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A Trainers Guide

Hatchery Hygiene Quality Improvement

Ha Noi, July 2012


Hatchery Hygiene Quality Improvement

Content Acknowledgements

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Introduction

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1. Minimum Standards for Small Scale Hatcheries

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2. Learning Objectives and Session Plan

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3. Power point training material Bio-security, Cleaning and Disinfection for Small Scale Hatcheries

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4. Technical document- Bio-security, cleaning and disinfection for small scale hatcheries

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3.1 Bio-security in hatcheries 3.2 Cleaning and disinfection of hatcheries 3.3 Calculations and application of disinfectants 3.4 Taking the learning home

4.1 Small hatchery cleaning and disinfectant program 4.2 Hatchery management guide for ducks and chicken hatchery owners

5. Training evaluation

5.1 Hatchery bio-security test 5.2 Hatchery bio-security training program evaluation proforma

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Acknowledgements This technical resource has been developed through technical inputs by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Senior Bio-security Adviser, Dr Yoni Segal with additional inputs from Technical Advisers in the FAO Vietnam Emergency Centre for Trans-boundary Animal Diseases office, Nguyen Thi Thanh Thuy, Tran Trong Tung, Hoang Thi Lan and Andrew Bisson. Additionally hatchery owners and provincial animal health and agricultural production officers have provided valuable feedback on the content and presentation of these materials. The hatchery strengthening pilot including the development of this document were funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID).

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Introduction The objective of this Hatchery Hygiene Quality Improvement Trainers Guide is to provide a technical resource to those involved in strengthening hatcheries in Vietnam. The target audience for this material includes technical advisers, trainers, extension agents and disease control planners as well as hatchery managers. The overall activity responded to a national policy interest in strengthening hatcheries which provide the key inputs into to the poultry sub-sector as well as being critical control points for disease control measures. The material has evolved through experiences gained in implementing a hatchery strengthening pilot initiative in Quang Tri and Can Tho provinces. There was a strong emphasis on consultation with field-level stakeholders on the design and development of this material. The focus is on small scale hatcheries which represent the majority of day old bird supply in Vietnam. Whilst this technical resource provides specific and detailed materials, it is not intended that it should be overly prescriptive. Technical advisers are encouraged to adapt this material to suit the specific required learning purposes, ensuring that the technical content presented in this resource is balanced with practical approaches to learning. The first section describes a series of Minimum Standards for small scale hatcheries. This is followed in sections 2 and 3 by training materials including learning objectives, session plans and presentation materials. The presentations are included as a stand-along electronic resource in the accompanying CD. Section 4 provides more detailed technical notes and information to support technical advisers. Section 5 presents an example of a training evaluation.

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1. Minimum Standards for Small Scale Hatcheries Certificate Level 1 Certificate Level 2 Certificate Level 3

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Certificate Level 1 STANDARDS

4. Clean and dirty areas are clearly marked and a foot bath with a fresh solution of disinfectant is placed in between. 5. The incubation area (not inside the machines) floor and walls are swept, brushed and washed with water and detergent twice per week. into hatchery clothes and footwear or wear coverall prior to entry.

1. The hatchery purchase eggs derived from healthy, well vaccinated and monitored breeding flocks, certified by the veterinary authorities. 2. Hatchery has a separate egg incubation area (clean area) and egg hatching, take off and packaging area (dirty area).

Certificate Level 3

3. Hatchery has a designated storage bin/s and storage area for solid waste such as broken eggs, eggshells, dead embryos, etc. 4. Hatchery has an operational fumigation cabinet at the entry for all incoming eggs and equipment. 5. All worker and visitors to the hatchery wash hands and feet with soap and change into hatchery clothes and footwear or wear coverall prior to entry.

STANDARDS 1. Hatchery has a washing and disinfection station for eggs trays/baskets, chick boxes/buskets and any other equipment used at the hatchery. 2. Hatchery has a separate reception and delivery area. 3. Hatchery floor and walls are made of easy to clean surfaces materials.

Certificate Level 2

4. The hatchery is regularly sprayed for insect control, using approved insecticides. 5. The hatchery implement an integrated rodent control program.

STANDARDS 1.The hatching, take off and packaging areas are scrubbed and washed with detergent and water and sprayed with disinfectant solution at the completion of each cycle. 2. Hatchery has cleaning and disinfection equipment (broom, brush, bucket, hose, sprayer). 3. Hatchery disposes solid waste such as, broken eggs, eggshells dead embryos, etc, in a safe manner: burial, incineration, or composting.

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2. Learning Objective and Session Plan Checked Biosecurity training program for small, independent hatcheries

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• Egg fumigation and separation between clean & dirty areas, are extremely important

- Segregation & traffic control - Cleaning - Disinfection

By the end of this session all trainees are able to explain: • How disease agents might contaminate the hatchery • What are the losses due to hatchery contamination • How to prevent hatchery contamination by effectively implementing the three principles of biosecurity:

Biosecurity in Small Hatcheries • Disease agents can enter the hatchery through different ways • Hatchery contamination has heavy cost in performance and profitability • Implementation of the three principles of biosecurity is crucial for hatchery profitability

Assess participants knowledge

1.5 hours

1 hour

2. Group discussion In three groups • What is segregation and traffic control and how to achieve it at the hatchery? • What is cleaning and how to achieve it at the hatchery? • What is disinfection and how to achieve it at the hatchery? 3. Group discussion In three groups • What are the biggest challenges to adopting biosecurity practices in small hatcheries? • Which do you think are the 3 most important practices? • Which ones will be the easiest to adopt?

hatchery contamination?

Flip board

1 hour

Markers

Papers

LCD projector

Questionnaire

Copies of the minimum biosecurity standards for small, independent hatcheries

What Need To Prepare

3.5 hours

20 minutes

10 minutes

Introduction of the training program to the participants

Course outline and training objective

Pre-training test

20 minutes

Time Allocation

Participants self introduction

Power point presentation 1. Group discussion In three groups • How disease agent might enter an hatchery? • What are the costs involved in hatchery contamination? • How can we prevent

Training Material Support

Ice breaker

Expected Output

50 minutes

• Introduction of the minimum biosecurity standards and the certification program • Introduction to biosecurity • Cleaning & disinfection • How to calculate and apply disinfectants

Key Messages

Training Introduction

DAY 1

Session Topic

Hatchery Hygiene Quality Improvement

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By the end of this session all trainees are able to perform: • Biosecurity assessment • Use fumigation cabinet • Develop and implement cleaning and disinfection plan • How to prepare for hatchery auditing

• Biosecurity assessment should be performed in each hatchery to identify the weak (high risk) points, as a tool of hatchery strengthening • Eggs and equipment fumigation can significantly reduce the level of hatchery contamination and improve performances • For effective cleaning and disinfection program one should calculate and apply correctly disinfectants • Only hatcheries that will implement proper biosecurity, cleaning

Hatchery visit

- the amount of disinfectant required • Describe the steps for hatchery cleaning and disinfection

By the end of this session all trainees are able to: • Calculate correctly: - the area to be disinfected, - the amount of water required

By the end of this session, all trainees are able to: • Define hatchery decontamination cleaning and disinfection and explain what each accomplishes Describe different groups of disinfectants • Describe the safe use of disinfectants and explain the importance of PPE during cleaning and disinfection • Review the information on a disinfectant by reading and interpretation of a products’ label

Assess participants knowledge and skills

successful disinfection of hatchery environment

• Effective disinfection required the correct concentration and contact time. • Calculation of the amount of solution and mixing rate is crucial for

• Disease agents can be eliminated from the hatchery environment by an effective cleaning and disinfection program • Cleaning has two stages of dry and wet cleaning • Cleaning with detergent and water with the use of brush and broom will destroy over 80% of hatcheries’ contaminants • Disinfectants are dangerous chemicals, one should read and understand the label before using any disinfectant • When you handling and applying disinfectants, one should wear the required PPE

Post-training test

Calculation & Application of Disinfectants

DAY 2

Cleaning & Disinfection of Small, Independent Hatchery

2 hours

Group discussion and calculation activities

1 hour

1 hour

Demonstration of eggs fumigation and group discussion Hatchery cleaning and disinfection – group calculations and discussion

1 hour Hatchery biosecurity assessment and group discussion

20 minutes

2 hours

1.5 hours

1.5 hours

Power point presentation

Power point presentation 1. Group discussion In three groups • What is a hatchery cleaning and how it’s done? • What is an hatchery disinfection and how it’s done? • How do you choose a disinfectant? • What are risks involved in using disinfectants and how to avoid them?

Knapsack

PPE

Formalin and potassium permanganate

Fumigation cabinet

Transportation for trainees and trainers

Questionnaire

Manual of “Hatchery cleaning & disinfection program”

Labels of locally available disinfectants

Markers

Papers

Flip board

LCD projector

Manual of “Hatchery cleaning & disinfection program”

Labels of locally available disinfectants

Markers

Papers

Flip board

LCD projector

Hatchery Hygiene Quality Improvement

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15 minutes

30 minutes Q & A and group discussion

and disinfection, will be entitled to a biosecurity certification (level 1 – level 3)

Training evaluation

Hatchery biosecurity assessment forms

Hatchery Hygiene Quality Improvement

3. Bio-security, Cleaning and Disinfection for Small Scale Hatcheries

Training summery

3.1 Bio-Security in Small Hatcheries 3.2 Cleaning and Disinfection of Hatcheries 3.3 Calculations and Application of Disinfectants 3.4 Taking The Learning Home

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3.1 Bio-Security in Small Hatcheries For higher hatchability better quality DOB’s and higher profit

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3.2 Cleaning and Disinfection of Hatcheries

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3.3 Calculations and Application of Disinfectants

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3.4 Taking The Learning Home

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4. Technical Document: Bio-Security, Cleaning and Disinfection for Small Scale Hatcheries 4.1 Small Hatchery Cleaning and Disinfectant Program 4.2 Hatchery Management Guide for Ducks and Chicken Hatchery Owners

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4.1 Small Hatchery Cleaning & Disinfection Program It is well recognized that a good health of day old chicks (DOC) and duckling (DOD) has great impact on the final results and profitably of any poultry flock. A team effort is required to produce high quality DOC and DOD. Management of breeding flocks and the correct handling of eggs from the nest to the incubator must be programmed in conjunction with the technical information in this manual, which deals only with the hygienic management of hatchery environment. Hatcheries are exposed to microbial contamination when people and equipment enter the hatchery and when eggs are brought in from breeding farms, processed into incubators, and later on when transferred into the hatching area. When eggs are piping, as hatching occurs, and during processing of DOC and DOD, the hatchery is particularly exposed to heavy cross contaminations that might spread inside the hatchery environment with dust and fluff. Hatchery isolation and traffic control combined with regular cleaning and disinfection must be the tools of choice for the prevention or reduction in exposure and build up of microbial contamination, which might affect the production of healthy and profitable DOC and DOD.

CONTAMINATION OF HATCHERY ENVIRONMENT

Cleaning - is the physical removal of all gross dirt and organic materials from the surfaces of equipment, floors, walls and ceilings. Effective cleaning should reduce microbial contaminants by 80%. The disinfection that follows the cleaning might eliminate the remaining contaminants. One should remember it is almost impossible to disinfect a dirty environment. Disinfection - is the application of disinfectants that might kill the remaining organisms. Disinfection should also establish residual bacteriostasis, means, the formation of an invisible film of active disinfecting agent left on all surfaces after disinfection that would resist recontamination.

CLEANERS – DETERGENTS

Detergents or soaps are products that are used during the wet cleaning process for the removal of dirt and organic materials present at the hatchery environment. Detergents are also capable to destroy wide range of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi and viruses). Hatchery detergent or soaps ideally foamed onto a surface and allowed a contact time of between 10 and 20 minutes. To optimize the use of these products, one should remember to rinse the foam while it’s still wet, before a film is forms on the surface.

DISINFECTANTS

Disinfectants are chemicals used to slow down or kill any remaining microorganisms (bacteria, fungi and viruses).

The hatchery environment might become contaminated by a broad range of gram positive and negative bacteria, fungi and viruses typically found in poultry production systems. Some of these organisms are specifically pathogenic to poultry; while some are common contaminants of water and air.

All hatcheries regardless of size should use disinfectants to prevent diseases from entering and cross contaminating inside the hatchery. Disinfectants, when correctly used, provide an economic gain to hatchery management.

Some organisms, considered nonpathogenic outside of the egg, are capable of penetrating the shell, and once inside the egg may deteriorate the albumen, yolk, fluids, etc, converting these into toxins capable of killing the developing embryos or affecting the viability of hatched chicks. Many “dead-in-shells”, culls, and early mortalities occur in this manner.

When selecting a disinfectant for the hatchery, one must consider broad spectrum germicidal activity and residual bacteriostasis. It is important that the disinfectant kills E.coli, Proteus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp., common poultry viruses, such as Newcastle, Gumboro and HPAI, common environmental and pathogenic moulds, such as Aspergillus fumigatus.

HATCHERY DE-CONTAMINATION

The objective of hatchery decontamination which includes the cleaning and disinfection (C & D) of the hatchery environment is to maintain the lowest possible level of microbial contamination at all times.

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Since the hatchery environment being warm and humid, is ideal for microbial growth, it is essential not only to use an adequate amount of disinfectant to kill the resistant poultry pathogens, but it is essential also to leave bacteriostasis surfaces (residual bacteriostasis). This is to inhibit normal re-growth and build up of microbial contaminants at the hatchery environment.

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When selecting disinfectant for the hatchery, one must also consider product’s toxicity to embryos, hatching chicks and to humans, and any potential corrosive damages to hatchery equipment.

THE MAIN PRODUCTS USED AT THE HATCHERY AND THEIR PURPOSES

Detergents and soaps are chemical used for wet cleaning of surfaces to remove any difficult soils and organic materials. Detergents and soaps are low cost products which can also kill over 80% of the contaminating microorganisms. Ammonium Quaternary Compounds (Quats) Disinfectants ( ®) are an outstanding choice for hatcheries. They have detergent and disinfectant properties which work well on cleaned and sealed concrete floors and other non-rusty, non-porous surfaces. They are relatively low cost and safe-to-use products, due to their relatively low toxicity and irritation. Phenolic Disinfectants ( ®) are specifically formulated to be used as a final treatment to kill on contact a broad spectrum of bacteria, fungi and viruses known to be pathogenic to poultry and to create residual bacteriostasis for inhibition of microbial re-growth. Iodophors Disinfectants ( ®) are often used in rotation with Phenolics or Ammonium Quaternary Compounds Disinfectants to prevent resistance in micro-organisms. Iodophors are easily inactivated by organic materials, they tends also to stain surfaces yellow, which limit their use in hatcheries. Their main use at the hatchery is as a foot-bath disinfectant and for disinfection of hatchery baskets, trays and other equipment. Glutheraldehyde Disinfectants ( ®) are effective against a wide range of pathogens, and can also be very cost effective. Being relatively toxic compounds, protective gear (PPE) is required for handling and application. To avoid any embryos or DOC/DOD intoxication their use should be limited to the external part of the hatchery premise. A Combination Glutheraldehyde - Ammonium Quaternary Disinfectants ( Benkocide ®, ®) are effective against a wide range of pathogens, often used to clean and treat solid waste containers, solid waste station, and delivery areas. Formaldehyde Disinfectant ( ®) is used in combination with potassium permanganate for eggs and equipment fumigation inside a fumigation cabinet. Formaldehyde is also often used for trickle fumigation during piping, to reduce cross contamination. One should remember that Formaldehyde is highly toxic and require the use of protective gear.

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED FOR HATCHERY DECONTAMINATION PROGRAM

Miscellaneous cleaning equipment - Such as brushes, sponges, mops, buckets, brooms, all are incidental to general cleaning needs.

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Knapsack - use for spraying of disinfectants on walls and floors Fumigation Cabinet – for fumigation of entering eggs and equipment Safety gear – such as, goggles, protective mask (for chemicals) and gloves must be used when handling and applying disinfectants.

PREPARATION OF DISINFECTANT SOLUTIONS

Dilution rates - The following dilution rates are to be used throughout this program unless otherwise specified: 1.

(A) ml per Liter of water for general cleaning (B) ml per Liter of water for equipment cleaning

2.

Benkocide ® at a disinfection rate of 1:400 - 2.5 ml per Liter of water for disinfection and residual bacteriostasis.

3.

4.

(A) ml per Liter of water for disinfection and residual bacteriostasis (A) ml per Liter of water for general cleaning and sanitizing. (C) ml per Liter of water for foot-bath sanitation.

FUMIGATION OF INCOMING EGGS AND EQUIPMENT

All incoming eggs & equipment should be fumigated in a fumigation cabinet by gas, produced in a chemical reaction, mixing a concentrate Formaldehyde solution (40%) with Potassium permanganate (Condys crystals) in an earthenware or enamelware container with a capacity of at least 10 times the total volume of ingredients. Formaldehyde is a dangerous chemical and should be handled with extreme care. Safety Gear (PPE) - The person handling Formaldehyde should wear •

Overalls - to minimize contact with arms, legs and body.

Rubber or PVC elbow length gloves.

Goggles - Safety chemical goggles.

Respirator - Half face piece chemical filter respirator, rated 10 – 100 AES

Rubber or PVC apron

Gumboots

Fumigation cabinet: The fumigation cabinet must be capable of airtight sealing so that there is minimal gas escape during fumigation. A warning signs must be prominently displayed for the full duration of the fumigation process (40 minutes) to prevent accidental opening of the cabinet door. The cabinet 97


Hatchery Hygiene Quality Improvement

must be equipped with an extraction fan to ensure total venting of formaldehyde gas before the cabinet is opened. Venting of gas must be external (3-4 meters toll exhaust pipe) so that nobody is exposed to vented gas. SOP for the operation of fumigation cabinet •

Place eggs in trays on the shelves

Place 12 grams of Potassium permanganate in an earthenware or enamelware container with a capacity at least 10 time of the total volume of ingredients, at the bottom part of the cabinet under the funneled tube

Shut tightly the cabinet door and hang warning sign on the door.

Wear the required PPE

Measure 20 ml of Formaldehyde 40%, and pour into the funneled tube.

Turn on the fan to -air circulation position

Leave to fumigate for 20 minutes.

After 20 minutes switch the fan to - extraction position for another 20 minutes and open the venting flap.

Open the cabinet’s door, remove the warning sign and remove the eggs to a clean area of the hatchery.

Ensure the egg shells are dry (free of condensation) prior to storing the eggs.

HATCHERY CLEAN AREA

Eggs reception (external area), eggs holding and eggs processing areas The egg delivery person/s should be permitted only into the external, egg reception area, but prohibited from entering inside into the other parts of the incubation premise (clean area). If such person must enter the hatchery, he/she must wash hands and feet with soap and change clothing and footwear. The floor areas should be cleaned daily by sweeping, flushing, etc, and then moped with solution of Ammonium Quaternary Compound Disinfectant. This room area should be treated twice per week at the conclusion of the day’s activities, using Phenolic Disinfectant, sprayed by a knapsack on walls and floor The incubation machine (Day 1 – 16), incubation area (Day 17 – 28) & equipment Once weekly all accessible walls, floors, ceilings, fan blades, humidity bowl, of each incubator (if more than one) should be cleaned with Ammonium Quaternary Compound Disinfectant, using brush, sponge and bucket, then rinsed with clean water and mist sprayed with Phenolic Disinfectant. Similarly, all accessible walls, floors, ceilings, wooden shelves at the incubation area should be cleaned with Ammonium Quaternary Compound Disinfectant, using brush, sponge and bucket, and then rinsed with clean water and mist sprayed with Phenolic Disinfectant. 98

The blankets that are used to cover the incubating eggs should be fumigated weekly. Once per month these blankets should be washed with detergent (soap powder) and let dry properly before being reused.

HATCHERY DIRTY AREA

Chick hatching and processing area At the end of each cycle, all chicks should be removed from the hatching and processing area before starting the clean-up. All waste matter (egg shells, dust, fluff, dead in shell, etc) should be removed, by brush and broom, into a solid waste bin and placed at the solid waste station. Flush away remaining soils and dust with clear water. Then, apply a wetting solution of Ammonium Quaternary Compound Disinfectant to the entire area (walls, floor and ceiling), allow a few minutes for the solution to soften any remaining soil, and then clean any remaining dirt, using a bristle brush or sponge, followed by a rinse with copious amount of clear water. Finally, apply by spray Phenolic disinfectant or a combination Glutheraldehyde - Ammonium Quaternary Disinfectants solution to all pre-cleaned surfaces. Chicks Delivery area At the end of each cycle, all waste matter should be removed, by brush and broom, into a solid waste bin and placed at the solid waste station. Flush away remaining soils with clear water and apply by spray a Phenolics or a combination Glutheraldehyde - Ammonium Quaternary Disinfectants solution to all pre-cleaned surfaces. Solid waste station At the end of each cycle once all solid waste has been disposed off, the station should be cleaned. Any remaining soils should be flushed away with clear water and then a Phenolics or a combination Glutheraldehyde - Ammonium Quaternary Disinfectants solution be applied by spray to all pre-cleaned surfaces. Cleaning egg trays, chick boxes/baskets and other equipment A washing tank made of three compartments is recommended for hand washing of egg and incubation trays. The first compartment should contain Ammonium Quaternary Compound Disinfectant. The second compartment contains clean water for rinsing and the third compartment with Iodophors Disinfectant. Trays are washed in Ammonium Quaternary Compound Disinfectant, rinsed with clear water and then dipped in Iodophors Disinfectant for a minimum of one minute. The bins used for the collection of the hatchery solid waste should be washed and cleaned in the same manner.

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4.2 Hatchery Management Guide for Ducks And Chicken Hatchery Owners Five major functions are involved in the incubation and hatching of ducks and chicken eggs. The five functions are temperature, humidity, ventilation, egg turning, and sanitation. The major topics below are explained in detail in the text. •

Hatching temperature

Humidity in incubators and hatchers

Ventilation

Egg turning

Hatchery sanitation

Each of the five functions is important and may individually cause havoc in any attempt to hatch eggs if one is not conducted properly. When two or more are not controlled, it may be a disaster. Keep in mind that changing or adjusting one of these functions may affect other functions and cause them to need adjustment as well. Therefore, changes in any one function should be made gradually and all functions should be watched closely for needed readjustment.

HATCHING TEMPERATURE

Most of the small incubators and hatchers, like those commonly used by ducks and chicken producers in Vietnam, are run at 37,7o C (100oF). Temperature is the easiest hatching function to regulate, provided you have a good set of controls to work with and provided you check the heating mechanism regularly. Without good, sensitive, easy to regulate, and dependable temperature controls, one can have low hatches, poor quality chicks, and can sometimes loose the entire hatch. If incubators and hatches are large enough to justify doing so, one should install a temperature sensitive alarm to warn of the potential danger to the developing embryos. Temperature alarms are usually constructed of two temperature sensors. One is set to activate the alarm if the temperature drops below 36,1oC or 36,7oC (97 or 98oF). The other sensor is set to activate the alarm if the temperature goes above 38,9oC (102oF). This is a simple explanation of the temperature alarm and how it is installed, but even so, it is not all that difficult to install.

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Item

Chicken

Duck

Muscovy Duck

Goose

Inc Period (days)

21

28

35 - 37

28- 34

Temperature* (oF, dry-bulb)

37,7o C (100oF)

37,7o C (100oF)

37,7o C (100oF)

37.2 oC (99oF)

Humidity (oF, wet-bulb)

85-87

85-86

85-86

86-88

No egg turning after

18th day

25th day

31th day

25th day

Open vents additional ¼

10th day

12th day

15th day

1st day

Open vents (if needed)

18th day

25th day

30th day

25th day

Temperature fluctuations for short periods of time usually do not severely affect hatchability or chick quality because the temperature inside the egg changes more slowly than the air inside the incubator. However, a consistently low temperature will result in a late hatch and decreased hatchability. The chicks may be large, soft bodied, and weak. A consistently high temperature will result in an early hatch and decreased hatchability. The chicks may have short down (same results with low humidity) and have rough navels (not necessarily infected -- just abnormal closure). More chicks will be malformed, weak, and small. One should remember that high temperature is more harmful than low temperature. One can incubate eggs for three or four hours at 32.2oC (90oF) without killing many embryos, but a temperature of 40.5oC (105oF) for 30 minutes will kill many embryos. One should remember that the older the embryo at the time of the too high temperature mishap, the greater would be the death loss. Incubators can easily overheat when kept where the sun can hit them, such as in a hot, room on the west of the house or in small buildings that are subject to heating up considerably during hot summer afternoons. Machines in such conditions, when set near full capacity and with improper ventilation will almost surely overheat. This statement does not imply that the incubator should not be set to full capacity; on the contrary, other factors must be considered and corrected before one can take full advantage of the incubator’s capabilities. Similarly an incubator should not be placed near an outside wall or window in cold climates as it would run the risk of not reaching or maintaining the optimal temperature for incubation or hatching.

HUMIDITY IN THE INCUBATOR AND HATCHER

Most people think the wet bulb reading in a hatcher or incubator is percent relative humidity. This is, of course, not true. Percent relative humidity is determined by using both dry bulb and

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wet bulb readings. For example, if the dry bulb reading is 37.7o C (100oF) and the wet bulb reading is 30.7o C (87.3oF), the relative humidity is 60 percent. Under normal conditions the relative humidity in an incubator or hatcher should always be 57 to 60 percent. The following table gives the percent relative humidity figures for various dry and wet bulb readings.

Wet Bulb Temperatures for Relative Humidity Dry Bulb Temperature in oF Rel. Humidity

37.2 o C (99oF)

37,7o C (100oF)

38.3 oC (101oF)

38,9oC (102oF)

Wet Bulb Temperatures in oF 45%

80.5

81.3

82.2

83.0

50%

82.5

83.3

84.2

85.0

55%

84.5

85.3

86.2

87.0

60%

86.5

87.3

88.2

89.0

65%

88.0

89.0

90.0

91.0

70%

89.7

90.7

91.7

92.7

There are various suggestions for dry and wet bulb settings. However, you may find by experimenting with various settings that the best way is to simply run the dry bulb at 37.7o C (100oF), and the wet bulb at 29.47o C to 30.7o C (85 to 87oF). Keep as near to 30oC (86oF), as possible). Use these settings from the first day of incubation until hatching is complete. There will be no need to vary the humidity level from 30oC (86oF), if the hatching eggs were gathered and stored properly to prevent excessive moisture loss before setting, if the temperature in the machines was maintained at 37.7o C (100oF), if eggs were turned frequently, if sanitation was good, and if your ventilation was properly adjusted during incubating and hatching. Attempting to increase the wet bulb reading to 32.2oC or 33.3oC (90 or 92oF). May decrease hatch if vents on the incubators are closed too much. Closing the vents may increase the wet bulb reading and humidity inside the machines, but the developing embryos suffer from poor ventilation. Old, dirty, too short, and wrong-sized wicks on wet bulb thermometers can cause erroneous readings. It is essential that wicks be kept in the best condition. You should thoroughly clean the wicks weekly and replace them with new ones after four to eight washings. Regular changing of wicks is often thought to be unnecessary; it may not be, but if the relatively small cost of new wicks is compared to the cost of low hatchability caused by incorrect wet bulb readings, the new wicks are justified every time. Inferior wicks tend to give higher readings than are actually present. In other words, the wet bulb tends to act more like the dry bulb. This is because the flow of water through the wick has been slowed. Therefore, if attempting to maintain a 30oC (86oF), wet bulb reading with 102

faulty wicks, you may actually have an 28.9oC (84oF), wet bulb environment in the machine. The two degrees difference for an entire incubation and hatch period can noticeably reduce hatchability. Where possible and practical, use a dual set of wet and dry bulb instruments in each machine. Excessive moisture loss from the eggs during storage before setting can produce the same symptoms that low humidity in the machines produces. A sign of low humidity is sticky embryos during pipping and hatching, that results in embryos not being able to turn themselves inside the shell and complete the act of pipping and detaching themselves from the shell. Low humidity also results in short down on the chicks, malformed, mal-positioned, weak, and small chicks. Low humidity contributes to star gazers chicks, and those that cannot stand, walk, or orient themselves well enough to reach food and water. If several large, soft bodied, mushy chicks are observed that make it through pipping and hatching but are dead in the tray, it is a sign of high humidity. A bad odor usually accompanies this condition. This condition might occur in incubators and hatchers that have forced spray humidity systems that force too much moisture into the machines. Rarely does humidity run too high in a machine that relies on evaporation from pans if you are using the recommended evaporative pans, if the temperature is correct, and if the machines are properly and amply ventilated with fresh air. If by restricting ventilation the humidity is made too high 33.3oC to 34.4oC (92o to 94oF.) during the final stages of incubation, the chicken embryos are moist and develop to the 19th, 20th, or 21st day (the duck embryos are moist and develop to the 26th, 27th, or 28st day) of incubation, but die in the shell from suffocation. This suffocation results from improper ventilation rather than high humidity.

VENTILATION OF INCUBATORS AND HATCHERS

Ventilation is important in incubators and hatchers because fresh oxygenated air is needed for the respiration (oxygen intake and carbon dioxide given off ) of developing embryos from egg setting until chick removal from the incubator. The oxygen needs are small during the first few days compared to the latter stages of development. Egg shells contain three to six thousand small holes, called “pores”, through which oxygen passes from the air to the developing embryo and through which carbon dioxide passes from the embryo to the outside air. The embryo’s lungs are not developed during early embryonic development to the point that they can accommodate respiration by breathing. Respiration, therefore, is provided during the first three to five days by the vitelline blood circulation plexus growing from the embryo. To reach this plexus the gaseous exchange must travel through the egg pores and the albumen (egg white) to reach the vitelline circulation, which lies on the surface of the egg yolk. After the 4th or 5th day of development another structure, called the “allantoids,” grows from the embryo, extends through the albumen, and positions itself just underneath the egg shell. The “allantoids” becomes the primary respiratory organ of the developing embryo and remains such until just before pipping begins. The transfer of respiratory function from the allantoids to the lungs begins three or four days before pipping. 103


Hatchery Hygiene Quality Improvement

The transfer is gradual and is completed by the time the chick finishes pipping the egg shell.

How can one tell if ventilation is poor?

The important thing to remember about embryonic respiration is that ventilation is important throughout the incubation process, especially toward the end, because the embryos are larger and respiring at a much higher rate than in the beginning.

The first thing noticed may be a poor hatch. Lack of proper ventilation can contribute to low hatchability if, after examining numerous dead embryos in the shell, the following conditions are observed:

So how should you set the air inlet and outlet regulators (dampers) in your incubator? The following is a general guideline for proper ventilation: •

The air exhausted from a hatcher or incubator should be vented (ducted) to the outside of the building. This is especially true if the incubator is located in a closed building or a small room. Such a venting system, if properly installed, provides added assurance that fresh air is available to the developing embryos. Small, home-type incubators are usually not designed for easy installation of vent ducts and, therefore, are seldom used. Instead, one may find four or five incubators operating in a 10’x12’ room, exhaust air spilling into the room, and intake air being pulled in from the same room. Sometimes all the windows and doors will be closed too, as the owner says, “its help hold the heat and humidity up in the incubator.” Restricting the room ventilator/s may help with temperature and humidity control, but ventilation suffers. In such an instance, the incubators are only able to circulate the stale, expelled air back through the machine that the embryos reuse for respiration. Re-circulating stale exhaust air through the incubator/s can be reduced by placing the incubator in a large room with a few openings, or in a small room with a number of large openings (windows or doors). The best way is to duct the used exhaust air outside the building and provide enough openings for fresh air to enter the room, or to provide plenty of openings for fresh air to enter and stale exhaust air to easily escape. The largest amount of air exchange is needed toward the end of the incubation period because the embryos are larger and respiring more.

While setting in single stage incubators is not common in small hatcheries in Vietnam, the following summary explanation for manual air inlet and outlet regulators (dampers) setting in single stage incubators: 1. Provide more ventilation as the embryos grow larger and as the outside temperature increases. 2. Provide approximately the same total size intake and exhaust openings (some incubators have one intake and two or more exhaust openings). 3. Give as much attention to proper ventilation as you do to temperature, humidity, etc. 4. Provide a way to get rid of the exhaust air, especially in small closed type incubator rooms, so that the machines can take in fresh clean air. 5. If multiple egg settings are made in the incubator, causing the embryos to be in various stages of development, environmental changes have the greatest influence on the need for air inlet and outlet regulators (dampers) change. Unless the intake air is quite cool, the air inlet and outlet regulators (dampers) openings should not be set more than one-half closed if the machine is almost full of eggs.

104

1.

The majority of chicken embryos reach the 19th or 20th day of incubation. (the duck embryos reach the 26th, 27th, or 28st day)

2.

They are not dehydrated.

3.

They are not mal-positioned.

4.

The unabsorbed egg yolks appear to be disease free.

5.

The wet bulb reading usually ran closer to 32.2oC (90oF), rather than 30oC (86oF).

6.

The heating element is seldom on during latter stages of incubation.

7.

The air inlet and outlet regulators (dampers) are not as open as expected.

EGG TURNING

During incubation, the hatching eggs should be set vertically, with the large ends up in trays or flats in an incubator and turned mechanically or manually until about three days prior to hatching. The eggs are then transferred to a hatching, pipping area of the hatchery, where they are kept in a horizontal position and not turned during the hatching process. Birds, including chickens and ducks, turn their eggs during nest incubation. Nature provides nesting birds with the instinct and we know turning is necessary in incubating machines to attain full hatching potential of the eggs. The reason why egg turning is so important is because the egg albumen (white of an egg) contains virtually no fat particles and has a specific gravity near that of water. The yolk (yellow of an egg), however, has a relatively high fat content. Fats and oils have specific gravities lower than water and float on water. The egg yolk tries to do the same thing -- float on the albumen. If an egg is left in one position, the yolk tends to float upward through the albumen toward the shell. The developing embryo always rests on top of the yolk. When an egg is turned, the yolk turns in the albumen so the embryo is again positioned on top of the yolk. Nature probably does this so the embryo is always in the best position to receive body heat from the mother hen sitting on the eggs. If the egg is not turned, the yolk tends to float upward toward the shell and pushes the embryo nearer the shell, squeezing the developed embryo between the yolk and shell. The embryo can be damaged or killed. Turning the egg causes the yolk to be re-positioned away from the shell, making it safe for the developing embryo until time to turn the egg again. Strands of twisted albumen extend from the yolk into the albumen toward both the small and large ends of the egg. These strands are called chalazae. They help keep the yolk away 105


Hatchery Hygiene Quality Improvement

from the shell. The chalazae hold the yolk firmly in the egg’s center until egg quality begins to deteriorate, as when an egg is placed in a 37.7oC (100oF) temperature incubator. As the albumen becomes more watery, the chalazae lose their ability to hold the yolk in place, making it more important to turn the egg more often after incubation begins. In general, the need for turning begins when eggs are set and remains until two or three days before the eggs begin pipping. Eggs in small incubators in the home often get turned only twice a day, once in the morning and again in the evening. One should remember that turning the eggs twice a day is insufficient. When manual turning is used, it is best to turn the eggs for an odd number of times each day (i.e. 5 or 7 times). The longest period that the egg remains in one position is during the night hours. Turning an odd number of times will alternate the nights that the same side of the egg is uppermost. Some producers open an incubator, pull out a flat tray, and run their hands over the eggs. This, to them, is turning the eggs. Actually it is only stirring the eggs, because there is no definite way to tell if the eggs are just rolled around or if they actually end up in a different position. Many of the eggs may not get turned at all -- just rolled around. Turning eggs in this manner can also crack the egg shells. Many chicks develop in eggs with cracked shells (only the shell, not the membranes) but not many will pip and completely hatch because dehydration occurs and makes the environment sticky. The chick doesn’t have enough strength to pip and free itself from this sticky environment. If using a relatively small incubator, you work away from home, and can turn the eggs only a few times a day, mark X on the top side of each egg with a pencil or felt tip pen. Each time you turn the eggs, visually check to see if each egg is actually turned by making sure the X ends up on the opposite side from where it was before turning. If using a machine that turns the eggs automatically, the eggs should be turned at least once every two hours. If the turning system is manual, turn as often as practical. Try to allow an equal time on each side. Eggs should not be turned within three or four days of hatching (for chicks, day 19 -21, and for ducklings, day 26 – 28). Chicks need to position themselves for pipping and do this better if allowed to remain still while that process takes place. The embryo is large enough by this time that it has used most of the yolk for food and is no longer in danger of being squeezed between the yolk and shell.

HATCHERY SANITATION

All incubation factors like temperature, humidity and ventilation might be operating correctly, still poor hatchability occurs. The reason is often linked to poor hatchery hygiene and sanitary practices. Poor sanitation causes not only poor hatch but subsequent early mortality during brooding (first 7 days death). It can also cause lingering sickness that is likely to affect the birds during the grow-out period, in terms of high mortality and poor performances. Losses during the brooding and grow-out period caused by poor hatchery sanitation can cause more monetary loss than the loss from poor hatchability. 106

Let’s assume one is setting clean, well cared-for eggs. The most important tools available for use in cleaning and disinfecting an incubator and hatcher are water, detergent, and elbow grease, means, scrubbing, scraping brushing and sweeping. Some people mistakenly think disinfecting agents are the answer to their problems. They think disinfectants can replace poor cleaning, but this simply is not true. Remember this: It is almost impossible to disinfect a dirty environment. Because all disinfectants loose much of their effectiveness, as soon as they come in contact with organic matters. Some disinfectants preserve their effectiveness in the presence of organic matter. Cresol, Cresylic acid, and coal tar disinfectants are the most effective disinfectants in the presence of organic matter. But since they are corrosive and emit noxious and toxic gases, they are not used in the hatchery environment. The most commonly used disinfectants in the hatchery are quaternary ammonia compounds (quats), multiple phenolics, and iodophors (iodine compounds). Quaternary ammonia may be the most commonly used disinfectant for equipment like incubators and hatching trays because quats are relatively non-irritating, non-corrosive, of low toxicity, and reasonably effective in the presence of organic matter. Since the incubator and its components should be cleaned free of organic matter before applying a disinfectant, quats are a good choice. Many hatchery-men use multiple phenolics. They have a wide germicidal range, low toxicity and corrosiveness, they are reasonably effective in the presence of organic matter, and they leave behind good bacteriostatic residual effect. The disadvantage is that multiple phenolics can cause a burning effect to the skin of anyone handling them in concentrate solutions or over a long period of time. If using multiple phenolics at concentrations greater than the recommended strength suggested on the label, one should wear PPE, including rubber gloves, goggles and respirator for protection. Iodophores have wide germicidal activity, modest effectiveness in the presence of organic matter, and cost less than quats or multiple phenolics. The disadvantages are that it stains, is corrosive when in acid solution, and has only a slight residual activity. A thorough cleaning job using plenty of elbow grease results in 80 to 85 percent microbial removal. In such case, and when done often enough, little or no disinfectant is needed (assuming you are setting only clean eggs). If, on the other hand, you are using a quick “hit or miss” system and a long time passes between thorough cleanup jobs, you are most likely falling short in disinfecting your machines. It is best to use a disinfectant following cleanup and maybe between cleanup jobs. Fumigation is another method of disinfecting and is helpful when the cleaning is poor, the eggs are dirty, or the machines are filled with eggs, thus making it difficult to empty and clean properly. With clean eggs, machines, equipment, and intake air, fumigation is not needed. 107


Hatchery Hygiene Quality Improvement

5. Training Evaluation 5.1 Hatchery Bio-Security Test 5.2 Hatchery Bio-Security Training Program Evaluation Proforma

108

109


Hatchery Hygiene Quality Improvement

5.1 Hatchery Bio-security Test Name:____________

Date:____________

Please circle only one correct answer 1.

What is the most effective and cheapest method to protect DOBs’ health? a. medication b. vaccination c. biosecurity

2.

Which elements of biosecurity program are the most important for disease’s prevention? a. Isolation and traffic control b. cleaning c. disinfection d. all the above

3.

What is it the buffer area? a. dirty area b. clean area c. conceptual protective area made of biosecurity procedures

4.

In which order you should visit a hatchery’s areas a. clean area first b. dirt area first c. it’s not very important

5.

What should you wear on your hatchery? a. street clothing and footwear b. bright color clothing and footwear c. hatchery’s designated clothing and footwear

6.

Washing hands at the hatchery a. never wash hands b. after handling eggs c. after handling and processing hatching birds d. after a visit to the toilet e. when entering the hatchery f. all the above (b-e)

7.

What you should do with all new incoming eggs or equipment? a. Let into the hatchery as is b. rinse with water c. fumigate with formalin and potassium permanganate

8.

What should you provide to any hatchery’s visitor? a. clean coverall b clean footwear or shoe covers c. water and soap for hand washing d. all the above

110

9.

What should you do to control rodents at your hatchery? a. keep a clean hatchery yard b. place and rotate baits around the hatchery premise c. empty and clean solid waste d. all the above

10.

What should you do to control insects at your hatchery? a. keep a clean hatchery yard b. spray insecticide inside and around the hatchery premise c. empty and clean solid waste d. all the above

11. 12.

What is the role of wild birds and other wild animals in spreading diseases? a. very important b. important c. moderately important d. not important Which method in the following list can be used for solid waste disposal? a. Incineration b. burial c. composting e. fermentation (biogas) f. all the above

13. Name 3 essential pieces of protective clothing (PPE) to be used when spraying disinfectants. a. b. c. 14. 15.

The hatchery premise must be washed with detergent before being disinfected a.true b. false Disinfectant must be left on a surface for at least a. 10 minutes b. 1 hour c. 24 hours

16.

You know which disinfectant to use by: a. asking Veterinarian or SDAH officer b. reading the label c. Both a and b.

17.

Effective disinfection = Concentration of Disinfectant + ______________

111


Hatchery Hygiene Quality Improvement

5.2 Hatchery Bio-Security Training Program Evaluation Proforma

6.

Disagree 1

7.

Organisation/Hatchery Name:________________

My questions were answered to my satisfaction.

Training Date:______________

2

Unsure 3

Agree 4

5

The training sessions were too long.

Disagree 1

2

Unsure 3

Agree 4

5

Please circle a number between 1 and 5. 1.

Disagree 1

2.

Disagree

2

Disagree 2

Disagree 2

Unsure 3

Unsure 3

Unsure 3

1

2

5

4

5

Disagree

10.

2

Disagree 2

1

3

Agree 4

5

Unsure 3

Agree 4

5

The topics were suitable for my needs?

Disagree

11.

Unsure

I needed more practical training sessions.

1

5

Agree

2

Unsure 3

Agree 4

5

I would be confident to train my colleagues in biosecurity.

Disagree 1

2

Unsure 3

Agree 4

5

Comments please:

Unsure 3

Agree 4

My trainers were easy to understand.

1

9.

Agree 4

5

The trainers were respectful of my needs.

Disagree

112

4

My thoughts on cleanout and disinfection of facilities have changed.

1

5.

3

Agree

I am confident to implement the biosecurity standards in my facility now.

1

4.

2

Unsure

My thoughts on biosecurity of facilities have changed.

1

3.

8.

The training course met my expectations.

Agree 4

5 113


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