrap around two at a time, as shown in (v). Still working with both 30-gauge wires, make a wrap around the adjacent shank wires on the other side of the bead hole (w).

22 With just one of the 30-gauge wires, pass back through the bead hole. With each 30-gauge wire, make several wraps around the wire exiting the bead hole (x). Trim the wire tails, and press them in with tweezers. 23 With the remaining 28-gauge weaving wires, make several wraps around nearby shank wires. Trim the wire tails, and press in with tweezers. 24 Examine your ring to locate any shank wires or balled ends that could come loose or bend away from the bead. These are the places you will need to add a 2 mm or 2.5 mm ball bead.

tip

Choose ball beads that are closest in size to your balled ends to help them blend into the design. Using 6-in. (15.2 cm) lengths of 30-gauge wire, work as in step 21 to add ball beads as needed. Here, two ball beads were added to the top of the bead (y), and two were added to the back.

Finishing 25 Patinate the ring with liver of sulfur (Getting Started, p. 8), checking the ring every few seconds until the desired color is achieved. Rinse the ring with water, and dry with a soft towel. 26 Use steel wool to polish the high spots of the ring, being careful not to scuf the bead. If you have one, you can use a lex shaft or Dremel tool with radial disk. C Sabrinah Chappell is a jewelry designer, artist, and mother who works from her home-based studio in Fort Worth, Texas. Read more about Sabrinah on p. 46. Contact Sabrinah at sabrinah@sabrinahsart.com, or visit sabrinahsart.com and boutiquejeweler.etsy.com. SEPTEMBER 2016

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over CSTORY

FREE-FORM FLOWER

pendant

Show of your flower power with two media — wire and beads — in this layered pendant with woven bail. by Amanda Treverrow

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MATERIALS pendant

• copper wire - 60 in. (1.5 m) 20-gauge (0.8 mm) - 56 in. (1.4 m) 24-gauge (0.5 mm) • 6 10–24 mm faceted briolettes (lemon quartz) or drop beads (turquoise), top-drilled • 1 5 mm round or decorative bead (copper) • 6 4 mm round beads (copper) • chainnose pliers • flatnose pliers • roundnose pliers • wire cutters • thin wooden dowel or other cylindrical mandrel • liver of sulfur solution (optional)

a

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c

necklace

• 48 ft. (14.6 m) 24-gauge (0.5 mm) copper wire • 2 end caps • 1 clasp • 3⁄8-in.-diameter (9.5 mm) dowel • tape meaure • masking tape • cardstock, 1½ x 3 in. (38 x 76 mm) • draw plate

f

Flower frame 1 Cut 60 in. (1.5 m) of 20-gauge wire. Center the wire on one jaw of your roundnose pliers, and pull the ends of the wire around the jaw to form a loop. Using chainnose pliers, bend the wires where they cross, forming a double stem (a). 2 Keeping the two wires of the stem parallel at all times, form a series of seven loops (including the one made in step 1 (b).

tip

If possible, make the loops with your hands to keep the wires parallel. If you can’t form them with your hands, use roundnose pliers and adjust each set with your hands

d

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h

before making the next one. Aim for loops of slightly different sizes for an organic look. 3 Shape the loops into a circle. Still keeping the wires parallel, make a wrap below the original loop made with roundnose pliers (c). 4 Weave the wires in front of the irst loop, behind the second loop, in front of the third loop, and so on until the wire exits next to the original loop (d). 5 Working as in steps 2 and 3, make a series of seven smaller loops (e), form them into a circle on top of the irst seven loops, and make a wrap below the original loop.

6 Bring the wires through the center of your work from front to back (f), and pull the wires straight up behind the original loop (g). These will become the bail wires. 7 Using latnose pliers, bend the original loop down toward the center of the frame (h). This will be the front of the frame.

Woven bail 8 Cut 40 in. (1 m) of 24-gauge wire. Leaving a short tail, make several wraps above the original loop in step 1 (h). Trim and tuck the short wire tail (Basic techniques, p. 14). 9 Form the bail wires into a V-shape. With the SEPTEMBER 2016

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l 24-gauge wire, make two wraps around the nearest bail wire. Bring the wire up between the bail wires, and make two wraps around the opposite bail wire. Continue in this manner for approximately 1 in. (25.5 mm), shaping the bail wires as you go so that the V-shape is about 10 mm wide at the top. Using chainnose pliers, bend each bail wire outward at a 90-degree angle (i). Do not trim the 24-gauge wire. 10 Form the woven bail around a thin wooden dowel or other cylindrical mandrel until the weave touches the back of the frame (j).

tip

Remember that the original loop, now bent over the center of the frame, is on the front of the piece. Make sure you form the bail toward the back.

11 Pass both bail wires under the dowel and up toward the front (k). Cross the bail wires in front of the bail (l). 12 Wrap one bail wire tightly around the base of the bail, and trim and tuck the wire. Repeat with the remaining bail wire. With the 24-gauge wire, make wraps around the base of the bail, hiding the base wires (m). Make several wraps around the original loop, and trim and tuck the wire close to the loop. 13 Using your ingers and the dowel, center the bail over the body of the frame. Set the frame aside.

m

Beaded flower 14 Cut a 16-in. (40.6 cm) piece of 24-gauge wire, and center six 4 mm round beads on it. Pass one end of the wire through the irst three beads again, so that the wires cross inside the beads, and pull the wires to form the beads into a ring (n). 15 Bring one wire across the center of the ring toward the other wire, and twist the wires together once (o). Flip your work so that the wire crossing the center of the ring is on the back. 16 On one wire, string a 5 mm round or decorative bead, center the bead over the ring, and make a wrap around the opposite side of the ring (p). You should now have a wire exiting each side of the ring. 17 On one wire, string six 10–24 mm briolettes or drop beads (q). Shape the beads into a circle, and twist the wire around itself where it exits the ring of 4 mms (r). Bring the ring of 4 mms over the circle of briolettes (s).

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t 18 Place the beaded lower face down on your work surface, bring the wires to the back, and twist them together at the back of the lower directly over the center. 19 Thread both wires through the original loop of the frame from front to back (t). Wrap the wires around the base of the bail several times (u), and then make several wraps around the original loop.

u

Amanda Treverrow lives in Wales in the UK and specializes in wirework, which developed over the years from a hobby. She likes to incorporate diferent techniques into her pieces, although her love of copper and pretty stones shows through in much of her work. She hopes to start teaching wirework courses in the near future. Contact Amanda at amandatreverrow@aol.com, or view more of her work at wireartandjewellerydelights.com.

20 If desired, patinate your pendant with liver of sulfur (Getting Started, p. 8). String the pendant as desired. C

Make the rope See p. 100 to learn how to make a Viking knit necklace for your pendant.

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FINE-SCALE

earrings Delicate wraps connect wire components and suspend a focal briolette. by Erin Paton

Earring frame 1 Cut a 4¾ (12.1 cm) piece of 20-gauge wire. Using roundnose and latnose pliers, make a small, tight spiral (Basic techniques, p. 14) approximately 5 mm in diameter at one end of the wire (a).

MATERIALS

2 Mark the wire 7 mm from the center of the spiral. Using latnose pliers, make a sharp bend at this point (b). 3 Mark the wire 3.5 cm from the bend. Place this point at the size 4 mark on a ring mandrel (c), and bend the wire around the mandrel to form a U shape.

earrings

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

4 Mark the point where the wire tail meets the top of the frame. Measure 8 mm from the mark, and cut the wire at this point. Using latnose pliers, bend the wire over the top of the frame (d).

15 in. (38 cm) 20-gauge wire 3¾ in. (9.5 cm) 22-gauge wire 1.5 yd. (1.4 m) 28-gauge wire scrap 26- or 28-gauge wire 2 10 x 5 mm briolettes 2 3 mm round beads 4 2 mm round beads 8 mm dowel (optional) anvil or bench block file or emery board plastic mallet ring mandrel washable marker flatnose pliers roundnose pliers flush wire cutters

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6 Gently hammer the frame with a plastic mallet to work-harden the wire. 7 Cut a 4¾-in. (12.1 cm) piece of 28-gauge wire. Wrap the section of the frame where the wires are

WIRE JEWELRY START TO FINISH

8 Repeat steps 1–7 to make a second earring frame that is a mirror image of the irst.

Inner embellishment 9 Cut a 17⁄8-in. (48 mm) piece of 22-gauge wire. Make a small loop at each end of the wire, turning them both inward (f). Bend the wire around the mandrel at the size 1.5 mark to form a U shape. Place the U-shaped wire inside the earring frame (g), and mark where the loops meet the sides of the frame.

5 Using roundnose pliers, make a small simple loop (e).

a

parallel to each other, between the loop made in step 5 and the spiral. Trim the tails, and use latnose pliers to latten the ends.

10 Using scrap 26- or 28-gauge wire, wrap the wire around the U and the earring frame through the loops and at the top of the frame to prevent the U from slipping (h).

b

11 Cut a 14-in. (35.6 cm) piece of 28-gauge wire. On each side of the frame, mark a point 3⁄8 in. (9.5 mm) below the connection of the U and earring frame. At one of these marks, wrap the wire around the earring frame three times. Using a igure-8 motion and keeping an even tension, weave back and forth between the U and the frame (i) until you reach the remaining mark. Wrap the wire three times around the earring frame. Trim the tails, and latten the ends. 12 Remove the scrap wire added in step 10. 13 Cut a 4-in. (10.2 cm) piece of 28-gauge wire. Mark the midpoint of the wire. Slide the wire through one loop of the U from back to front, and position the mark inside the loop. Make a wrap around the inner part of the loop.

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ile the end (o). Hammer the earring inding if desired.

Erin Paton lives in Bangalee, New South Wales, Australia. She likes incorporating various techniques into her jewelry designs, such as the igure-8 weaving used in these earrings. You can ind her tutorials on craftsy.com. Email Erin at earringsbyerin@gmail.com.

i 14 String a briolette on the wire, slide the wire through the opposite loop (back to front), and make a wrap around the inner part of this loop (j). 15 With the wire on the underside of the frame, make two or three wraps around the earring frame. Repeat on the other side of the frame using the tail from step 13 (k). Trim the wire to the underside of the frame. 16 Cut a 4-in. (10.2 cm) piece of 28-gauge wire. Mark the midpoint of the lower edge of the earring frame. Make two wraps 2 mm to one side of the midpoint mark. 17 String a 2 mm round bead, a 3 mm round bead, and a 2 mm on the wire. Make two wraps 2 mm to the other side of the midpoint mark. Trim the wire to the underside of the earring frame (l). 18 Repeat steps 9–17 to embellish the second earring frame.

Earring inding 19 Cut a 2ž-in. (70 mm) piece of 20-gauge wire. Using roundnose and latnose pliers, make a 4 mm diameter spiral. Mark 3 mm from the spiral, and bend the wire to form a V at the base of the spiral (m). 20 Wrap the wire around an 8 mm mandrel or dowel (n). Cut the wire to the desired length, make a slight bend about 3 mm from the end, and

21 Repeat steps 19 and 20 to make a second earring inding.

Assembly 22 Slide an earring inding through the loop at the top of a frame. 23 Repeat step 22 to assemble the second earring. C

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99


VIKING SPLENDOR

necklace

Learn an ancient weaving technique to create spectacular modern jewelry. by Kate Ferrant Richbourg and Anne Mitchell

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MATERIALS necklace

• 1 troy ounce (approximately 48 ft./ 14.6 m) 24-gauge, dead-soft, sterling-silver wire • 3 ft. (91.4 cm) 24-gauge, dead-soft, copper wire • 1 ft. (30.5 cm) 22-gauge, dead-soft, sterling-silver wire • 2 end caps • slider beads or pendant (optional) • 2 3 mm round beads • 1 lobster claw clasp with soldered jump ring • 3⁄8-in.-diameter (9.5 mm) wood dowel • fine-point permanent marker • tape measure • ruler • masking tape • cardstock, 1½ × 3 in. (38×76 mm) • drawplate • vise clamp • flatnose or chainnose pliers • nylon-jaw pliers • roundnose pliers • flush cutters

Wire weaving — knitting ine strands of metal into a mesh-like chain — dates to the Vikings. The lineage of this venerable technique, which produces intricate jewelry without solder or complicated tools, stretches even further back into history. Examples of woven chain jewelry can be found in almost every culture, including Egyptian, Roman, Byzantine, and Celtic. What once looked good around the neck of a marauding Viking looks equally at home on a corporate raider. A basic technique, Viking knit can be modiied easily to produce dramatic results. This project introduces two types of knit weaves. Single weave gets the chain started and may be used for the entire length, creating an open, airy weave that’s quick to stitch. Double weave, which involves backtracking two rows onto a single weave, creates a denser, more compact link. Drawing the inished knit strand through a drawplate hardens the wire, tightens the weaving, and shapes and sizes the chain.

a

b

c

d

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h

i

Once you’ve mastered the basics, experiment with diferent dowel and wire sizes, change the number of starting loops, or work in mixed types of wire, such as copper and silver; you can also patinate the inal chain. Whether you weave chain to showcase a beautiful hand-blown bead or as a tribute to an ancient art form, you’ll be delighted with the range of styles you can create. 1 Make ive evenly spaced marks around the end of a dowel (a). (The marks are just under 3⁄16 in. [5 mm] apart on a 3⁄8-in. [9.5 mm] dowel.) Draw straight lines down the dowel to guide the wireloop placement (b). 2 Wrap 24-gauge copper wire around the cardstock ive times. Leave a long tail on one end and a short tail on the other (c). Slip the wire of the cardstock. Use the short wire tail to bind the loops together at one end to form a bundle (d). The remaining long wire will be used to begin the weave. Spread the loops

of the bundle equally to form a daisy (e). Place the daisy over the end of the dowel, and bend the loops down. Align each loop with a line on the dowel. Secure the daisy with masking tape (f). (Do not catch the long piece of wire under the tape.) 3 Hold the dowel in your non-dominant hand. Beginning with any loop of the daisy, use your dominant hand to pass the long piece of wire under the right side of the starting loop and out through the center (g). The wire should form a loop that links into the starting loop (h). Repeat with each of the other four loops to make the irst row, working in a clockwise direction (i). Keep the rows straight by lining up the cross of each loop with a mark on the dowel. Make the second row as follows: Look at the irst loop you made. Below the loop there should be an “X” where the wire crosses over itself. Pass the long piece of wire (from the right) behind the X. Do not pass it through the SEPTEMBER 2016

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loop (j). Pull to form a new loop below the previous one. Repeat until six continuous copper-wire rows are complete (k).

5 Switch to double weave: Count back two rows, and slide the wire under the X of the next loop in sequence (n). Repeat around, always passing the wire under the next X in the second-to-last row. If your rows become uneven, pinch them slightly with your chainnose pliers to keep them straight (o). As soon as the weave feels stable, remove the tape, and push the top part of the chain up and of the dowel. Always keep only an inch or two of dowel inside the chain to stabilize it while you are weaving. If you leave more of the dowel in the chain, it will stick and be diicult to remove. Continue to double weave around the dowel (p) until the chain is 20 percent shorter than your desired inished length.

4 Cut 2 ft. (61 cm) of silver wire. Lay the end of the copper wire along the dowel. To join the new wire, pass the silver wire from the left to the right under the X of the current loop, and bend it so it lies next to the copper wire (l). (These two ends may be cut away after several new rows are woven; the ends will be caught inside the chain when you run it through the drawplate.) Repeat the single-weave technique with the silver wire (m). Use this technique each time you need to add a new piece of wire. Use the new piece of silver wire to weave a few more rows.

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6 Secure the drawplate in a vise (q). Pinch the end of the chain together so it will it in the irst hole of the drawplate (r). Push the end of the chain into the largest hole in the drawplate. Grab the bundle with latnose or chainnose pliers, and pull it through the hole (s) (this is a top-down view). Determine the desired diameter of the chain, based on the size of the end caps. Draw the chain through each subsequent hole in the drawplate until the chain is the desired diameter. Cut away the starting bundle (t) and any uneven rows of weaving at the beginning of the chain (u). 7 String beads or a pendant on the chain, if desired (v). Cut two 6-in. (15.2 cm) pieces of 22-gauge wire. Thread one piece through one end of the chain (w). Make a tight wrap over the top of the chain to wrap it closed (x).


s

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t

Tips on weaving wire • The wire daisy you create at the beginning is the key to the size of your chain. Each wrap around the cardstock becomes one loop of the starting petal for the chain. A ive-loop chain needs ive wraps around the cardstock. Vary the look of your chain by changing the number of loops.

v

w

• Practice weaving chain with inexpensive copper wire to perfect your technique. • Straighten your wire by placing it in a folded polishing cloth and drawing it through nylonjaw pliers. You may need to straighten the wire again as you weave. • Use a larger or smaller dowel to alter the look of your inished chain; a large dowel will create a softer, airier woven tube, while a smaller dowel will produce a tighter, heftier tube.

y

x

Trim the short end. Thread the end cap over the remaining end of the wire (y). String a 3 mm bead and make the irst half of a wrapped loop (Basic techniques, p. 14). Add the clasp and complete the wraps (z). Repeat on the other end of the chain with the second 6-in. (15.2 cm) wire, the second end cap, and the soldered jump ring. C

z

• The starter part of the chain is cut away after the chain is pulled through the drawplate. The loops in the weave may be either tight or loose; what’s important is whether the spaces between them are even. Don’t fret over a few uneven patches. Many mistakes will be smoothed over when the chain is pulled through the drawplate. • As you become a more proicient weaver, you may wish to work with longer lengths of wire so there are fewer joins in the chain.

Learn more about Kate Richbourg at katerichbourg.blogspot.com. See more work by Anne Mitchell at annemitchell.net.

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BASIC BRAIDED SPIRAL

necklace

Braid ive strands of ine-silver wire into an elegant spiral necklace. by Nanz Aalund

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a

b

c

MATERIALS bracelet

• 10 yd. (9 m) 24-gauge (0.5mm) fine-silver wire, round, dead-soft • 12 in. (30.5 cm) 20-gauge (0.8 mm) sterling silver wire, round, half-hard • 2½ in. (64 mm) 14-gauge (1.6 mm) sterling silver wire, round, half-hard (optional) • 1 clasp • 2 end caps with 8–10 mm opening • 5 twist ties or plastic bobbins • wooden dowel: ¼ in. (6.5 mm) diameter • drawplate with 5⁄16-in. (8 mm) hole • furniture wax • wide tape • wire cutters • leather work gloves (optional) • vise • sandpaper, various grits • polishing cloth • pliers: forming, roundnose • cup bur • bench anvil

igure 1

d This ive-strand spiral braid is made using a textile technique I learned from Professor Arline Fisch. The simplicity of this technique ofers quick and beautiful results, even for a beginner. Use a ¼-in. (6.5 mm) wooden dowel as the base around which to braid 24-gauge inesilver wire. 1 Cut the wire into ive 2-yd. (1.8 m) lengths. Wrap each length into an individual coil. Use twist ties or plastic bobbins to keep each coil neatly wrapped (a). The coils keep the wires manageable while braiding. 2 Apply a coat of furniture wax to the dowel so it’s easier to remove the inished braid.

igure 2 3 Wrap a strip of paper around the dowel. Mark the point where the strip overlaps to indicate the dowel’s circumference. Lay the strip lat, and use a ruler to make four equally spaced marks between the end of the strip and the circumference mark. Place the strip on some tape, and lay one wire end at each of the ive marks (b). 4 Tape the strip 1 in. (25.5 mm) from one end of the dowel so that the coils will unwind along the length of the dowel (c). Check that the wires are equally spaced; this will help to create a braid with an evenly spaced, uniform spiral.

the dowel and the fourth wire, and make a single twist where the third and fourth wires meet against the dowel (igure 1). Drop the third wire. Pass the fourth wire between the dowel and the ifth wire, and make a single twist where they meet against the dowel. Drop the fourth wire. To continue braiding, repeat this pattern without skipping any wires. Keep the twists taut against the dowel and the tension on the wires consistent to create a uniformly braided spiral (igure 2). The 2-yd. (1.8 m) coils will yield approximately 14 in. (36 cm) of braid. To inish the braid, twist the wire ends around each other.

5 To begin the braid, pick up any one of the wires. Pass this irst wire between the dowel and the next two wires. Make a single twist where the irst and third wires meet against the dowel. Drop the irst wire. Pass the third wire between

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e

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Forge an S-hook clasp

g 6 Use wire cutters to clip the wires at the taped base. Twist the wire ends together. Grasp the braid, and twist it slightly to remove the dowel. Be careful not to crush the braid. 7 Place the drawplate in a vise. Using your ingers, pull the braid gently through the 5⁄16-in. (8 mm) hole a few times to lengthen and even the braid (d). Do not pull too aggressively, or you could accidentally destroy the braid. 8 Cut a 6-in. (15.2 cm) piece of 20-gauge wire, and make the irst half of a wrapped loop (Basic techniques, p. 14) on one end. Thread one end of the braid into the loop (e), and complete the wraps. 9 String an end cap and a 4 mm accent bead onto the wire and over the end of the braid (f), and make the irst half of another wrapped loop (g).

10 Slide the clasp into the loop, and complete the wraps (h). 11 Repeat steps 8–10 on the other end of the braid with the second 6-in. (15.2 cm) wire, the second end cap and accent bead, and the other half of the clasp. If desired, make and attach your own clasp instead of using a pre-fabricated one; see “Forge an S-hook Clasp,“ right. To lengthen the necklace, you can attach 18-gauge, 5 mm ID sterling silver jump rings to the end caps before attaching the clasp. C Nanz Aalund is an award-winning metalsmith and jewelry instructor. To learn more about Nanz, visit nanzaalund.com.

h

1 Cut a 2½-in. (64 mm) piece of 14-gauge sterling silver wire. Ball up each end of the wire (see “Balling up wire,” p. 61). If desired, smooth and round the ball at each end, using a cup bur in a lex shaft and working in a rotating motion. 2 Use roundnose pliers to make a gentle U bend in the center of the wire. 3 Place the U bend on an anvil, and use the narrow end of a cross-peen hammer to forge only the bend. Anneal the U (Getting Started, p. 8), and then use a planishing hammer to smooth out the marks left by the crosspeen hammer (i). Anneal the wire, and then rinse and dry it. 4 Hold one end of the wire in each hand. Pull the ends past each other as you would open a jump ring (j). This creates an S bend in the center of the wire (k). 5 Use roundnose pliers to bend the ends of the wire back toward the center of the wire (l). Tumblepolish the clasp to work-harden it (Getting started).

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Chain mail

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JUMP RING BASICS

Jump ring sizes The inside diameter (ID) of a jump ring is measured by the size of the mandrel used to make it. Some jump ring manufacturers use mandrels that are measured in fractional inches (such as 1⁄8 in.), while others use mandrels measured in millimeters, which usually come in quarter-millimeter increments. When choosing jump rings for a project, this can be confusing. For instance, if the project you’re working on calls for 15⁄64-in. jump rings and the vendor you’re buying from sells them in fractional inches, you’re good to go. But what if the ones you’re purchasing are measured in millimeters? How do you know what size rings to buy? This issue comes up primarily in chain mail projects in which the inside diameter of the jump rings often makes the diference between the project working or not. If, when you go to buy or make jump rings, you ind that the measurement system is not the same as what the project designer used, consult the following charts. The irst chart starts with millimeter measurements with decimal inch equivalents. The next column shows the closest fractional inch ring size that you’ll be able to purchase along with the decimal inch equivalent. The second chart starts with the fractional inch measurements followed by the actual millimeter equivalent. The next column shows the closest millimeter ring size that you will be able to purchase.

Ring size in millimeters

Ring size in fractional inches

2.5 mm (0.0984 in.)

3 32 in. (0.09375 in.)

3 mm (0.118 in.)

1 8 in. (0.125 in.)

3.25 mm (0.130 in.)

1 8 in. (0.125 in.)

3.5 mm (0.138 in.)

9 64 in. (0.1406 in.)

4.0 mm (0.157 in.)

5 32 in. (0.15625 in.)

4.75 mm (0.187 in.)

3 16 in. (0.1875 in.)

5.5 mm (0.217 in.)

7 32 in. (0.21875 in.)

6.0 mm (0.236 in.)

15 64 in. (0.23438 in.)

8.75 mm (0.344 in.)

11 32 in. (0.34375 in.)

9.5 mm (0.374 in.)

3 8 in. (0.375 in.)

13.0 mm (0.512 in.)

1 2 in. (0.5 in.)

⁄ ⁄

Ring size in millimeters

/

2.5 mm

/

3.25 mm

/

3.5 mm

/

4.0 mm

/

4.75 mm

/

5.5 mm

/

6.0 mm

8.75 mm

1 8 in. (3.2 mm) 9 64 in. (3.6 mm) 5 32 in. (4.0 mm) 3 16 in. (4.8 mm) 7 32 in. (5.6 mm) 15 64 in. (6.0 mm) 11 32 in. (8.7 mm)

9.5 mm

13.0 mm

3 8 in. (9.5 mm) 1 2 in. (13.0 mm)

Select a wooden dowel or mandrel with a diameter that matches the inside diameter of the jump rings you want to make. Drill a hole through one end of the dowel. Insert the end of the wire into the hole to anchor it to the dowel. Wrap the wire around the dowel, keeping the coils tight against one another.

Ring size in fractional inches 3 32 in. (2.4 mm)

Making jump rings

Opening and closing a jump ring 1 Hold the jump ring with two pairs of pliers, such as chainnose, latnose, or bentnose. To open the jump ring, bring one pair of pliers toward you and push the other pair away from you. Do not pull it open sideways. 2 To close the jump ring, reverse the direction of the pliers to bring the ends of the jump ring back together.

Cut the wire that anchors the coil. If you will be using wire cutters or a lex shaft and jump ring maker to cut the coil into jump rings, remove the coil from the dowel. If you will be using a jeweler’s saw, slide the coil to the opposite end of the dowel or mandrel. Continue with one of the following methods to cut the coil into jump rings.

Cutting jump rings using wire cutters 1 Holding the lush-cut edge of your cutters at a right angle to the coil, trim the straight wire tail from each end of the coil. 2 Slightly separate the irst ring from the coil. Holding the lush-cut edge of your cutters at a right angle to the coil, cut where the wire completes the irst ring.

If you use diagonal wire cutters, one end of your ring will be lush and the other end will be pointed. To lush-cut the pointed end, lip your cutters over to the lush-cut side, and cut again so that both cuts

techniques

are lush. Then, lush-cut the end of the coil to start the next ring. There will be some wire waste, so make a few extra coils to accommodate the waste.

Cutting jump rings using a jeweler’s saw Secure the dowel against the V notch in your bench pin, and use a jeweler’s saw with a 2/0 blade to cut a shallow, vertical slot at the end of the dowel to guide your blade as you cut the coil. Hold the coil and dowel with your nondominant hand. Saw through the top of the coil, feeding it toward the slot in the dowel. Be careful not to cut the jump rings in half.

Making jump rings with a flex shaft or jump ring maker 1 If you have a jump ring maker or other tool, follow the manufacturer’s instructions to make your coil.

2 Following the manufacturer’s instructions, secure the coil in the holding device.

3 Cut the jump rings, following the manufacturer’s instructions.

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techniques

CHAIN MAIL BASICS

3 Essential chain mail weaves

BOXCHAIN

Get acquainted with an ancient art form with three basic weaves that are widely used in jewelry making. EUROPEAN 4-IN-1

Slide two closed As onto the C, and close the C. Position the two new As so they line up with the other As, and position the C just like the B in the previous segment. 4 Repeat step 3, substituting a B for the C.

The European 4-in-1 is one of the most widely used chain mail weaves and is the basis for a number of others. It makes a lat strip of chain mail in which each of the rings (except for the ones on the edges) goes through a total of four rings. This weave can be made into wider strips or sheets.

MATERIALS

5 Continue repeating step 3, alternating Bs and Cs, until you reach the desired length.

Boxchain, as the name suggests, creates a boxshaped weave. It is essentially a tubular version of the lat 4-in-1 weave. There are two methods for working box chain. One method begins with a lat strip of European 4-in-1, and the other creates the boxchain from one end to the other.

MATERIALS If you wish to make a wider bracelet, start by making two identical strips as in steps 1–5. Line then up side by side, making sure the Bs and Cs running down the center of the strips are angling the same way. To connect the strips, slide an open C down through the two end inner-edge rings on one strip, come up through the corresponding inner-edge rings on the other strip, and close the C.

bracelet-length chain

• 18-gauge (1.0 mm) 5 mm inside-diameter (ID) jump rings in 3 colors - 60 color A - 30 color B - 28 color C • paper clip or scrap wire

bracelet-length chain

• 18-gauge (1.0 mm) 5 mm inside-diameter (ID) jump rings in 3 colors - 60 color A - 15 color B - 14 color C

Method 1 1 Close all the color A jump rings, and open 15 color B rings and 14 color C rings. Work a strip of European 4-in-1 with these rings. 2 Open another 15 color B rings and 14 color C rings.

1 Close all the color A jump rings, and open all the color B and color C rings. 2 Slide an open B through four closed As, and close the B. This creates a 4-in-1 segment. Place it on your work surface with the B angled up and to the right. If you’re left-handed, you’ll want to position your 4-in-1 segments with the B angled up and to the left. 3 Slide an open C through the right-hand As on the segment you just made, going down through the irst ring and up through the second. 110

WIRE JEWELRY START TO FINISH

Repeat this process, but move down the strips by one ring and use a B this time. Continue this process, alternating Bs and Cs, until the strips are completely joined.

3 Pick up the strip, and pinch the outer columns of As together. Look at the chain from one side, and you’ll see a footballor eye-shaped opening where two As from each column overlap. Notice that a B or a C from the center column of rings already goes through that opening. Slide an open B or C through the same opening, and close the ring. 4 Repeat step 3 along the length of the chain, following the established color pattern of Bs and Cs. This new row of rings pulls the lat chain into a box-shaped tube.


Method 2

BYZANTINE CHAIN

1 Close all the color A rings, and open all the color B and color C rings. 2 Slide an open B through four closed As, and close the B. Slide another open B through the same four As, and close the B. This is called doubling. Slide a paper clip or piece of scrap wire through an end pair of As, and spread out the rings to create a 2+2+2 chain. 3 Pick up the chain, and lip back the other end pair of As, exposing the previous pair of Bs. Spread the Bs apart to expose the lipped pair of As. Guide an open C between the Bs, slide it through the lipped As, and add two closed As.

Byzantine chain is composed of bi-directional segments linked by pairs of rings. If you’ve gotten the hang of “Boxchain: Method 2,” Byzantine will be easy to learn because it works up very similarly.

4 Slide an open B through the pair of As just added, and close the B. Double the B.

5 Slide a B through the pair of Bs just added, and close the B. Double the B.

MATERIALS bracelet-length chain

• 18-gauge (1.0 mm) 4 mm inside-diameter (ID) jump rings in 2 colors • 48 color A • 92 color B • paper clip or scrap wire

6 Attach a pair of As as in step 3. This completes a Byzantine unit.

1 Close two color A rings and two color B rings. Open all the remaining rings. Close the C. Double the C.

2 Slide an open B through two closed As and two closed Bs, and close the B. Slide another open B through the same four rings. This is called doubling. Slide a paper clip or piece of scrap wire through the end pair of As, and spread out the rings to create a 2+2+2 chain.

4 Repeat step 3, but this time lip back the end pair of As to expose the previous pair of Cs. Guide an open B between the Cs, slide it through the lipped As, and add two closed As.

7 Repeat steps 4–6 to the desired length. Once you understand how the weave goes together, you can hasten your assembly time: Pre-close some of the Bs. In step 4, slide two closed Bs onto the open B, and close the open B. Double the B. By doing this, you have condensed steps 4 and 5 into one step, and you can begin at step 3 again. C

3 Flip back the end pair of Bs to expose the middle pair of Bs. Spread the middle pair of Bs to expose the lipped pair of Bs, guide an open A between the middle pair, and slide it through the lipped pair. Close the A. Double the A.

Close the B. Double the B.

5 Repeat steps 3 and 4 to the desired length. SEPTEMBER 2016

111


BYZANTINE FRINGE

necklace Embellish mini units of a classic chain mail weave with droplets of Swarovski crystal. by Alison Jayne Layton

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WIRE JEWELRY START TO FINISH


MATERIALS necklace

• 901 18-gauge (SWG, 1.2 mm), 5 ⁄32-in. inner diameter (ID) jump rings (bright aluminum) • briolette pendants (Swarovski #6010, crystal) - 23 17 x 8.5 mm - 30 13 x 6.5 mm • 1 box clasp (silver) • 2 pairs of chainnose, flatnose, and/or bentnose pliers • dish soap (optional)

a

b

c

All materials available at That Bead Lady, (905) 954-1327.

Byzantine units 1 Close 212 5⁄32-in. jump rings, and open all the remaining rings (Jump ring basics, p. 109). 2 Using eight open rings and six closed rings, make a Byzantine unit (see “Byzantine chain,” p. 111) (a). Repeat for a total of 53 Byzantine units.

Necklace assembly 3 Select two Byzantine units. Pass an open ring through the pair of closed rings on one end of both units. Close the ring, and double it (b).

d

e

f

g

4 Select a third Byzantine unit, and attach it to the second unit as in step 3 (c). 5 Continue to connect the remaining Byzantine units with pairs of rings.

tip

The necklace is now the approximate inished length, minus the clasp. Test the it, and add or remove Byzantine units as necessary, but maintain an odd number of total units. Alternatively, you can lengthen the necklace by adding a simple 2+2 chain on each end. 6 If desired, wash the piece in warm running water with a little dish soap. This ensures that the bright aluminum rings will shine, well, their brightest! Rinse and dry the piece completely before continuing.

Crystal fringe and inishing 7 Locate the center Byzantine unit of the necklace, and pass an open ring through the pair of closed rings on the remaining end of the unit. Attach a 17 x 8.5 mm (large) briolette, and close the ring (d). 8 Pass an open ring through the pair of closed rings on the unit to the right of the center unit. Attach a 13 x 6.5 mm (small) briolette, and close the ring (e).

9 Continue adding fringe to the right side of the necklace, alternating between large and small briolettes, until you have used 12 large and 11 small briolettes. Complete the fringe on this side with four small briolettes (f). In the same way, add fringe to the left side of the necklace. 10 On one end of the necklace, pass an open ring through the pair of closed rings on the end of the Byzantine unit opposite the fringe. Attach half of the clasp, and close the ring (g). Repeat on the other end of the necklace. C

Alison Jayne Layton is inspired by the shorelines and heathercovered mountains of her beloved Scotland. She is a Swarovski Authorized Instructor, always creating with Swarovski crystals and wire in one form or another. Alison is a regular contributor to a number of national publications and is the store manager, designer, and instructor at That Bead Lady in Newmarket, Ontario, Canada. Contact her at stonescapesjewellery@rogers.com, or visit facebook.com/stonescapesstudio.

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LAYERED CHAINS

bracelet

Make a classic bracelet with an easy chain mail weave. by Anne E. Mitchell

MATERIALS bracelet

• 21 12 mm inner-diameter (ID) jump rings, 16-gauge (1.3 mm) • 92 4.5 mm ID jump rings, 16-gauge (1.3 mm) • 1 lobster claw clasp • 2 pairs of chainnose, flatnose, and/or bentnose pliers

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A basic 2+2 chain gets an upscale look with the addition of a second layer of rings. This fast-andeasy bracelet provides instant gratiication, even for absolute chain mail beginners. 1 Open 44 and close 46 4.5 mm jump rings (Jump ring basics, p. 109). Slide two closed rings onto an open ring, and close it. Slide another open ring through the same two closed rings, and close it. This is called doubling. Spread out the rings to make the start of a 2+2 chain.

2 Slide an open ring through a pair of rings, slide on two more closed rings, and close the open ring. Double the new ring. Continue in this manner (a) until the 2+2 chain is 45 pairs long or the desired length. 3 Open all the 12 mm jump rings. 4 Slide a 12 mm ring through the irst pair of 4.5 mms on one end. Skip the next three pairs, slide the ring through the ifth pair of 4.5 mms, and close the 12 mm (b).


a

b

c

d

e

f

5 Guide an open 12 mm under the previous 12 mm, and slide it through the third and seventh pairs of 4.5 mms (c). Close the 12 mm. Notice that the 12 mms go through the vertical pairs of 4.5 mms and skip over the horizontal pairs. 6 Repeat step 5, sliding the new ring through pairs ive and nine (d). Continue in this manner, moving down the chain by one pair of vertical 4.5 mms for each repetition, until you have attached all the 12 mms. 7 Open a 4.5 mm ring, and attach it to an end pair of 4.5 mms (e). 8 Open a 4.5 mm ring, and attach the other end pair of 4.5 mms and a lobster claw clasp (f). C

Anne E. Mitchell is a popular jewelry designer and teacher. Besides making chain mail jewelry, she is also a metalsmith and metal clay artist who specializes in low-tech and environmentally friendly studio practices. She sells kits for several chain mail weaves on her website, annemitchell.net.

Mixed metal option This mixed-metal version required a bit of experimentation to ind sizes that would work together. Shown here: 9â „64-in., 18-gauge raw copper rings and 4 mm, 18-gauge matte gold-colored niobium rings are linked together for the 2+2 chain. The large rings are 10 mm, 17-gauge sterling rings, linked through the niobium rings.

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REVERSIBLE CHAIN REACTION

bracelet

Begin with a basic European 4-in-1 chain, add half-Persian edging, and connect the edges to create a double-sided bracelet of interlocking chain mail weaves. by Vanessa Waliko

MATERIALS warm-tone bracelet

Top view (above); reverse view (right).

• 6 mm inside-diameter (ID) anodized aluminum jump rings, 18-gauge (1.2 mm) - 62 color A (orange) - 62 color B (red) - 30 color C (gold) - 30 color D (brown) • 3.9 mm ID anodized aluminum jump rings, 18-gauge (1.2 mm) - 4 color C (gold) - 2 color D (brown) • 2 3 mm ID anodized aluminum jump rings, 18-gauge (1.2 mm), (brass) • toggle clasp (gold plated) cool-tone bracelet colors

• • • •

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color A (black) color B (blue) color C (silver) color D (gray)


a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

4-in-1 base 1 Close all of the color A 6 mm jump rings, and open all the remaining jump rings (Jump ring basics, p. 109). 2 Slide a color C 3.9 mm jump ring through two As, and close it (a). 3 Hold the C added in the previous step so the As lare out above the C (b). Slide a color C 6 mm jump ring through two new As, then slide it down through the front of the right-hand A and up through the back of the left-hand A added in the previous step, and close it (c). 4 Repeat step 3 to add the remaining As. 5 Slide a C 3.9 mm down through the front of the last right-hand A and up through the back of the last left-hand A, and close it (d).

Half-Persian edging 6 With the starting end of the 4-in-1 base at the top, begin working on the right-hand side of the chain. Slide a color B 6 mm jump ring up through the back of the second A and down through the front of the irst A, and close it (e).

7 Slide a B up through the back of the third A and down through the front of the second and irst As, and close it (f), making sure you are placing the new B behind the previous B added. Repeat this step to the end of the base. 8 At the end of the right-hand side, slide a B through the front of the last two As, and close it (g).

i

9 Go back to the starting end of the base to work on the left-hand side. Slide a B up through the back of the irst A and down through the front of the second A, and close it (h). 10 Slide a B up through the back of the irst and second As and down through the front of the third A, and close it (i), making sure you’re placing the new B behind the previous B. Repeat this step for the length of the base. 11 At the end of the left-hand side, slide a B through the back of the last two As, and close it (j).

j

Get oriented It’s important to work with the same surface facing up for the 4-in-1 base and half-Persian edging. To make sure you’re always working on the right side, mark the irst 3.9 mm ring with a twist tie: Fold the twist tie in half, guide the fold through the ring, and pull the twist tie ends through the fold to make a lark’s head knot with the folded loop on the top surface of the chain. Then, if you drop the chain, you’ll be able to igure out which surface is the top.

SEPTEMBER 2016

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k

l

m

n

o

p

Joining the edges

Toggle clasp

12 Go back to the starting end of the bracelet, and lip it over. Run your inger down the spine of As to make the Bs lip in toward the center. This is the position they need to be in as you join them. Slide a color D 3.9 mm jump ring down through the end B on the right-hand side and up through the end B on the left-hand side, and close it (k).

16 Slide a C 3.9 mm through the toggle ring and the D 3.9 mm and C 3.9 mm on one end of the bracelet, and close it (o).

13 Slide a color D 6 mm jump ring down through the irst and second Bs on the right-hand side and up through the second and irst Bs on the left-hand side, and close it (l). 14 Slide a D 6 mm down through the second and third Bs on the right-hand side and up through the third and second Bs on the lefthand side, and close it (m). Continue in this manner to connect the remaining edge links. 15 At the end of the bracelet, slide a D 3.9 mm down through the last B on the right-hand side and up through the last B on the left-hand side, and close it (n).

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17 Slide a C 3.9 mm through the D 3.9 mm and C 3.9 mm on the other end of the bracelet, and close it. 18 Slide a 3 mm jump ring through the C 3.9 mm added in the previous step, and close it. Slide another 3 mm jump ring through this 3 mm and the toggle bar, and close it (p). C Vanessa Walilko is a jewelry and fashion designer who has been making chain mail for more than ive years. Her chain mail has taken top prizes in the BeadDreams competition and the British Bead Awards, and her pieces have been featured in shows around the country. She sells her jewelry at stores, art fairs, and on her website, kalibutterfly.com.

Select jump rings to match your wardrobe, your mood, or the season.


MODERN WARRIOR

bracelet

Inject a contemporary edge to revive this ancient chain mail pattern. by Theresa D. Abelew

A little prep work will speed up your weaving and help eliminate mistakes. Following the chart on p. 121, open and close the jump rings (Jump ring basics, p. 109) for the irst 16 columns of the top half of the bracelet, and lay them out in their appropriate columns (a).

tip

MATERIALS bracelet

• 306 9⁄64-in. (4 mm) inner-diameter (ID) aluminum jump rings, 18-gauge (1.0 mm) • 172 9⁄64-in. (4 mm) ID bronze jump rings, 18-gauge (1.0 mm) • 1 4-strand slide clasp • 2 pairs of chainnose, bentnose, and/or flatnose pliers

When you open jump rings, rotate the pliers in your dominant hand toward you. I’m right handed, so I twist my right-hand pliers up to open jump rings, as shown by the aqua jump ring at right. This raises the right side of the ring, making it easier for me to pick it up and thread it into a pattern.

a

SEPTEMBER 2016

119


b

c

f

d

g

Top half 1 To begin the 4-in-1 pattern, pick up the bottom open aluminum ring in column 2. Slide two closed aluminum rings from column 1 and two from column 3 onto the open ring (b). Close the ring; you’ve just completed your irst component. (Except for the edges of the bracelet, four rings will be woven through the center of every ring — this is how 4-in-1 earned its name.) 2 Position the component in a 2+1+2 coniguration so that the outside columns are slanted opposite of the center column (c). 3 Slide the second open aluminum ring from column 2 through

the top rings of columns 1 and 3 in the weave (d). Add one closed aluminum ring from column 1 and column 3. Close the ring. Split the two rings you just added, one to each side of the center ring (e). 4 Slide the third open column 2 ring through the top rings of columns 1 and 3, and add column 1’s closed bronze ring and the next aluminum column 3 ring. Close the ring. Split the two added rings, one to each side of the center ring (f). 5 Thread the open bronze ring from column 2 through the top two rings (bronze and aluminum), and add the closed bronze ring from column 3. Close the ring (g).

e

h 6 Slide the bottom open aluminum ring from column 4 through the lower two aluminum rings of column 3. Add two closed aluminum rings from column 5. Close the ring (h). Repeat with the remaining rings from columns 4 and 5. Continue in this manner to connect the remaining columns in the irst 16-column pattern. To double-check your work, note that the bronze rings will mostly be a 3-in-1 pattern. However, due to the uneven column heights formed by the zigzag, column 5 will be a 2-in-1 pattern while column 13 is a 4-in-1 pattern. 7 Work the 16-column pattern two more times. Start another repeat,

Slimming down Instead of creating a straight edge and altering the number of jump rings in each column, as in the two halves of the large zigzag bracelet, make a narrow zigzag bracelet by attaching the same number of rings per column, staggering the starting point for each column.

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i

column 13

column 5 j Add or remove columns to adjust the length as needed. Keep in mind that the clasp will add about ½ in. (1.3 cm) to the bracelet. Using two bronze rings, attach every other pair of aluminum rings, zipping the pieces together (k).

but end the weave after column 9 (the dotted line on the chart) (i).

tip

For a playful look, add color with anodized aluminum, niobium, or enameled copper jump rings.

10 On each end of the bracelet, use aluminum rings to attach half of the clasp (l). C

Bottom half 8 Follow the chart to lay out the jump rings for the bottom half. Work as in steps 1–7 of “Top half” to create the bottom half of the weave.

Contact Theresa D. Abelew via email at 2dogstudios@ gmail.com.

Joining the halves

k

l

9 Align the two halves along the lat aluminum edge (j). To maintain the zigzag pattern, the column that’s ive aluminum rings high should line up directly across from the middle column that’s one aluminum ring high (shaded boxes in the chart).

COLUMN

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

jump rings

closed

open

closed

open

closed

open

closed

open

closed

open

closed

open

closed

open

closed

open

bronze

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

aluminum

3

3

4

4

5

4

4

3

3

2

2

1

1

1

2

2

repeat

TOP HALF

jump rings

closed

open

closed

open

closed

open

closed

open

closed

open

closed

open

closed

open

closed

open

bronze

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

aluminum

3

2

2

1

1

1

2

2

3

3

4

4

5

4

4

3

repeat

BOTTOM HALF

SEPTEMBER 2016

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MATERIALS ring

LUCKY 7

• jump rings - 7 18-gauge (SWG, 1.2 mm), 3 ⁄8 in. inner diameter (ID) (bronze) - 2 18-gauge (SWG, 1.2 mm), 13 ⁄64 in. ID (bronze) - 5–10 18-gauge (SWG, 1.2 mm), sizes 5 ⁄32 in. to 13 ⁄64 in. ID as desired * (stainless steel) - 8–18 20-gauge (AWG, 0.8 mm), 7 ⁄64 in. ID (stainless steel) • 2 pairs of heavy-duty flatnose pliers (no grooves)

ring

Weave together seven large rings for good luck, and wear your talisman wherever you go!

In this project, we’ll refer to the diferent jump rings as follows: 3⁄8 in. = large rings 13⁄64 in. = medium rings 5⁄32 in. to 13⁄64 in. = small rings 7⁄64 in. = tiny rings a

b

c

by Rebeca Mojica

* Ring band sizing tip After completing

d

e

f

h

i

j

Ring center The intertwined rings at the center of this piece are in a Möbius formation, in which each ring passes through every single other ring. You can create a Möbius with as few as two rings, or you can use many more. The instructions below are for a seven-ring Möbius. The weave is very forgiving and you can substitute rings of a very close inner diameter if your supplier doesn’t carry the exact sizes listed here.

1 Open six of the large rings, and close the remaining large ring (Jump ring basics, p. 109). Open all of the medium rings and small rings. Close all of the tiny rings. 2 Pass a medium ring through the closed large ring (a). Close the medium ring. 3 Pass a large ring through the medium ring (b) and the closed large ring as shown (c). Your rings

Notes on ring color The large bronze rings shown here will patina over time. I often wear my 4-year-old version of this ring at bead shows as an example of how the ring will look over time, and customers overwhelmingly prefer the “antiqued” look of the aged bronze. If you prefer your bronze rings to look new and fresh, dip the entire piece in vinegar and then rinse it with dishwashing soap and water. 122

WIRE JEWELRY START TO FINISH

g

the ring, you can remove and replace one or more of the small rings with jump rings of a diferent size — whatever you need for the Lucky 7 ring to it your inger perfectly! This is why there is a range of sizes for the small rings in the materials list.

k should now look like (d). Close the open large ring. 4 Work as in step 3, passing an open large ring through the medium ring and then through both closed large rings (e). Your rings should now look like (f). Close the open large ring.

l

8 Pass a small ring through two new tiny rings and the two tiny rings from the previous step (j). Close the small ring. 9 Continue working as in step 8 until the ring band is the desired length for your inger (k).

5 Continue adding the remaining large rings, making sure that each one passes through the medium ring and all of the previous closed large rings (g).

10 Pass a small ring through the last two tiny rings in the ring band and the other medium ring (l), making sure not to twist the ring band as you work. Close the small ring. C

6 Pass another medium ring through all seven large rings (h), and close the medium ring.

Rebeca Mojica is an author, instructor, and award-winning chain mail artist. Her 27,000-ring mandala won the People’s Choice Award in the 2013 BeadDreams competition. See more of Rebeca’s creations at rebecamojica.com.

Ring band 7 Pass a small ring through two tiny rings and one of the medium rings (i). Close the small ring.


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Bead&button wire jewelry start to finish 2016