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Customer Service: (717) 326-3806



WOODWORKER Issue No. 30 Jal'tllaf'// feOnJ«y 1993


Cover Pholo: Milda Mandel Prinled on Recycled Paper



Adding Light to Your Shop


By Scott Landis

1Jps to Make Your Shop Safer; and Enhance Your Work ..........................22 Wiring Your Lights..................................... .............................. 25 Child's Workbench

By Phil Gehret

Give J(jJs a Bench That's More Than a Toy ........................... ............ ..27 Scrapers

By Mac Campbell

Properly Sharpened, They 'II Give You a Crisp Sur/ace .............................30

DEPARTMENTS A Word From the (ditor

just Call Us Guild Central....... ....2 LeHers

Tools To Speed Scraper Sharpening ................................ ........ 31 Oscillating Spindle Sander By Gene Paules

Cmvert Your Drill Press to a &nder /or Less Than $30........ ... ....... .......34 A Dust Collector for Drill Press Sanding ................................36

Advice On HVLPs ................. ..4 Q&A

Rice Paper Lamp By Andrew Curle

Three-Phase Pros and Cms ...... . IO

Build This Delicate Balance o/Paper and Wood .................................... 37

Tech Tips Save th~ Impeller Blades ........... 16

Harvest Table

Wood .Fads

A Drop-Lea/Table That's Rt/ora Rast .............................................42

By Mitch Mandel

Granadil!o ....................... ......66 Just Finishing

Polyurethane ... ........ ...... ........68

Grinders for Sharpening

By David Sloan

Cool-Running Systems That Won't Burn Your Tools ..... ........................ 48


Test;ng the Veritas 32 Cabinetmaking Bystem ...•.. ......•.7 6 Calendar

Photographing Your Work

By Mitch Mandel

Learn to Take Photos Like a Pro .............................. .......................... 52

Workshops, Seminars, Etc..........80 Gallery

Work From the IWF Show ........84

Sharpening Turning Tools

By Stephen H. Blenk

How to Get an Edge on Gouges, Chisels and &rapers .............................56

Final Pass

A Chopper That &ws ...............88

Aw's Craftsmanship Award Winners.......................................62 JANUARY



1993 1




'' s

olitary as an oys ter." Charles Dickens penned those words to describe the miser, Ebenezer Sc rooge, totting up his money in a dismal little room. Woodworking, too, is a solitary pas-time. But unlike Scrooge who thrived on seclNSion, most of us like' to get together with our fellow woodworkers. Trouble is, how do you find them? A personal ad? ("Youthful WWM seeks meaningful relat ionships with likeminded WWs. Send recent photo.") Not likely. The best way to connect with other woodworkers is to join a local woodworking guild. There you'll find fellow enthusiasts who share your love of the craft. You'll also find a forum for swapping ideas and information. Case in point. I recently sat in on the monthly meeting of Th e ~ucks Woodturners, a guild in Newtown, Pennsylvania. Members brought in their latest work for a lively "show ·and tell." Each member got up to talk about the piece he'd brought and tell what he'd learned along the way. One had 2



some problems with his water-b ased finish. Another explained some outrageous techniques for doing off-center turning. Comments and suggestions flew thick and fast. I left that meeting with a lot of great ideas. A big event for many guilds is an annual show where members display their very best work for the public. Last September, I was invited to judge a top-notch show put on by the Minnesota Woodworkers Guild in Minneapolis. These guys displayed more than 40 pieces of furniture and sculpt ure in the center atrium of a large shoppingmall and drew quite a crowd. We at AMERICAN WOODWORKER want to do our part to support existing woodworking guilds and encourage the formation of new ones. Send us your ~e, address and woodworking interests, and we'll mail you a computer-generated list of the guilds in your area. If there's nothing close by, we'll send you a pamphlet on starting one up. It won't cost you a cent. Write to: AMERICAN WOODWORKER Guild Central 33 E. Minor St. Emmaus, PA 18098 Or phone (215) 967-8315. And if you're already a member of a woodworking guild , let us know. We'll add your organization to o ur Guild Database so o t hers will know where to find you.

AMERICAN WOODWORKER EDrrotUAL OmcEs 33 E. Minor St., Emmaus, PA 18098 Phone: (215) 967-5 171, FAX: (215) 967-8956


ART DIRECTOR Michael Mandarano


ASSOCIAll EDITOR Ellis Walentine



COPY EDITOR Beth Strickland


OFFICE MANAGER Michelle U:luillery-Peischl

DESIGN SHOP Phil Gehret Fred Matlack


Jim Cummins Mike Dunbar Roger Holmes

ADVEJmSING DIRECTOR Don Schroder ADVER11SING REPRESENTATIVES Renee james Classifieds Diane M. Wallbillich

ADVERnSING SALES OffiCES 33 E. Min.o r St., Emmaus, PA 18098 PHONE: (215) 967-5171 FAX: (215) 967-8956



CIRCULAnoN MANAGER Alan Bayersdorfer

In this issue, we're proud to present the winners of the 1992 AMERICAN WooDWORKER Excellence in Craftsmanship Awards competition. (See page 62). We received hundreds of photos from amateurs and pros in the United States and Canada- plus quite a few entries from England. Start making plans now to enter the 1993 Excellence in Craftsmanship Awards competition. Details to come in the next issue.

David Sloan Editor and Publisher


SUisatiPilON INQUIRIES & ADDRESS CHANGES P.O. Box 7591 Red Oak, lA 5 1591 (800) 666-3111 AMlouc.ul WOOO'II'OIUC!Il (ISSN 8750-9318) is published six tJmes a year In Janu:uy, MMcb, May. July. September. and November by Rodalc Pttss Inc., 33 E. Minor St., Emmaus, PA 18098. (2U ) 967-517 1. 0 1992 by Rodale P=s, Inc. }.1. Rodalc, Founder; Ardath Rodak, Chairman of the Board; Roben Teufel, President of Rodale Pttss. SUBSCIUFI10N RATES: U.S. onc-yc:ar, $23.70; two-year, $47.40. ~. $3.9 5. Canada, one-y~ar, $30, two-year, $60 (Canadtan funds) GST #-RI22988611 . Foreign. one-year, $35. two-yur. $70 (U.S. funds). U.S. newsstand distribution by Curtis Circulation Co. , Hackensack. NJ 0 7610. SECOND-CLASS POSTAGE: paid at Emmaus, PA and additional mailing o tf.ccs. POSTMASTER: Sen d address changes to AMWCAN WooowoJU<£R, P.O . Box 7591. Red <>ale, lA 51591. CON· TRIBUfOit GUIDEIJNl!S: Av:oilablc upon n:quest. (215) 967-83 15.





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Scrap Article Fan I enjoyed your series on ¡ scrap materials (Aw #29). Hope you continue to do more on this topic. New ideas on what

about a project in one of the several magazines I get, she indicates not to bother making it because she doesn't want it in the house. Rex Dailey

to do with scrap are always welcome. FrankFoti '

Naperville, IL

Moravia, NY

Ibe way we see it, the whole point to woodworking is to build furniture that's special-stuff you can't buy in a store. When you figure your time and materials, it doesn't make sense to build hand-crafted knockoffs offactory furniture.

You Nasty Boys The "Nasty Box" article (Aw #29) was offensive and disgusting to me. What is so delightful about a warped sense of humor? It seems to' me we have enough cruelty and violence in the world today, as companion to the flood of stupidity over the airwaves. Perhaps as a follow-up you can give us a recipe for a poison to coat the pins. Another such article and you can cancel my subscription.

BillMaslak Verona,PA

Dang~rous Tech Tip I was disappointed with your publishing an item called . "Scrap-Metal Splitter" (fech Tips, AW #:28). This suggestion may give the user a false sense of security that the [tablesaw] is now kickback-proof. However, there is nothing to .S!OP the finger from getting in the way of the blade. Guards are sometimes poorly designed and can be a real pain to use. Perhaps it is time for woodworkers everywhere to push the manufacturers of tools to supply better guards.

Robert Levister Amherst,NH

How About Furniture We Can Live With? Your magazine needs to feature furniture that is similar to what you can find in furniture stores. I like Shaker, but it doesn't go¡ with furniture we alreadr have in the house. I personally don't know a lot about furniture design, but my wife knows what she likes and more times than not when I ask her 4



Blade Might Cause Burning Martin Wale tells of his problem of burns and splintering in cross-cut on the radial arm saw, and binding in rip (Q&A, AW '#29). His problem could be the same as I had; u.sing the wrong saw blade. I was using a Craftsman 64 tooth hollow ground planer blade on my Craftsman radial arm saw [because) the package recommended this blade. My saw sharpening finn pointed out that a hollow ground planer is better suited for a tablesaw than a radial, [because there's no] set to the teeth. I changed to a 50-tooth carbide tipped planercombo blade and the results are more than satisfying-no burns, splinters or binding.

John F. Becker Berwyn,PA

Your blade might be the problem but in most cases, the saw needs adjust-

Correction A cap tion in the Wood Facts column (AW #29) incorrectly identified a piece of maple as flat s awn . The wood, pic- ' - - - - - - - - ' rured here, is actually quartersawn.

ment. When a radial saw acts up, run through the entire series of adjustment procedures in your owner's manual. Don't skip stepseach adjustment depends on the one before it.

Not SoTrue Grit Re: "True Grit," (Letters, AW #28). Mr. Dixon is correct that the grit number [on sandpaper] refers to the size of the particles, but it reflects the number of holes per lineal inch, not square inch. So a 100 mesh screen has not 100 holes per square inch but 10,000 holes (100 x 100). A screen with 100 holes per square inch will pass particles almost !-8 in. in dia. -a bit coarse for most sanding jobs.

E.W. Renshaw Nashville, TN

No Endangered Species Here Re : "Selling Ecologically Correct Wood" (Final Pass, AW #29). Your article incorrectly uses the word "endangered" where the word "tropical" should be. I do not buy, use or sell any endangered species, and I never will. The only tropical lumber we carry is certified under the Rainforest Alliance Smart Wood program. The domestic lumber we carry falls into two categories: 1) Lumber from sources that have been scrutinized by established th~rd-party certification organizations and 2) lumber from sources that have not been certified but are the most ecologically sound source for a particular species. My criteria for judging these suppliers can include on-site inspection, but since I'm neither a forester or a field biologist, and because Wise Wood does not have the capital to do random field tests, I am relying somewhat on a gutlevel approach. Dennis Leahy

Wise Woodlnc. McHenry,IL




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~-----------JANUARY A FEBRUARY 1993



lfTTfR~ ... That's aJoke, Son

Advice on HVLPs

Re : "Trouble Brewing in Texas" Your timely overview ofHVLP systems (Letters, AW #28). I suggest [the angry is much appreciated. There are several Texans] take the money saved from other features and issues that woodcanceling their subscriptions and workers should consider when choos.. b'u y a good book. Laughter Is tbe ing an HVLP spray gun, whether turBest Medic ine comes to mind. bine based or high pressure air converSomeone who can't laugh at himself sion: (or his state) is missing a wonderful - -• weight of the spray gun, especially for production shops source of humor. A word of warning: If you ever . • ease of gun maintenance and cost of change your irreverent, light-hearted \maintenance kits • parts availability and delivery ways I will cancel my subscription. · Jim Hayden • technical support policies of the Falls Church, VA manufacturer, including availability of dedicated 800 number telephone support and regional seminars I think [some readers from] Texas • spray gun speed and transfer effishould grow up. When people get ciency. Neil Murray upset over a joke, something is wrong. Chuc Morrell V Regional Manager Acc~spray Inc. Pittsfield, NH

.9lntique furniture

Re: "Leave Toys to Other Mags"


#28). I wholesale my toys and they are presently in shops from Massachusetts to North Carolina. I truly appreciate wood and know that my work is quality. The pieces may not some day be museum pieces [but] I have received many requests for my patterns. I hope that all true craftsmen continue to be represented in your magazine.

Norman I. Diem Kenneth Square, PA

What's on your mind? We value your comments, complaints and corrections. Send your letters to: "Editor," AMERI\..AN WOODWORKER , 33 E. Minor St., Emmaus, PA 18098, or telephone your message to us at 215-967-7776. FAX: (2 15) 967-8956.


New Catalog


From the

Woodworking Leaders In Selection, Support and Service Enjoy 132 fulk:olor

pages packed with

HORTON BRASSES INC. Nooks Hill Rd. Cromwell, Ct. 0641<1

PO Box 120AW 203-635-4400

Send $3.00 for catalog

RBI THE AMERICAN TooLMAKER While the history of RBindustriesgoes back 60 years, this is the first time we've brought together all our precision-made tools and accessories in one catalog. The Hawk Precision Scroll Saw, . 4-in-1 Woodplaner, PaneiMaster Door Machine, Router Mates, and much more. Quality equipment built here in the heart of America.

RBindustrles, Inc. 1801 Vine, P.O. Box 369 Harrisonville, MO 64701 800-487-2623 899 CIRCLE NO. 5 ON M00UCT INFORMATION FOAM





tools and supplies. Every product is covered by a 10096 satisfaction guarantee, plus a full 1-yearwarranty. Wood\Wrking Unlimited supports your woodworking with a customer service staff just a toll-free call away, as weD as a ~-to­ coast network of 40 retail stores. Don't miss a day- get your catalog now! It's free.

· Call Toll-Free:



: YES- I'd like the new catalog FREE! I

l Name

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Stylish heavy glass at attractive prices. •DiningTables •114to1"Thick • Ciear,Bronze • CoffeeTables • Tempered &GreyGiass • GabinetDoors • DrilledHoles • EdgeStyles

lholesaleGiassBrokers For Catalog and Price Guide Call:

l-8()()..281J.6854 CIRCLE NO. 100111 PAOOUCTINF()RMATION FORM

: City

l State

Zip _ _ _ __






3931 Image Drive Dept : 1 • Dayton, OH 45414 AXKY 1 L-------------------------~ CIRCLE NO. 75 ON PRODUCT INfORMATION FORM





of Cellfornla : 1-800-888-9697

EN-J006 6'' JOINTER $300.00

TEL: 714-468-3688 FAX: 714-468-3689 F.O.B City ot Industry, C&ltroriil

Free catalog available NO 73 ON PACUUCT I'IF<l'U.!ATION FC"-Y





STEVE WALL LUMBER CO. Ouality Hardwoods a nd Woodworking mach/nary For Tha Craftsman and Educal/onallnstltutions

Asll .......... ........... .............. ~4


::~W()()d """'"'""::: :::::: ~: : :

cn.ny ............................... ~4


Cw><ess ............................ ~4 Hicl!o<y ............... ~4



Mallogany (Genulfte) ........ ~4 Maple(Haro) .................... ~4 Maple (Soli) .... .................. ~4


P-n ............................... ~4 Poplar ............................... ~4


Wh._ OR Reel oak .......... ~4


Walnul ........ ......... ............. ~4



Sal..:! Sal..:!


t .GO .................................................... $62.00

~:~ ::::::::::::::::~.~~: ::::: :::: :::~ 2.4s ............specials.......... s 11.00 s

t .65 .................................................... 52.00 I.SO .................................................... $ SO.OO 2.75 .... ....................... . ........ $ 76.00 1.75 .............. ...................................... $ ss.oo 1.40 ...................... .... .................. .... .... $49.00 1.SO ............ ...................... .............. $SO.OO 1.20 .................................................... $ 4S.OO

1.GO 2.75 1.40 .115

.................................................... $60.00 .................................................... s 74.00 ~r(AromaticRecl) ...... ~4 1C.Str. ............................... ..................... $49.00 Wh._ Pine ........................ ~4 F.G. .................................................... $40.00 Yellow Pine ....................... -414 . C,._r 1.20 .................................................... $ 4S.OO Above prices a re lor 100' quantities of Above p<ices are 20 bd. It, bundles or kilndried rough lumber sold by the Bd. Ft. ctearkltndrledlumb<lr 3"·10" wkle • FOB Mayodan, NC. tong (Ra.!l~m widths ~ lengths) SurCall lor quantky discounts. Other sizes and laoecl2 si<IH« rough. O.livered UPS grade& available. pr~lcl 1'\ lhe COtllinental U.S.

Our 1993 catalog is packed full of industrial grade ~ brand router bits and shaper cutters at amazing low prices. Choose from hundreds of styles, ready for shipment the very same day. If you're in the market for quality router bits, shaper cutters and woodworking L-=:;~~~~~~;;j accessories, you'll enjoy this catalog! we









LUMBER SPECIALS MAHOGANY 100 Bd. Ft. Bundle 11 Common S2S 13116 $ 175* WALNUT 100 Bd. Ft Bundle 11 Common 614 $ 140* *FOB Mayodan- Motor Freight Only E·XOTICS:

Bloodwood $7.00 • Canary Wood $ Rosewood $9.50 • Tulip Wood $11.00 Othera Available

STEVE H. WALL LUMBER CO. BOX 287 ·MAYODAN, N.C. 27027 919·427-0637 • 1·800·633·4062 • FAX 919·427-7588

Send $1 .00 For Lumber and Machinery Catalog CIRQE NO. 102 ON PAOOUCT t<FORMATION FORM


(WE CALL ITTHE KREG JIG!) I Just ask R. E. Hagerman of Iowa, "No other Joinery System works as well for anaching angled pieces or for Rails & Styles. The Kreg Jig makes me more accurate and the end resuh is bener than any other method. Irecommend i1 because it's so versotilel"

e 12" jointer • 12" planer e 10" table saw • 50" sliding


• 3HPshaper • mortiser • cast iron

The Robia• X 31

is designed to make maximum use of minimum space ideal for the small professional shop and the demanding hobbyist. Change from one tool to another in 20 seconds or less! Solid, sturdy, reliable.


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The companion video "Cabinet Making Made Easy" helps you understand the easy way to professional cabinet making ONLY 514.95

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R~ .1Box 101 8 Kelley, lA 50134 CIRCLE NO. 19 ON PAOOUCT INFORMATION FORM


W@DWORKING Your complete guide to woodworking tools, techniques and materials. Now you can build the skills and master the techniques that will tum you into a better woodworker. And get plans for just about every shop-made jig and fixture you're ever likely to need in THE ART OF WOODWORKING, new from TIME-LIFE BOOKS. Heres the perfect workbench companion- wiili clear, easy-to-follow illustrations ~nd a unique spiral binding that allows the book to lie flat while in use. Your first volume, Woodworking Machines, shows you how to adjust, sharpen and use just about any machine tool. And helps you get the

most from your shop tools with complete set-up instructions, detailed safety precautions, plus maintenance tips. Shop-test Woodworking Machines free for 15 days and receive a bonus set of workbench plans! If you keep the book, pay just $15.99, plus shipping and handling. Then about every month, you'll receive another book, like Hand Tools, Cabinetmaking, Portable Power Tools and Wood Finishing, on me same free-examination basis. There is no purchase necessary, and the free plans are yours to keep without any obligation!

YES! I would like to examine Woodworking Machines free fox 15 days as my introduction to THE ART OF WOODWORKING. Please send it to me, along with my

free Workbench Plans and other future volumes, under the terms described in this ad. NAME ADDRESS






If card is missing mail to: TIME-LIFE BOOKS, P.O. : Box 85563, Richmond, VA 2:l285-5563 KGAN44 I .







1 993


~&A Three-Phase Pros and Cons A lot of large woodworking machines are equipped with 3-phase motors. What are the pros qnd cons of these motors?


motors at 220 volts. This helps prolong motor life and gives better instantaneous power and fewer "brown-<>uts."

Stephen H. Blenk Turner Sequim, WA

Arthur O'Toole Islip, NY

What Next? I'm an intermediate woodworker with a tablesaw, router and all the basic power hand tools, but I don 't know what to buy next. Which tool would increase my capabilities most, a drill press, lathe, bandsaw or jointer?


A some distinct advantages. First, they're considerably less expen-

Three-phase motors have

DanErb West Lafayette, OH

sive than their single-phase counterparts. .They run at a more constant speed and with greater mechanical efficiency. Also, a 3-phase motor typically has more horsepower than a single-phase motor of equal size and draws less peak current, so you can use lighter-gauge wiring when connecting one to your electrical service. As a result of all this, 3-phase motors are more economical for use in machines requiring higher horsepower. The biggest disadvantage of 3-phase motors is that they won't run directly on house current, which is singlephase. You can bring 3-phase power into your shop from the power lines outside, which requires SPecial wiring by both the power company and you (as well as the rights to your firstborn or the financial equivalent), or you can purchase a,phase converter to change single-phase current into 3-phase. Phase converters are available in "rotary" or "static" models. A rotary converter delivers better balanced power, but it requires more wiring and costs $1 ,000 to $2,000 for one sized for a typical small shop. Static phase converters are compact solidstate devices that allow the motor to operate at only 70 percent to 85 percent of its rated power. They can cost $175 to $500 depending on the horsepower range of the motors you'll be running. Check with a technician before you decide which is best for your particular situation. You can save some money and improve your power efficiencies without going to 3-phase by running your higher-horsepower single-phase

everyA way to outfit a shop,youbutshould one has an opinion. I




There 's no absolutely right think

Plane Facts


Here 's a photo of a plane manufactured by the Ohio Tool Co. Can you give me any information about it?

Fred D. Stengel Waco, TX Your plane was manufactilred

A by the Ohio Tool Co., which

was in business from 1823 unti11920, first in Columbus, Ohio , later in Auburn, New York, and finally in Charleston, West Virginia. When the patents on various Stanley planes ran out, Ohio Tool began manufacturing several of the Stanley models. Their Model #03 is a more-or-less exact copy of the Stanley No. 03, right down to the adjustment knob and the rosewood handles. Bill Phillips, a knowledgeable tool collector, says Ohio planes are not quite as valuable as comparable Stanleys. Judging from its appearance in the photo, yours is probably worth around $20 to $25. A good reference book on planes is Patented Transitional & Metallic Planes in America, 1827-1927, by Roger K. Smith (1981 , R.K. Smith, Athol, MA 01331).

Ellis Walentine Coopersburg, PA

carefully evaluate the kind of work that you do before you reach for your checkbook. If you specialize in cabinet work and furniture construction, where true and square edges and reference surfaces are essential, I'd go for a 6-in. jointer next. For years I got along with a tool collection much like yours. But once I got a jointer, I found it was invaluable when I had to glue up a tabletop, mill some rough stock or trim just a whisker off a door stile. Many woodworkers put off buying a jointer. One reason is that it takes a while to learn to use and maintain a jointer, especially when it comes to aligning tables and knives. But those skills are important, and they'll come in handy if you buy a thickness planer later on. Another reason is that it's a tool without much sex appeal. You'll know you're working better and more efficiently, but nobody is going to look at your work and say, "Boy~ you can really tell you bought a jointer." If turning bowls and spindles appeals to you, consider buying a lathe, and continue to rely on hand tools or tablesaw and router jigs to do the work of the jointer. I really enjoy turning, so the lathe is one of the most important tools in my shop, especially when I have to come up with a few gifts in a hurry. I should confess that once I had a lathe, I quickly found a way to get a bandsaw. You can certainly rough out bowl blanks with a bow saw, but it

Breathe Easier! Power Air Respirators for Wood Dust


Airmate 3

Excellent for all woodworking jobs which create "DUST." Also offers eye protection. Can be worn with beard and glasses. Systems also available for paint and lacquer fumes.

AIRSTREAM DUST HELMETS Hwy. 54 South. P.O. Box 975, Elbow Lake, MN 56531 Toll Free 1-800-328-1792 or 218-&35-4457 CflCLE NO. 40 ON PRODUCT INFORMATION FOAM

PERFECT SAW ALIGNMENf! All mode;; of alignment on radial arm or table

s.1ws, induding compound cuts. It's like having a :M" blade on your table saw.


To a woodworker,

$54.95 (plus $4.50 postage/ handling.)

Visa/ Mastercard, check. money order or call (503) 997-23n.

~ ~ j theslip~fa .LJ screwdriver can

Free brochure from EXACT CUTS, S::IOb Boy Scout Rd., PO Box 2.68, Flormce, OR 97439

spell disaster for a nearly completed masterpiece. Save your temper and your work with Square Drive Screws. They make cam-out a thing of the past, and are heat treated for extra strength - the kind of cheap disaster insurance woodworkers need.


WOODWORKER'S CATALOG Over 4000 products to

~1 BUILD, REPAIR, MI.. . RESTOIE, RERNISH ,_.,~} anything made of wood!



Call or Write for FREE CATALOG

BOX 136,



83014. 10LJ077J99478

2050 Eastchester Rd., Opt. 40301, Bronx NY 10461




Build Po" Pr Toot., You (an BP Proud Of . And "AVE!!' -

with Excalibur Tools

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It's the catalog woodworkers rely on-116 pages jam-packed with fine woods, veneers, tools, finishiog supplies, and much more-all top quality, all reasonably priced, all with our 60-day no-questions-asked guarantee. For your 2-year subscription send $1.00 to:

••, .................?

for the Ultimate Woodworking Shop

Wlfh ()11,811]' toola II otlll does.

Conslruct your own: • 12-ln BAND SAW • 18-ln BAND SAW • 10-ln. TilT/ARBOR SIWJ •lATHE/DRill PRESS COMB. • 9-in TIIJ TABLE SAW

•Quick, Easy Installation. Fits All Table Saws. •Fence Locks on Both Front & Rear Guide Rails.


• CIRCULAR SAW TABLE GIL-BILT kits include S1ep-by-step plans, full

scale patterns and all necessary metef p.arts

and components except wood and motor.

Made in America with pride by Gilliom Manufacturing. Inc. einee 1946. Send $7.50 per plan or $25 for plans for all eight tools listed above or send $2 for

Units Available IndividuaUy OrAsA

•Fence always stays Parallel to the Saw Blade.


• c/w OverDust Ann Blade Collector

descriptive brochure only. Satisfaction


System To Provide You


P.O. Box 1018 St. Charles, MO 63302 Phone (314) 724-1812



here: 18-in. Band Saw 5pec8: Throat capacity 18 in. Thickness capacity 12 in. T&ble size 26 in. x 28 in. • Table tilt to 45• Blade fumlshed 124 ln. x 1/ • in. x 6T Table height 39 in. Overall dimensions 331k in. wide 29 in. deep 71 '1.! in. high Speed {wfl,725 rpm motor) 425 rpm 2000 bfpm Order No. •51-K only$249.50 )less cost of plan. If poeviousfy purchased) plus shipping Speed reduction kit available for cutting stHI.




Accuracy From Your Table Saw

Excahour Machine &Tool Co.

•Sliding TableCross-<:ut Stock up to 60.. wide. •Dual Measuring Scales. Accurate Cuts Guaranteed. •More Features and Accessories than other Systems.

No Risk Trial Period-Ufetime Guarantee.

If you have access to a FAX machine and wish to rec~ive immediate information, call 210 Eighth St reet South {BOO) 36 1-8015 ext.702 and leave FAX number. Lewiston, NY 14092

4 16-291-8190







~&A makes your turning session a little too much like an aerobics class at the YMCA. Many woodworkers also like handsaws for ripping, resawing (especially if you want to make your o.wn veneer), and cutting joints, but I still do most of my straight cutting on the tablesaw. My tool budget has always been tight, so I avoided a drill press for a long time. I got by with a portable alignment jig, like those sold by Sears and other suppliers, ot; used my doweling jig as a drill guide. Dick Burrows Woodworker and author Knoxville, TN

READERS' NETWORK The responses to last issue's question regarding old machines vs. new are stiJI coming in, and we'll publish some viewpoints in our next issue. Meanwhile, on the question about a first saw for a beginner, the tablesaw gathered more than three times as many votes as the radial arm saw. Surprisingly, several readers preferred a bandsaw to eilher.

This Issue's Question: I'm currently enrolled in a two-year

woodworking program, and thinking of getting into the custom woodworking business. Most woodworkers T've talked to about this just roll their eyes and tell me to get a real job. What are the odds of succeeding in this field?

Randy Nelson Atlanta,GA Sen d your comments to: "Reader's Network," AMERICAN W OOOWORKI!R, 33 E. Minor St., Emmaus, PA 18098. FAX: (21 5) 967-8956.

WHERE,TO FIND IT Veneer business cards in 120 species are available from Cards Of Wood Inc., Box 98, Belmont, MI 49306, (800) 253-6002.

Got a woodworking question for the experts? Send it to "Q&A," AMERICAN W OODWORKER,

33 E. Minor

St., Emmaus, PA 18098. FAX: (215) 967-8956.

Telephone strobe lights, ball-bearing stands and other unusual items are available from Northern, Box 1499, Burnsville, MN 55337, (800) 533-5545. Cotto{). rags, brushes and brooms of all descriptions, and Tyvek jump suits to protect clothing are available from Torrington Brushes, Box 56, Torrington, cr 06790, (800) 262-7874.

ENGINEERED FOR PRODUCTION With ROTOCARVE & your table saw make your wood shapes fast, accurately, & profitably. Your pattern duplicated in minutes. • Chair Legs • Bed Posts • Axe Handles • Gun Stocks- You Name II. • Manual or Automatic Drive Newline Inc., Al l , Box 10 Janesville, lA 50647 • 319-987-2511




Edword J. llcou><11 Co. 10378 F.urvaew #13'1 !lobe, 10 837l).J J-8()(}.333-1994 reony as occurole as the od soys It Is checkang to see II o stack rubs the Flnoily. there ore those who ore making Jest cut otter test cut hOping some at both ends of the b tode Someorestroin1ngtheireorstoheor thOt the correct paece emerges the sound lhot oshatppencrl makes before !<me and wood dosoppeor osdscropesogolnsltheblodebody TS.AUGNERwos designed !Of senous Others ore wondering ~ thear new woodworkers who would rather spend theilvotuoble lime creohng molded plastiC mosterpfeces gadget Is

Some people ore spending endless hours


• Sander 2 112• x 60" Belt · Horizontally Mounted ''\deO • Clear Working Area " • Soft Contact Wheels $ '\0 • Quick Change of Belts • Quick Change of Contact Wheels

feat- £rrfo/uio.f:

• TS.AIIgner • 2Pc. ongleset(30 ond4~i<> · 6· preciSion doss II square


!SI>polng ndudedl)

We specialize in bulldlil1g shipping.

Call (617) 666-l~~.for­ catalog and quote.

Boulter Plywc)oci Corp. 24-AW Broadway,

mervllle,-MA 02145





AW noW RAZOR S 72 puccl\ase !nl Include ~~rid'S nd we ol tl\e Ot a catalo9 \oo\s . Ctatts;::o~ered \M;:~~azot ~~~~~ woodwo~~~~ year suo· 1\a~e uaii\Y wot~· and will nd S' .50 lot cataiOQ· oette~~ts oy pull~~~ accura\e ~~tl?t\on to out odworkersl r ALL w~ . in~ited. saw leaner. tTl gNe\an~a\1 \M time. BEST handsawof:alet \nQu'nes oEp,-G\ cu\ The ld \l\e wot \ ol around

THE JAPAN WOODWORKER 1731 Clement Ave. • Aiameda , CA 94501 • 1·800·537·7820 CIACI..ENO. 10SONPAOOOCT INFOAMATiONFOAM

How to make your table saw better than it already is. FastTrack~ Improves

Machine Accuracy & Productivity The mitre guide is the most important positioning fixture on any woodworking machine, but virtually evety machine sold comes with a guide that just doesn't measure up. The Fas£Track System was designed and developed by professionals to work in rrrai world, real shop situations- as an inexpensive and simple solution to many table saw and ocher machine jigging problems. It really works. The system is like an Erector Set, because you can assemble irs various elements to meet your own special needs. Made of precisely cut and finished aluminum extrusions and solid Brass fittings, each system and a'tcessoty comes with the necessary screws, knobs, and instructions.

Single & Double Flip Stops In the down position, the pivoting Flip Stop aces as a positioning guide, fixing the distance between the end of a board and the saw blade. It flips easily out of the way when not needed. The Double ~top provides two settings 2" apart. 67K09.01 Single Stop $20.60 Double Stop $~5 .75 67K09.02


\Mastering .Woodworking ;! Machines I

1 -~. . -c-. ~ i ---.

,r. .~ .·• ,,1

FastTtack For Table Saws The Basic Table Saw System includes a 24NTrack, and a Single Stop. You make a moun{ing board ro artacl'r<the track to the face of your mitre guide. The Deluxe System includes rhe above and adds a24NMounting Board, with a fully adjustable, right-to-left reading 24" Rule set into it. 67K04.01 Basic Table Saw System $35.95 67K04.02 Deluxe Table Saw System $71.00 FastT11lck For Radial Arm Saws &Chop Boxes This system, comprised of a 48" Track and Single Stop, makes a superb cut-off jig. 67K07.01 Radial/Chop Saw System $46.35 The FastTrack Track The foundation of the system is the Track, a W thick by lWwide precision extrusion with a "T' slot that fits the head of a W hex-head bolt. These bolts hold all of the accessories and firtings co the Track, which is attached to a mounting board. Any length of Track can be cut to fit, or butted end-to-end. 67K08.01 $ 7.75 6" Track 12" Track $10.30 67K08.02 18" Track $13.15 67K08.03 24" Track $15.45 67K08.04 $20.60 36" Track 67K08.05 $25.75 48" Track 67K08.06

t I ·I



~r~·~ Other Accessories The Micro Adjuster accessory screws into the side of a Single or Double Flip Srop or Microbase,

· GarrettWadeCo.,Inc. : Department 207

allowing precise adjustment in .004" increments. It is recommended for use with either Stop. The Mitre Mount (includes a 12".sectior. of Track and a short piece of die board) lets you slide the Mounting Board freely left or right on the mitre guide. We recommend installing one with every FastTrack Table Saw serup. The righr-ro-left reading 48"Rule is marked in l-16~ It fits into a dovemil-shaped flat extrusion which is set into a 14• dovetail dado you cut in your mounting board. The Deluxe Table Saw System already has the Rule set into it. Suggested accessories for the Table Saw System are the Micro Adjuster, additional Track, Double and extra Single Stops, a 48" Rule, and Mitre Mount. For the Radial Arm Saw, you can use a second 48"Track, a Micro Adjuster, a Double or an ad~itional Single Srop, and the 48" Rule. 67Kl0.03 Micro Adjuster $12.35 67K10.04 Mitre Mount $19.30 67Kl0.05 48" Rule $19.25 Mastering Woodworking Machines Mark Duginske, author of the famous Band Saw Handhook has written the very best guide on wood'M:lrking machinery set-up, tuning and use. Filled with professional insight and tips. If you have only one book on m~chinety, this should be it. 246 pages,-soft cove(. ·· 91LOJ.08 Machinery Book $24.95


· 161 Avenue of the Americas





1993 Main CataiJJg


Fno w.Ordtr

New York , NY \0013

Or Call Toll-Free: SOD-221-2942 P/fi(IJe send me my tools pillS a /rl!!t 1993 Catalog. Name:_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Mdress: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ City:

St:~te: -

Zip: _ _ Priw "'lid J/w.,gh S<Pf"""" 14.199J

O Chcck!MoneyOrder


O Amex

Expir•tion Date: - - - - - -


Shipping Charges: $10.01 co $20 for$20.01 co $~0 for $50.01 co $100

$4 .~Hor

$5.9~ 17.2~

SubTotal Shipping Cost

$2.9~upto $ 10


CNYSIPI< addSabs 1<v!J S.l« The

Grand Total






19 9 3


the last time you If yotive ever had the experience of uncrating a new Delta machine, you know what it feels like. You now own the very best. And yotive got well over half a century of tradition sitting right there in your shop. At that moment, the notion of getting all that you paid for (and then some), is a pretty good feeling. So you take a couple steps back, check it out and give it a grin. In the spirit of that moment, we thought we'd give you a little something extra to grin about~ Everything you see here has either a rebate or an extra value cormected with it. Who knows. With a few extra dollars in your pocket or a few extra goodies for your shop, you just might be uncrating several of these beauties. Just get your best price from your Delta dealer, then get a rebate check directly from Delta. All free accessories, except for the Unisa~ offer, come packaged with the tool. At the very least you'll get more than you paid for.



On TraditiOn

••CELTA A Pentair Company

Fur injor1rtatian ou

these and other new prod:ucts, call tolljmefar lite name of your 11Rarest Della dealm: Delta International Machinery Cmv., Pittsburgh, PA, 800-438-2486. In C<l nada,

call: .519-886-2840. • All oilers good only from f*ltcipallng dlllrtbUIO<S In llle continental U.S., and Can.da. from Janu-.y 1 thru March 31, 1993. To qualifY, maclll..s must be pur· Cllued c:ompleMI With 1\'10401$ and elecl!leals. Froe accessor'" only willie supplies faet


OUr 1Vz HP ~ Shaper with adjustable fence fingers redefines the art of woodshaping. And our 10" Tilting Arbor Saw is loaded with features found on more expensive saws. Both are priced to fit comfortably into your shop. And nfNI we're increasing that comfort level even more with a $75 rebate on either machine.

Our 14" ~Cutting Bandsaw with% HP motor, enclosed stand

and 61f-" thick cutting capacity is very simply. a classic. Comes with a fifty 'dollar rebate check from Delta.



Sharpen your cutting skills on our 10" Table Saw (Model 34-670) ~building a bookcase. Learn precision rabbeting, grooving or ploughing with a free carbide-tipped adjustable dado head and table insert.


Our new 32" Radial Drill Press has five spindle speeds, swiveling head, traveling ram. Flexibility at any angle. Complete with free %~WandW

Forstner style bits. (Shf7Nn with accessory table.)



got more



The real deal here is precision. More of it than you've ever had in one saw. The original10" Contractor's sawâ&#x20AC;¢ with 30" Unifence3 Saw Guide (Model 34445) lets you handle the big jobs, perfectly. And we figured you could probably handle fifty bucks back from Delta.


Our 16 W' Drill Press has 12 speeds, %HP motor and 5j,{' capacity chuck. A free accessory utility tray keeps drill bits within easy reach.

PRECISION DRILI.ItG AND MORE A great 12" Bench Drill Press 5 speeds, ~ capacity chuck,

becomes an even greater value when you add sanding capability. We'll add it for you, free.

PKIA._ The Delta Unisaw-10" Tilting Arbor Saw. Buy any model Unisaw and then take your pick of either a $100 Rebate or a Free Accessories Package consisting of a ~Support Roller Stand and three different Carbide Tipped Saw Blades (combined retail value .$230).

CfiC~E NO. n











Save the Impeller Blades

Penny-a-Piece Drill Bits

Tired of replacing the smaller A small tornado sizes of bits? I've stopped altogethis the best de- er and now clip the h eads off finish scription of my nails and use them instead of drills. 3-HP dust collec- The smooth nails-not galvanizedtion system. It __ seem to work best. I use these improwill pick up vised bits for drilling pilot holes wrenches, . because the exact size of the hole nails, small \ doesn't matter. They'll cut even betblocks of wood ter if you file or grind the end of the and anything else you nail to a chisel point. leave in its path. The only problem is H.R. McDermid Vernon, B.C., Canada that those stray objects wreak havoc when they reach the impeller blades. Sl N After a couple of particularly loud ip ot reports I decided to solve the problem I recently found the ideal material with an in-line baffie. to stop work from sliding around on I took a 5().gal. drum and pop-rivet- the bencq. It's called "Slipnot~ and is ed two 6-in.-dia. galvanized furnace used in mobile homes to keep things flanges into holes I cut in the lid. On in place when on the road. The the underside of the lid, I riveted a 12- advantage of Slipnot is that it's waterin.-sq. aluminum baffle between the proof so you can just rinse it under a holes. Now, anything the vacuum faucet (or give it a good shaking) picks up just hits the baffie and falls to when it gets dusty or full of wood the bottom of the barrel. chips. It comes in 12-in.-wide rolls, Robert Campbell sells for about $1 a foot and is availSomerset, able in camping-supply stores.


Years ago the foreman of a local coffin factory showed me how to make this dust mask. I've used one ever since and find it works much better than the storebought variety. First get a sponge, natural not synthetic, then cut a piece the size and shape of an average mustache. Tie a piece of string (or tape) to each end of the sponge and fasten a heavy rubber band to the ends of the string. It should slip comfortably over your head. Each time you use the sponge, rinse it in clean water, squeeze out the excess and place it directly under your nose. Harvey BeJer Elverson, PA AMERICAN


Long ago I bought a tablesaw that was so cheap that setting the fence was a hit or miss affair. I finally built the gauge shown here using scrap wood and a machinist's dial indicator. With this jig I can quickly position the fence so it's exactly parallel to the slots in the table.

Gordon Davis Houston,TX

Douglas Mertz Meredith, NH

Everlasting Dust Mask


Setting the Fence

Drilling Dowels Trying to drill a series of accurately spaced holes in a dozen pieces of dowel rod is awkward at best. My solution is to tape each rod to a straight piece of scrap so the rod can't n~rn, then mark the centers of the holes with pencil lines that extend across onto the scrap. To position the rod exactly under the center of the drill I put a small bit (or finish nail) in the chuck. I then clamp a fence to the drill press table and replace the bit with one of the right size. To correctly space the holes on each succeeding rod, I just transfer the marks from the scrap. If you are drilling only one rod you can mark it directly. Yeung Chan

Millbrae, CA




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SLOT CUTTER 11366 1/8" $14.00 1368 1/4' $14.00 RABBETING 11370 3 /8" $14.00


BULLNOSE 11460 V4" $14.00 11461 318" $15.00 11462 V2" $16.00 11464 314" $21.00


45" CHAMFER 11375 1·1/2" $15.00

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Tf[H... TIP~ intersections of an exact, .!finch grid. I can reuse the Peg-Board several times, but switching colors helps me to see if I've covered the board completely and not missed any of the dots. I usually make up a supply of this "graphn paper for future use, as well as for the current project.

Drill Press Buffing Wheel

Dean St. Clair Salesville, OH

~ New Life for

Instead of dedicating one side of a bench grinder to a buffing wheel we prefer to chuck the buffing wheel in a drill press. We ftnd it's set at a more convenient working height and we like being able to control the speed (850 rpm or less works well with a 6-in. sewn muslin wheel). Also, we can keep the buffing wheel in a drawer when it's not in use. When polishing the edge of a cutting tool be sure to work with the wheel ' s motion-not against it. Otherwise, the tool is likely to get caught by the spinning cloth and harpoon you.

Carolyn and )ohn.Grew-Sheridan San F~ancisco, CA


Tired Abrasives

Scale plans are often drawn on a grid of square lines so you can readily enlarge the original drawing. But enlarging me.ans redrawing the grid to a larger scale-a tedious and time-consuming job. I've found a quick way to do this with ~-in. Masonite Peg-Board. I place the Peg-Board over the paper I am using for the enlarged drawing, then 1 lightly spray the surface with paint. 1 end up with a pattern of dots that form the 18



Pipe clamps made with iron pipe are tough and durable, but they tend to be heavy and hard to handle. That's why I use aluminum pipe. Clamps made with *·in. or !-2-in. aluminum pipe are lighter and don' t stain the wood-as iron tends to do. I always thread both ends of the pipe so I can 'join two or more lengths to make a longer clamp using *·in. or !-2-in. PVC couplings.

Leonard Goldman Encino, CA

When my abrasive belts and discs are not getting the job done, I no longer throw them out. Instead, I keep them right on the machine-belt or disc sander-and use. them to shape scrapers and grind hatchets and heavy chisels. Alumin\.'IIll oxide belts remove metal fast but don't overheat the steel. Try it and watch the sparks fly!

Ronald Hughes Milford,OH

New Ang1e on Be1t Sand·1ng To remove a large amount of waste wood quickly with a belt sander, tum the sander to a 45° angle with the gt"'<lin. Sand until you're near the level desired and then gradually change the angle so the final sanding is done with the grain of the wood.

David Johnson Apple Valley, MN

Make Your Own Grid

Lightweight Pipe Clamps

Recycled Brush Cleaner When using alkyd (oil-based) paints, I clean the brushes by rinsing them in kerosene. I keep the solvent in glass Mason jars which come with screw-on lids and rubber seals. I let the sediment settle to the bottom and then pour off the clear solvent into another jar and use it again. Kerosene evaporates slowly and so very little gets released into the atmosphere. The glass jars evenrually go to their reward at the recycling center.

Laura Sanchez San Francisco, CA

Renewing Feed Rollers After 10 years of service the rubber feed rollers on my Makita planer were worn badly in the middle. This put uneven pressure on the stock causing it to slip. Replacement rollers cost around $300 so I decided to fix mine myself. 1 removed a roller and inserted the ends of the shaft in holes drilled in hardwood blocks. Then I put a %-in. dado head in the tablesaw and gradually raised it until the teeth just grazed the surface at one end of the roller. After starting the saw I rotated the roller against the direction of cut, removing as little roller stock as possible , until I had a clean, uniform cylinder.

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Innovation in Tools







Mark Duginskc's wall of windows floods his bench room with light during the winter. A 3-ft. overhang provides relief from the strong, summer sun.

BY SCOn LANDIS T h en I r ecently rigged a worksh op on o ne side of my two-car garage, the last thing I thought about was light. The workbench is the most important tool in my shop and it's where I spend most of my time, so I instaUed it first, near the middle of the north wall. After t hat, I turned to machinery. I tuned up my bandsaw, tablesaw and jointer/planer and a rranged t h em around the bench. I put rubber mats on the concrete floor for comfort a nd was about to sharpen some tools when I noticed the





light or, more accurately, the darkness. Illuminated by only two 100-watt bulbs, the place was like a cave. My actual work area is smaU (roughly 10ft. by 14ft.) and the shop space is temporary, so my problem was easily solved by hanging one fluorescent fixture overhead and installing a portable incandescent task lamp. But thjs haphazard approach to lighting is shared by too many woodworkers. After spending so much time, energy and money on the shop itself, we often muddle along in a dingy environment. Apart from its obvious effect on the

quality and safety of our work, poor lighting has a negative impact on our state of mind. The best workshop lighting strikes a balance between daylight, fluorescent and focused incandescent lighting-and w ith a little forethought it's not th.a t hard to achieve.

Natural Light Many s hops u se natural light to great advantage. Double-glazed, southfacing windows in Mark Duginske's Wisconsin workshop (photo above) flood his bench room with light. They create a c heerful atmosphere a nd

IN enhance the shop ' s passive solar design. The wall of glass consumes a lot of potential storage space, but Duginske gets more than a good view in return. In the winter, the sunlight streams onto the concrete floor, which acts as a heat sink. By the end of a sunny day it's warm to the touch. Although its psychological benefits are manifest, natural light is a mixed blessing. Direct sunlight (and the shadows it casts) is hard on the eyes and harder still on a piece of wood, raw or finished. For soft, indirect illumination, windows should be placed high on the so~th wall or shaded by broad eaves, as in Duginske's shop. Awnings, window blinds, and screens covered with a translucent material like rice paper or Tyvek also helps diffuse harsh sunlight. If your bench is placed directly against a south-facing window, consider its position carefully. By placing the bench perpendicular to the windows, rather than parallel, you can enjoy good side light, where a strong back light might obliterate details or swallow them up in shadow._(lfyour bench receives a steady supply of direct sunlight, you'll also want to provide another work surface where you can leave your materials without risk of damage.) There¡ ~ more than one way to get natural light and, in several shops I've visited, skylights or clerestory windows bathe the interior workspace in diffuse light while casting a minimum of direct light on the bench. (See photos.) On the next page is a clever, lowbudget skylight, which runs the length of Michael Elkan's Oregon workshop. Elkan simply left his shop roof unplanked for 2 feet on either side of the ridge and sheathed the outside with corrugated fiberglass panels. To keep the heat in, he "glazed" the bottom of the triangle with clear plastic. If your situation permits, consider orienting at least some of your workshop windows toward the north. This contradicts a basic tenet of energy-efficient architecture, but a soft, diffused north light provides the most comfort-

ESHOP South-facing clerestory windows, left and below, provide excellent natural light all the way to the back wall of Peter Axtell' s California workshop.

Good Lighting Can Improve the Quality of Your Work and the Safety of Your Shop able, glare-free environment and renders color more naturaJiy than direct sunlight. It is especially desirable at the bench or in a finishing area, where detailed work and color matching take place.

Artificial Ught When you work in the shop at night or in the winter, the importance of good artificial lighting cannot be underestimated. In a basement workshop, or in any space with inadequate natural light, it will be crucial at all times. Fluorescent lamps are at the heart of most modern shop lighting systems. The fixtures and tubes are relatively inexpensive and are four to six times more efficient than conventional incandescents. Standard fluorescent lamps last at least 10 times longer than incandescents and the long fluorescent tubes are capable of uniformly illuminating a large area with very little shad-

ow. Fluorescent lamps are also much less sensitive to vibration than incandescent bulbs. So why have fluorescents gotten a bad rap from some users? In the first place, despite the wide selection of fluorescents, most of us are familiar only with "cool-white" or "warm-white" tubes. These are the cheapest and least "natural," and they offer the poorest color rendition. What's more, the magnetic ballasts used to control the current in most fluorescent fixtures emit an annoying hum, and their slow pulse (about 60 times per second) can result in the notorious "strobe effect," which makes a rotating saw blade appear to be stationary. (If you use only fluorescent lamps, light your machine areas with at least two tubes to minimize tbis effect.) Standard fluorescents also flicker incessantly below about 50°F, which is a real nuisance in part-time workshops and






This low-tech, peak skylight runs the length of Michael Elkan's 100-ft.long Oregon shop and .offers plenty of diffuse natural light.

shops located in cold climates. Many woodworkers who rely on fluorescents use a combination of warmwhite and cool-white bulbs or the socalled "full-spectrum " fluorescents in each fixture. Full-spectrum lamps are more expensive, but they provide a "color temperature" that more closely approximates that of the noontime sky . on a sunny day (about 5,500° Kelvin). One woodworker I know recently

replaced all of her cool-white fluorescent tubes with full-spectrum Duro Test Vita lites and relocated them over specific task areas. (These and other bulbs and lighting mentioned in this article are available in most specialty lighting and electrical stores.) The upgrade resulted in about 20 percent more light and truer color rendition. "It cost a mere three hundred dollars," she reported, "but what a difference!" For a lot less money, I instaJied Phillips Ultcilume 50 lamps in my new fluorescent fixture . Though not full. _spectrum bulbs, the Ultralume 50 lamps have a color temperature of 5000° K f and a color rendering index (CRI) of 85. 1lbe higher a lamp's CRI, the more accurately it renders colors. According to the Alternative Energy Sourcebook, by John Schaeffer, editor (1992, Real Goods Trading Co., Ukiah, CA) you should specify a color rendering number 80 or above wherever you spend much time around fluorescent fixtures. If sheer footcandles, or brightness, is what yo1;1're after, high-output fluorescent tubes (and fixtures), which are available in a more limited selection·, generate about SO percent more light than standard fluorescent lamps. You

The Goodwin Giraffe costs about $200, but it's ruggedly built and unusually flexible. The Giraffe has a variety of optional accessories, including magnifying glasses and two different bench mounts.

can also substitute electronic ballasts for the more common magnetic type, thereby increasing efficiency and eliminating the "strobe effect." Whichever fluorescent lamps and fixtures you choose, it's worth spending a few dollars to protect them (and yourself) with plastic tube guards. lhese will prevent glass shards from raining on your head in the event of an encounter




Attach to bench with

lag screw or bolt.


Bore hole for s haft.



~'~--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------~ 24



WIRING YOUR LIGHTS henever possib le, lights should be wired on dedicated circuits, separate from machinery or wall outlets that will be used for major cools. That way, the surge in power that's required to start up a large saw won't dim the lights as much , and if you trip a breaker by overloading a circuit, you won' t be left groping your way to a flashlight. For convenience and economy, wire banks of lights on separate switches, so you'll only have to illuminate whatever part of the shop you' re using. Locate switches at every major en trance so you can enter by one door and exit by another, t urning lights on and off as you go. In a large shop , you may want to install additional switches at convenient access points. For most shop lighting req uirements, a good w iring layout would provide one or two 2Q-amp, 12Q-volt lighting circuits with 12-gauge copper wire. You might get by with a 15-amp circuit and 14-gauge wire, especially if it is dedicated to lighting, but there's very little savings and 20-amp circuits are becoming t11e standard in residential construction. To provide a cushion of safety, the total ~contin uous~ load per circuit hould not exceed 80 percent of the circuit rating, or ~capacity" load. In other words, a 2Q-amp circuit

supplies about 16 usable amps. To determine the total number of lightS you can run on one 2Q-amp circuit, simply multiply usable amps (16) by volts (120) to arrive at the total available wattage ( 1 ,920). So seven 250-watt incandescent bulbs could be nm on one 20-amp circuit, with power to spare for an electric drill or a few more smaller lights. When calculating tile current draw for fluorescem lamps, allow an add itional 20 percent t o account for tile energy consumed by tile baUast. A two-lamp, 40-watt fluorescent unit, fo r example, will have a wattage drain of 80 watts, plus an addi· tionaJ 16 watts for the baJJasts, for a total load of 96 watts. AU outlets, switches and fixtures mu::.'t be grounded to avoid risk of fire a11d shock from a sh ort circuit, and wires, breakers and switches must be rated for at least t11e maximum amount of cu r rent each circuit will carry. (Fluorescent fixntres won't start properly if they're not grounded.) Since wiring loses current to resistance, long nms require heavier wire. And stick to copper wire in the s hop. It's more expensive than aluminum , but it 's stronger and more flexible and a better con ductor. Standard nonmetallic, sheatl1ed Romex cable is appropriate for most workshop Lighting applications, if it meets local building codes.

between a wayward board and an overhead fixture. For finishing or restoration work, plastic tube guards are also av.tilable to filter ultraviolet rays.

lan1ps with large reflectors are a popular and versatile alternative to student lamps, although the ones I've used always seem to come unclipped. For the ultimate in task lighting, you might install a track-lighting system or consider a unit like .the Giraffe Multi Purpose Task Lamp (available from Goodwin Manufacturing Inc., Box 208, Luck, WI 54853, 800-282-5267). (See photo.) The elegant Giraffe will accept a lQO.watt bulb and its head is mounted on a sturdy flexible shaft and an adjustable stand, which roUs around on a hefty, cast-iron base. With a little imagination and even less cash, you can rig an effective task light out of cast-off parts, like Bob Stocksdale's drill-press lamp or Roger Heitzman's


Task Lighting Even in a shop full of overhead fluorescents, you'U need focused task lighting for detailed operations such as turning or running the drill press. For these situations, smaller, directional incandescent lights are ideal, and the ubiquitous articulated student desk lamp is the most common solution. Many shops have a half dozen or ~ore student lamps scattered about, with holes bored in benchtops, brackets and even benchdogs to receive the mounting shaft. (See drawing.) Clip-on

WARNING: Although wiring is not that complicated, electricity is inher· ently dangerous. Be sure you know what you' re doing before you begin and verify your plan with a licensed electrician. The amount of electrical and lighting work you do yourself should depend upon )'Our proficiency and confidence with these subjects. But in most towns and cities a permit is required for all new wiring instaUations and , in many places, any changes to the existing wiring must be inspected, approved and connected to the service panel by a Licensed electrician. Rules and regulations are outlined in the National Electrical Code (NEC), but you should also consult your local city or county codes, which may be more strin· gent. When in doubt, hire it out.-S.L

FOR MORE INFORMATION: T h e following books are good sources for detailed information on electrical wiring. Practical Electrical Wiring , by Herbert P. Richter and W. Creighton Schwan (1990 , McGraw-Hill , New York, NY l 0020). The Nat i o nal Electrical Code

Har1dbook, by Joseph A. Ross, editor (1987 , National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA 02269).

detailing lamp . (See photos, next page.) Heitzman's lamp mounts on an old camer.t tripod and can be placed at whatever height he needs.

Efficient More than 80 percent of the energy a standard bulb consumes is converted to heat, but incandescents are still the most appropriate light source for narrowly focused activities, or in situations where the lamp is turned on and off a lot or must function in the cold. Among incandescents, quartz-halogen lamps cost quite a bit more than standard bulbs, but they produce 40 percent to 50 percent more light and they last a lot longer. They also produce a whiter light ~d truer color rendition






than other incandescents. Some interesting developments in lighting technology have led to another alternative: Compact fluorescent bulbs produce the same amount of light as a standard incandescent bulb yet they last 10 times as long and consume far less energy. According to Amory Lovins of the Rocky Mountain Institute in Snowmass, Colorado, "a single compact fluorescent lamp replacing, say, 75 watts of incandescent lighting with 1418 watts (but yielding the same light) will, over its life, keep out of the air a ton of carbon dioxide . .. " While they are sensitive to cold like standard fluorescents, the compact variety fit in a standard Edison socket (though they're a bit large for some small fixtures) and are quiet and cool in operation. In color temperature, they fall between household incandescents (warm) and standard fluorescents (cool) . As you might expect, such lamps are much more expensive to buy, but they pay off over the long haul.

A recycled beer can makes a serviceable shade for Bob Stocksdale's drill-press lamp.

Planning o Ughting System Once you determine the mix of artificial lights you prefer, you'll have to figure out the size and quantity you'll need and where to put them. A lighting engineer 11,1ight arrive at an adequate formula, but it's a highly variable and subjective science. (In fact, most "engineered" plans I've seen would light up a shop like a supermarket.) An effective lighting system has more to do with the..,Placement of fJXtures and the way you-.use the workspace than with sheer wattage or footcandles. With that in mind, you'll want to develop a lighting plan that takes into account the location of major machinery and accounts for the different requirements of each work area. Begin by b locking out the heavy activity areas, like the tablesaw and workbench, on a floor plan and locating fixtures over them that will provide a large amount of diffuse light. Then mark off the areas like the sander or drill press that will need specific task lighting. You can test your lighting concept by wiring a two-bulb fluorescent to a cord and holding it over each area. Paul Silke took a simple approach to flood his 24-ft. by 40-ft. shop. He installed three banks of fluorescent fix26



The strong shadows raised by an oblique side or hack light are ideal for defining car ved highlights or spotting sanding scratches and finish flaws. Roger Heitzman made this deta.iliilg lamp by mounting a cheap quartz-halogen floodlight on a camera tripod and wiring it with a r etractable cord reel from a used vacuum cleaner.

tures, each with two 8-ft.-long highoutput bulbs, and spaced 8 ft. apart. The lights run the length of the shop with the outside rows 4 ft. from the walls. Two of the lamps in each fixture are high-output fiuorescents and these are augmented with a few small incandescent task lamps for detailed work. Obviously, if you have a more complex layout or specialized circumstances such straightforward lighting might not work for you. But if you begin with good overall illumination, you can add or subtract fixtures to accommodate designated task areas. You won't need as much light, fqr example, in your wood storage or rough-milling area as

you would at the bench or in a space dedicated to carving. And finishing areas require vapor-tight fixtures and switches. A scale model will enable you to simulate the effects of natural light, drawing your attention to areas that may require more illumination at certain times of the day. Lighting plans typically use square footage and ceiling height to calculate the volume of light required in the workspace. But many other factors affect the actual delivery of usable light. As one engineer told me, "In the real world you can expect to lose 20 to 30 percent of your light when the space is occupied .n Bulky, dark machinery absorbs light and casts shadows. And even the best overhead lighting may be blocked by your own body or the work itself as you lean over the bench or tablesaw. To reduce shadows, place ceiling fixtures to one side of the primary work area or use a secondary source of fill light. You might also take a tip from the auto body trade and hang your fiuorescents at an angle, by hanging the chain off center, to reduce shadows. There are several other things you can do to lighten up your workspace, such as painting as muGh of the shop as possible in a light color and keeping it clean. The walls and ceiling are particularly important reflective surfaces, but a light-colored enamel paint or vinyl tile will also make a big difference on the floor . If you use wood paneling or flooring, choose a lightcolored wood such as pine or maple. In a very small shop, you might also use mirrors to reflect light. Finally, white enamel reflector shields, available for both fluorescent and incandescent fixtures, will help put the light where you need it most. ÂŁ. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

~ ~



is author o/ The Workbench Book (1987) and The Workshop Book (1991), The Taunton Press Inc., Box

355, Newtown, CT 06470.

- --.., / "'¡ u~

v\- Ol tl l=tl~l~a~7



few weeks ago I got a call from Pat Huxta , a teacher at the day-care center t hat Rodale Press runs for employees' children. It seems the school-age kids wanted to build a birdhouse. The center had a pile of scrap wood and a few old hand tools, but they needed a proper bench to work on. Pat showed me a picture of a flimsy-looking child 's workbench in a ' mail-order catalog. I knew I could do better, so I designed this one. It's sturdier, costs less and only took me a weekend to build. The bench is 24 in . high - just


right for the 6- to 10-year-olds at the day-care center. To start the kids off right , I added a small V-175 Record bench vise (available from The Woodworker's Store, 21801 Industrial Blvd. , Rogers, MN 55374, 612-428-3200). I made the bench out of wood I

Get Kids Started Right With a Workbench Ttzat ~ More Than a Toy

had handy in the shop-soft maple for the top, oak for the frame antl dr.twer fronts, poplar for the drawer sides and backs and some pieces of birch plywood. There's no need to get fancy with the joinery for this type of project, so I kept things simple.

Making the Support Frame Begin by cutting the legs, stretchers and rails to the dimensions in the Bill of Materials. Cut the ends of the legs at 85°. Next, lay out and cut all the mortises 1 ~ in. deep and perpendicular to the stock. There's no need to angle the




1993 . V


Cut 1/4-in. groove for drawer bottom on both sides and front.




Rout finger pull with cove bit.



i ! i = i li


Top Leg Back Rail• Side Rail" Bottom trctcher* Center StretcherS Lower Shelf Drawer Support Drawer Divider Divider Facing Drawer Front Dmwcr ide Drawer Back Drawer Bottom


4 I 2


I 2

4 2 2

DI MENSIQNS Y, X 22'!, x 46 I'f. X 2 1/1 X 23'!t6 1/" X 2'/, X 32 1/8 X 2'/1 X 14''/,6 l '!.x2x 16/. I 'I. X 2 X 32% 'll X l6'/2 X 33Sf.. '/1 X 15'/• X 3 1 ·If. X 2 X 14% Jj, X

.If, '11












2ttb X 14'/, X I 'Yt6 X 14.Y. 'll X I 'I. X 14'/z '/,X I J X 14% X



"Tenons 'lrin . W x l ·in. L § Tenons Jf;.in. II x l -in. L All mcasun:ment:. w longes! dimension. - 1-L..,


"Longest dimension shoulder to shoulder. L__

mortises in the legs. Now cut a l-2-in. by l-2-in. rabbet along the side rail and the back rail for the plywood drawer support. To attach the benchtop to the rails, drill and counterbore seven holes, making them a little bigger than the screws to allow the top to expand and contract across the grain. Cut the shoulders of the rail and stretcher tenons at an 85° angle. (See drawing.) Then lay out and cut the bottom of the tenons at a 5o angle so they fit into the straight mortises in the angled legs. Cut square-shouldered tenons on the back rail and ceno ter stretcher, making the center stretcher tenons horizontal as shown · ..\ in the drawing. After dry-fitting all the pieces, glue ' and clamp the frame. While the glue is drying, cut and notch pieces of l-2-in. plywood for the drawer support and the lower shelf. (See drawing.) Then glue and nail the drawer support into the rabbeted frame and set the shelf in place. Cut out the drawer divider and divider facing and glue and nail them in place. Finally, glue-up the stock for the top, and when dry, plane it flush and screw it to the frame. Even though this is a quick project, I decided to dovetail the drawers. (See sidebar.) There's always the hope that ·seeing dovetails will inspire a beginning appreciation of good craftsmanship in the kids that use the benchthough I realize it's hard to compete with Nintendo. (See AW #19 and #29 for more oo..dovetails.) The drawer construction was otherwise straightforward. I cut a \4-in. by \4-in. groove in the drawer front and sides to house the drawer bottom. After gluing the dovetailed corners together, I slipped the drawer bottoms into the grooves and nailed them to the drawer backs. Finally, I applied an oil finish to the bench, and mounted the vise. A ~ ~ ~ ~ ~





is a cabinetmaker in the AMERICAN WOODWORKER Design Shop.


It doesn' t take a fan cy jig Lo make half-blind d ovetails. At right, tbe author lays out the dovetail socke ts using a piece of cle ar l>lastic as a see-through str aightedge (no te stop block for route r ), then simply pm~bes the router straight back freeh and using a fir m grip and shar·p eye (above). make a lot of shallow, dovetailed drawers. After trying different methods, I worked out the following technique that lets me cut half-blind dovetails using a router and bandsaw without any special jigs. The key is cutting the half-blind dovetail sockets freehand with a router and dovetail bit. I do this with no guides other than a stop block to get the socket length correct. Because the cut is so short, I can push the router straight by eye. First, 1 scribe dovetail baselines on the drawer front, sides and back. Then I damp the drawer front on the edge of the workbench along with a stop block so the router bit stops right at my baseline. Next I mark the locations for the


dovetail sockets using a small square piece of clear plastic as a straigh tedge so 1 can see the wood underneath. (See photo.) l eyeball these marks without measuring, spacing them by what looks good. After routing the sockets as shown in the photo, I square-up the socketS with a chisel.

lt's th en a simple matter to lay out the tails on the drawer side using the ro uter-cut sockets as a guide. I cut out the tails freehand with a bandsaw and scroll saw. After a lot of practice, I can dovetail a whole drawer in about 15 minutes.-.P.G.




SCRAPERS BY MAC CAMPBELL reparing the surface of wood for snap to sharpen and use once you finishing may be the most criti- learn the basics. There are even some cal step in a project. Yet this is new gadgets on the market to make where many woodworkers fall down. them even easier to maintain. (See They resort to belt sanders or other sidebar, opposite page.) There are two basic styles of scrappower tools to "refme" the surface and end up with wood that looks dull froll! . ers. Hand scrapers, which are flat abrasion. There's a much better way . pieces of steel in either rectangular or which is inexpensive, fast and easy: i curved shapes (see photo) and cabinet \ scrapers. Hand scrapers are unsurUse a scraper. When burnished to a hard, thin , passed for leveling out small imperhook, the edge of a scraper will shear fections, like tear-out from the thickthe wood fibers cleanly, leaving a ness planer, or for working in tight corsmooth, crisp and shiny surface similar ners. I also Use them for freeing sticking drawers or fitting doors. to one produced by a hand plane. To smooth larger areas, the cabinet Scrapers are versatile tools toostrong enough to work down the scraper is the tool of choice. The most most ornery piece of bird's-eye maple, common type consists of a scraper yet still delicate enough to level out a blade in ~ frame, usually made of cast single coat of lacquer. And they're a iron, that looks like a spokeshave.


(See photo, below.) The frame holds the scraper blade at a constant angle, and its flat sole makes it work like a small, fine plane.

Buying a Scraper Since scrapers depend on a very small burr for the cutting action, it's important to get one made of very hard steel. I've had the most success with the "super-hard milled scrapers" (available from Veritas Tools, 12 E. River St., Ogdensburg, NY 13669, 800-6672986). They are hardened between Rc48 and Rc-52 on the Rockwell hardness scale, and take and hold an excellent hook. These scrapers are available in four thickness (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1mm), and a variety of shapes. I keep a more delicate hook on the thinner scrapers,

Planes and sandpaper aren't the only way to prepare wood for lllll~.ung. Author shows how easy it is to use a scraper. Scrapers com e in different sizes and shapes to fit the contours your work (inset). 30



Properly Sharpened, This Tool Makes a Super-Smooth Sur/ace

TOOL-UP FOR SCRAPER SHARPENING here are some:: specialized tools availablt: that will help you sharpen your scrapers. Here: arc three that rve tJied and liked. Tile Jointer & Edger (above left) is a jig that holds your me perfectly square to the scraper's edge when filing. You can also usc it for jointing hand-saw teed1 (available from VcriL<lS Tools, 12 E. River St., Ogdensburg, NY 13669, 8()().{)67-2986). The Veritas Variable Burnisher (above center) lets you set the exact burnishing angle you want by adjusting a knob. The tool has a super-hard, C<lrbide burnishing rod mounted in a maple block with a slot for the scraper. You


and find their flexibility very useful for working irregular shapes like chair parts. The Sandvik scraper is a popular Swedish -brand rated at the same hard· ness, but it's available only in the 0.8mm thickness. I've not foW1d a great deal of difference among the various cabinet scrapers I have tried. Buying a brand name like Stanley, Record or KW1tz (available from many mail-order tool companies) is your best insurance.

Sharpening a Scraper Unlike sharpening chisels and planes, in which metal is ground away to leave a sharp edge, scrapers are sharpened by burnishing. But the secret to getting a good hook on a scraper is to start by filing the cutting edges perlectly straight and square to the sides. I use a 6-in. mill bastard flle and very light pressure and ftle each edge until It has an even, dull gray

slip the block over the scraper, then press down and pull the block to form the hook. it's quick to use, but it won't work on concave:: curved scrapers (available from Veritas Tools, 800-667-2986). The SB-1 Scraper Burnisher (above right) is designed so you can more easily perfom1 the two-step process of drawing tJ1e edge and nm1ing the hook. lL uses a short, hardened steel rod mow1ted in a hardwood h;mdle. And it works on curved scrapers roo (availablt: from Timbe rline Tool, 28544 North Highway 67, Woodland Park , CO 80863, 719-687-9076).- i\1/.C.

appearance under a good light. You can do the filing freehand with some practice, though begin· ners might feel more comfortable using a simple wood-block guide to keep the file square to the scraper. I prefer to use a flle-holding tool made to keep the ftle square to the scraper edge. (See sidebar.) After filing, many woodworkers hone the edge and face of the scraper on a fine stone. The theory is that a polished edge will produce a more perfect hook and, in tum, smoother scraping. (See sidebar, next page.) But I have not foW1d this step inlproves the final edge significantly. So I go directly from filing to burnishing.

Burnishing the Hook Theoretically , you can u se any piece of smooth metal that's harder than a scraper to burnish a hook. For example, I've used the back of a chisel

for freehand burnishing of straight· edged scrapers. (If you do this, it's important to burnish with the area near the chisel's cutting edge because the steel gets softer a short distance from the edge.) For curved scrapers, I use the piston rod from a worn-out automotive shock absorber. It's very hard, and years of use have polished its surface to a mirror sheen. Burnishing goes best if you first lubricate the edge of the scraper with a drop of light oil. (Leonard Lee of Lee Valley Tools has studied sharpening for years and suggests just touching a fin· ger to your nose and rubbing this skin oil on the edge.) Then damp the scraper in a vise, hold the burnisher at 90° to the scraper and make several passes with light to moderate pressure. This smooths out the fine marks left by the file, and begins to "bulge" the edge so the final hook will be stronger. For very fine work, that's all the bur·






STEP 1 : File edge square harpening a scraper is a simple process. But woodworkers practice different techniques to get that sharp edge-some more involved than others. Here's a .. traclitional" four-step procedure that will produce a very sharp, long-lasting hook for fU1e work like leveling a lacquer fulish. TI1e steps are illustrated in these photos, while the accompanying insets show you what the edge of


nishing you need to do. But for most scraper work, you'll want to make a more pronounced hook. by angling the burnisher 5° to 15° from ~ horizontal, and taking a few more passes. (See drawing.) Experiment with angle, pressure and number of passes to see what works best fQr the scraper and burnisher you have. Once you've gotten the hang of it, you can have a scraper filed, burnished and ready to use in less time than it has taken you to read this far. One of the most common mistakes people .make is burnishing too much. This rolls the burr over too far and ere-

STEP 2: Hone edge smooth the scraper should look like after each step is complete. To begin, clan1p the scraper in a vise and joint the scraper's edges straight and square with a file . Use a file guide or a block of wood to keep the me squru·e, if you feel unsteady. Now hone the edges to remove the fLle marks. Again a wood block helps keep the scraper square. After working the edges, hone the faces flat, sin1llar to the way you'd hone

ates a brittle hook that won't cut well. I discovered a quick way to sharpen the convex scraper I use for removing carving marks on chair seats. I sand the edge of the scr.qJCr very lightly on a disc sander, holding it flat on the sander's table which is set at 90° to the sanding disc. The coarse burr left by the sander works fine for rough scraping. Cabinet scraper blades are sharpened the same way as hand scrapers except the edge is beveled instead of square. Most manufacturers suggest a 45° bevel. I keep one edge of my cabinet scraper at 45° but prefer to keep the other edge sharpened at 30°. I save





this edge for very fine work because the burr produced is more delicate. File the bevel to get it straight and smooth. Then tilt the burnisher about 15° relative to the bevel and burnish the hook away from the beveled side. (See drawing.)

Using the Scraper I'll describe the technique for using a rectangular hand scraper; curved ones are similar. Hold the scraper vertically with its long edge resting on the woed... .Place your thumbs near the center of the bottom edge, and wrap your fingers


the back of a chisel after honing the bevel. Next, you want to draw the edges. lay the scraper on the bench and stroke the edges with a hand burnishing cool. It will onJy take a few quick strokes to move the metal. To tum the hook, place the scraper so rhe edge hangs off the bench, tilt the burnishing tool at a 5° to 15° angle to the edge of the scraper and stroke with an upward motion.

around the ends of the scraper. (My fmgers often · sne* over the top corners as well.) Then bow the scraper slightly by pushing gently with your thumbs while you pull with your fmgers. More bow makes the scraper easier to control, but increases the ¢Inger of having it·dig ifi, since it reduces the length of edge that is cutting the wood. Push the scraper along the wood, gradually tipping it away from you. At some point, usually 15° to 30° from vertical, the scraper wilJ start to cut. You should see a fme shaving being pushed ahead of the scraper. If you see only fine dust, try the sharpening process again. The scraper will cut best and stay sharp longest_if you hold it at the steepest angle at which it will cut. Curved scrapers require a lighter touch, since relatively little of the scraper's edge is in contact with the wood, and the risk of digging in is higher. If you are doing heavy work, your thumbs will get hot very quickly. Some woodworkers use Band-Aids for insulation. Others use a piece of leather or the "rubber thumbs" sold in stationery

That's all there is to it. When a scraper blade becomes dull, you can renew it by simply redrawing the edge and rcntming the hook. After a few renewals you'Ll need to start over by filing and honing the edge again. Burnishing curved scrapers follows the same process, though on concave curves, you'll have to use a round file and slip stones to hone.-M.C

stores for sorting paper. I usually place a small stick, about 3/ 16 in. thick between my thumbs and the scraper. Cabinet scrapers usually require some initial tuning to work well. It's a good idea to flatten and polish the sole just as you would with a hand plane. Then you need to position the blade in the frame for the proper depth of cut. To do this, place the frame on a flat surface like the tablesaw. Slip a sheet of thin note paper under the front end of the scraper body to raise it slightly, then back off the blade clamping screws and adjustment screw. Now slide the blade into the frame, bevel side toward the adjusting screw, and let the blade come to rest against the saw table. Then, when you tighten the clamping screws, the blade will project the thickness of the paper, which is about right. The adjusting screw pushes on the middle of the blade, bowing it to increase the depth of cut. Turn the adjustment screw in until it just makes contact with the blade, and make a test

cut on a piece of hardwood. Continue to tighten the adjustment screw until you get nice thin shavings. Both the hand and the cabinet sera~ er perform best if you move them with the grain, and skewed at a slight angle to the line of travel. This produces a shearing action that results in a very smooth cut. It' s best to take long, smooth strokes, using your body's momentum as you would with a hand plane. Once you get the hang of sharpening and using a scraper:, I guarantee you ' ll wonder how you ever did without it. .A.

MAC CAMPBELL ran a custom furniture shop /or 14 years in New Brunswick, Canada. He currently studying theology in Hali/ax, Nova Scotia.







Angie face of bracket to clear spokes.

Size push rod assembly to



drill press.

- - - - - r - - --=+-1 l¡IN.lOHC BOLT

Oscrri ~ATING

SPINDLE SANDER Conv~rt Your Drill Press to an Oscillating Sander/or

Less Jhan $30 BY GENE PAULIS

s a design engineer, I'm always looking for a way to make machines more efficient. And if I can save money too, so much the better. With this shop-made oscillating sander I've achieved both goals. It c; costs less than $30, takes up no extra space, and makes my drill press a more versatjJe machine. Best of all, switching from drilling to sanding takes less than a minute. The mechanical principle is simple:







an auxiliary motor connects by an eccentric to a push rod assembly, and that drives one of the drill press spokes back and forth . This motion moves the quill and the sanding drum up and down. (See F~g. 1.)

Gathering the Components You can find most of the specialized components for this attachment at industrial supply houses. (See Sources.) The geared motor is a sur¡

plus item and costs only $5.95. There is a trade-off with the inexpensive price, though. This is not a continuousduty motor and the thermal protector inside will shut it down after. a halfhour of steady use. I don"t find this a problem, however, because I rarely sand that long. I made the eccentric and spoke clamp from scrap aluminum, but you can use hardwo od if you don' t do machine work or don't want to pay a

machine shop to fabricate them. I also made a modification in deference to my drill press (Delta model 17900). Delta uses spokes with rolled threads that are larger in diameter than the spoke shaft. That means a clamp large enough to clear the threads won't fit tightly on the shaft. To overcome this, 1 replaced one spoke with a metric machine bolt and a brass extension rod. (See p hoto, right.) This gives me a standard size handle for drilling and allows me to remove half the handle if it interferes with sanding. If you opt for a wooden clamp, skip this step and bend the clamp until it clears the threads.

Setting the Oscillation The distance the sanding drum moves up and down is determined by how far the spoke attached to the push rod assembly travels back and forth, and setting this oscillation is the key to making the sander work correctly. Too little oscillation and the sander is likely to leave scratch marks, too much and the drum may rise above the workpiece making sanding awkward. I find !.7-in. oscillation best when using 2-in.-high drums. However, with my attachment you can also change the amount of oscillatiqn for different tasks, a feature not normally found on commercial sanders. More on this later. To set the sander for !.7-in. oscillation, attach the spoke clamp to the spoke nearest the 7 o ' clock, (or further clockwise) position . This becomes the "drive" spoke . Then locate the clamp about 2 in. from the center of the spoke hub. (See Fig. 1.) Now you want to move the "drive" spoke back and forth to create a !h in. of motion at the quill. (See Fig. 2 .) The mid-swing of this arc should be around 6 o'clock to produce optimum thrust from the push rod, and the spoke should swing through a total arc of about 60°. Don't let the swing go beyond 90° because the push rod starts to lose its ability to "push, " overworking the oscillator motor. Mounting the Motor To locate and mount the motor, position the "drive" spoke at the midpoint of its swing and sigh t a line

With a s~ple and inexpensive shop-built attachment, the au thor h as converted his drill press into a scratch-fr ee oscillating sander.

along the top of a square that is centered on the spoke clamp. You can place the motor shaft anywhere along this line. M y motor fits in a bracket made from scrap ~-in.-thick Lexan, though sheet metal or plywood would do as well. I attached the bracket to the side of the drill press casing using %in. bolts that fit the existing set screw holes on my Delta. (See Fig. 1.) I angled the face of the bracket 10° to provide clearance for the spokes and to keep the back side of the oscilJator motor clear of the drill press column. For convenience, I added an on/off toggle switch to the back of the motor.

Locating the Eccentric Hole To determine where to locate the stripper bolt hole on the eccentric, first measure how far the spoke clamp travels in a straight line when you move the "drive spoke" through its arc. (See Fig. 2.) On my Delta the distance is 1~ in. Now halve this measurement. This is how far from the center of the eccentric the stripper bolt must be.

SOURCES Components for t h e oscillating attachment are available from the following sources: ~ Geared m o tor (#3705 1) ($5.95); ~ Toggle

s witch (#21763) (75 cen ts): American Des ign Components, 400 Counry Ave. , Secaucus, NT 07094, (800) 776-3700.

~ Pus h

r o d , 24 in. a U-thre ad, (#9879 1A030) (63 cen ts); ~ Rod e nd bearings (#6072K42) ($4 .12 each); ~ S tripper b o lts (#91264A537) ($1.08 each): McMaster-Carr Supply Co., Box 400, New BnUlSWick, N) 08903, (908) 329-3200.

Attaching the Push Rod Now you can determine the length of the push rod. (See Fig. 1.) First, install both rod end bearings, then position the "drive" spoke so the quill is at the top of its sanding travel and rotate t he eccentric so the stripper bolt hole is at its closest position to









STEP 2: S#tdrf line along top Mount motor on line.

STEP J: More .,oke to cf'Nfe J/2-ln. IIIOff'lftefrf 6f the quill.

STEP 3: ....,. hotfzontal tnwe1 of . , . . ciMnp to lion of $~ripper bolt hole.


( Comer of framing

square ceaterecl on ..,.ke clamp.

the spoke clamp. Measure between need to reduce the quill travel when each bearing and add 1!4 in. to pro- using %-in.-high sanding drums to vide a little leeway for later adjust-1 clean up the edges of Christmas tree ments. Now cut the push rod to this ornaments I make. length and install it. To change oscillation, I loosen · If your quill hits its stop on the up the spoke clamp and move it out stroke, simply decrease the distance from the spoke· hub by ~ in. (See between bearings by ~6 in. You may Fig. 1.) This decreases the oscilla' need to add a spacer between the tion on my·drill press to l4 in.-perpush rod and the back bearing to keep fect for the thin stock I use . Moving the lock nut from hitting the eccen- the clamp closer to the hub increastric. (See Fig. 1.) es oscillation. A unique feature of thJs sander Changeover from sander to drill is the ability to change the amount of press is simple. Remove the stripper oscillation. I ftnd this handy because I bolt from the spoke clamp and let the

push rod assembly swing down from the eccentric. To go back to sanding, reverse the procedure. You' re now ready for scratch-free sanding. .A. ~

~ ~ ~

• ~


A DUST COLLECTOR SANDING TABLE sing your drill press as a drum sander can be handy, but the dust is a ha7.ard that r can Live without. I built an auxiliary table with a dust pickup for my drill press. The ftXture i basically a box that sit on top of my drill pre s table. A hole through the top accommodates my sanding drum, and a hole in the ide of the box lets me suck out the du t with my shop vacuum. ( ee drawing.) The box is high enough to allow my tallest sanding drum to oscillate without bottoming out. As the drawing shows, I used 1 .-in. plywood for all the partS and glued and screwed evel")rthing together. The only important dimension is for the hole in the top. It should be just big enough to allow your largest sanding drum to pass through. This way your workpiece will have the maximum amount of support near the drum. lf you size the bottom of the flXturc so it's ~16 in. larger than the drill press table and make the dadoes in your side pieces 1/i in. deep, you'Ucreate a Up that will fir over the table. This way. clamping isn't necessary. When you're done sanding, it's a snap to Lift off the fixture and store for later use.-G.P.





Size hole to accommodate largest sanding


is a retired corporation pilot and automation designer. He is now a full-time amateur woodworker.



Make bottom larger than drill press table.

A Delicate &lance o/ Paper and Wood, I11is Floor Latnp Casts a

So/t, Ln¡iting Ligld




became interested in Japanese woodworking about 10 years ago. I was employed in a library at the time, and. started reading about woodworking so I could plan a shop. After seeing photographs of work from Japan, though, I knew that was where I had to go to learn. Once there, I spent a couple of years studying the local woodworking arid architecture, reading Buddhist literature and traveling in the Far East: Eventually I realized that in Japan, b eauty is perhaps as important as strength in many objects. For example, this lamp, made with a thin frame and light-diffusing rice paper, weighs less than 4 pounds, so it seems more like a box kite than a household furnishing. The lamp represents a fairly traditional style in Japan. The top rails are joined to the four legs with blind slip joints, while simple mortise and tenon joints connect the lower rails to the legs. (See Fig. 1.) These joints are tiny, but they are adequate for this job because they are under very little stress. Also, they represent the fragile n ature of Japanese objects, which I admire. You could dowel the pieces together, if you prefer. The thin latticework frame between the legs and rails is made of thin strips of wood, called kumiko. These interlock in half-lap joints where the verticaJ and horizontal strips cross and are held together with a drop of glue . The kumiko simply pres&fit between the legs and rails, so they can easily be popped out if you need to replace the rice paper. Finally, the top is a separate mitered frame, that is reinforced and accented with splines and inlay.


Lit by a duces a room full of ambience.











Cut 114 in. x 518-in. rabbet on top and bottom rails for kumiko frame. KUMIKO


Kumik.o frame press-fits into lamp frame.

Glue rice paper to inside of kumiko frame after assembly.



l -in. x l -in. x 3-in.


th-in. x th-in.




E~ E

Saw kerfs for ebony

inlays after gluing frame.

c n:yf1 LS

r·~~Yb9 I

To create a slight reveal between the frame and the kumiko , the author cut a %-in. by %-in. rabbet along the front of the rails.

The kumiko frame, cover ed with r·icc paper·, is press-fit between the legs and rails of the lamp, so it 's easy to pop off a pane l to r·cplace the papet·.


~---1·-- 14--~·1 t





! Glue 1!4-in.-thick ebony square in center opening.




l/4 X l l/4 X llo/'4


I A _.

--i1 +








1~ :c .J~c.Jit





Constructing the Lamp




LJ~------ 12 ------~


3r :.....J

. ;.._

Note: Legs and rails are l-in. x l-in. Kumiko are 1!4-in. x ~-in. Dimensions of kumiko frame are approximate. Size for press-fit .

Rabbet maple r:'strip to fit opening ____. between kumiko. SECTIONAA

It is important to be extremely precise in constructing all the parts. The inside surfaces must be flush so you can glue on the rice paper after the sides are assembled. Two pieces of advice: First, if you decide to modify the size of the parts and the latticework patterns, remember, you have to cover the lamp with Japanese rice paper, which comes in a standard width of 11 in. The seams of the paper should overlap about the width of the kumiko. To make sure everything matches, buy your paper before deciding on the pattern and spacing of the kumiko. Second, your design should consid· e r how the lamp w ill be used. This lamp is not suitable for reading. Its purpose is to illuminate gently, creating a soft, warm ambience in a room. I'd avoid fluorescent bulbs, which are a bit too harsh for the paper.

I chose white pine for most of the parts, and add!!d accents of roaple and ebony. You could use any. clear, straight-grained wood, but because the components are so delicate you should avoid stock with knots or other defects that weaken the wood. Also, be aware that darker woods will change the impact of the design by making the pieces look heavier than they are. You should be able to get all the parts from an 8-ft. long 2x8 and a few board feet of l·in. stock Begin by ripping the legs and rails. Cut the pieces slightly oversize, then joint and plane them to l-in. square. I ripped the stock JANUARY


1993 39



iJ E

Glue V4-ln.-wide filler strips between kumiko to fonn lip around frame. Filler strips should be flush with kumiko.

on a bandsaw to consetve wood. With small parts like this, two cuts with my tablesaw would have wasted enough wood to make one kumiko. Next, cut the legs and rails to length on the tablesaw. I screwed an auxiliary fence to the miter gauge to suppon the long thin stock and clamped a stop block to the rip fence to ensure that matching pieces were exactly the same length. You might want to leave the legs a couple of inches longer than th~ final dimension, creating "horns" at the top. This extra stock¡ minimizes the chances you will split the legs when you insert the rails; you can trim off the "horns" after assembly.

CtJtting the Joints After marking the mortises on the legs, you can drill out the waste with a 1-2-in. dia. Forstner bit chucked in the drill press. I cleaned up the cheeks of the mortise with a chisel, but didn't square the comers. I fmd it easier to round over the tenons to fit. Next, rabbet the rails to create a slight reveal between the frame and the kumiko. (See photo, opposite page.) The thin kumiko tend to disappear visually if you leave them flush with the frame. With this done you can cut the tenons and round the edges. Then dryfit the frame together and measure diagonally comer to comer to check for squareness. If everything is OK, hand plane each piece, taking off the 40



miters on the top. The ebony insert along the top ¡of the miter is pnrely decorative.

slightest shaving with one or two passes. This burnishes the wood so it will reflect the light beautifully. This look of bare wood, planed glass smooth, is the perfect finish for me, though you might prefer to apply oil or some other finish. Just don't finish the back of the kumiko frames where the finish will interfere with gluing the paper. The next step is to glue up the frame. Take great care here since applying too much clamping pressure can distort the frame. I fmd it best to glue up the two sides first, let them dry and then add the four remaining rails. While the glue dries I can start on the kumiko .

Making the Latticework The kumiko frames are made from \4-in.-wide by %-in.-deep strips that are

joined with lap joints. These¡ frames should fit tightly between the legs and rails, so it' s best to determine the dimensions by measuring the actual frame rather than relying on the drawing. Remember when determining th~ length of the vertical kumiko, measure between the faces of the rabbets, not between the rails. I cut the kumiko strips to size in stages because this is the best way I've found to remove the saw marks from the thin strips and ensure that all the pieces are the same size. First, I joint one edge of a 3-ft. length of 2x8 and handsaw off 1-2-in.-thick strips. Between each cut I rejoint my 2x8 so I'll have a square edge. I cut enough pieces to make all the components, plus a few extra for test-fitting and to cover any breakage . Then I plane each Yz-in. piece to % in. , the thickness of the kumiko, and handsaw off %-in. strips. Finally, I plane the newly sawn edge until the pieces are l4 in. wide. .After cutting the horizontal and vertical kumiko to length, I make the half. lap joints on the tablesaw with a 50. tooth carbide combination blade, which is !1! in. wide. This blade leaves a slightly convex kerf that is perfect for a drop of glue. You can use your miter gauge and fence to make this cut but be sure to attach a stop block to the fence and register your strips off it. If you butt the stock directly against the rip fence, you risk kickback. Before cutting all the half-lap joints, you might want to test-fit one pair of horizontal and vertical pieces to make sure they fit flush. Remember, you don't have to cut half-laps in the horizontal kumiko that go on the sides of the lamp frame because these don't have overlapping vertical strips. After cutting all the laps, I make one fmal pass with a hand plane on the show face of each kumiko. From here on in, I handle the pieces with clean hands or cotton gloves to keep them pristine. Assemble the kumtko latticework by putting one drop of glue on each lap joint and lightly clamping the pieces until the adhesive dries. Then, as an accent for the sides, cut maple inserts, rabbet them to fit between the side kumiko and glue them in place. (See Fig. 1.)

also may want to add a nut to each side of the nipple to help hold it tight.

The light fixture attaches to a maple strip that is screwed to two rabbeted blocks. The blocks are screwed and glued to the rails.

The center openings on the front and back panels are fit with unrabbeted 1 ~-in. squares of ~-in.-thick ebony. (See lead photo.) Trim the squares to fit and glue them in place. You can now install the assembled kumiko latticework into the frame, although you may have to adjust the fit by trinuning the kumiko frame slightly with a hand plane. It's a good idea to mark each kumiko frame for an individual side, front or back since the size may differ slightly. If they fit with very light friction, giy~ yourself a pat on the back. If they are slightly loose, use a dab of wallpaper paste to glue them in place after they are papered. Also, you might consider permanently gluing !!.lin. filler strips to the legs to p~event light from· leaking around the vertical kumiko as the frame contracts with heat and humidity. Don't get any glue on the kumiko, though, otherwise you'll have trouble removing the frames if you need to replace the paper.

Installing the Top I put a top on my lamp to hide the end grain of the legs and create an attractive pattern that would project onto the ceiling when the light is turned on. If you design a top, leave open, unpapered areas to allow for air circulation and heat dissipation. Otherwise heat build-up may brown the paper. My top is a mitered frame assembled from %-in. by 1 %-in. stock, as shown in Fig. 3. I strengthen the frame by cutting a kerf at each miter and

installing ebony splines. (See AW #27, page 23 fr>r more on splined miters.) The ebony inlays along the top and bottom of the miters are added after the frame is glued but before the kumiko are attached. After assembling the fratljle, I saw the grooves for. the inlays oh the tablesaw with the .miter fence at 45° and the blade set for a ~6in.-deep cut. Then I install inlays that are slightly proud of the surface, planing them flush after the glue dries. I cut the kumtko as before, but rather than forming them into a frame I simply saw four 12-in.-long strips with half-laps on the ends and glue them to the underside of the mitered top, leaving them slightly proud of the surface. Then, to provide a "lip" so I can pressfit the top onto the lamp, I install filler strips in the space between the kumiko. (See Fig. 3.) The strips are !!.! in. wide and roughly ~in. thick. Your goal is to make them fit flush with the kumiko. The strips also provide a gluing surface for the rice paper and prevent light from leaking along the inside edges of the top.

Wiring the Lamp The light fixture inside the lamp is attached to a ~-in. by 3-in. maple strip that stretches between the front and back lower rails. (See photo, above tight.) The strip is screwed to two rabbeted blocks, and the blocks are screwed and glued to the rails. You'll need to drill a hole in the center of the \4-in. strip to accept a threaded brass nipple that supports the socket. You

Papering the Lamp The paper I use for these lamps is regular shoji paper, which is made in Japan (available from Paper-YA, 9-10 1666 Jonston St., Granville Island, Vancouver, B.C. V6H 3S2, 604-6842531, or Hida Tool and Hardware Inc., 1333 San Pablo Ave. , Berkley, CA 94702, 510-524-3700). You can buy the paper plain or embellished with patterns, such as pi~ blossom or pine tree with clouds. Both types have a smooth and a rough side; for best light diffusion the smooth side of the paper should face the inside of the lamp. To install the paper·, cut pieces that are slightly oversize for your frame , then wipe the back of the kumiko with a damp, not wet, cloth and apply wallpaper paste or another starchbased adhesive. Make sure you clean any excess glue off the edges of the kumiko before applying the paper. Then align and press on the paper, working from the inside to outside edges and keeping it as taut as possible. Finally, very lightly mist the paper with water from a plant sprayer and set it aside for an hour or two. You should overlap adjoining edges by Y!6 in. so the seams don't show on the face. After the paper is dry, trim the edges with a razor blade. If the paper ever tears or turns yellow, you can remoisten the paste and lift it off. Then it's easy to clean up any old glue and repaper. This project can be a rewarding test of your skills, as the more precise you are the better the finished piece will look. When yours is done, tum off the other lights, pour a glass of wine and bask in the soft glow of light through rice paper. A ~ ~

~ ~ ~

~ ~



is a professional woodworker in Ontario, Canada. For the next /ew years{ k. will be studying design and woodworking in japan.




1993 41

Leaves up, this traditional table seats eight people comfortably. Leaves down, it can stow against a wall to save space.

~is Handsome

Drop-Lea/ Table is

Rt/or a Feast




W0 0 DW0 RK ER

VEST TABLE ast fall, when we decided to host Thanksgiving dinner at our house, I found the perfect excuse to build the dining room table I've always wanted. Because our dfuing room is small, the table had to be something I could easily fold up between meals. And I wanted a piece that would fit with the general Early-American style my wife and I like. I finally dedded to adapt a Shaker drop-leaf design to produce a table that would seat eight comfort-


ably, yet stand neatly against a wall when the leaves were down. This table features leaves with a classic rule joint and a traditional deep end drawer that I modified to incorporate a small secret compartment. (See Fig. 1.) You could alter my design to make a table that seats only six; however, I'd advise against narrowing the ends, or you might have trouble fitting a chair between the legs. Harvest tables were often made of cherry, maple or even pine, but I made

mine out of walnut primarily because that' s what I had in the basement. Also, my stock was mostly S/4, but I've adjusted the Bill of Materials so the table can be made from 4/4 lumber.

Making the Legs and Aprons Begin construction by thicknessing the stock for the legs, drawer rails and aprons, and cutting them to length. Then you can start the leg joints. As the drawing shows, the legs at either side of the drawer have twin mortises for the bottom drawer rails and dovetail mortises for the top. To make the dovetail mortises, use the router table and a l-in. dovetail bit¡ raised ~ in. above the table. Set the fence to center the cut on the end of the leg, then rout the mortise, making sure you cut just ~ in. down the face of the leg. If you cut too far the bottom of the mortise will show when the drawer is removed. With the router set at the same height, rout the dovetailed tenon on the top drawer rail by running each rail end vertically over the bit. (See photo.) The rail could kick back if fed between the bit and the fence, so for safety you shou~d bury the bit in an auxiliary fence and use a backup block to keep the piece vertical. Also, to reduce the chance of tear-out, you'll want to make the cut in several shallow passes, moving the fence a little each time until you have a perfect fit. When you've finished the cuts, chisel the bottom corners of each dovetail tenon to fit the rounded bottom of the mortise. For convenience, I made the mortises for the twin tenons ~ in. deep as well. That way, the top and bottom rails would be the same length. You can cut these mortises on the drill press by using a fence clamped to the table to aUgn the work and making lines of overlapping holes. Then clean up the sides and comers with chisels. Rather than bothering with complicated machine settings, I cut the matching twin tenons with a dovetail saw and chisel. You can use the drill press to rough out the six apron mortises, which are all 1 in. deep. Now taper the two inside faces of each leg. I used the tablesaw and the variable taper jig described in AW #3, July/August 1988. (See photo, right.)

Next cut the tenons on the aprons by using a straight bit in the router and a fence clamped to the work. (See photo, page 46.) I used a handsaw to trim the narrow shoulders on the edges of each apron tenon. You'll want to attach the top to the aprons in a way that allows it to expand and contract with changes in humidity. I used a center brace and corner braces that screw to the top and glue in a !1.1-in.-wide by %-in.-deep groove along the inside edge of the aprons . (See Fig. 1.) This groove should be routed !!.! in. from the top of each apron and should stop before reaching the tenons. When extended, the table leaves are supported by pivoting turnouts that are let into the table aprons. (See Fig. 1.) I cut these ;urnouts in several steps, first crosscutting the notches in the aprons with a handsaw, then using a jig saw to rip the notches to length. Finally, I cleaned the surface with a flush-trimming bit in the router. To guide the bit's, I clamped a straightedge along my scribe line. I cleaned up the angled comers with a chisel, filed the fingerpulls in the notches and screwed the turnouts to the apron as shown in the drawing. Don't attempt to glue up something as big as this table all at once. First, glue up the two narrow ends of the table frame, making sure everything is square, and let them dry overnight. Then glue the long aprons to the ends, remembering to add the middle cross

support before clamping. To clamp the nearly 6-ft. span along the table's long sides, I used threaded connectors and extra pipe to extend my pipe clamps. (See photo, page 47.) After the clamps come off, you can add dowel pins to lock the tenons into the mortises. (See Fig. 1.) The comer braces further strengthen the frame and are easy to make. (See Fig. 2.)

Making and Hinging the Top The tabletop overhangs the frame about 3 in. on each end and at least 1 !-i6 in. on each side. Check this last dimension-carefully-it ensures that the leaves hang properly. You'll want :~o carefully choose the color and grain of the wood for the top, keeping in mind how the table will look with the leaves open. Also, for the leaves to hinge smoothly, the stock must be perfectly flat and straight. Assembling the top and leaves is straightforward. The only complex part is precisely fitting the rule joint (so called because it resembles the brass knuckle joint found on folding wooden rules). When the leaf is down, this joint conceals the hinges, and prevents an unsightly gap between the leaves and top. When the leaf is up, the rule joint helps support the leafs weight. To make the joint, first use a !.-2-in. round-over bit, fitted with a pilot bearing, and rout the edge of the tabletop. Leave an !.-8-in. shoulder. (Before removing the bit, rout a piece of scrap to the same profile to use as a sanding block

To avoid kickback while routing the top drawer rail, the author buried the: router bit in an auxiliary fence (above), and used a backup block to keep the rail steady. At right, both inside faces of the legs are tapered using a shop-made adjustable-angle jig. J A NU A RY

.A F E B R U A R Y

1 9 9 3. 43


1 Note: All parts 1¥ls in. thick unless otherwise noted.

Recess screw and washer in slotted hole so drawer


wmcle.t\ QOVETAIL MORTISE 1 W. X 3f4 D.


DADO 11.2 W. X 7!16 D.

Cut ¥4-W. by Sfl&·D. groove for drawer bottom in all four sides. Rout 3f4·W. by %-D. groove for drawer runners.





Peg tenons for added strength.

Bll..L OF MATERALS (dimensions include tenons)


PART Legs Long Aprons Short Apron Drawer Rails Center Support Turnouts Tabletop Table Leaves Drawer Front and Back Drawer Sides Plywood Drawer Bottom Drawer Compartment Divider Drawer Runners



4 2 1 2 1 4 1 2 2 2

1 13/t6 X 1 13/t6 X 29lf4 13/t6 X S X 68lf4 13/16 X 5 X 191fz 13ft6. X 113/t6 X 19 1 '%6x4x20 11 fi6 X 2 X 19lf2 13/t6 X 22lf2 X 75% 1o/t6 X 10lf4 X 7S 3/4 13/t6 X 3lf4 X 17% 13/t6 X 3lf4 X 23%


1/4 X

1 2

lfz X 29ft6 X 16Sfs %. X 1lf4 X 321/z*

161/4 X 227/s

*{includes extra length for fitting) ----




1993 45


ape ~-in. tongue on edges of ~-in. plywood square.


for the mating edge.) Then use a block plane to round over the bottom edge of the tabletop to provide clearance for the folding table leaf. Next rout a matching cove on the edge of the leaf, frrst testing the cut on a piece of scrap the same thickness as the leaf to ensure a perfect match. (Again, save the scrap for sanding.) You'll need to use special rule joint hinges (available from Woodcraft, Box 1686, Parkersburg, WV 26102, 800225-1153) to make the drop leaves work properly. You may also find these hinges at local hardware stores and lumberyards (Stanley lists them as "drop-leaf hinges"). While the geome-

try may vary somewhat from one brand of hinge to another, one leaf of the hinge is always longer, so the hinge knuckle can be set back from the table edge. (See photo, opposite page.) The hinge pins must be located beneath th~ shoulder of the roundover, but offset !12 in. toward the edge of the table. (See sidebar.) Carefully scribe the hing_e pin locations, three per leaf, remembering to keep the hinges out, of the path of the turnouts. Next, set 'the top and leaves upside down on the workbench with the hinge pins exactly over their marks and scribe the hinge mortises. You will have to rout or chisel the leaf mortises

Rout the apron tenons with a straight hit and a right-angle fence clamped to the work. 46



and a secondary channel to accommodate both the leaf mortises and each protruding hinge knuckle. (See sidebar.) The depth of the mortises depends on the hinge design and the thickness of the stock. Set the hinges and check the action. If any spots rub, adjust the fit with a block plane or sandpaper. You want the leaf tight when it's up, but if it rubs now, it will really rub when the ftnish goes on.

The Drawer The drawer for my table is held together with simple half-blind dovetails and has a plywood bottom. (See AW #23 and #24. for information on drawer design and construction.) I decided to give the drawer a little flair by adding a "secret" pocket behind a false back. This is easy to make. Just dado a false drawer back into the sides, about 3 in. from the real back of the drawer. (See Fig. 1.) Since the drawer is so long, no one will suspect anything unusual when the turn-but¡ ton stop limits its travel to 20 in. I hung my drawer on runners screwed to the aprons since another way of hangiilg drawers coiild have interfered with the turnouts. Doing this means you'll have to rout a %-in.wide by %-in.-deep groove down the middle of each side of the finished drawer. Stop the groove 1!.-2 in. before the front edge of the drawer. The runners' final dimensions are % by 1 ~ by 24!.-2, but the Bill of Materials shows them 8 in. longer than this to aid in positioning them. To fit them in place, put the drawer in the apron opening and clamp some temporary strips under the drawer to hold it

The author used threaded connectors to extend his pipe clamps for long work.


steady. Then slide the over-long runners in from behind and mark their location on the aprons. The extra length allows you to hold the runners in position while removing the drawer and completing the marking. Once they' re marked, you can round the front edges to ease the entry of the drawer, trim the runners to length and screw them to the aprons with countersunk screws. Your runners should be long enough that you can attach a small block at the ends as drawer stops. You may have to plane the runners to get a good sliding fit. In any case, be sure to wax them and the channels. Because my table would be exposed to heavy use and liquids, I finished it

with Waterlox (available from Woodworker' s Supply, 1108 North Glenn Rd., Casper, WY 82601 , 800645-9292), which produces a hard and water-resistant coating. Then for a final crisp accent against the dark walnut, I chose a brass drawer pull, though the Shakers would have probably turned a wooden knob instead. A



is a professional photographer and amateur woodworker in Pennsylvania.

hen installing rul e joint hinges it's important to pre-

possible tO the horizontal centerlin e of the joint, regardless of dle thick-

cisely locate rhem ; other-

ness of the hinge leaves and stock.

wise. the joint may bind or look sloppy. In the "ideal " situation (A), you would set each hinge intO the tabletop so irs pivot point was exactly on the center of the joim. The leaf would be tight against the round-over throughout its travel and present no gap w hen down . However, in the real world , such a joint wouJd bind becaust: of wood movement and the thickness of the finish Craftsmen long ago found it's best to offset the hinge pin Y.n in. or so from t he center of the joim, so it 's closer to d1e edge of the tabletop. Tl1is causes the leaf to swing on an offset path (B) with two desirable results: First, as d1e leaf drops, clearance in d1e joint gradually increases to an amount equal to the offset. econd, the offset w ill increase the amount by which the

Leaf tip overlaps d1e round-over, which helps cover d1e hinge mortises. The last consideration is the depth of the mortise for the hinge leaves. You might be tempted to set them flush w id1 the bottom of the table and the leaf. However, the correct location places the hinge pin as close as

To set your hinges, first find ilie center point of the rule joint. For a matched pair of \1-in. rotmd-over and cove bits, tl1is point will be ~ in. below the shoulder line and ~ in. back from tl1e edge of d1e tabletop. Now scribe a line mar is offseL l1z in. from dle center and rout the pocket for the hinge knuckJe so the pin is centered on ilie line. Next set th e hinge knuckle in its pocket, scribe around dle hinge leaves, and set your router depth so d1e hinge pin wiiJ end up as close as possible to dle horizontal centerline of d1e joinL If d1e 11inge is set too deep, the joint will bind and you will have to sl1im d1e hinges up higher. However. if the l1inge is set Loo shallow (C), you will have an excessive gap when dle leaf is down and you will Lose some of the overlap.-M.M.




O n •·ule j o int hinges, o ne leaf i always lo nger, so tbe hinge kuuckJe can be set back f1·om the table edge.

11J2·in. -~r-~ ClEARANCE


With hinge pin directly on center point, binding is likely if wood expands.


Offsetting hinge pin produces horizontal clearance and additional vertical overtap.

lh2-in. ADOfTlONAl OVERlAP


Locating hinge pin too far below center point Increases gap when leaf is down and reduces overtap.

GRINDERS FOR SHARPENING hen an edge gets nicked or a bevel needs reshaping, a touch on the grinder sets things right in a hurry. Too much of a hurry someti,mes. Things happen so fast that it's easy to mess up an edge if you don't pay attention. This is especially true with a typical high-speed bench grinder. High-speed bench grinders aren't the best choice for sharpening delicate carbon-steel edge tools like plane irons, chisels and carving tools. Their dry, high-speed wheels grind so hot that it's easy to burn the edge. Fortunately, there are gentler grinders designetl specifically for




Systems That Won't Burn.

Your Tools

sharpening edge tools. Some are just low-speed bench grinders. Others feature water-<.:ooled wheels that m~e it virtually impossible to overheat the edge. SOme grinders use abrasive belts that grind a little cooler than a highspeed wheel. There are also hand grinders and a couple of hybrid machines that combine two types of grinders in a single machine. For this article, I rounded up one or more grinders from each basic type. I tried them out in my shop and sharpened every woodworking tool I could find . In wasting all that steel, I formed some defmite opinions about the pluses and drawbacks of each basic type. You may not agree with my conclusions (sharpening is, after all , a very subjective art) but my observations should help you decide which type of grinder best suits your sharpening needs.

Bench Grinders





wa,tet'-Câ&#x20AC;˘()Oiled grinders produce a flat bevel and a superior edge. Counterclockwise from rear: the Makita comes with a jig for grinding planer and jointer knives., an option on the Matsunaga grinder, Woodcraft's combo has a high-speed wheel for rough grinding, the Rakuda sports a sheet-steel housing instead of plastic. ¡ 48


W 0 0 D W o" R K E R

Bench grinders are great for all-purpose metal grinding as well as some sharpening tasks. I use my bench grinder for sharpening high-speed steel turning tools as well as screwdrivers, center punches, cold chisels, lawn mower blades and the like. I don ' t risk my best blades on the bench grin~er but I do grind my other woodworking tools. The trick is to keep the edge from getting hot-no small feat. I grind in light, quick, decisive passes and dip the tool in water after every pass. That's important, even with high-speed steel. Highspeed s teel can tolerate more heat than a carbon-steel tool but you still

<lf l

3820 RPM



WHEEL WIDnl ~ n a dry bench grinder, the type 6X1X1 of wheel you use KEY TO GRINDING 8A80-H8VBE is nearly as important as WHERCODES WHEn DIAMETER your grinding technique for keeping the edge coot. The gray silicon<arbide wheels that Indicates abrasive type: come standard on most bench A=aluminum oxide, Indicates bond C=silicon carbide grinders are fine for grinding mild type: V=vitrified steel but d1ey're too hard and dense Indicates denseness for tempered edge tools-mey grind Indicates coarseness of structure: 5 (denser, too hot. Aluminum-oxide wheels are a of grit: 60, 80, 100, etc. grinds hotter) through 8 better choice for grinding tool steel. (less dense, grinds cooler) Aluminum-oxide wheels come in many Indicates hardness of bond: different grits, hardnesses and densities. A soft H (softer) through K (harder) wheel with an open grain structure gives the coolest grind. Grinding wheels are marked with a code that teUs you all you need to know about d1e abrasive, grit, hardness, structure (density) and bond type. Aluminum-oxide wheels can be gray, white or pink in color. The white ard pink wheels are more "friable" man the gray w heels-mat is, me abrasive grains fracture more readily. This results in a cooler grind. It also means the w heel will wear down more quickly, but mat's a small price to pay for staying cooi.-D.S.


can bum the edge if you aren't careful. I keep two white, aluminum-oxide wheels on my grinder. Both are soft "H" grade wheel grinders. (See sidebar, above.) For light finish grinding I like a 100-grit wheel. For coarser grinding and sharpening lathe tools I use an SOgrit wheel. Most high-speed grinders barrel along at 3450 rpm-faster than you need for sharpening. Highland Hardware and Garrett Wade sell an 1800 rpm~ald.or bench grinder ·that goes slow and easy by comparison. It's built like a tank and has nice tool rests. Fitted out with a couple of aluminumoxide wheels, you can't find a coolerrunning dry-wheel grinder. Delta makes a 1720 rpm grinder but the rim speed of its 10-in.-dia. wheels is 60 percent faster than the Baldor. One final advantage to owning a bench grinder: If you like to buff your edge tools instead of hone them you can mount a felt , leather or rubber buffing wheel on one side of your grinder. Always buff with the wheel rotating away from the edge-just the opposite of the way you grind. · While I'm on the subject of safetynever run a grinder without the guards in place. Cracked or defective wheels can shatter and cause serious injury-


even deaili. I always let my grinder run for half a minute before standing in the line of fire. Hand Grinders-Hand grinders aren't as popular as they were years ago but they still have their devotees. Chief among them is James Krenov, noted furoituremaker, author and teacher at dle College of the Redwoods in Fort Bragg, California. Garrett Wade is dle only mail-order company I could find that still carries a hand grinder in their catalog. While the slow-spinning wheel doesn't generate much heat, I found the tiny tool rest inadequate for supporting the tool with one hand while I cranked with the other. In his excellent book, The Fine Art of Cabinetmaking (1977, reprinted in 1992 by Sterling Publishing Co. Inc., 387 Park Ave. S., New York, NY 10016), Krenov shows how to make a wooden tool rest that supports the tool well enough that you can control it wiili one hand.

Water-Cooled Grinders If the tool edge stays wet, it can't overheat. It's as simple as that. Watercooled grinders fall into two basic types: those with a vertical wheel that turns in a water-filled trough and those with a horizontal wheel and an over-

Most bench grinders run at 3450 rpm-faster than you want for grinding edge tools. This Baldor grinder from Highland Hardware turns at a leisurely 1800 rpm so it grinds a lot cooler than a high-speed machine.

head reservoir that drips water down onto the stone. The abrasives, too, are different. The vertical wheels are usually medium-grit aluminum oxide. The horizontal wheels are made from the same fine reddish-brown abrasive as a 1,000-grit}apa.nese water stone. Either type of water<ooled grinder will do a good job without any risk of burning the edge. The vertical wheels produce a hollow-ground bevel which some people prefer because it's faster to hone. The horizontal wheels produce a flat bevel which some people like because it's stronger than a hollow-ground bevel.



Combination grinders like this one from Grizzly (left) have both a watercooled wheel for imish work and a high-speed wheel for rough grinding. Available later this year, the pricey Tormek SuperGrind 2000 (right) has a water-cooled grinding wheel and a leather buffing wheel for honing. Optional jigs sharpen everyt.hing from planer knives to scissors.

Horizontal GrindersMost of these grinders are made in Japan, where tra~itionally a flat bevel is preferred for plane irons and chisels. The slowspinning, water-cooled wheel produces a highly polished bevel, just like a regular Japanese water stone. All four grinders I tried were fitted with a 1,000-grit wheel. Coarser and finer wheels are sold as accessbries as are steel lapping plates for flattening the backs of blades. I've been sharpening on water stones for rears so I immediate_ly felt right at home with the cool, slippery slurry these stones produced. Mastering these grinders, however, took a little practice. The tool rest on the grinders I tried is simply a flat metal bar above the wheel. You adjust the rest to the bevel angle you want and support the tool on the rest. Sounds pretty easy but I found it difficult, at first , to keep the bevel flat and the cutting edge square. I'd grind for a few seconds then pick up the to.ol to check my progress. When I put the tool back on the stone, I could never get the bevel angle exactly the same. Result? A faceted beVel. After an hour or so, I finally got the hang of it. I learned to grip the tool fumly and use the index finger of my gripping hand as a fulcrum against the 50



Abrasive belt grinders dissipate heat quickly so you're less likely to burn an edge. Shown here is Delta's l-in. grinder (right) and a combination grjnder from AMT (left).

back of the tool rest to pivot the bevel down onto the wheel. As long as I didn't shift my grip on the tool, I could repeat the same angle again and again. I even tried grinding tools freehand, without the rest, and found that that worked pretty well. I could get my fingers right near the edge for really good control on small tools. Aside from their gentleness, the thing I like best about the horizontal grinders is that the edge they produce is so highly polished. With practice, I was able to go straight from the grinder to my 6,000-grit water stone. Every other type of grinder I tried required some work on my 1,000-grit water stone first. The four grinders I tried were all very similar and frankly, I couldn't find any difference in the way they per-

formed except that the Woodcraft combination grinder had a bump in the stone. The Makita Blade Sharpener, however, comes with a jig for grinding planer and jointer knives-a really big plus in my book. A similar jig is available as an option for the Matsunaga grinder from Garrett Wade and Woodcraft. Drawbacks? Not many. You have to keep refilling the water reservoir. The stones are soft and wear quickly, especially if you sharpen lots of narrow chisels or carving tools. The stones are easy to reflatten by holding a coarse diamond stone or silicon carbide stone on the spinning wheel. You can also rub the wheel on a wet concrete floor with some silicon carbide powder or sand. The standard 1,000-grit stones aren't designed for rough grinding. If you want more versatility, you can buy a coarser wheel for rough work or check out Woodcraft' s hybrid machine. It has both a dry, high-speed wheel for rough grinding and a horizontal water stone for fine work. (See photo, page 48.) Vertical Grinders- This type of water-cooled grinder is great for all sharpening tasks: plane irons, chisels, drill bits, lathe tools, carving tools, knives-you name it. The slow-running aluminum-oxide or silicon-carbide wheels are hard enough that they don' t wear quickly and they can be dressed with a wheel dresser if they get out of shape. The most common vertical, watercooled grinder is a Taiwan-produced hybrid. It sports two grinding wheels that run off the same motor: a 10-in.dia. slow-speed, water-cooled aluminum-oxide wheel and a small, highspeed dry wheel. That big watercooled wheel is a dream. Similar. (but not identical) machines are imported by Delta, Grizzly, Trendlines and a few other companies. One water-cooled grinder I've had my eye on for a while is the Tormek SuperGrind 2000, a "sharpening system" I've seen advertised in some of the British woodworking magazines. Made in Sweden, the Tormek isn't yet available in North America, but since Tormek expects to enter the North American market in mid-1993, we borrowed one to try out in our shop.

SOURCES To rc:-qucst inforynalion. circle alllllbt:r on product inform.1lion fom1.

grit aluminum-oxide belt). They're especially handy for sharpening lathe tools. No abrasive belt grinder that I know of can produce a shallow hollow-ground bevel like the Mark II could, but any belt grinder makes a decent flat bevel. I tried out the Delta l-in. belt grinder' (Model 31-050) and a 2-in.wide belt/wheel combination machine from AMT. The Delta was handy for sharpening carving tools and lathe tools but it wouldn't be my first choice for plane irons and chisels. The AMT grinder is a little more versatile but the flimsy plastic guard on the grinding wheel wouldn't last a week in my shop. Its belt grinder works in two positions, vertical or horizontal-a handy feature. Delta makes a similar belt/wheel combination machine (Model 23-675) with better fit and finish.


TRENDLINES, 375 Beacham St., Chelsea, MA 02150, (800) 767-9999.



Low-speed bench grinder are available from Baldor and Delta dealers and by mail from: ~ GARRE1T WADE CO., 16 1 Ave. of t h e Ame ri cas, New Yor k, NY 100 13, (800) 221-2942. CIRCLE-Gil ~ ffiGm.AND HARDWARE, 1045 N. Hig hl a n d Ave., Atlanta , GA 30306, (800) 24 1~748. ORCLE•612 ~ TARHEEL FILING CO. INC., 3400 Lake Woodard Dr., Ralt:igh , NC 27604 , (800) 3 22-664 l. O RCLE-6 15


TOOL CRIB OF THE NORTH, Box 1716, Grand Forks, ND 58206, (800) 358-3096. CIRCLE ..6 16

Abrasive belt grinders are available from Delta dealers and by mail from: ~ AMT, Fourth Avenue and pring Street , Royersford, PA 19468,(800) 435-3279. CIRCLEc621 ~ TARHEEL FILING CO., (800)

322-664 1. ClRCLE -6 15 TOOL CRIB OF THE NORTH. (800) 358-3096. ORCLE-616


Horizontal water-cooled grinders are available by maiJ from: ~ GARRETT WADE CO . , (800) 221-2942. CIRCLE-Gil ~ ffiGHI.AND HARDWARE, (800)

WOODC RAFT SUPPLY CO ., 210 Wood County Industrial Park, Box 1686, Parkersburg, WV 26102, (800) 225-1153. Ult<.LE-611

White aluminum-oxide grinding wheels are available by mail from: ~ GARRETT WADE CO . , (800) 221-2942. URUE•611 ~ GRIZZLY IMPORTS INC., Hox 2069 Bellingh;un , WA 98227, (800) 541-5537. CJRU.Ea6 19 ~ lflGHI.AND HARDWARE, (800) 241~748. CJRCLE•6 12 ~

LEEVALLEYTOOLSLTD., 1080 Monison Dr., Ottawa, Ont~uio K2H 8K7, (6 13) 596-0350. <.:LR<.:i.E-615 ~ MSC INDUSTRIAL SUPPLY CO., 15 1 Sunnyside Blvd., Plainview, NY 11803, (800) 888-7270. URCJ.E•62U

Summing Up

Combination wet/dry grindt:rs are avajJable from Delta dealers and by maiJ from :

AMT, (800) 435·3279. CIRUEa6l l


GRIZZLY IMPORTS INC., (800) 541-5537. CIRCL.E4'619 ~ TARHEEL FILING CO. , (800) 322-664l. CIRCLE#() 15 ~ TOOL CRIB OF THE NORTH, (800) 358-3096. CIR<.;LE4'616 ~ WOODCRAFT SUPPLY CO. , (800) 225-1153. CIRCLE-<\14

24 1 ~748. CIRCI.E-612 ~

THE J APAN WOODWORKER, 173 1 Clement Ave. , Alameda, CA 94501 , (800) 537-7820. CIRO.E-61"

The Tormek grinder features a slow-speed, water-cooled, 250mm-<lia. ( 10 in.) aluminum-oxide wheel on one side and a leather buffing wheel on the other for honing off the wire edge from the grinder. A host of clever sharpening jigs and accessories (most of them optional) let you sharpen nearly any edge tool including planer knives, scissors and lathe tools. The Tormek SuperGrind 2000 will sell for around $400 in the United States . A lower-priced model, the SuperGrind 1200 has the same features as the 2000, but with smaller wheels and a housing made of ABS

For informa t ion about tbt: Tormek SuperG ri nd 2000, CIRCLE -622.

plastic instead of steel. It will sell for around $225.

Abrasive Belt Grinders Abrasive belt grinders dissipate heat quickly so you're a little less likely to burn the edge on your tools. The best belt sharpening system I ever used was the Woodcraft Mark ll which is, unfortunately, no longer made. Maybe Woodcraft will bring it back someday-it was an exceUent machine. The belt grinders that' are on the market today are general-purpose sander/grinders that can do double duty for sharpening tools (I use a 60-

Choosing a grinder is more a matter of habit and preference than anything else. You can sharpen your tools just fine on any of the grinders mentioned, but here are some factors to consider. If versatility is important, check out one of the low-speed bench grinders or a combination machine with a wet wheel and a high-speed wheel. If money's no object, you might also consider the Tormek when it comes on the market later this year. It ' s an expensive machine but if you add all the optional accessories, it's the most versatile sharpening system around. The horizontal water stones are more specialized. They produce a truly superior edge, but they aren't very handy for all-purpose grinding. Any one of these grinders will do the job fine but I prefer the Makita Blade Sharpener. It's priced right (around $220) and it comes standard with a jig for sharpening planer and jointer knives up to 16 in. long. ..&. ~

~ ~ ~ ~

~ ~


5 L 0 AN

is editor and publisher o/AW.




You d on't need co stly equipment to take photos that will attract the atten tion of contest judges. With an inexpensive camer a and some very basic lights you can produce sharp photos like the one at right in a setting as simple as a garage (above).

You Don ~Have to be an Expert to Take Pro/essional-Quality Shots

PHOTOGRAPHING ~YoUR WoRK'!!!!!!!!!!!!!! BY MITCH MANDEL have a friend named Rick who's a top-flight cabinetmaker. His joinery is tight and he's got a good sense of design. What he doesn't know is how to photograph his work when it's done. Invariably, Rick's photos look like a) he sneezed at the exact moment he snapped the picture, b) he shot the piece inside a dark cave, or c) the electric cords and wall hangings in his house lie in wait, ready to jump into





the photo frame as he takes each shot. In truth, Rick ends up with poor photos because he doesn' t take the time to plan them. Like many woodworkers, he doesn't realize he needs to give the same amount of thought and consideration to his photos as he does to the furniture he builds. The Importance of Good Photos High-quality photographs may not

seem that important, but they're essential if you want to enter your work and design ideas in contests or submit them to galleries, juried shows and magazines. Few magazines will publish a poor-quality photo. And all other things being equal, the better-photographed piece will always be the one that wins the prize. For professional woodworkers, good photo portfolios are even more important . They' re

investments that will pay off in new commissions. Fortunately, you needn't be a professional photographer or have thousands of doUars worth of cameras and lenses to do your work justice. You can produce good photos with simple equipment if you gain an understanding of some basic photographic principles and plan properly.

The background blUJ'8 when you shoot a photo with the aperture set wide (low "F'' number).

Basic Equipment At the bean of every good photo is a good camera. It doesn't have to be expensive or have all the bells and whistles the new electronic models have, but it should be a 35mm SLR (single lens reflex). And you must be able to manually adjust the focus, shutter speed and apenure. What focus and shutter speed control is self-evident, but not everyone understands how aperture works. Aperture is the opening in the lens diaphragm through which light passes before it strikes the film. The size of the opening is indicated by "F" numbers, and the higher the number, like Fl6 or F22, the smaller the opening. Apenure is important for two reasons: It lets you control the amount of light for correct exposures and it controls your depth-of-field, or the portion of the photo that is sharply in focus . (See photos, A small apenure will produce a better depthof-field than a larger one, but since it lets in less light it will take longer to correctly expose the film. It may take four or five seconds to get a correct exposure at Fl6, for example. But this isn' t a problem if you mount your camera on a tripod. As a rule, shoot with a small aperture (high number), even if it means using a slow shutter speed and a tripod. Your camera should also be able to accept a variety of lenses. For most applications either a standard 50mm lens, a macro, which allows you to kt:ep objects in focus even when the lens is very close to them, or a 35mm to 70mm zoom will work well as your basic lens. A moderate telephoto70mm to 105mm-is also useful because it lets you frame the picture so you can min.imize what is visible in the background. You will also want to buy a sturdy tripod to hold the camera.

Here, a small aperture setting (high "F'' number) produces an image where both the foreground and background are crisp.

This knockdown plywood light stand is a handy place to bang clamp

The Right Light Even more important than equipment is the quality of the light that goes into the camera to make the image. The best ~era in the world cannot correct inappropriate, shadowy or insufficient light. And if you're serious about producing high-quality photos of your work, you'll need more than a standard on-camera flash: This doesn't mean you need to spend a lot of money. For about $30 you can get three or four reflector utility lights at your local hardware store. You can even make light stands out of scrap plywood (see photo, right) and buy utility lights that have simple spring clamps so you can attach them anywhere on the stand. You'll want to be able to vary the intensity of your light, so I recommend getting bulbs in different wattages, such as 75 , 100, 150, 200 and 500. Make sure your fixtures are rated to accept higher wattage bulbs or you'll create a fire hazard. The type of bulb you use will also affect the photo. Most ordinary incandescent light bulbs have tungsten filaments, which produce a yellow-orange

lampe. The legs are held together with simple slip joints.

cast when photographed with a regular daylight balanced film like Kodak

Ektachrome 100. (See photo, next page.) There are two ways to overcome this problem. First, you can.use film that is specifically designed or "balanced" for tungsten lights, like Kodak Ektachrome 160 tungsten film. (Avoid using fluorescent lights with this film-they will turn the image green or other unpredictable colors as the photo on the next page shows.) Or rather than switching fihn, you can use an SOA or SOB filter over the lens when shooting daylight film with tungsten lights. These filters are blue and will






A bad match between film and light source can ruin a picture. This photo has a yellow-o r ange cast because the photographer used incan.descent bulbs with daylight balanced mm. The bluish tint in the photo above right shows how fluorescent lighting affects film designed for use with tungsten lights.

absorb, or filter out, the excess yellow. It's also possible to get photo flood bulbs that are balanced for daylight film. These look blue when they're off because the-f have a blue phosphor filter coated on the inside. They're easy to use because they complement natural daylight, window light and the light from electronic flash. These bulbs (available from photo SUJ> ply stores) are made by GTE-Sylvania. Model BCA is 250 watts and EBW is 500 watts.

SeHing the Scene

It's hard to get a good photo of a ,P,iece in its existing location. Here, !the photographer shot at a n odd an gle to scr een out some distract ions, but e l ectrica l wir'es, wall hangings and rugs still intrude into the frame. 54



Another item you might want to consider is a roll of white or light gray "seamless" background paper, so you can create a neutral setting and screen out distracting elements. (See photo, page 52 .) This is available at most art supply stores and comes in rolls of 107 in. by 3 yds. (about $35), 53 in. by 12 yds. ($20) , or 26 in. by 12 yds. ($11). It's easy to hang it behind the object you're photographing. Either run a long pole (electrical conduit works. well) through the roll, and support the pole on stands, or hang the pole from the ceiling or wall.

Once you've got your equipment and photo space in order, it's time to go to work. The first rule of thumb is simplify, simplify, simplify. If it's at all possible, place your subject on a seamless, neutral-colored background. This will allow the viewer to concentrate totally on your woodwork and give the photo a professional look. For smaller objects, a pressed, solidcolored bed sheet or other fabric can be acceptable (see photo, opposite page), provided the folds of the fabric are not distracting, but rather incorporate into the look of the photo. If your subject is too large or awkward to place on a seamless background, you'll need to create an appropriate setting. This is a bit more difficult, since you'll have to make sure the room decor, wall treatments and decorating accessories complement the subject. Again, keep your setting simple and neutral and remember to showcase the piece, not the room setting. Remove anything in the photo that could be unsightly or distracting. This could include electrical cords, radiators, wall outlets, picture frames, the base or legs of furniture in the background, or even harsh shadows.

Ughting the Subiect There are as many rules of thumb about lighting as there are photographers, and the type of lighting scheme you use may be different for every type of woodwork you shoot. One scheme you might try is to set up your shot by a bright w indow or doorway. While you want to avoid direct sunlight, diffused window light has a beautiful modeling quality that could work quite well as a main light source. You will, however, need .t9 lighten or "fill" the shadow side of the scene with another light. This secondary light should be about half as bright as your main light. Instead of shining the light directly on the subject, try shining it off a large white board plac.ed close to the subject. This produces a diffused light, with softer shadows. If you do use window light, which is daylight balanced, make sure your fill light is daylight balanced as well. A tungsten fill light will give half your photo a yellow cast. Another way you can provide

An inexpensive bed sheet can make a fine background for small objects (belpw). At left, the photographer · bounced light off the ceiling and a sheet of cardboard to reduce sh adows.

secondary light is to simply "bounce" some of the main light back onto the shadow side by placing a l:u:ge white piece of cardboard very close to the subject but ju st out of the photo frame. (See photo, right.) When taking advantage of natural daylight, you could use your electronic flash as a fill light. If your flash has the capability, aim it at the ceiling (if it's white), or "bounce" the light off a white board for a softer, more diffused effect. One thing you should never do is use the ilash as a main light by aiming it directly at the subject. This yields a harsh, flat look with sharp, unappeai~ ing shadows and glaring specular or pinpoint highlights. If you can't aim the flash at the ceiling or toward a "bounce board," simply tum down its power to a stop or two below the ambient light reading of the scene. For example, if the camera light meter reading on the scene is Y4 second at Fll, set the flash to expose a setting of 5.6. (This isn't possible on all flashes.) You still shoot the photo at ~ second at Fll , but you'll have "fooled" the flash to underexpose two stops. This is just enough to lighten the shadows. You could also tune out all other light sources and sole{r._ use tungsten lights (with tungsten film, of course). Again, it's best to soften the shadows from the floodlights by bouncing the

light off white walls, ceilings or sheets of poster board. Where you place the lights depends on the piece you're photographing. Make sure you get light onto the surfaces you want to highlight. As a starting point, your main light could be about 45° off camera, to the side. (See drawing.) If you ' re shooting in a garage, the light coming in from the I open doorway could work well. You could augment it with fill lights pl~ced on the other side of the object, and then place undiffused lights that are lower wattage than your fill lights above, or behind the subject. These w ill illuminate the seamless background·and cast light onto the subject. When you shoot, put the camera on a tripod and use a small aperture for maximum depth of field. Use a cable

Set subject at 45• to main light source.





' I


<---- --

• - - r - -,- - - - - - --- I


Natural light reflects off white "bounce board" t o illuminate shadow side of subject.






release since your shutter speeds could be as slow as several seconds, and triggering the shutter with your hand on the camera could shake the lens. Also, use a lens shade to keep light flare out of the lens. You'll need to "bracket" your shots, shooting one F-stop up and one F-stop down from what you think the correct exposure should be. Bracketing will give you a better chance of getting a good photo even if your camera is misreading the light. Some final advice: ] ust as in woodworking, developing the skill to do photography well takes t~me and experimentation. You'll have to try different lighting set-ups and types of film to see which o ne works best for you. I recommend you start with a medium speed daylight balanced film such as Kodak Ektachrome 100. (It's best to use slide film since most magazines and publications prefer slides. You can al~ays get good quality prints made from slides afterward.) Most importantly, when you're starting out, keep a record of the camera settings, lighting and film you use for each shot. That way you'll be able to duplicate your successes and cut down on your failures. .A



is senior photographer /or Roda/e Press in Pennsylvania and an amateur woodworker. JANUARY



1993 55





A Pro Turner 7lps /or Getting an Edge on Gouges, Chisels and Scrapers 56



very turner you talk to has his own pet system for sharpening lathe chisels. With so many viable methods to choose from, it's easy to get confused when you're learning. 'This article is an effort to simplify the mystery; to help you get your tools sharpened quickly so you can get back to the lathe. The goal in sharpening is to create an edge suitable for cutting wood on the lathe. Turning creates a lot of friction (read heat) so an edge on a lathe tool is a temporary thing at best. The edge dulls so quickly that meticulous honing is overkill (skews are an exception). You want to produce a workable edge as quickly as possible.


The Steel Makes a Difference


Before buying any sharpening equipment, take a look at youri!J turning chisels. If they are high-speed steel (and they usually will~ say it somewhere on the tool if they are) or one of the exotic hard~

Generally speaking, gouges and skews are cutting tools. Their cutting edge is controlled by resting the bevel of the tool on the turning with the cutting edge tangent to the work surface. The bevel and the angle it maintains to the edge is an important part of the tools' function. Think of the bevel as the sole of a block plane. Change the bevel angle, and you change the cut. Scrapers cut with a wire edge on

steels like M2, D2 or A-ll you have an advantage. High-speed steel (HSS) can be ground hotter than carbon steel without losing its temper, so it's possible to sharpen with a standard, highspeed bench grinder. Remember though, you can still bum the edge of a HSS tool if you aren't careful. If your tools are not HSS, you have fewer choices in sharpening equip,m ent. It's easy to bum the edge of a carbon-steel chisel. For these tools, I suggest using an abrasive belt system and/or a wet wheel. If you must use a bench grinder, keep a light touch, remove material gradually, and keep a water can handy to cool the tool frequently. If the steel at the cutting edge turns blue, you've ruined it and you'll have to remove a lot of metal to get back to hard steel. Be careful. Most of my chisels are HSS, so my primary sharpening station is a highspeed bench grinder. On one end of the arbor I keep an 80-grit carborundum wheel. On the other end, I keep a cotton buffing wheel loaded with white (stainless steel) buffing compound (a leather wheel works as well). Except for the skews, which I sharpen on a wet wheel, all my chisels get their serious treatment here. I have another grinder with a 120-grit aluminum oxide wheel which pn~duces a finer edge than the 80-grit wheel (it also grinds hotter). If I could have only one dry wheel for sharpening, I'd choose the 120-grit aluminum oxide wheel. Grinding wheels become clogged by particles of steel. When this happens, they cut poorly and run bot. A stone dresser, either diamond or mechanical, is a necessary part of the grinder bench.

the top of the tool. (See drawing.) The bevel angle is less important because the bevel doesn't control the cut. While I'm on the subject of bevel angles: Don't assume that the factoryground angles on a chisel are necessarily the correct ones. They are often far from the best. In this article, I'll give a range of bevel angles for each tool instead of a specific degree. Experiment to find what works best for you.




Grind comers back so they don't catch.

Bevels should meet at approximately so•. so•approx.

Grind bowl gouge bevels between 35°-40°.


Grind spindle gouge bevels between "'




Different Functions, Different Grinds Lathe chisels have specific functions. This means that almost every type of chisel has a different proftle and is sharpened a little differently. (I hear the cries of dismay already. Wait, it gets worse.) Each tool can also perform several different functions depending upon how it's sharpened. 1 · Thus, each chisel can have several different "correct" sharpening angles or proftles. No single one is right, they just work differently.


Bevels should meet at so·- 60° angle. Bevels can either be hollow ground or flat.

Scraper edge contacts wort sligfrtly below center. (




+ --+ I




In the following section, I'll explain how to grind the popular profiles for each type of tool. Jbink of these methods as starting points for your own experimentation. Some of you perfectionists may find my sharpening methods down and dirty because I don' t spend long hours working on the "perfect edge." I strive for function, not perfection.Iliketoturn, notsharpen.

Gouges Gouges can be divided into two broad categories: spindle gouges and bowl gouges. (See drawing, previous

page.) They are different tools requiring different grinds but the sharpening technique is the same. Spindle Gouges-Spindle gouges are shallow, and can be sharpened to a fairly acute angle, since they aren't used for interior work. I grind my spindle gouges to an angle of about 30°-35°. I use two basic configurations for spindle gouges. For roughing out and doing straight-line work like cylinders and tapers, I prefer a straightacross, or square-ground shape. (See drawing.) For concave and convex shapes like beads and coves I prefer a

It's easiest for beginners to grind each half of a 6ngernail profile separately. Starting in the midpoint (top left), roll the gouge to the right, swinging the handle to the right as you roll the tool (top right).

To grind the other side, switch hands start at again Roll the gouge to the left, swinging the handle to the left, as you roll. 58



"fingernail" grind, so called because of its shape. (See drawing.) This profile has a longer, tapered point, with the shoulders ground back to keep them out of the cut. These two profiles-square ground and fmgemail-are the extreme limits of the shapes of spindle gouges. Usable configurations can be anything in between, but the angle of the bevel should stay in that 30°-35° range. Bowl Gouges-Bowl gouges, also called deep flute gouges, are used for hollowing out the insides of bowls and hollow vessels. (See drawing.) They are almost universally sharpened to a modified fingernail configuration with a bevel angle of about 35°40°. This profile allows the turner to use the edge and bevel without easily catching a comer of the gouge on the bowl wall. You may see some turners who grind their bowl gouges straight across and use the corners of the edge, but they are a skilled minority. I don't recommend this approach for bowl gouges. To sharpen a gouge, I approach the wheel as though it were a turning. I use the grinder's rest like a lathe tool rest and lightly bring the heel (rear edge) of the bevel into contact with the wheel. Once 1 am satisfied that I have the proper angle (the ~e angle as the bevel) I raise the handle slightly to bring the entire bevel into contact with the wheel. You should be able to see some small sparks at the very cutting edge of the tool, which means you're grinding at the edge. If you have trouble holding the angle freehand, set the tool rest to the angle you want and hold the tool flat on the rest to maintain the angle. It may help to fit a wider tool rest to your grinder if you u~ this approach._. If you're a beginner, it's easiest to sharpen each half of the bevel separately. (See photos, left.) Starting in the midpoint of the edge, roll the gouge to the right while maintaining both the proper angle and light contact. For a square-ground gouge, you only need to roll the tool to grind a smooth curve from the tip to the right-hand shoulder. For a fingernail profile, you need to swing the handle to the right as you roll the tool. Cool the edge and check the grind. If you're satisfied with the result, grind

Buff'~g (left) is the quickest way to remove the wire edge produced by grinding. Author uses a felt wheel charged with white b u ffing compound. Buff lightly on the bottom side of the wheel with the rotation away from the edge. The wire edge can also be removed with a slip stone held flat against the inside of the gouge (above).

the other side of the gouge. Start at the midpoint and roll the gouge to the left, swinging the handle to the left, as you roll, for a fingernail grind. Cool the edge and check it again. Eventually, you'll develop the ability to start at one shoulder and roll the cut from shoulder to shoulder on the gouge, marrying the two sides of the grind with no visible transition. That's how I sharpen my gouges. The sharpening process is virtually the same on an abrasive belt system. Grinding raises a wire edge on the inside of the gouge. There are several different ways to remove it. I use the easy method. 1 buff it off with the cloth buffmg wheel I keep on my grinder. lhis can be·a.little tricky, as the buffing wheel can also dull the edge if you're too heavy-handed. Buff on the bottom side of the wheel, with the rotation away from you. (See photo, above.) Don't buff with the sharp edge of the tool pointing at the oncoming wheel! This could cause serious injury from a sudden kickback. Try to just barely remove the wire edge without dulling the new edge it leaves behind. You can also remove the wire edge with a slip stone. Work it over the wire edge, keeping the slip stone flat against the inside surface of the gouge. Don't roll the sli~ stone over the edge. If you're using an oil stone, be liberal with the oil (a mix of automatic transmission fluid and kerosene works well). I use a round, tapered,· fine India

slip stone for this job when I'm away from my own shop and can't buff.

Skew Chisels The skew; a cutting tool, works best when razor sharp, and not at all when even slightly dull. If you expect a skew to work well, keep it sharp. Skews can have at least two configurations. The cutting edge can be straight, at an angle of about 60° to the long point. (See drawing.) Or the edge can be ground slightly convex, allowing the user a little more latitude in the types of cuts it will make. With a convex edge, it ' s possible to cut "uphill" from a smaller diameter to a larger one, and to work on surfaces that are slightly concave. Whether you prefer a straight or convex grind, the two bevels which make up the cutting edge should combine at about 50°-60°. Skews can be flat ground (on an abrasive belt) or hollow ground (on a wheel). Because of the long thin bevel, skews-even the HSS variety- are quite prone to burning on a grinder. I s~ en my skews on a wet wheel and hone them on an oil stone to remove the wire edge. I use a wide tool rest, and set the angle of the rest to match the bevel of the skew. (See photo, next page.) The wire edge produced by grinding can be polished off on a buffing wheel or a bench stone. Skew bevels should be polished ·well, to help with the polishing effect that the skew imparts to the wood. A rough, angular

When a buff'mg wheel isn't available, author improvises by turning beads that match the inside shapes of his gouges and charging the wood with buffing compound. He then "buffs" off the wire edge on the wood.

bevel will not give the characteristic smooth finish the skew leaves behind when properly sharpened. After grinding the skew on the wet wheel, 1 go to a fme India stone, and then to a black Arkansas oil stone. If all this honing seems like overkill compared with other turning chisels, you're right. The skew is the one lathe chisel that requires critical sharpening. I work with a fme India stone in my pocket at all times, and hone my skews frequently wJ:lile turning. With the fine India stone, I often "set up" the edge of the skew for a critical finishing cut. Honing creates a micro wi,re edge on the edge opposite the last side you've honed. This microedge can be made to work for the turner on especially fine cuts, or against






ed. Remember, you only get one try at setting up the edge. If it doesn't work, you have to regrind slightly and repolish before trying again. Repeated burnishing passes will only roll the edge back out of useful range. Some scraper profiles are difficult to burnish easily. But for flat or large-radius round scrapers, burnishing works well.

him if he doesn ' t know it's there . Simply finish c~t on the side opposite the last side honed. A little experimentation will show you the difference in the cut.

Scrapers Scrapers come in a bewildering variety of configurations but they share a common principle. A wire edge on the top side of the scraper does the cutting. (See drawing.) The sharper the wire edge, the better the cut. The problem is that the cutting action and the friction it produces wear down a wire edge quickly. I sharpen scrapers on the bench grinder. For small-radius scrapers, I hold the tool on the rest and grind the bevel lightly, swinging the handle in an arc to grind the entire edge. (I shoot for a bevel angle of about 45°.) This raises a wire edge on the top side of the scraper. Light pressure and frequent cooling produce the best results for me. Heavy pressure produces a burnt edge, which will break down quickly. I burnish flat scrapers and largeradius curved scrapers much like a cabinetniaker's hand scraper. After grind-

Other Tools

Even high-speed steel skews are easy to burn. Author prefers a watercooled grinder with an aluminumoxide wheel. He uses the tool rest to determine the bevel angle.

ing the bevel, I polish the wire edge back down toward the front of the chisel with the buffing wheel. This gives me an a.s:ute angle on the end of the scraper. Then I make one pass along the edge with a piece of hardened steel to burnish a wire edge on the top side of the tool. This burnished edge is sharper than a wire edge of the grinder and outlasts a ground wire edge. It takes a little practice to get this to work, but it's worth the time invest-

Author burnishes flat scrapers and large curved scrapers much like a cabinetmaker's hand scraper. He grinds the bevel then polishes the wire edge back down toward .the front of the tool with the buffing wheel (left). Then he makes one pass along the edge with a piece of hardened steel to burnish a wire edge on the top side of the tool. 60



Parting Tools-The parting tool is sort of a hybrid; a cross between a scraper' and a cutting tool. If the edge is held tangent to the workpiece, with the bevel rubbing, it's cutting. If it's fed straight into the workpiece at or slightly above the centerline, it's scraping. Parting tools come in several varieties: flat, diamond cross-section and "spurred." The flat and diamond variety have two bevels, and are ground on both. The specialty spurred parting tools (available from Craft Supplies USA, see Sources) are sharpened on only one face. On diamond-shaped parting tools, be sure to keep the cutting edge in the center so the tool won't get stuck in the cut. The bevels on a parting tool may be either flat or hollow ground. When you're grinding a parting tool, the two bevels should meet at an angle of approximately 50°. If you use the cutting technique exclusively, it's possible to exaggerate the bevel slightly into a more "fishtailed" shape. (See drawing.) It will give a cleaner cut, but will break down too fast if used for scraping. I grind parting tools by lowering the bevel onto the wheel as though parting it with a cutting technique. Try to match the bevel of the tool, and keep light contact. Watch for the fine sparks at the cutting edge, and cooi fre(Jtlently. Beading Tools-Traditional beading tools (not the shaped scrapers also called beading tools) are cutting tools used much like skews for cutting beads and shoulders. They're essentially oversized, flat parting tools and are sharpened in much the same way. Both bevels are ground to produce the edge. I grind flat bevels on beading tools because they give me more control than a hollow-ground bevel. I grind on the flat sides of the wheel rather than the front edge. An abrasive belt system


SOURCES Turning tools and sharpening equipment for turners are available from: ~ CRAFf SUPPLIES USA, 1287 E. ll20 S. , Provo, UT 84601 , (801) 373-0917. ORCLE <'610 ~ GARRETT WADE CO., 161 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10013, (800) 221-2942. ORCLE ..Uil

~ HIGHLAND HARDWARE, 1045 N. Highland Ave. N.E., Atlanta, GA 30306, (800) 241-6748. ORCLE-612

~ LEE VALLEY TOOLS LTD., 1080 Morrison Dr. , Ottawa, Ontario K2H 8K7, (613) 596-0350. ORCLEo613

~ WOODCRAFT, 210 Wood County Industrial Park, Box 1686, Parkersburg, WV 26102, (800) 225-1153. ORCLE-614

would also produce a flat bevel. When all is said and done, there is, unfortunately, no substitute for experience in sharpening lathe tools. Prior to the advent of HSS, it was recommended that a. beginner start out with a cheap set of chisels, and learn how to sharpen them while learning how to turn. Once the process became familiar, they co uld be replaced with a good set of tools . With today"s developments in metallurgy, it's easier to avoid ruining an edge (although still quite possible). I think a beginning turner should have all the advantages, and that includes good chisels. With a little bit of care, they' ll last a lifetime and provide thousands of good edges. .A. ~



~ ~

~ ~

STEPHEN H. BLENK t's a turner in 'Washington state and/ounder o/ the Olympic Rminsula chapter o/ the American Association o/ Woodturners.

he n it comes to equipment for s harpening lathe tools you have a lot of choices. There are "sharpening syste m s ~ w ith low-speed we t wheels, sanding d rums or belts. There are bench grinders and buffing wheels, water stones, oil stones, diamond hones and combinations of the above. Someone, somewhere, doubtless has a sharpening system whkb uses a starship's phasers to zap up an edge. The trick is to find sharpening equipment that is suited w both your purpose and your budget. (See article, page 48) For the sake of simplicity, I'll try to lump equipment into recognizable categories. Grin d ers -Gr ind ers can b e either low or high speed, and may run wet or dry. Some grinders have both wet and dry wheels on the same machine. Other grinders may have a stone on one arbor, and a buffing wheel on the other. Dry, high-speed grinders usually have relatively coarse wheels (80100 grit), remove metal quickly, and generate lots of edge-burning beat. Wet wheels are generally .finer (220 grit), slower, and better suited for touch-up and polishing rather than removing large amounts of material. Wet wheels do not generate heat-a big advantage-so they can be used w ithout the fear of ruining the temper of a chisel. A cloth or felt buffing wheel on a high-speed arbor is useful for po li s hing off the wire edges produced by grinding. Abrasive Belt Sys temsAbrasive belt systems can do the work of grinde rs and polishers. These systems can use eith er a coarse belt for quick removal of large amounts of material, or a .finer belt for polishing. Many turners I know prefer a belt grinder with a 2-in.-wide abrasive belt on either a p laten or a drum. Most turners favor zirconium abrasive bel ts (also calle d zirconia).


These blue-colored belts are cove red with alum in a zirconia , an extremely hard and durable synthetic abrasive ideally suited for grinding metal (available from EconAbrasives, Box A86502 1, Plano, TX 75086, 214-377-9779). Abrasive belts ruJ1 hotter than a wet wheel, but not as hot as a highspeed grinder. By keeping only light pressure on the tool and cooling it often in water, it's easier to avoid burning the edge. Keep a water container by each of your sharpening devices and cool your chisels frequently. It's possible to use a standard 6in. by 48-in. woodshop belt sander for sharpening lathe chisels. If you do, I recommend installing a 2-in.wide belt on it for s harpening. (FIRE HAZARD! Disconnect any dust-collection hose, and vacuum sawd ust before grinding metal.) This way you'll use the entire abrasive surface rather than just one narrow strip. Don't try sharpening on the disc sander however. The surface speed is too fast and you 'll bum your edge. Sharpening Stones-And of course, there are the stones: bench sto nes, s lip stones and diamond hones. It's a great advantage to be able to touch up an edge without having to head for the grinder every time. Keeping an edge in s hape with a quick stoning makes turning more enjoyable , and makes your chisels last longer. Stones are also useful for removing the wire edge left by a grinder. There is still some controversy over the question of oil stones vs. water stones, and I'm not going to get into it. I learned on oil stones, and that's what I use. Both types work; use whichever you like. I recently had t h e opportunity to watch jerry Glaser -the n oted designer of high-speed turning tools-use an EZ-Lap diamond hone to dress an edge, and am planning to try one myself.-S.B.







"He who works with his hands is a laborer, [but] he who works with his hands, head and heart is an (.lrtist." -St. Francis of Assisi

t's obvious from the quality of work submitted in Aw's first Excellence in Craftsmanship Awards contest that many woodworkers aspire to St. Francis' creed. In fact, we received so many first-rate entries among the hundreds sent in from the United States and abroad that singling out the best proved


extraordinarily difficult. Such a commitment to craftsmanship is encouraging to see, especially at a time when the emphasis on quality handwork seems to be on the decline. AW established this competition, in part, to help reverse that trend. We hope that by recognizing talented woodworkers and promoting high standards of workmanship and design, we will inspire the woodworkers of tomorrow. Certainly the work in this year's contest inspired us.




We applaud the 1992 winners and congratulate everyone who entered the competition, for they all show an exceptional dedication to the craft. First-place winners in the professional and amateur categories receive $1 ,000 and a custom-engraved plaq ue. Second-place and third-place winners have earned a certificate and $100. Pick up our March/April issue for details on entering the 1993 AMERICAN WOODWORKER Excellence in Craftsmanship Awards.

"Your heart is in your mouth the whole time you build something like this because you can't waste one piece of wood," says Wally Kunkel of his bombe chest. Kunkel considers the 36-in.-wide chest a dream project. He spent years studying the "various problems and splendors" of the 18th-<:entury original on which his is based before finally making the first cut. And he hunted much of the country to find the single J 2/4 26-in. by 20-ft. piece of Honduras mahogany that makes up all the chest's "public" faces. The chest took 4l-2 months to build, with Kunkel doing much of the work by hand. He hand-dressed the raw board so he'd }Jave time to stu~y the grain, then hand-cut the joints, and used a scratch stock on the carcase to raise the beading around the drawers. The drawer sides are carved inside and out to follow the curve of the chest's sides. Kunkel also carved the insides of the drawer fronts so joining them to the sides meant dovetailing two curved surfaces at compound angles. Except for the top drawer, the front of the chest (including the rails) was cut in sequence from the width of the mal10gany board. The frame and panel back has book-matched panels.



Ken Folk loves traditional tools, and he had a chance to use many of them on this cupboard. But the craftsmanship here represents more than skilled woodworking. Folk, an electrical engineer by trade, designed and made the brass tulip hinges and door latches, and painted the Pennsylvania German folk design on the lower door. Folk used some of the antique planes he has collected to run most of the moldings. The egg and dart dentil molding he carved by hand. He has no formal training in woodworking but used to do antique restoration and he says, that "gives you an education in furniture construction and design." Folk calls the cupboard a marriage of Early American cabinetry with a German country motif that was popular in Pennsylvania in the 18th and 19th centuries.


British furniture designer Rupert Senior says he and his partner, Charles WheelerCarmichael conceived this expanding dining table because, "we find so often furniture is a static thing and we wanted to make some change to that. " The table seats six when the leaves are closed, but the pie-shaped parts of the top rotate on roUer bearings to expand the table into a 12-seater. The rectangular leaves and removable candlesticks store in a leaf carousel that doubles as a candle stand. The table took almost 1,000 hours to build and is made from American black walnut burl veneer, solid walnut, bubinga and bronze.


Continued... JANUARY





Ejler Hjorth-Westh started his career in wood as a boat builder and today works full-time as a¡ fine-work carpenter. But when it comes to furniture he's still an amateur. Indeed, he says, "I want to stay true to my amateur status. 'Amateur' meaning the root of the word as a lover of the craft.n He made this bed while studying under James Krenov at the College of the Redwoods in Fort Bragg, California. The footboard and headboard panels, along with the side rails are all "pillowed" so their surfaces bow slightly. He created the effect by shaping an apple-ply core and then veneering over it. Posts, pedestals and edgings are solid cherry.








"I try not to let my design be a product of what my machines can accomplish," says Terry Moore, a self-taught craftsman who used a plywood mockup to develop the design for this desk. Moore says he has neve r used power sanders and prefers to work with hand tools when possible. All the dovetails on the desk drawers are band-<:ut and 90 percent are fit straight from the instrument maker's saw he uses to cut them. The desk and chair took about' 400 hours to make.





It was serendipity that brought Tom Shimrock to woodworking. "I bought some exotic hardwoods from a friend because I liked the way they looked, and finally I said 'I have to start doing something with this stuff.' " He made this turned box afte r 15 years as a hobbyist. The lid and base are cocobolo while the accents are ebony and brass. The pouch under the lid is stretched leather.

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Granadillo can vary wildly in appearance, with color ranging from brown to pink to purple.

GRANADILLO BY DICK BOAK averaging about 60 lbs. per cubic ft. Platymiscium pinnatum (Central and when dry. It is stable enough to kiln South America) dry without appreciable defect. Pores Platymiscium yucatanum (Mexico , . are generilly large and it is necessary Central America) to fill them wi~h paste filler to acltieve Platymiscium dimorphandrum (Central a dead-smooth surface when using a America) spray fmish. A finely sanded surface Platymiscium duckei (Brazil) yields a medium to high luster.




Macawood , granadil!_o , Panama redwood, trebol. In the past, the trade name "granadillo" has been used to describe many similar-looking woods (including rosewoods, such as cocobolo)>Today when talking about granadillo (pronounced gran-a-dee-o) most dealers are referring only to trees of the platymiscium genus.

Carbide cutters are preferred for machining granadillo because of its density and its dulling effect on tool steel. It will glue well, however it is best to assemble joints immediately after machining or to rub the parts with an abrasive pad such as ScotchBrite, because resins tend to rise to the surface, inhibiting a good bond.



Granadillo varies widely in shade, and in color, from brown to pink to lav_ender with darker variegated streaks. Quartersawn planks often exhibit a narrow striped figure and the more common flatsawn boards run anywhere from plain to wildly grained. Because of these variations, it's best to personally select planks or ask about the visual characteristics of particular batches if buying by mail.

It can be used in furniture making and decorative joinery., but is more commonly seen in marimba keys, flooring and decking. It is not commonly available as veneer because of its varying grain patterns although this also may be due in part to granadillo's overall lack of use in the trade.

Granadillo boasts more than 20 species and has been hard to classify because of its wide range over tropical America. One lesser known specie, pleiostachyum, is listed in Appendix IT by The Convention on International Trade (CITES) as being at risk of overharvesting for international trade. There are several certified sources on the market that make granadillo a good alternative to some of the more endangered species, especially the rosewoods.


TECHNICAL PROPERTI~S With a specific gravity of .73 to .96, granadillo ranks as a heavy hardwood, 66



Granadillo is not toxic, though some individuals may experience an allergic reaction. As with many woods, the darker varieties are more likely to cause problems because of their higher extractive (chemical) content.


AVAILABILITY Exotic-wood dealers and specialty houses throughout the country sell granadillo, but supplies may vary because there hasn' t been much demand up to this point.



Typical widths run 4 in. to lO in., and thicknesses of 4/4 or 8/4 are generally available. Suppliers often sell the lumber planed because color and grain pattern determines quality and price.

Wholesale costs (for 100 bd. ft. or more) range from $4 to $6 per bd. ft. Retail prices run from $6 to $10 a bd. ft., but expect to pay a premium for boards with consisten~ figure.

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• POLYURETHANE Toughness and Durability Cdme in Many Forms

BY MICHAEL DRESDNER or most people, the word "polyurethane" on a label implies a very stt:ong and durable brushing varnish. Lately, though, polyurethane has appeared in some new and unusual forms, such as wiping varnish, oil/varnish mixtures, water-based polyurethanes and twopart polyurethanes. How do these compare with the original oil-based polyurethanes and what are the strengths and weaknesses of each? Oil-based polyurethanes are still the most common. They are essentially oil varnishes buffered with polyurethane resin for extra scratch and heat resistance. Oil-based polyurethanes dry by "polymerization," a process in which oxygen from the air helps resin molecules link up and grow larger. Like other oil varnishes, they ad<J. that familiar amber color to the wood.' They are also applied like oil varnishes. (More on this later.) Because of these characteristics, oilbased polyurethanes are the perfect varnishes for high-wear surfaces like tabletops, hand rails and kitchen cabinets. Some are even suitable for exterior use. Less familiar are urethane oils, which are thin versions of oil-based polyurethane varnish. These are widely used by woodtumers to fmish objects still on the lathe. They're thin enough to simply wipe on with a rag, and they dry quicker than thick versions. Recently, water-based polyurethanes, which are "emulsions" (mixtures of suspended droplets) of polyurethane and acrylic resins in water, have joined oil-based poly-





urethanes on the paint store shelves. These newcomers are at least as durable as their oil-based counterparts, and can be easily cleaned up with soap and water. Like lacquer, water-based polyurethanes dry very quickly by solvent evaporation. The solvent and the water (the coating contains both) evaporate and the res~s remain behind to merge or "coalesce" into a film. (See "WaterBased Finishes," AW #29.• page 68.) Unlike oil varnishes, which add an amber cast to wood, water-based polyurethanes are clear. In fact, on very dark woods like walnut, they may impart a slight bluish haze. Another difference is odor. The water-based variety smells quite different-and considerably less-than oilbased polyurethane. Water-based formulations also tend to foam more, trapping air bubbles in the finish, so they require a bit more care in handling. Two-part polyurethanes, which must be mixed together before spraying, are primarily used in industrial coatings where extremely high solvent and abrasion resistance is required. Unlike oil- or water-based polyurethanes, these two-part finishes are often considered hazardous materials, and you must handle them with caution (and use a protective respirator). Incidentally, the terms "urethane" and "polyurethane" are used interchangeably by the paint industry. Technically speaking, urethane is the "monomer" (single unit) which forms the polyurethane "polymer" (many units). This polymerization is what gives polyurethane its durability.

Using Polyurethanes In general, polyurethanes are intended for brushing, although the waterbased polyurethanes, which dry by evaporation, may be sprayed. Some people have had success spraying the oil-based variety, but I don't recommend it. Since it dries slowly, it tends to sag, and the overspray is a sticky mess. If you want a satin finish, use gloss polyurethane for the first two coats, then topcoat with a satin formulation. If you use the satin for all three coats, the accumulated dulling agents may obscure the wood. Polyurethane bonds well fo raw wood and seals admirably, so you don't need to use a sealer. However, in certain applications, such as on floors and softwoods, a sanding sealer can save you some time sanding the first coat. Regarding compatibility with stains, polyurethanes will adhere over almost any finish or stain. For best results with water-based polyurethanes, though, I'd recommend using only water-based stains or those expressly formulated for use under water-based finishes. Check the can for recommendations. Oil-based polyurethanes: Thinning. Manufacturers don't usually recommend thinning their products, but I've found· that thinning 10 percent with mineral spirits improves handling. . Application. Brush it on as you would any oil varnish.· Choose a natural bristle brush (I like both China and hog bristle) with a "chisel" end and "flagged" bristles. (For more on choosing and cleaning brushes, see AW #26,

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JU~T fiNI~HIN ~ ..... page 62.) Prepare the brush by soak- brush after you have unloaded the ing the bristles for a few minutes in varnish from it . Again, unload the mineral spirits. Stir the varnish gently brush by scraping the bristles slowly but thoroughly before dipping your across the rim of the can. brush. This will mix in the anti-skinning additives that have risen to the Water-based polyurethanes: Thinning. You sh ouldn't thin top of the varnish after it sits for a w hile. Squ eeze the excess mineral water-based polyurethane; just stir the spirits out of the brush and dip about a . finish gently to mix in any of the third of the length of the bristles into i defoamers that may have risen to the the varnish. Touch the brush to the :; top of the can. Application. Choose either a paint inside or rim of the container to ' unload excess varnish. (Dragging it · pad or a nylon-bristle brush with a quickly across the rim will cause air chisel end and tapered (not flagged) bubbles.) Lay the varnish out slowly bristles. Prepare the brush or pad by and smoothly in the direction of the soaking the bristles in water, then wood grain. Keep your coats thin , squeeze out the excess. Dip the brush sand lightly with 220-grit sandpaper a third of the way into the finish and between coats. I recommend three touch the bristles to the side of the light coats, and no more than one can to remove excess liquid. Brush per day. Since oil-based slowly irl the direction of the grain, polyurethane dries slowly, you can moving the brush in just one direc"pick up" any runs or drips with the tion; scrubbing back and fort h will


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Oil-based polyurethane s have been around for a long time, and they're all pretty good. My favorites are McCloskey, Red Devil, Valspar and Minwax. Among the water-based polyurethan es, I prefer Carver Tripp, Minwax, McCloskey and Zar.




Which are Best?

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cause foaming and air bubbles. Keep your coats very thin , and apply at least three, again at the rate of one per day. Sand lightly with 220-grit sandpaper between coats, and tack off with a damp cloth, not a tack rag. Water-based polyurethane dries very quickly, so you won't have time to go back over any areas that have started to dry. If you don't catch drips immediately, let them go and slice them off the next day with a razor blade before sanding.

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= AD = VE = RT=IS=E=Rs=' = P~ RO=D=U=CT;;';~ ; ¥. ;;-$= ER;; VI ; ;r=C=E=S=D=IRE == CT;; ; ;O ; ; ;=R=Y= ABRASIVES Page 67 Circle 42

Page 77 C ircle 33

ECON-ABRASIVES: We custommake abrasive belts up to 52" wide in any griL Our new catalog contains hundreds of abrasives, plus safety equipment, Velcro-backed discs, clamps, glue, drawer slides, hinges. RE D HILL: One-stop shopping at wholesale prices for all your sanding and refinishing needs. Belts, discs, sheets, drums, roll<;. PittS brushes, dtLSt masks, scoff pads. Free 20-page catalog.

ACCESSORIES Page 11 C•rcle 40

AIRSTRE AM DUST HELMETS: Powered air respirators, excellent for all Jobs wh1ch create dust. Eye protection. Can be worn with beard or glasses. Systems also available for paint and lacquer fumes. 800-328-1792.

Page 5 C ircle 7

A.R .E. MFG.: The "Correct Cut" radial-arm-saw fence replaces existing fence. Scaled for precise measurements. Hinged flip stops. Strong aluminum construction. Available in any length. Starting at $43.00.

Page EDWARD J. B ENN ETT CO: Preci12 sion alignment and measurement inCircle struments for the professional and seri26 ous woodworker. TS-Aligner, tJ1e finest table saw alignment system available. Page 67 Circle 3

Page 20 Circle 17

CARTER PRODUCTS: Bandsaw guides-and guide mounting adapters and parts for most bandsaws 14" and larger. 30" and 36" bandsaw wheels, 10" to 42" bandsaw tires. Laser & quartz line lights, inspection ligllts. DAVALCO: Makersofthe Packhorse, a pair of patented self-stabilizing sawhorses that fold and latch together to carry like a tool box. Also, rivetless canvas toolbags. Free brochure. 800-945-9545.

Page 17 C ircle 76

DOYEL E NTE RPRISES: Radial arm saw fence replaces old fence. Cut accurate angles using only tile oo• setting. Featttres ruled stop for accurate cuts. Rugged aluminum construction.

Page ll C ircle 58

EXACT CUTS: Finally, a simple alignment kit tllat will turn your radial arm or table saw into a precision cutting tool. Make professional quality furniture, cabinets or a whole house. 503997-2377.





Dear fellow woodworker, To help you better understand the full scope of products and services advertised in this issue, American Woodworker has compiled a brief description of many of its advertisers. We've arranged the companies by product category to help you locate the lnfonnation or products you need. They are also listed alphabetically In our ·Advertisers' Index." To order valuable lnfonnation, simply complete and return the attached fonn. We'll process your request promptly and the companies will mail the Information directly to you.

Page ll Cir cle 47

EXCA LffiUR MACHL~E & TOOL: Update your table saw. Excalibur T.Slot Saw Fence locks on front and rear guide rails, stays parallel to blade. Companion sliding table handles stock up to 60" wide. llietime guarantee.

Page HTC PRODUCTS: Mobile maclline 20 bases for alI brands of stationary C ircle power tools. Complete line of machine 81 mounted outfeed roller ex tensions, plus roller tables, pedestal rollers and support stands. U.S. made. Cover 3 C ircle 52

INCRA: Produces flawless dovetails. box joints, even spectacular new joints like the lncra Double-Dovetail witll lncra Jig and tile lncra Jig Pro. 50 all new lncra Templates give you more versatility tllan ever.

11age JDS: Precision woodworking equip'69 ment for the home or professional Circle shop. The incredibly precise Accu65 Miter is a must for every table saw. The versatile Multi-Router makes mortise and tenon work a snap.

Page 8 Circle 19

KREG TOOL: Pocket Joint System. Saves time and money. Face frame and cabinet construction. All types offurniture construction. Instant bonding joints. Unbelievable strengtll.

Page LEIGH INDUSTR IES: Leigh Dove87 tail Jigs, Multiple Mortise Tenon Jigs, Universal Guide Bush system to fit virtually all plunge routers. The most versatile and comprehensive dovetailing system. Free catalog. 800..U63-8932. Page 71 Ci rcle 74

VEGA ENTERPRISES: Manufacturers of high quality woodworldng machinery and accessories. Call for free information 800·222-VEGA Made in USA. Videos available.

BITS, BLADES, CUTTERS Page 8.69 C ircle 51,50

CASCADE TOOL S: New 1993 catalog is packed full of afford ably priced in· dustrial grade SY brand router bits and shaper cutters. Also see many new hard-to-find woodworldng accesso.ries.

Page MAGNATE UUSINESS INT E R17 NAT IONAL: Fulllineoftopquality C ircle carbide-tipped router bits and cutters. 66 Free catalog available. Dealer inquiries welcome. Page MLCS: New 32-page catalog features 17,67 hundreds of h iglt-quality carbideC ircle tipped router bits. shaper cutters, solid 1,2 carbide bits, professional woodworking products. Prompt service guaQrnteed. Page 71 Circ le 59

S ISCO SUPPLY: The Modulus

SS-100 attachment turns your tablesaw into a precision scoring saw in a matter of seconds. We also stock tl1e complete General line. Free info.

Page 71 Circle 31

L .C. KE HOE MF G.: The Dov-Tail Spline Jig makes strong attractive splined comer joints using a router. Faster, easier, and less expensive than other dovetail jigs. Made in USA. Free information. Only $49.95 + $6.00 S&A.

Page 69 C ircle 12

Page 5 C ircle 36

KE LLER DOVETAlL SYST E M: You can cut beautiful dovetails easily, accurately and quickly. No test cuts; unlimited width; warranted accurate 20 years. Free info. New video: $8.95 ( + $2 p/h). 800-995-2456.

Page WOODPECKERS~ Full line of Freud 21,87 router bits. Freud sawblades are aiCircle ways at least 40% off list. We carry all 68 lncra.Jig products at the lowest prices. plus router speed controls.

SUFFOLK MACH INERY: The best bandsaw blade you'll ever use-Swedish silicon•steel bandsaw blades for every purpose. Ultra-smooth cut, thin kerf, fast chip removal, any lcngt11.

BOOI{SNIDEOS Page 70 Circle 201

MANNY'S: Our 64-page color catalog has the most c:omplete selection of woodworking books and videos anywhere. We also carry Freud sawblades and router bits, Freeborn shaper cutters and fine English hand tools.

Page PROJECTS l N METAL: An indispen87 sable tool for learning basic projects, Ci rcle each complete in one issue, features 80 on shop technique, plus metalworking tips.

Cover GRI ZZLY IMPORTS: Free 1993 cata2 log is bigger and better than ever! Many Ci rcle new items along with ou r large selec48 tion of affordably priced woodworking machines, tools & accessories. Page HIGHLAND HARDWARE: Fl-ee tool 86 catalog offers 130 pages of UlC finest Circ le hand and power tools, books and sup89 plies. In-depth product descriptions and extr-.1 how-to information. Page 11 Ci rc le 86

CARVING SUPPLIES Page 12 Circ le 62

ROTOCARVE: With your tablesaw, reproduce any rigid contoured pattern. Carves 360•, manual or automatic. Then sand with our horizontally bench mounted 2'1:" x 60" belt sander.

FINISHING SUPPLIES Page FUJI SPRAY SYSTEMS : This CanaS dian manufacllm!!· offers two HVLP Circ le sprayer models, each with a full range 38 of features and accessories. Designed to handle all spray materials. Page 87 Circ le 45

Page 5 Circle 63

J. A. HARC HUCK SA LES: Discover the fe.'l.ibility and versatility of Crobc sprayers. Choose from 9 tips and 16 air caps for your need. Authorized factory service, parts in stock. KACE TECHNOLOGIES: Manufacturer of Eaglespray HVLP turbine spray systems for professionals, hobbiests and DrYs. Features superb atomization, precise control, max efficiency, min overspray. Made in USA.

Page PERFOR MANCE COATI NGS: Pe20 nofin is a higl1-quality, transparent oil Circle finish for all woodworking projects. 18 Features Brazilian Rosewood Oil base and unique UV-resistant pigment system. Free brochure. 800-736-{)346.

GENERAL WOODWORKING CATALOGS Page CONSTANTINE 'S: Over4,000 II woods. veneers, inlays, carvings, moldCircle ings, hardware, finishing supplies, 106 books, plans ... All backed by 180 years of experience and 60-day no-questionsasked guarantee. 2-year sub $1.00. Page 13 Circle 101

GARRETT WADE: Our 1993 catalog has 232 full-color pages of the very best tools. books, finishing suppHes and shop accessories. Many tips and much information. $4.00.

McFEE LY 'S: New color catalog features over300 varieties of the incredible square-drive screw. We also carry woodworking books, clamps, carbidelipped router bits and sawblades, and more.

Pa1,-e 6 C ircle :!02

HORTON BRASSES: These fine brasses, made in Connecticut, will enhance the beauty of your work. From pulls and knobs to hinges and casters, we offer a wide, quality selection. A bible for the furniturcmaker. $3.00.

Page 69 Circle 27

.JAMESTOWN DISTRIBUTORS: Free catalog for building, restoring or repairing. Filled wii.h cormsionresistant fasteners, indoor/outdoor finishes, glues, hardware, abrasives, tools.

Page WIUTE CHAPEL llRASSES: WCB II is quickly becoming the preferred Circle source for a wide range of the finest 206 authentic and special purpose hardware. We guarantee UlC bes~ ptices and reliable, helpful service.

Page TOTAL SHOP: 48-page catalog on 71 woodworking machines, supplies, Circ le hand tools, many new handy items 61 including details on the remarkable Total Shop Multi-Purpose machine. Call8~5-9356.

Page 19,86 Circle 20,21

WOODCRAFT SUPPLY: Over 4,000 quality tools, books, supplies, hardware in our 132 page catalog. Toll-free technical assistance, ordering and customer service. 800-542-9115. Dept. #93WA02M.

Page 17 Circle 203

WOODWORKERS STORE: Over 150 new itcrrt'l, domestic and exotic hardwoods veneers, wood parts, specialty hardware, finishing supplies, tools, books, plans. Catalog $2; $1 credited toward first purchase.

Page 6 Circle 75

Page 19 Circle 67


WOODWORKING UNLIMITED: New Catalog! 132 full-color pages reaturing thousands of tools and supplies, wii.h many e.xclusives. Every product is 100% guaranteed and has a fulll-year warranty. Free catalog'

HAND TOOLS Page JAPAN WOODWORKER: Wood12 workers around the world have discovCircle ered the secret of better quality work. 105 72-page catalog contains a huge selection of the best tools. S 1.00. Page 17 Circle 32

WOODWORKER'S HARDWARE: We specialize in cabinet and furniture hardware, plus abrasives. acll1esives, knobs, pulls, hinges, drawer slides, kitchen cabin~ accessories, and lighting. Orders shipped next day.

LIE -NIELSEN TOOLWORKS: Makers of heirloom quality hand tools. Free brochure of growing collection of handmade bronze planes and other tools. Call: 800-327-2520.

Page P OOTATUCK: Lion Miter Trimmer 77 makes your mitering easy. This cast Circle iron/steel tool has razor sharp knives 54 mounted on a sliding carriage to lrim hard or soft wood, at 45• to oo•.

HARDWARE Page BALL & BALL: Since 1932 the leader 69 in the finest quality reproduction furniCircle ture, cabinet, and household hardware. 30 Over 1,500 items. 108 page catalog is $5.00. Mini-catalog free.

Page 77 C irc le 13

ADAMS WOOD PRODUCTS: Manufactures wood furniture parts. Free catalog illustrates and prices indh,idual parts and ready-to-assemble kits for chairs and tables. No minimum quantity. Will make to customer specs.

Page FURNITURE DESIGNS: Order 67 your full-si7.e plans from our catalog C irc le -200 designs to choose from! Plans 304 include Early American, English Chippendale, Queen Anne, Shaker, Spanish. $3.00. Page 77 Circle cl02

J.M. DESIGNS: Create chilcll1ood fun and memories that will last a lifetime. Three great playhouse plans to choose from: clubhouse, fircllOUSC or victorian playhouse. $4.00.

Page 21 Circle 57

PRECISION MOVEMENTS: We stock a full line of quartz clock movements and accessories including dials, bezels \VCStern instruments, hardware, music box movements and epoxy resin finish. Free 50 page color catalog.

Page SMI lN 'OVATIONS: 'ow you can 5 shape sliding dovetails on large cabiCircle net pieces quickly and easily. Mould 107 and horizontal rout as well with t..he SMI Dovc~ech. Build it yourself. Construction is inexpensive.





BEREA HAR DWOOD :High qual· 1ty, comprehen!,I\"C M'le<'tion of exoti<: lumber and unusual turning woods. Mechanisms for wooden barrel pens, pencils, roUer balls, fountain pens. Personal servi<·e.

Page BO LTER PLYWOOD: Hardwood 12 lumber, marine and hardwood plyCircle woods in st.O<:k (exoti<: plys made lo 83 order). Custom cuttmg to your specs with little or no waste. Competitive prices. Page 20 C irc le II

Page 86 C irc le 53

Page 8 Circle 102

EBAC LUMllEH DRYERS : Whether you are a small cabinet shop. large wood retailer, or serious home woodworker, EBAC ha:. the right size lumber dryer for you. Call or write for information.

NYLE: Save money! Make money! ... by kiln drying for olllcrs. As the nalion's largest manufaclllrer of dehumid· ification dry kilns, \\e supply the same type of equipment usro by m:ijor !inns. STEVE WALL L UMBER: Quality hardwoods and machinery for the craftsman and educational institutes. Our catalog lliot.s over 30 domestic and exotic woods plw. plywood. We ship worldwide. $1.00.

Page WOODWORKER ' OURCE : Over 19 75 exotic and domestic woods-lumCirclc ber, plywood, turning squares, bowl 9 blanks and veneers. Custom cutting and thin stock. Quantity discounts.

POWER TOOLS Page 75 Ci rc lc 82

CLAYTON )lAC HINE: Spindle sander with up and down oscillating stroke for flawless contour sanding. Featuring ni ne quick change s p ind le sizes from 'It" to 4" diameter. Seven models.


Cover 4 C irc le 60

FREUD: Premier line of carbi<k'tipped sawblade<>, router bits, shaper cuuers and otllCr woodworking tools. Freud offe!"> a full line of anli-kK:kbac:-k carbide uppc.'<l router bits. Ask for frt>e, new catalog.

Page II C ircle 103

GILLIOM MFG.: Buildyourown power tools and sa\e! 12" and 18" bandsaws. tablcsaws, shaper, belt sander, lathe, and lathe/drill press. Metal parts kits with simple step-by-step plan.'>.

Page 86 Circ le 55

INTE RNATIONA L TOOL: lndustrial.quality power tools and access~>­ ries at the lowest prices anywhere! Free UPS shipping on au ground orders. Bo;,ch and Freud router bits40% off IL,'>t! SO<l-:3.'38-3384.

Page L AG UNA TOOLS: lmponeroffine 8 European woodworking mach in<.>;,. Our line includes ('Ombinalion ma· chines from Robland Belgium. Bandsaws, shapcr cutters and large s liding panel saw;,. Page 21 C ircle 25

~1ARL1 'G LU~IDER: Very COffiJX.'titive prire., full Makita line. some select Hitachi tools, Sakura scroll saws. Fast dependable service. UPS freight included on most purchases. 800-247-7178.

Page PHANTO~t ENGI N EER! 'G : Build 77 quality, cu.!>torn furniture using the Circ le Woodchuck Indexing Router S)'l>tem. 8-l Easily perform the mosLdifflcult operations, including tapered spiral!;. Page R.B. I N OUST nl ES: The precision 6 Hawk scroll saw, versatile 4-in-l Circ le Woodplaner, durable Pane!Mastcr 5 door machine. American-made quality with over 60 years of expencnce. 800487-2623. Page TARHEEL FILING: Delta, Poner· 3 Cable, Freud, Bosch, Hitachi, Ryobi, Circle Powermatic, Skit, Milwaukee, Gener.ll. 90 All at super low pric-es. Same day shipping. Friendly, helpful service.

Page 67 Ci rcle 16

Page WOOD MAST E R TOOLS: F'rce facts 5 on Woodma;,tcr's 26" and 38" power feed dmm sanders. Thrns out ~lin· smooth panel'>, doors. fr.unes aJl<l other glued-up pieces. Made 111 USA. Easy tenns. P.age WOOD-MI Z ER: The world's larg(';,t 75 producer of portable sawmi Us with Ci rclc over 8,0()0 currently in usc. F'or i nfor· 34 mation on our complete line send $2.00 or call 8f)().f>5.'3-{)219.

TURNING SUPPLIES Page 67 Circle 202

DE LTA: Complete line of quality woodworking machinery and acccssories for industry, construction trades, schools and home workshops. lnnova· tive, reliable tOOls a t affordable prices. 800-438-2486.

P..lge 7 Circle 73

E.'\LOXIMPORT CORP.: We offer a large sele<'llon of fine woodworking machinery, tools and accessories for your business and home workshop. Take advantage of our Grand Opening Specials! 800-888-9697.

Page 79 Circle 301

TOOL CRIB OF THE NORTH: We stock 0\'er 10,000 tools! Our prices arc 10\v; our salespeople are knO\vledgeable; and our service is first-rate. Free shipping. 200 + page catalog: $3.00.

C RAFT 'U PPLIES USA: We uffcr the finesLselcction ofwoodtun ung machinery, tools, chucks and accessorics. Send $2.00 for 52-page catalog, refunded willl order.

WOOD PARTS Page ~110\VE T DOWEL WORKS: Qual69 ity source for dowels. turnings, spin· Circle dles and plugs in mosL domesti<: har<l· 16 woods. Also hearts, candle cups, whcds. axles and novelty items.

WOODWORKING SHOWS Page WOODWORKING SHOWS : Shuws 77 in m~or dt ies including Chicago, C ircle Columbus, Detroit, Tampa, Twin 20~ Cities. llundreds of tools, supplies, demonstration!> and free workshops.

MISCELLANEOUS Page 5 C ircle 39

80().322-6641. Page 14-15 Circ le 77

WILL IAMS & HUSS EY: Create curved ur Mraight molding with our Amcri<'an-made molder/planer. 1\ quiCk two-mmute knife changeO\'Cr. O\'er40 years of experience. 5-year warranty.

F L E XIfJLE LIGHTING Y TEM Good lighting is essential to good workmanship. Examine the best: The GiraffcTh.«k Lighting System, with acljust.ablc height, flexible neck and • coolhcad." F'rce catalog.

P.age ~1A.'ITI MFG.: TbeMantisTiller/ 17 Cultivator weighs just20 lbs. Digs Circle 8" deep C\'t'n in tough soils. Call toll29 free lor free information package. 800-366-6268.





Page 19 C ircle 101

WILKE MACHI:'IiERY: Bridgewood woodworking machinery. Industrial quality. heavy-duty machines for ;,erioos amateurs and pros. Purchase or lease.$ 1.00 for 52 page catalog.

Page 6 C ircle 10

WHOL ESA LE GLASS BROKE R Save money on custom fabricated heavy glass from 11." lo l"thick. Glass tabletops, shel\'eS, partitions are easily ordered from our catalog and idea book. Call 1-800-288-6854.

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a vacuum pump (not included). The membrane automatically seals around the work. To reduce the pressing time from hours to minutes, you can add heat Membra no with an optional electrically Vacuum heated platen (starting at Press $2,000) or infrared heater Vacuum veneer (starting at $3,000). The presses are great, Membrano press frame but the plastic bag can be awkward to ~ comes in four standard sizes and can load. Instead of a bag, the Membrano ' be custom made to other sizes. (Price: vacuum press uses a high-temperature ·.. $1,178 for 36-in. by 48-in. frame) silicone rubber membrane bonded to Mercury Vacuum Presses, Dept. AWT, an aluminum frame. You simply place Box 2232 Fort Bragg, CA 95437, the workpiece on a shop-made (707) 964:7557. platen, lOWer the frame and SWitCh On CIRO£ NO. (>02 ON PRODUCf INFORMATION FORM

No-Drip Glue Tired of dripping, running glue? liquid Nails is a new glue with a gel-like consistency so it stays put when you apply it and won't run when squeezed out of a clamped joint. Its performance is similar to yellow (aliphatic resin) glue, but the manufacturer claims it has greater wet-tack and water resistance. (Price: $2.49 for 4-oz. tube) Maceo Adhesives, Dept. A WT, 925 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, OH 44115, (800) 321-3647. ClRO£ NO. 606 ON PRODUCT INFORMATION FORM

he European "32m m system" of TESTED BY JOHN ELVRUM making cabinets bas lots of advantages. It clamp fittings, I found the lets you quickly and system easy to use. After I adjusted the rails and rods easily build modular cabinets, using dowels to for the first side panel, I join the panels at the comers. And could simply transfer the since the holes for the dowels, the set-up to the opposite hinges, the shelf supports and the like panel without readjusting or measuring. Best of all, are all spaced on 32mm centers (or S when I assembled the multiples of 32mm), you can ~ cabinet, it was perfectly standardize construction and use off- s square and had no gaps. the-shelf European hardware, which is ~ well known for its variety and quality. e The Veritas System is wellUntil recently, 32mm construction ~ made and well-conceived. meant investing in expensive After 25 years of working machinery to drill the holes precisely. photo), which consists of three 25-in. with 32mm cabinetry, I'm glad to see a The Veritas 32 Cabinetmaking rails, two sets of rods for panels up to company provide a simple, affordable System changes that. Now anyone with 24 in. wide and all the necessary 32mm drilling jig. moderate skills can build something as fittings. The basic version includes one Because you can only drill one hole complicated as a complete set of 25-in. rail, one set of rods for panels up at a time, the system is best suited to kitchen cabinets using no more than to 12 in. wide and the fittings. short production runs and custom the system, an electric drill, a tablesaw, The array of parts seemed a bit cabinet shops. But I recommend the intimidating at first But with the help system to anyone who wants to build some clamps and basic hand tools. The system consists of rails, rods, of the detailed instruction booklet, it cabinets with. the 32mm method. It's clamps and other parts that you only took me about 45 minutes to worth buying to make just one assemble into a rigid frame. You clamp familiarize myself with the system. kitchen's worth of cabinets. (Price: the frame to a cabinet panel, then drill To test it, I built a small cabinet Deluxe Veritas 32 System, $325; Basic the desired holes using a portable drill with melamine-faced particle board Veritas 32 System, $125) ; and drill bushings that fit into precisely panels and solid mahogany doors. Verltas Tools, Dept. AWT, 12 E. River spaced sockets along the rails. Once I learned that the key was St., Ogdensburg, NY 13669, (315) The system comes in deluxe and getting the rails perfectly square to 393-1967. basic versions. I tried the deluxe (see each other, and not to overtighten the CIRO£ NO. 623 ON PRODUCT INFORMATION FORM


Veritas 32 Cabinettnaking Systetn






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Radial Arm Saw Miter Fence Perfect Lathe·Cut Threads The Thread Master lathe attachment lets you cut perfect internal and external threads on wooden boxes and other lathe-turned objects up to 8 in. in dia. The tool attaches to any lathe and accepts standard faceplates so you can mount work quickly. A special cutter fits in a jacobs chuck in the headstock, and can cut the threads cleanly at a wide range of spindle speeds. Thread Master cuts a thread pitch of 10 tpi; accessories to cut 4 tpi or 16 tpi are available as options. (Price: $249) Craft Supplies USA, Dept. AWT, 1287 E. 1120 St., Provo, UT 84606, (801)

Here's a gadget that will let you make miter cuts on your radial arm saw without chewing up your fence or tabletop with lots of cut lines. The Doyel Fence System is a twopiece aluminum fence with a builtin miter gauge so you don't have to swing the saw's arm. The gauge adjusts for miter cuts from 0° to 47°. A protractor scale shows the mi ter angle in Y2° increments, but you can eyeball the setting to within \4°. The miter gauge removes ·easily for crosscutting or ripping. An adjustable stop block is

included for making repeat cutoffs. You must add a second miter gauge ($29.50) to the right of the blade to miter both ends of picture frame moldings. (Price: $79.50) Doyel Enterprises, Dept. A WT, Box 315, Yorba Linda, CA 92686, (714) 666-1770. CIRCLE NO. 605 ON PRODUCt INFORMATION FOilM


Planing Rasps

Template Sander Robo-sander shapes wood like a flushtrimming router bit without some of the drawbacks. You can shape curved parts too thick to attempt with a router, and work highly figured wood without tear-out. Essentially a drum sander with a template guide bearing, it comes in two diameters. You can buy it with template guide bearing and sanding drum, or the guide bearing alone and mount it to your sanding drum. (Price: $32 with 3-in. by 3-in. drum; $15 with 2-in. by 1~-in. drum; , $7.50 for template guide bearing) ' Ken Picou Designs, Dept. AWT, 5508 Mountview St., Austin, TX 78756, (512) 454-3425. CIRCLE NO. 601 ON PII.OOUCf INFORMATION FORM




These new wood-shaping tools cut faster and give you a smoother finish than conventional wood rasps or thin "cheese grater" type rasps. Each tiny tooth acts like a hand plane, cutting a shaving rather than chopping out sawdust-like chips as an ordinary rasp would. They're available in five shapes. The round and square cross-section rasps are mounted in hardwood handles. The curved, flat and rectangular ones mount in a hacksaw

Shaper Cutters for Your Router With these high-speed steel cutters, you can shape wood in a router table without investing a bundle in specialized carbide bits. The interchangeable 2-in.-dia. shaper cutters mount on a single arbor that will fit ~in. router collets. The cutters don't stay sharp as long as carbide, but

frame. (Price: $9.10 to $11.46 each) General Tools Manufacturing Co. Inc., Dept. A WT, 80 White St., New York, NY 10013, (212) 431-6100. CIRCLE NO. 604 ON PROOUCf INFORMATION FOilM

they' re less expensive, can be resharpened with an oilstone, and are available in 56 profiles. The manufacturer recommends using the system with a speedcontrolled router of at least 2 hp. (Price: $15 for adapter arbor, $15 each for shaper cutter) Corob Corp., Dept. A WT, 53 Westwood Rd., Shrewsbury, MA 01545, (800) 745-9895. CIRCLE NO. 608 ON PROOUCI' JNI'ORMA110N FORM

3/8. wilds ch 2 bat 8· t/4 tblsaw w/ct bl. 3 hp plunge router p. planer.w/d.chute mitre saw







149 254 165 479 199








Berkeley: Saturdays. Workshops on Japanese woodworking, joinery, sharpening and woodcarving: Jay Van Ar.;dale. Hida Tool & Hardware Co., 1333 San Pablo Ave. (510) 5243700.

Grand Rapids: February 5-7. The Grand Rapids Show. Grand Rapids Junior College F.eldhouse, Ill Lyon N.E. (800) 521-7623.

Columbus: January 22-24. Veteran's Memorial Hall, 300 West Broad St. (800) 521-7623.

MINNESOTA Citrus Heights: Ten-week course starting January 16. Making a Solid Body Guitar. Michael Gardner. Nemy ElectricToolCo., 763>AAubumBivd. (916)*1088. CRAFT SHOW

San Diego: February 13·14. 1993 California Wildfowl Arts Festival. Competition, dcmonsuations and exhibit of 650 carved birds. San Diego Princess Resort, 1404 W. Vacation Rd. Contact june Lyon. (310) 427-2867.


Minneapolis: January 29-31. The Twin Cities Show. Minneapolis Convention Center, 1301 S. Second Ave. (800) 521-7623. NEW JERSEY EXHIBIDON

Trenton: November 21-January 24. The Forest Refined, Designs by WendeU Castle, David Ell\worth, George Nakashima and others. Trenton City Museum, Calwalader Park, Park Ave. (609) 989-3632.



BrookfieJd: January 9-10. Repairing ChaUs: Larry


Hendricks; January 16-17. Veneer for Woodworking: Robert March; January 23-24. Inlaid Woodturning: Michael Mode; January 30·31. Beginll(:rs Bowl Turning: Bill Gundling; February 67. Hardwood Furniture Making: j osh Markel; February 13-14. Making Windsor Stools: Jim Rendi. Brookfield Craft Center, Route 25. (203) 77>4526. FLORIDA CRAFT SHOW

Fort Walton Beach: February 13-14. The Craft Bugs Winter Show. -Oka1oosa County Fairgrounds. (205) 343-5533. Seffner: February 3-14. Florida State Fair Fine Handcrafted Furniture Show. Florida residents only. 5637 Peach Ave. (813)684-6564. EXHIBITION


DeLand: January IS-March ti. 41st Florida Craftsmen Exhibition. DeLand Museum of Art Cultural Arts Center; 600 N. Woodland Blvd. (904) 7344371. WORKSHOP

St. Petersburg: January 15·17. Japanese Wood joinery Techniques: Jay VanArsdale. Contact)ane jennings, 235 Third St. S., St. Petersburg, FL 33701. (813) 821-7391. GEORGIA DEMONS'mA110N

Clarkston: January lZ. Using the ShaVing Horse: Tim Goodson. Sponsored by Woodworker's Guild of Georgia, at DeKalb College Central Campus, 555 N. Indian Creek Dr. Contact john McO>rmick at (404) 623-9145. ILLINOIS WOODWORKING SHOW

Sprin.g field: February 26-28. Springfield llllnois Show. State FaiJgrounds, Eighth Street and Sanaomon Avenue. (800) 521·7623. INDIANA SEMINAR

Indianapolis: January 9. Dust Collection: Selecting the Proper System: John Lemke, Edward B. Mueller Co., and Tom Pluchar, Deha International. Held at Edward B. Mueller Co., 3940 S. Keystone. (800) 326-2182. MASSACHUSEnS WORKSHOP

Amherst: January 19·22. 14th Annual Wood Identification Workshop: Dr. R. Bruce Hoadley. Univer.;ity of MassachusettS at Amhcr.;L (413) 54>2484.




Uniondale: J~uary 8-10. The Long Island Show. Hofstra University, 100 Fulton Ave. (800) 521-7623. WORKSHOPS

Bronx: January 16, 23. Relief Woodcarving: SteVe Meltzer; January 30, Furniture Care and Polishing: Floyd Rosinl; February 13. Spimlle Woodtuming: Sal Marino; FP.ruary 27. Bowl Turning: Sal Marino; Constantine & Son Inc., 2050 Eastchester Rd. (718) 792·1600.

Jamestown: Ten-week courses starting in Januar}'. Building a Shaker Blanket Chest: Eric Eklum. Advanced Shaker Furniture Design: Eric Eklum. Sponsored by Jamestown Schools. (718) 483-4384. EXHIBffiON

New York: December 10-January 16. New work by Thomas Loeser. Peter Joseph Gallery, 745 Fifth Ave. (212) 751·5500. NORTH CAROLINA

PENNSYLVANIA EXHIBffiONS King of Prussia: February 13-15. The Furniture Market at Valley Forge. Valley Forge Convention Center. (717) 776-4466.

Philadelphia: February 19-22. Philadelphia Buyer's Market. More than 1,200 American crafts. Philadelphia Civic Center. Contact The Rosen Group, 3000 Olestnut Ave., Suite 300. Baltimore, MD 21211. (410) 889-2933. CRAFT SHOW

Val.ley Forge: February 12-15. The Heritage Market of American Crafts, Valley Forge. Hilton Hotel, 251 West DeKa1b Pike. (717) 249-9404. WORKSHOPS

Quakertown: January 8-10, January 15·17, February 18-21. Thre~y workshops with David Ellsworth. Limit four students. Fox Creek, 1378 Cobbler Rd. (215) 536-5298. RHODE ISLAND CAlll'OR ENTRIES

Providence: Rhode Island School of Design and Woodworkers Alliance for Rainforest Protection sponsor an exhibit of work dealing with wood as a dimlnishing resource. Deadline: April 1, 1993. For application, send SASE with two 29-ccnt stamps to: Seth Stem, Box E-14, Rhode Island School of Design, 2 College St., Providence, R1 02<)03. SOUTH CAROLINA WOODWORKING SHOW Ladson: February 19·21. The South carolina Show. Exchange Park, Highway 78. (800) 521·7623.


Greensboro: February 26-27. Carolinas Woodworking and Furniture Supply Show 1993. Greensboro Coliseum Complex. (704) 459-9894. WORKSHOPS

Brasstown: January 3-9. Woodcarving in the Round: Tom Wolfe; January 4-25. Dulcimer: Horger Knight; January 10-16. Woodworking: Eddie Hamrick; January 17-23. WoodcarvingAdvanced: Hal McClure; Woodworking Fundamental: Jim Rittman; January 31-February 6. Mountain Dulcimer: Betty Smith and Bill Smith; February 9·25. Woodworking Fundamental: Dana Hatheway; February 28-Ma.rch 6. Woodcarving-in· the Round: Helen Gibson. Campbel.l Folk School, Route 1, Box 14A. (800) 365-5724. Marshall: Workshops with Drew Langsner. January 11·15. Ladderback Chairmaking. January 25·29. Windsor Chainnaking. February 8-12. Swiss Cooperage. February 22-27. Ladder Chairmaking. Country Workshops, 90 Mill Creek Rd. (704) 656-2280. EXHIBIDON

High Point: April15-23. American Craft Showcase. Iifestyle Expo '93. Contact The Rosen Group, 3000 Chestnut Ave., Suite 300, Baltimore, MD 21211. (410)889-2933. NORTH DAKOTA WOODWORKING SHOW Bismark: January 15·17. The North Dakota Show. Bismark Ovic center, 601 E. Sweet Ave. (roO) 521-7623.


McAIJen: January 23-24. 7th Annual Show and Sale of the Rio Grande Valley Wood Carvers. McAllen Civic Center. Contact Rio Gran de Valley Woodcarvers, Box 3824, McAllen, TX 78502. VIRGINIA WOODWORKING SHOWS

Arllngton: February 12·14. The Washington, D.C. Show. Hyan Regency Crystal City; Jef.(erson Hwy. (800) 521-7623. . •-

Norfolk: January 8-10. SiXth Annual Norfolk Show. Norfolk SCOPE Building, corner of St. Paul and Brambleton. (800) 521-7623. CANADA WOODWORKING SHOW

Ottawa: March 19-21. The Ottawa Wood Show. Lansdowne Park, Bank Street. For additional information contact Cryderman Productions (519) 351~344. . .

·Calendar" listing b free and restricted to woodworking workshops. seminars, trade shows, etc. Ple-J..<;C include: address of e1 ent and a 1.:ontact phone number. Send listing at ~~~~ two momhs prior w date of event to: "C:dcndar," A.l ti:RJCAN W oODWORKER, 33 E. MinorS! ., Emmaus, I'A 18098.

CLASSIFIED RATES: $7S.75 fur 15 words or less, $5.25 for each additional word. DISPLAY CLASSIFIED RATES. Available upon request. WOOD & TOOL EXCHANGE RATES: $7.00 Per line, 3line minimum. Only for individual use. CLOSING DATE: December 23, 1992 for the March/April 1993 issue.

TERMS: Payment to accompany order or use MasterCard/Visa All advertising offers are understood to carry a money-back guarantee by advertisers. ALL OOPY SUBJECT TO APPROVAL. Advertisements received after the closing date will be scheduled in the next available issue. Send advertising copy, heading and payment to: AMERICAN WOODWORKER, Classified Adv. Dept., 33 E. Minor Street, Emmaus, PA 1S098 or call Diane M. Wallbillich, Classified Sales Representative, (215) 967-8123.

Accessories CUSTOM BRANDING I RONS. Drill press or hand-held. Brochure $1.00. ENGRAVING ARTS, P.O. Box 7S7A, Laytonville, CA. 95454. (707) 9848203. RIP FENCE-Amazing recorded message. Call toll free: 1 (SOO) 424-9422.

The Hook That Stays FlDally, a hook that stays OCI the pegboard, nat the too! I Steel-plated hooks fit both l/8" and 1/4" pegboards. Unique locking screw holds forever! Starter Set ODiy $18.95.


Wlacis<>r ladiiStric:s, lac. 86 Elinor Ave. Akroo, OH 44305


SOLID SURFACE CERTIFICATION INFORMATION FOR COUNTERTOPS & FURNITURE Hi-tech polyester & composite materials re· quire certification before you can buy a single sheet. Manufacturers plan to limit the number of certified craftsmen in certain areas. Stay current with the revolution taking place in our trade. Receive certification information for products such as Avonile®, Corian@, Gibrallet® & Fountainhead®. Send a $29.95 check to:

CRAFTSMAN INFO L TO. P.O. Box 1039, Puunene, Hl 96784


Chemgard Wood Treetments: anti·mold & mildew trealment ideal tor logs thai won1 be sealed 101' mon1hs after they're miled. Velvlt 01: an rnerior wood mish that seals, fls, stains & proteclS wood in one application. Maintenance free. No nGed to vamish. Cabin & Deck Flnltll: exleriOI' wood fll'lish lhal is deep penetrating for1111J1a of oils, resins, lunglcides & water proofing compounds. VELVIT PRODUCTS COMPANY, P.O. Box 1741, Dept. AW, Appleton, WI 54913, (414) 722~355

Plans & Kits PROJECT-PAK-The exciting new way to buy wood. See how you can save time and money on your next project. Call for details. HERITAGE: (800) 524-4184.


PLANS FOR BEAUTI FUL wood display mod-

Hand Tools

els of steam locomotives. Send $1.00 for brochure.

JAPANESFf TOOLS SINCE 1888. Free state-of· the-art Zeta saw catalog. TASHIRO'S, 2939 4th Ave. South, #101, Seattle, WA 98134. Telephone (206) 621-0199, Fax (206) 621-0157.

. .,= s& .

bladea 'Ito • to t • wide. • Kit ln~ludes patented, no-clamp fixture, lnatructlona, end enOUgh alloy and flux to make dozens of jolnta. Satlsf11ctlon Guaranteed -


$19.95 -ling.

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$3.00 Slllp!>lng-

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Bits, Blades & Cutters THIS AMAZI NG recorded message is for you. Call 1 (800) CUT-TRUE.

TOOLS-ANTI QUE & USED-STANLEY. Quality selection of scarce hand tools for collec· tors and woodworkers-planes, scrapers, spoke· shaves, saws, chisels, levels, rules, unusual items, etc. COMPLETE, working tools. Hundreds of ready to use pre-1960 tools. Satisfaction Guaranteed. Prompt, postpaid service. VISAIMC. Current illustrated list-$3.00. Subscription- $10.00/yr., 5 lists. BOB KAIJNE, Dept. AW193, 511 W. 11th, Port Angeles, WA 98362. (206) 452-2292. FINEST QUALITY hand forged carving tools. Small scorps, drawknives, bent knives. FREE catalog. NORTH BAY FORGE, Box A15, Waldron, WA98297. TOOLS FROM ENGLAND. Antique and used. Exceptional selection of rare hand tools for collectors and woodworkers. Norris, Spiers and Preston tools. All cabinetmakers tools. $4.00 for current list; $8.00/year, 2 lis~ Tony Murland, THE TOOL SHOP, 7S High Street, Needham Market, Ipswich, Suffolk, England 1P6 SAW. (0449) 722992. "DIAMOND JIM"

II you WOlle. it hardwood, 1hia tit Ia on.lool you lnUM havol Unlb olhof bill, flo F.,._ Is tplldod Ill' b acur.r rlln hdead at the wn•. Bote any •c Of citde and you ieeve a • ue poi:W'Ied suffM:le. Guide it in eny d•edon, h w1t1MOOI\Iy thiOUf" Cf<:a-961n or tnol$l AVAILABLE IN THESE SIZES:

STEAMER PLANS, 4341 Avon, Independence, MO

64055 MAKE WOODEN TOYS, whirligigs, banks, door harps, dol!houses, clocks, music boxes, weather instruments, crafts, furniture with our plans, kits, supplies -Catalog $1.00 - (SOO) S48-4363CHERRY TREE TOYS, Belmont, OH 43718-0369. AUTHENTIC GINGERBREAD PATTERNS -Mantles, shelves, screen doors, pickets and gate designs. Over 100 professional full-size architectural plans and patterns. Catalog $3.00. AMERICANA DESIGNS, 3134 Grayland Ave., Richmond, VA 23221. SUPER WOODCRAFT PATTERNS, windmills, wells, vanes, whirligigs, jigsawing. Fun or profit. Catalog $1.00. WOODCRAFTERS, 11840 North U.S. 27, Dewitt, MI 48820. MUZZLELOADING RI FLE KITS: Assemble your own Pennsylvania/Kentucky rifle, 1S61, 1S63 Springfield, Brown Bess, Charleville, or other muzzleloading rifles with one of our kits. Order the GIANT 600 PAGE Dixie Gun Works catalog today! Send $4.00 to DIXIE GUN WORKS, Dept. AW, P.O. Box 130, Union City, TN 3S261, or call (901) 885-0700.


ltr Diamond Depdt + 3/1" Wide o.-.ulnJ Surface ,.

Flat, S m o oth , C le an Grlndlnc Wh eels = Call ot Write: SHARPfR TOOLS/

1/4" Me' 318' 7/te' 1/2' 8/18' '!S/8' 11/18' 314" 13118' 718' 15/18' ,. 1 1/18'

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Har4woo4 Hondto $4

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Experts Agree ··· "Best Dresser Around



Winston-Salem, N.C. 271144006 NC Resideflts add 6% Sales Tax Bucket and swivel bearing available upon request

Finishing Supplies Instruction SUMMER WORKSHOPS. Basic and intermediate courses in beautiful Maine. Contact: CENTER FOR FURNITURE CRAFTSMANSHIP, Peter Korn, Director, Box 654, Camden, ME 04843. (207) 236-3032. "GETTING STARTED in Stained Glass." Instructions, boros coupons, $2.00. WHITTEMORE, Box 2065ML, Hanover, MA 02339.

CRACKLE FINISH & Crackle lacquer. Specialty fin.i shing supplies. OLDE MILL, 1660 Camp Betty, York, PA 17402. (717) 755-8884. SPRAY-ON SUEDE . . . Free brochure/sample. DONJER PRODUCTS, Ilene Court-Building SA, Bellemead, NJ 08502. (SOO) 336-0537. FINE WOOD WAX with sunscreen. In gloss or satin finish. No N.Y.S. addresses. 6.75 oz., $14.00 + $5.00 S&H. Check or MO. TEAM HOCH, P.O. Box 1034, Ossining, NY 10562. JA

I Ill· l :. I I \1 \TE I'\ IllS I OJ{ I(' SHIP \101)1-.1. KII'S Museum quall1y replicas you build yourself. Pre-cu1 wooden pai1S, metal and brass fittings, cl01h sails. Up to 4 feel long. Send $1.00 for our catalog. Model Expo, Inc. Dept. AW13 PO Box 1000 MI. Pocono, PA 18344







T"on:d of aiOrin'

your music

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lint old .hoe box? BuUd an altr.adl..,



PERIOD BRASS FURNITURE hardwareknobs, pulls, locks, casters, hinges .. . more. 74-page catalog $4.00. PAXTON HARDWARE, P.O. Box 256-AW10, Upper Falls, MD 21156. (301)

rewlvin' display. 48 Video tape. 72 Audio tape or 88 CD capadty Professional with sll!p-by-strp inatructiono S8.9S ead1 2 or 3 S6.9S each. Specify Type.

TEXAS MESQUI TE, native pecan, blackjack oak, fiddleback sycamore, feathered Savannah oak, bois d'arc, aromatic red cedar, tidewater red cypress. $100 minimum order. TEXAS KILN PRODUCTS, (800) 825-9158.


M.A.$......,· P.O. 1m 966 • $oo1a Tauo. NJL 88008

AUI'HENI1C IEPIOOUCI'lONSI lion or recreation of line

GOOD HOPE HARDWOODS-Curly cherry, walnut, figured mahogany and tiger maple. Highly figured Claro ·walnut in matched sets for fine furniture and in flitches up to 54 in. wide by 13 ft. long. NORMAN HUGHES, 1627 New London Rd., Landenberg, PA 19350. (215) 274-8842.

cablnetry.lllmllure. docn. and windows. Many hard to lndilon.~.wood.and

porcelain olde wOflcle piec»a. 8eUilul Clldalog.

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1000 · - pictured al actual ~. 200 pagas with brief hietory of European &yle$. S«ttt$1S.OOII>:



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CHAIR CANING SUPPLIES- Webbing, rush, splint, rawhide, cord. Catalog $1.00 (Refundable). CAN ING SHOP, 926-AW Gilman, Berkeley, CA 94710. BASKET WEAVING & CANING supplies. Large selection of weaving materials, books, handles, tools. Brown ash and other naturals. Retail. Wholesale. Catalog $1.50. ROYALWOOD LTD., 517-AW Woodville Rd., Mansfield, OH 44907. (419) 526-1630.


Sl2.115-l pl., ~ I .D5-2piM>S ~~115-Jpl ....

(11o..dt$ S&H) AlSO AVAI.ASI.E ·WhoiiKli·R.m. Tro • Melol Porll Kit• ~WigOIIAopt.f

Miscellaneous FREE CATALOG of money making books, ideas and unusual items. Department 50, Box 4467, Columbia, sc 29240. EASY WORK! Excellent pay! Assemble products at home. Call for information: (800) 467-5566, ext. 2743.

COMPUTER INDEX locates information for better use of your woodworking magazines. 454 + issues, llleading magazines. Yearly updates. IBM compatible, DGS or Windows 3.0/.3.1, $49.95. Free brochure. WOODFIND, Box 2703L, Lynnwood, WA98036. PC SOFTWARE, Comprehensive Woodworking Index: 11 journals, 290 issues, 6500 articles, update service. $44.95, Free S&H. INFODEX SERVICES, Dept. 5601, 10609 King Arthurs, Richmond, VA 23235-3840. Free information.

Wood Parts

LET THE GOVERNMENT finance your small business. Grants/loans to $500,000. Free recorded message: (707) 449-8600. (LU4)

CATALOG: .1.00 VAN DYKE' S,IIopl.l2. P.O. lu 211, --.......SO 57315

plies at money saving prices I Whirligig•, Door Harps, Clocks and Clock Partl, Chair cane, Wooden Toy Parta, lamp Parta, Lazy Susan Bearings, Tools, Patterrw, Dowels, Spindles, Finish· lng Materials, Bo~ & Cabinet Hard· ware and more. Send $1 .00 for catalog today!

BARAP Specialties, Dept. AW992 835 Bellows, Frankfort, Michigan 49635

GRANADILLO, and other Rainforest Alliance certified "Smart Wood." WISE WOOD, P.O. Box 1271, McHenry, IL 600504456. (815) 344-4943.


I \ \ 1ST l'f '\ I'·\ In '> c::::::I]J I ~ Fountain, Rol~ ball and Twist pen parts. Improved quality. Best US price by far! Finished pens from $2.50. Pen packaging, pen stock. Also, exotic & domestic hardwoods, turning stock, & supplies. Send SASf to : Cray Hardwoods, 1750 Ravine Road Vista, CA 92083 (619) 940-1856


100 Species in Stock ~ ~ Burls for Turners ~ MCNise Accepted. Cal or Wrte:

COLONIAL HARDWOODS, INC. 7648 Dynatech Ct., Springfield, VA. 22153


FAX: (703)451-0186

Shij>ped UPS or Common Carrier

Unicorn Unl•'~ersaJ WOODS ph. 418 ss1 23oa

New 1993 catalog of Woodworker sup-

BLACK WALNUT LUMBER. 5000 bd. ft., 2-in. thick, 10 years air-Gied. HHn. to 15-in. width, $31 bd. ft. 16-in. to 26-i.n. width $5/bd. ft. or make best offer for lot. D. DAVIS, 84 Forest Road, Milford, CT 06460. (203) 874-7184.


Call (609) 890· 1990

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·•xtensive invtmrory •exct~llent


'$pfleill/ty woods • qu11/ity millwork • p/ywoods/llflntHrs •wholes•!• •Nitllil •mBil ordfJr •lf"fHH c•t•log



WILLARD BROTHERS WOODCUTTERS 300 Basin Road, Trenton, NJ 08619




Sawmill - · Kiln Hardwoods Exotics


EARN CASH - Sell pre-packaged patterns for toys, games, puzzles, furniture . Great moneymakers at craft shows, flea markets, retail stores. Large profit margin. Catalog, sample pattern & selling information. $2.00 Refundable. DESIGN GROUP, Box 514G, Miller Place, NY 11764.

1JIM\ ~&Jiee'~

TURNING BLOCKS: burls/crotches. Imported & domestic hardwoods & veneers. 50+ species. Brochure $1.00. S.A.S.E.: WOODPLY WMBER-A5, 100 Bennington Ave., Freeport, NY 11520. (800) 354-9002.


Craft Supplies

WHX 14W X341.

NATIVE AMERICAN HARDWOODS, 21 domestic species from The Greatest Hardwood Forest in the World - call (800) 688-7551 for catalog.

, .. 418 881 11039


QUALiTY NORTHERN APPALACHIAN HARDWOOD FREE dellvezy. Bundled, surfaa!d, shrinlt-wrapped. satisfaction Guaranteed. NIAGARA WMBER & WOOD PRODUCI'S, INC. 47 Elm Street, East Aurom, NY 14052. (800) 274-0397.

The Profealo11111's Choice In Lumber •nd Woodwor/clng Accessories

Highest qually lumber at alfofdable prlcet tor woodwork81S, fine furniture makers, contrae1ors and hobbyists. All northeastern hardwoods Including pine, walnut. buttemut. whle and red oak. , ~, ~UMBER


Free catalog. No minimum order. PO Box 450, Swan lake, NY 12783 1·900-828-WOOO AI<WISA

SELECT & BETTER 20BF Bulk Pack: red oak $2.10/bf, hard maple $1.49/bf, walnut $3.05/bf; Additional species; Visa/MasterCard; Free catalog. BADGER HARDWOOIJS, Route 1, Box 262, Suite AW7, Walworth, Wl53184. (800) 252-2373. BASSWOOD-KILN DRIED 1" thru 5 112" thick. Lumber and carving blocks. Other hardwoods available. Free stock list-S.A.S.E. MACBEATH HARDWOOD, 930 Ashby Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94710. (510) 843-4390. FANTASTIC INVENTORY -logs, lumber, turning blanks, instrument woods. Catalog $2.00. GILMER WOOD CO., 2211 NW St. Helens Road, Portland, OR 97210. (503) 274-1271.

CALIFORNIA'S RARES~ BURLS, direct from logger. Over 500 tons of beautiful redwood, maple, buckeye, madrone, manzanita; for all uses. BURL TREE, (707) 442-1319. BEST EXOTICS AVAILABLE: Cocobolo, 5 pes. 2 X 2 X 12, $30.00/5 p<;S. 11/2 X 11/2 X 12, $18.00/3 pes. 1 x3x24 $27.00/Ebony 11hx 11hx 18,$12.50/ Tagua nuts 10 pes. $14.00 ppd. Calif. residents 'fl196 tax. Also tulipwood, ziricote, bocote, pink ivory, snakewood & more. S.A.S.E. TROPICAL EXOTIC HARDWOOOS, Box 1806, Carlsbad, CA 92018. (619) 434-3030. Visa!MC. ROSEWOOD SCRAPS-25 lbs/$24.95 delivered. PINE CREEK WOOD CO., P.O. Box 588A, West Linn, OR 97068. (503) 636-6430. '

WIDE QUARTERSAWN white & red oak, lumber & flooring. Plus figured lumber. TALARICO HARDWOODS, RD#3, Box 3268, Mohnton, PA 19540. (800) 373-6097.

BURL, FIGURED LUMBER-squares, slabs, whole. Sample kits. S.A.S.E. for list. EUREKA HARDWOOD, 3346 D Street, Eureka, CA 95501. (707) 445-3371.

"GOOD WOOD" Pennsylvania hardwoods. Many species & sizes. FREE catalog: CROFFWOOD MILLS, Rd. 1, Box 14C, Driftwood, PA 15832.

Wood & Tool Exchange

TURNERS! Burl, curl, quilted & spatted bowl blanks. Highly figured, kiln d ried lumber. SEASONED HARDWOOOS, (503) 247-7875.

FOR SALE Antique woodworking tools. Wood bed lathe, scroll saw {large), grinder. All electric powered and flat belt driven. Shop built, horizontal, hollow chisel mortise machine. Also, wall mount, hand operated drill press. Call evenings-(215) 7915035, (EST).

HOMESTEAD HARDWOODS, (800) 241-3770 or (216) 889-3770. Ash, basswood, butternut, cherry, chestlUlt, curiylbird's eye maple, oak, poplar, sassafras, walnut. Great widths/thicknesses. QUILTED, CURLY, burl, spalted-mapleboards, blocks, flooring. 100 lbs. figured shorts: $100-Free shipping. RANDLE WOODS, P.O. Box 96, Randle, WA. (800) 845-8042. FINEST APPALACHIAN & EXOTIC hardwoods. Veneers & plywood. 'fuming & carving blocks. Freud products & West System epoxies. Old Fashioned Milk Paint. Bartley gel finishes. Millwork available. Best prices. FREE listS.A.S.E.-HARTWOOD, LTD., P.O. Box 397, New Oxi>rd, PA 17350, or call (717) 624-9292.

OnJ:y for individual use.

Brazilian rosewood veneer. Widths to 20", lengths to 9'. 700 sq. ft: available- while supplies last. P.O. Box 493, Springtown, PA 18081. Compressor. Campbell-Hausfield 2.5 H.P. oilless with in-line moisture filter. Used approx. 50 hours, $230. Call (215) 79!-5127. WANTED ExperienceiJ help wanted in custom/production shop. Call (215) 346-8330 evenings.


When these rain forests go, gone forever are the rare plants, animals and cultures that call them home. You can help stop this senseless destruction by joining The National Arbor Day Foundation, the world's largest tree-planting environmental organization, and supporting Rain Forest Rescue to stop further burning.

RAin toPeJt "Rewsu_ ~The National ~Arbor DaY- Foundation

Call Rain Forest Rescue NOW.


Used 8" or 12" jointer. Mid-Atlantic states only, please. Call (215) 791-5127.



(Pre-Roclale Pras lsSOies) JUDe 1985, Vol.l, No.2: Small tilt-top table =Sept. 1985, Vol. I, No.3: Carcase c:oostntctioo _Spring, 1986, Vol. U, No 1: Eli Terty Clock _ Summeo,,.l987, Vol. Ill. No.2: Decorative 1\trnillg

l.alhePctl _ Wint«, 1987, Vol. lll, No.4: Decorative Turning Lathe Part4 (Roclale Press lss•es) _ #1 April 1988: Shaker Roekers, Router Dov014il Jigs 114 October 1988: Bleaching Wood, Resawing #S December 1988: Plunge Routers, Aniline Dyes _If> February 1989: Low-Post Bed, Taper' 011 Jointer _117 Apri11989: Nonn Abram Bureau. Stroke Sander


Plazts _ #8 June 1989: Corner Cupboard, Filing Cabinel _ /19 AugllSt 1989: Tablesaw Thne-up, Windsor cradle 110 October 1989: Tool Cabinet, Glues - I l l December 1989: Shake: Boxes, 2«ded easel 112 February 1989: Router Basics, Parson'' Table _ 1113 Apri11990: Turned Birdh011$0S. Slot Mortiser 1114 JUDe 1990: Tablesaw Cutoff Box, Missioo armchair =IllS August 1990: Carving Leuers, Quilt Rack 116 October 1990: Veneer Press, Sharpening -1117 De<lOIDber 1990: Shaker Side Table, Stains -1118 February 1991: Mortise & Tenoo, Workbench 1119 Apri11991: Garden Bench, Tavern Table _1121 August 1991: Backyard Lwnber making, 4-Poster

= =

We have a limited supply of AMERICAN WOODWORKER back issues for sale. When these are gone, there'll be no more. Each issue features great articles, projects and woodworking tips. Don't miss out. Order today!


800-666-3111 Visa or Mastercard only

Check off issues you want. Order by phone, or mail ad wiJh check I money order to:




(Includes Issues #1- #29) Stop thumbing through back issues to find what you want! The AMERICAN WOODWORKER Index zeros in fast on information you need. The Index includes every article, project, Tech Tip and more from 1988 through 1992-alllisted by subject and cross-referenced for easy use.

Bed _ 1122 October 1991: Drawer making, Hanging Carner Cupboud _lf23 December 1991: Riding Locomotive, Slat-Top Desk #24 February 1992: Windsor Chair, Router Table 1125 Apri11992: 1\ming a Bandsaw, Tall Clock Part 1 _ 1126 JUDe1992: Tall Clock Part 2, Angled Dov014ils _ 1127 AugllSt 1992: Shaker Sewing StaDel, nny Thmings



Q INDEX $4.95

(Please check off the issues you want)

Total Amount Enclosed _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ __ Name _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ Address _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ City_ _ _ _ _ _ State_ Zip_ __


..••••..••...........................•...••.........•.•...............•.•...••••.•..•••..•••......•..............••..••••..•.••.•.•.•.•.... JANUARY




GA11fRY ...

W riling desk by Fie lding Robert Lane III, San Marcos, California. Rosewood, e bony. D imensions: H: 30 in. , W: 46 in., D: 2 5 in.

Ttze student furniture designers at the 1992 International Woodworking Fair in Atlanta were so outstanding we decided to devote a whole Gallery section to their work. Featured here are f;~e pieces, /rom the show entitled Design Bmphasis-92.


Folding chair by Kelly Stark, Carbondale, Dlinois. White oak, plastic laminate. Dimensions: H: 31 in., W: 31 in. , D: 25 in.




~A11IRY ...


Gazelle table by Lance Muscara, Pottsville, Pennsylvania. Rosewood (plantation grown), maple, concrete, glass. Dimensions: H: 18 in., W: 24 in., L: 60 in.

Desk by Brenden Eggers, ~ Ames, Iowa. Padauk, plywood, cable. Dimensions: H: 60 in. , W: 48 in., D: 27 in•

Chest of drawers by Douglas Thayer, Rochester, New York. Cherry. Dimensions: H: 44 in., W: 36 in., D: 17 in.

Want to see your work in "Gallery?" Send color slides or color transparencies to "Gallery," AMERICAN WOODWORKER, 33 E. Minor St., Emmaus, PA 18098. Please include: materials, dimensions, name of photographer, your name, address, and phone number. If you want your photos returned enclose a self-addressed stamped envelope.




The Wood Slicer Extra-Durable, Precision Reaawlng Blades f or Delta, Sears, Shopsmlth, Inca & other Bandsaws Slice through hetdwoods up 1012" ll*:k wilh J.l 1he d...-1. euint cuts you- bande&w hao ~ delivered. Wood Slicer"' bledM lee!ute indMdualy filed, ~ion ... teelh wtictl .... bombArded wilh titanium cM>ide ..., impuiM 10 llay aharp 3 ti"'" longer 1han Otdinary biadM. <:arbon-~ apring a...C blade atoc:k Ia ltliMet 8nd allonge<, ail*ng high llnlion- - tino • wood

""'"**' -

r.quiring- power from you' .... unconditionally

..._art - .,.

State-of •

guaraniHd againat breakage. Holl·ineh 3-IOolh dNign ie icleollo< raawing- ripping any wood up 10your - · • maximum cap&dly.


~ lottglll: 72" (Shopomilh). rr 113-112"{0ella 14"},0t 1()4.$'.'(0etta 14"with c...IDm letlgflw; • . . . , . with 4~ ......


WOODWORKING TOOL CATALOG! Our new 140 page, full-color catalog ts packed with over 4,000 new and bel>Hielltnlir--quallty woodworking tools, books, cabinetry hardware, and suppUes.

Order Yours Today! Call free 1-800-542~115 Orwrtte:

AW<I>DCRAFI'' V 210 Wood County Industrial Park Dept. 93WA01T. PO Box 1686

p,.,.k,.,·,.httr<1 WV 26102-1686

ATTENTION ~~~~M~If RETAILERS! lUIIIBER Sel American Woodworker in your store and eam RISK FREE PROFITS. No investment required.

American Woodworker is a sure-fire "extra" your customers will enjoy...and one that will pay off handsomely for you. Best of all, you don't have to invest a cent. For details can our tollfree number or write: American Woodworker Direct Sales Dept. 3J E. Minor Street Emmaus, PA 18098

MAKE MONEY! Kiln Dry for others.

As the nation's largest manufacturer of dehumidifi· cation Dry Kilns, we can supply you with the same type equipment used by many of the major firms.

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SAVE YOUR COPIES OF AMERICAN WOODWORKER Sturdy gold-Wed matoon leather cases and bind«s

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to hold 2 yea!$' issues. Spcing mechanism easily snaps rods

in binder.



H7.95 1-$9.95



016et fron~ : AMtcican Woodwortltr.J._..JOI" lltdu:•rila. Otlpi. RP·AW 48tE•II Erit A~.P•Ia. PA 1tiS4. EadouiiMt, addrtN t111d P'f'IMI:

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bocllilf. Oobldo USA SUO por <-do< ~S lvodo Oftlr}. P A r -• odri7Y. ........ QWIGfORO£R .....o•SUj:MEa,VO..UC.OC

IC<OfiiK S•dtado,.t. l tlf. dllt. CAU. TOUFRU 74arlfZ4-""'Il I·IOO.UH6M. -+6-oiOI-..,. SAllSI'ACTIOIIGI.IAIIAHTRO


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3-$21.95 3-$27.95





S3S8 358 2~




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Met Now! $396






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PROJECTS IN METAL Magazine Teaches You Metalworking Basks with Valuable Projects Uke This Scroll Sow An indispensable tool for-¥lOO<lworkers! You'll learn metal crafts by making useful tools for 1111..... .. your shop. Each issue features complete projects - plus notes on metalworking technique, and tips to save you headaches, time, money. $19.00 a year (6 issues) check or charge card. P ROJECTS IN METAL, Dept. F26, P.O. Box 1810, Traverse City, MI 49685. Or call S00-447-7367. SPECIAL OFFER: Scroll saw plans are fret for the asking when yoa subscribe. But be sure to ask! Cf'ICLE NO. 80 ON Pf¥XlUCT NFOAMATION FORM

mTEIEIT Of THE OWIIERSHP. 1WWD111T Alll CIICWTDI OF AIIIEIIItNI W0111W0RKER REQH111Y ACt OF ClC'1-.R 23, 1M2: SB:TDI 4311, TilLE 31. IMTEil S'WES ailE. FUD, ClC'1-.R 1, 1112. AMEIOCAN WOOONIR<EJI is po.tJished bkncr111tt at 33 East Mfnao Street, Enmaus, PA 18098. pullbtilll am unra1 busi1ess ~. The names alld U~tesses of lilt l)llllllwlr. edtrl and ~ edtrl are: Putilisher-David Slotn, 33 East Miler Street, Emmaus. PA 18098. Edtor-David Slotn, 33 East llhlr S!Jeet. Enmaus, PA 18098. ManaQirl;l Editor-Kevil trelalld, 33 East Minor Str1iel, E11Y11aus, PA 18098. 1l1e OWIIer is: Rodalll Press, " ·· 33 E. Minor Street, Emmaus, PA 18098. 1l1e stod<holders thele· of ~ Ama Rodale, Altlath Rodale, and the estatll of AOOert ROOalll. The known txnllctders, mortga· gees. and other secllily holders owning or tooiOOg 1 percent or more of the total al1lOIIlt of boods, mor1· gages, and oUler secuitles are: None. A. Total No. Copies (Net Press R~J~): !IM!rage no. of C01Jie$ each issue di.R1g iXecedioQ 12 mos.: 289,334. ~Issue nearest to filing date: 317,000. 8. Paid Circu· lllion: 1. Sales lll'ol9t dealer$ Wid Cillliers. sb!et wndors alld COll1la' sales: Nenge 00. of COIJie$ each Issue !luring~ 12 mos.: 21 .243. Si1gle issue nearest to filing date: 31.538. 2. Mal Sub· sc:fi:JIDJs: IMraQe oo. of coPes each issue~ p-eaDlg 12 mos.: 238,5EO. SiVe issue nearest to ~ dale: 243,284. C. Total Paid CltiA!icn (St.m of 81 Wid 82): IMraQe oo. of QlOies each issue fb· ~ fJIII*Ino 12 mos.: 259.803. Sitglllssue nearest to~ dill!: 274 ,822. o. me IJsiJbrtioo by Mal, Carrier or Oilier Means Safre*s, Complrnenl2ry, and Other Fret Copies: Aoerage no. of copies eadt Issue dl.mJ preceding 12 mos.: 1,588. Single Issue nearest to liing elate: 1.492. E. Total Oistrbutlul (~of CatXI D): IMraQe no. of cqies eac1t issue dlfing precdlo 12 mos.: 261,391. Single issue near· est to ling datil: 276,314. F. Copie$ Nol Oistrbuted: 1. Office use, leftover, unaccounted, spoiled after ~ Jwerage oo. of copies each Issue d\ling precedilg 12 fllOIS.: 3.097. Single Issue nearest to filing dale: 4,412. 2. RetliTIS from News Agslts: 1flfn4e oo. of copies each Issue dlling preceding 12 mos.: 24,848. Single issue nearest to fling datil: 36,274. G. Totll (St.m ol E. F1 and 1'2): Jwerage no. ol C01Jie$ eac11 issue~ pr~ 12 mos.: 289,334. Single issue nearest to filing datil: 317,000.



*Tbe LeigbJig Cllll/miiiJib dmV'Iails Ibat looked ldenUCIJJ to llxw.> cui by band. tmdfit together as iftlxty bad been ~lit b)' a master.~ '1\'00DS\trnt MAGAZINE

more routers.


..Certainly no prodt/CIIon u'Of'k!obQp

See Leigh jigs put to good use in ''The New Yankee Workshop" ~idcos.

~/}Qu/d be tdlbtJuJ Ollt' oft~. and 1/x>

PLUS! The only Multiple Monise

serious bome cmflsman u·/11ji11dgrmt ./0)' intiSing it • JOliN S~I!\SBUIV'S

and Tenon Attachment ever made.


PLUS! Top woodworkers worldwide share their projects and comments about our jigs.

"/wasa11111zed tbattblsjlg...rould make manyjoint.s. ..ln till)' pall£'1'11 )YJII


lilltl.. "


Mail to: Leigh InduStries Lid., P.O. Box 357, 1585 Broadway St., Port Coquitlam, B.C., Canada Y3C 4K6 Tcl.604 464-2700 Fax.604 464-7404

r-----------------------------, YES!


Please send me my FREE D0\1ITMLJIG CATALOG.


I ~ I I

I I I Country L

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I I I I I I I ,... I


fiNAl PA~~ Hand-Sharpening Service

turn marginal into straight, square timbers, Japanese researchers heat the logs in a microwave, then compress them.

Heat+ Pressure= Woocl Squared Think of the time and wasted wood you 'd save if you could grow trees square instead of cutting them that way. Well, a researcher in Japan has come up with the next best thing. Yoshinori Kobayashi of the Nara Prefecture Forest Experiment Station has patented a technique to "cook" and compress raw logs to shape them into square framing timbers. (See photos.) This reduces sawing time and cutting waste, while yielding wood that is denser and hence¡ stron~r. The experimental process starts in a special microwave oven where the

A Chopper That Saws When Jim Sunderland needed a cut-off saw for his Nova Scotia lumber mill he was put off by the $300-$400 price tag for a new one so he made his own "chopper" saw by mounting a saw blade to the rear axle of his son's old Honda motorcycle. (See photo.) 88



logs are "cooked" at 212°F until the lumber becomes limber. Then they're compresse<l, driving out the moisture. When they cool, the logs retain their new square shape, along with some interestingly wrinkled grain patterns. Kobayashi's research grew out of efforts t& create good framing lumber for homes. The Nara area of Japan has a large number of cypress trees, which were planted after World War II, but these trees only run 8 in. to 12 in. in dia., and the wood tends to be widegrained and weak. With the squaring process, weak trees, and even those that are bent or misshapen, can be put to good use.

Modifying the bike took a good bit of work but using it is simple. You just start the engine with a lever welded to the kick starter, put the motor in gear and carefully pivot the rear half of the bike into the rough lumber. The motorcycle redlines at 8000 rpm-fiendishly fast for a saw bladeso Sunderland runs it in second gear when cutting. As to how efficient the "chopper" saw is, Sunderland says he doesn't know. He's never bothered to check how many board feet he gets per gallon. Smon "\Wztts

Superior Sharpening Services is a mail-order outfit that specializes in sharpening tools by hand. That' s right... by hand. The company sharpens with Japanese water stones, and will tackle most hand tools as well as jointer knives and planer knives. Prices range from $1.50 for honing a new chisel to $2.50 for a plane, if the bottom is already square and flat . Each tool comes back razorsharp and with a mirror bright finish. For a complete list of costs, write George Foras, 8551 W. 102 Terrace 4-105, Palos Hills, IL 60465, (708) 430-7009.

Pre-Cut Wood for Projects If you're in a rush to finish a piece for

a special occasion or you'd just rather spend your time at the bench than the lumberyard, Paul Thieme has a service that might be of interest. Thieme and his company Heritage Building Specialists market hardwood kits for woodworking projects. He concentrates on pieces that have been featured in magazines, including AW, but he's also willing to price out wood for your designs. Each Project-PAK contains stock that is slightly oversize in length and width , but thicknessed to final dimension. All material is clear and surface sanded. Prices aren't bad; Cherry for the slant-top writing desk that appeared in AW #23 will. ~ost you $99.95 delivered, while the silver chest in the same issue will run you $49.95 in oak. For more information contact Heritage Building Specialists, 205 N. Cascade St., Fergus Falls, MN 56537, (218) 739-9710.

If you have a news item, anecdote or opinion you think belongs in "Final Pass, " send it lO AMERICAN WOODWORK.RR, 33 E. Minor St., Em-

maus, PA 18098.

We set the standard, now we've raised it

Micro positioning. the smart way. INCRA MIKE worts bymicro adjusting your fence ONLY. The rest of the jig stays locked in place without losing your scale or template senings. That's the smart way! Unlike other not·so-sman machines, there's no need to readjust your scale and you won't lose your starting point. INCRA MIKE uses original, first of its kind technology. There are no buttons to bold down, knobs you'll forget to unclamp. or rol.lers to gum up. Best of all. you won't have to spend a f01t11ne to get INCRA MIKEs superior positioning controL

What will 17'CRA~U KE do for )OU? Zeroing and centering operations just got a lot easier. No tapping. no shims. no trial and error. Just put the fence close to where you

:,; .· .... :.·· PATENT PENDING

INCRA MIKE,the ntM' PRECISION MICRO POSITIONERfrom Taylor Design a/lachesto any INCRA JIG, Original or PRO,and finetunesthe position ofyour work with truly txquisite precision. Asimple turn ofthe handle moves yourfence eitherforwardOR backward in EXACT, CAL/BRA TED 111000" steps to ANYposition between INCRA JIG's already precise 1131" settings. Much finer adjustments art just as easy.

want it, then fine tune the remaining distance with the MIKE. Next time you need to match up odd sized pieces, loosen up a tight joint. or shave your last cut by "just a hair" (or less). simply dial in the exact m-::rr"- - -1111:!""""1 amount you need and make the • perfect cut. Return the MIKE to the "0" mali; and your fence is right back where you started.

The new INCRAMIKE positions your fence in EXACT, CALIBRATED l/1001}" steps. That's 113 the thickness of the page this is printedon.

INCRA~li KE ,. AJtaches to arry INCRA JIG, Original or PRO, to adjust your fence to ANY position between fixed 1/32' steps.

... 17'CRA~1 aster Template Librar)

\\ e'1etaken the best and made il better!

50 genuine 16"1oog INCRA templates for use with INCRA JIG or INCRA JIG PRO. Includes templates to make all of the joints sbown here and much more. plus acomplete range of fixed increment templates. Comes with full sized plans for each joint. A great supplement for the INCRA JIG Handbook and Video.

Precision crafted of solid aluminum. the INCRA JIG PRO delivers the same phenomenal accuracy as the Original INCRA JIG over a full16 3/8" range. But it's the new user-friendly features that make this tool such a pleasure to use. Aquick action cam clamp locks the jig securely in place. No secondary lock-down knob needed! Release the clamp and the racks automatically spring apart. An adjustable top mounted scale and the FLIPSIGH'fll' hairline cursor make it easy to view every setting. And there's no need to buy a complete new setup. INCRA JIGPRO wods with ALL genuine INCRA JIGAccessories. Best of all. it's.,surprisingly affordable. Our top of the line 16 3/8" 1NCRA .. JIG PRO sells for

The INCRASystem


$60.00LESS than our nearest competitor's bottom of the line 10 1{2" machine. Why? Because our superior. state of the an rack technology simply worts better and costs less to produce.

• Instantly attaches to ANY INCRA JIG, Original or PRO. • Continuous micro adjust~nt in CALIBRATED 111000" steps between any 1132" setting. • Also moves in EXACT 1/64" and 1/128' steps. • Easy to read top mounted high resolution scale with hairline cursor. • Solid aluminum and tool steel construction. • Fully assembled, ready to install. • Made in the U.S.A. • AGENUINE INCRA TOOL.

NEWfor Fall '92!




• 1\CR-\ JIG PRO The INCRA JIG PRO.shown here wilt! tfle 28' INCRA PRO me System •mms atru#j supelb tenet for tfle table sw or router table. (INCRA JIG PRO and INCRA PRO me System sold separate~)

The Originaii\ CRA JIG When INCRA JIG was first introduced several years ago, it quickly became the favorite tool in wori;shops across the country. With good reason. For the first time ever, a woodwori;er was able to position his work with true machine shop precision and better than machine shoprepeatability. All rrom a tool that costs less than $40.00! CIACI.E NO. 52 ON PROOUCT ~FORMAT ION FOAM

01992. Tayi«llesqiGt,_,, ll'(.


These beautiful wooden hinges will provide the perfect accent for your next project. Complete. fully illustrated plans include a FREE aluminum hinge drilling guide.

This IS" long aluminum runner adjusts for perfect sliding action in any standard table saw miter slot. Also locks in place for stationary jigs. Includes illustrated plans for building a wide variety of table saw jigs.

Coming Soon! 1\CR·\ PROJECT BOOK Written by our own "INCRA Pro". Perry McDaniel, this beautifully illustrated book contains a wide variety of complete projects, like the jewelry box shownhere. that you can build with your INCRA JIG. l":::llit!tfl"<r.!!to..._

• ~EW! INCRA JIG PRO • \EW! 28" 1NCRA PRO Fence System • \E\\! INCRA MIKE • '\EW! INCRA Master Template Library • '\[\\ ! INCRA MITER SLIDER • \E\\! INCRA Woodft H~ePius

• The Originai iNCRA JIG e 18" 1NCRAfet~tt System

• INCRA Right Angle fiXturt • The Ofl"ldal INCRA JIG Handbooll &Templates • Tht Complde INCRA JIG Video • INCRA GAUGE

1For a FREE INCRA Brochure & your nearest dealer. write:




Taylor Design Group, Inc. P.O. Box 810262 Dallas. TX 75381 Or send S8.00 for our new VIDEO BROCHURE (VHS)




joining . J ot eas1

The New G100 Gluing System

/ /

With the Freud Biscu~ Joining System, you can create an exceptionally strong joint quick and easy, and with Freud's new Gluing System, / / joining just got easier. Now, for a limited time, receive a free Gluing System with the purchase of a Freud Biscuit Joiner. /


The Freud JS100 Joiner has an industrial duty cast housing, a solidly built drive and a powerful5 amp / JSIOOB<scutJoner motor that will give you many years of service. Freud is world renowned for carbide cutting tools and the blade for / / nu;~ooJ>MCI>asedfrom the biscutt joiner is made using the same advanced technology in the same factories. With this system you get a / ~~~~ carrying case, blade removal tools, sample bag of biscuits, complete instruction manual and our special lubricant. / 1993 ewyooo(lltreeGUngsys~em . / ~~~c:wy~~ Our G100 Biscuit Joiner Gluing System has a flat nozzle, perfect for applying glue into the biscu~ joint slots. / GUngsys~em·Ql0.4l0<1S(no~leS We've included a base that holds the bottle and prevents the glue from drying in the tip and keeps glue at / O<~;:::!~C:::w=: / regstrallOn can:! from l'lS<le ~ bsaJII JOII>!f the tip ready for action. (Base contains a sponge that holds water for moisture) Top it off with an / pacl<age Otfer good o#f ., 1t1e oonbnenlal USA. Alaska / and Hawaa Vood ~ prol>tJoled by law attacfled cap. Use our gluing system and Gveaway cannol be hor'()rOO .ness al oniotmallOn avoid a sticky situation. / os properly Slbnllled and~ by March 31 1993 GUe no! // (PLEASE PRINn ord.ded PleaseallowG·Bweekslordeivery So try our JS100 Biscuit Joiner now, and / Date of Purchase _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ you'll see why tt is the tqol preferred by ........, wlllll , _ ......_ many professionals in the wood / Dealer - - - - - - - - - - - - - Address_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ working industry. Plus, receive a / / /Name High Point, NC 27264 Freud Gluing System, a 919-434-3171 • 800-472-7307 $21.90 retail value, FREE! / CIRCLE NO. 60 ON PAOOUCT tiFORMATION FORM

American woodworker no 30 february 1993