SRI LANKA 60 YEARS OF OPPRESSION ON TAMILS 04 - February - 1948 to 01 - May - 2008
Photo: The Sunday Times Online
1 © PROJECT ENLIGHTEN
Evidence for Early Presence of Tamils in Ceylon
The Aanaikkoaddai Seal Found in the context of a Megalithic burial at Aanaikkoaddai in the Jaffna peninsula in 1980, the seal, which is inscribed in Megalithic graffiti in the first line and early Brahmi in the second line, is datable to pre-Christian times. The readable Brahmi text 'Koveta' in Tamil/ proto-Dravidian means 'the king's'. The steatite seal(1.7 x 1.5 cm) which was found along with traces of copper fragments and kept in a Black and Red Ware bowl at the side of the skeleton, was probably part of a signet ring that belonged to the deceased of noble lineage. 2 ÂŠ PROJECT ENLIGHTEN
Three Sovereign Regions In The Island of Ceylon – 18th Century Map
The Traditional Tamil Homeland 3 © PROJECT ENLIGHTEN
In 1833, The British Unified The NorthEast With The Rest Of The Island For Administrative Convenience. "Two different nations, from a very ancient period, have divided between them the possession of the Island: the Sinhalese inhabiting the interior in its Southern and western parts from the river Wallouwe to Chilaw, and the Malabars (Tamils) who possess the Northern and Eastern Districts. These two nations differ entirely in their religion, language and manners." (Sir Hugh Cleghorn, British Colonial Secretary, June 1799)
4 ÂŠ PROJECT ENLIGHTEN
Hill Country (Indian) Tamils Disenfranchised! No Citizenship! No Voting Rights! One Million Tamils Made Stateless Soon after British Left the Island People who Spilt Blood and Sweat for 200 years for the prosperity of Sri Lankan Economy left to die in poverty!
% of seats
% of seats
% of seats
% of seats
% of seats
5 ÂŠ PROJECT ENLIGHTEN
Sinhalese National Flags No Room For Indigenous Tamils & Muslims 60 Years of unchanged extremist Mindset: Sinhalese are the Dominant Race! Buddhism is the State Religion!
(Sri Lankan National Flag â€“ Another Proof of Exclusion) Sri Lankan Sinhalese flag: The threatening posture towards the Tamils & Muslims represented by the Orange and Green colours respectively, and the yellow boundary clearly explains the Sinhalese non inclusive mind-set.
Sri Lanka is the Land of Sinhala Buddhist Buddhist Flag (on his left) to represent him as the President of Buddhist Sinhalese only! While Hundreds of Churches and Temples in NorthEast are bombed and destroyed and in the south they are set Fire. 6
ÂŠ PROJECT ENLIGHTEN
1956 Anti Tamil Pogrom
Tamils vehicle burnt down in front of Hindu Temple in Colombo by Sinhalese Thugs
First Anti-Tamil Riots in the Post Independent Ceylon ÂŠ PROJECT ENLIGHTEN
Bandaranaiake - Chelvanayakam Pact - 1957 Agreement was signed between the Sinhalese Prime Minister SWRD Bandaranaike and the Tamil leader SJV Chelvanayakam, on 25 July 1957.
On 9 April 1958, Mr. Bandaranaike, under pressure from extremist Buddhist monks, unilaterally abrogated the pact
8 ÂŠ PROJECT ENLIGHTEN
Governor General says (Oliver Goonetilleke ) attacks carefully planned 'Gentlemen, if any of you have an idea that this was a spontaneous outburst of communalism, you can disabuse your minds of it. This the work of a master mind who has been at the back of people who have planned this carefully and knew exactly what they were doing. It was a time bomb set about two years ago which has now exploded.'...
9 ÂŠ PROJECT ENLIGHTEN
1971 - Language Based Standardization In University Admissions Denied Tamil Students Opportunities For Higher Education Students peaceful protests were brutally crushed with barbaric killings 'The murders (of Tamils) are said to have been committed by police either acting without orders or with the connivance of the police' - Sir John Foster Q.C., David Astor, Robert Birley, Louis Blom-Cooper, James Fawcett, Dingle Foot & Michael Scott; - The London Times 20 September 1977.
First Student Rebel Against Standardization Mr Sivakumaran ÂŠ PROJECT ENLIGHTEN
1961 Non-Violent Protests By Tamils Brutally Crushed The gun culture was introduced to Jaffna in 1961, when Prime Minister Sirimavo Bandaranaike first sent the army to disrupt the non-violent Satyagraha agitation of Tamil nationalists.
"Shoot if you must and I am ready to die" the young student tells the soldier who threatened him with death, if he did not move away. Source - S.Ponniah, Satyagraha and The Freedom Movement of The Tamils in Ceylon, 1963 [see also Sinhala Army Attacks TamilÂ Satyagrahis - 1961] 11 ÂŠ PROJECT ENLIGHTEN
1977 Pogrom Against Tamils
12 © PROJECT ENLIGHTEN
1981 Pogrom Against Tamils
13 © PROJECT ENLIGHTEN
Sri Lanka's Prevention of Terrorism Act - 1979 (A Law Enacted in Response to Tamil Revolt Against Oppression)- A Draconian Law "No legislation conferring even remotely comparable powers is in force in any other free democracy operating under the Rule of Law... such provision is an ugly blot on the statute book of any civilized country International Commission of Jurists (1984) Sri Lanka: A Mounting Tragedy of Errors; Paul Sieghart The very first victims of the PTA Two Tamil youth (Inpam & Selvam) of the six who disappeared in the mid 1979 were executed by Brigadier Weeratunge (Nephew of President J.R. Jayawardene).
The bodies of the youth were found Introduction of Emergency Regulation (ER near Jaffna with gun 15A) which legitimized the practice of the Sri shot & torture Lankan armed forces burying/cremating the wounds.
dead without an inquest. This Prevention of Terrorism Act is still in force and so far an estimated 70,000 Tamil civilians have been killed by the Sri Lankan armed forces 14 ÂŠ PROJECT ENLIGHTEN
1983 Genocide of Tamils
"Clearly this was not a spontaneous upsurge of communal hatred among the Sinhala people - nor was it as has been suggested in some quarters, a popular response to the killing of 13 soldiers... It was a series of deliberate acts, executed in accordance with a concerted plan, conceived and organised well in advance." - Paul Sieghart; 'Sri Lanka: A mounting tragedy of errors'; International Commission of Jurists Report, March 1984
15 ÂŠ PROJECT ENLIGHTEN
1983 Genocide of Tamils
Pre-meditated Murder of Tamil Political Prisoners by their Jail Guards
Mr Selvarajah Yogachandran alias Kuttimani
"Selvarajah Yogachandran, popularly known as Kuttimani, a nominated member of the Sri Lankan Parliament...,one of the 52 prisoners killed in the maximum security Welikade prison in Colombo two weeks ago, (on July 25) was forced to kneel in his cell, where he was under solitary confinement, by his assailants and ordered to pray to them. When he refused, he was taunted by his tormentors about his last wish, when he was sentenced to death. He had willed that his eyes be donated to some one so that at least that person would see an independent Tamil Eelam. The assailants then gouged his eyes...He was then stabbed to death and his testicles were wrenched from his body. This was confirmed by one of the doctors who had conducted the postmortem of the first group of 35 prisoners.â€œ (Madras Hindu, 10 August 1983)
We are not lovers of violence nor victims of mental disorders, We are honest fighters belonging to an organization that is struggling to liberate people. ÂŠ PROJECT ENLIGHTEN
1983 Genocide of Tamils ''Eye witnesses and victims reported that on the streets cars were stopped by gangs and the people inside were asked whether they were Sinhalese or Tamil. Some Sinhalese words are extremely difficult for people who do not speak the language fluently to pronounce, people were tested by being made to pronounce these words. The mobs were also demanding to see identity cards to establish whether or not people were Tamils... People identified as Tamils as a result of the questioning were told to get out of their cars and their cars were set alight... In cases where any resistance was offered, killings were likely to take place... It was reported by many people that in some instances students from Buddhist schools followed on behind the first rioters and that some Buddhist monks were seen amongst the gangs'' - Patricia Hyndman, Senior Lecturer in Law, University of New South Wales and Secretary, Lawasia Human Rights Standing Committee Report -Democracy in Peril, June 1985 17 ÂŠ PROJECT ENLIGHTEN
1983 Genocide of Tamils "Mobs of Sinhala youth rampaged through the streets, ransacking homes, shops and offices, looting them and setting them ablaze, as they sought out members of the Tamil ethnic minority."
- London Daily Telegraph 26 July 1983
"... a mob attacked a Tamil cyclist riding near Colombo's eye hospital, a few hundred yards from the home of Junius Jayawardene, the nation's 76 year old President. The cyclist was hauled from his bike, drenched with petrol and set alight. As he ran screaming down the street, the mob set on him and hacked him down with jungle knives..." - London Daily
Telegraph; 26 July 1983 ÂŠ PROJECT ENLIGHTEN
1983 Genocide of Tamils "I am not worried about the opinion of the Jaffna people... now we cannot think of them, not about their lives or their opinion... the more you put pressure in the north, the happier the Sinhala people will be here... Really if I starve the Tamils out, the Sinhala people will be happy." - President J.R.Jayawardene, Daily
Telegraph, July 1983
Tamil boy stripped naked and later burnt to death by Hatefilled Sinhala Thugs who danced around him ÂŠ PROJECT ENLIGHTEN
UK Paper Clippings On 1983 Genocide Of Tamils In Sri Lanka ''A tourist told yesterday how she watched in horror as a Sinhala mob deliberately burned alive a bus load of Tamils... 'A mini bus full of Tamils were forced to stop in front of us in Colombo' she [Mrs.Eli Skarstein] said. A Sinhalese mob poured petrol over the bus and set it on fire. They blocked the car door and prevented the Tamils from leaving the vehicle. 'Hundreds of spectators watched as about 20 Tamils were burned to death'.
- London Daily Express, 29th August 1983
"The violence was vicious and bloody. But what distinguished it from many other communal Asian riots was the way that the mob singled out specific business premises…groups of rioters hit only at shops and factories, as well as homes owned by Tamils. Their careful selectivity is apparent now…Troops and police (almost exclusively Sinhalese) either joined the rioters or stood idly by. The events were so well organised no one doubts that there was a master list of targets."
- Financial Times, 12 August 1983 20 © PROJECT ENLIGHTEN
1983 Pogrom: UK Parliamentarians Condemn Sri Lankan Government · "An impartial international commission should be set up to inquire into the violence against the Tamils in July 1983, including the killing of 53 Tamil detainees held in custody by the government. · "The Prevention of Terrorism Act should be repealed and the powers given to the security forces which facilitate arbitrary killing of civilians and disposal of their bodies without inquest or post-mortem should be rescinded. · "The use of torture and incommunicado detention in violation of Sri Lanka's obligations under International Covenants should be discontinued. · "The rights of nationality, citizenship and franchise to the Tamils working in the plantations should be restored. · "The Sri Lankan government should repeal the sixth amendment to the constitution and take meaningful steps to arrive at a political solution to the country's ethnic problem by the granting of the legitimate rights of the Tamil people of Sri Lanka." Signed by: David Alton MP, Paddy Ashdown MP, Norman Atkinson MP, Tony Banks MP, Prof John Barrett, Kevin Barron MP, Gerry Berningham MP, Alan Beith MP, Sydney Bidwell MP, Prof Tom Bottomore, Malcolm Bruce MP, Dale Campbell-Savours MP, Dennis Canavan MP, Alex Carlile MP, Tom Clarke MP, Bob Clay MP, Anne Clwyd MP, Harry Cohen MP, Jerome Corbyn MP, Ron Davis MP, Eric Deakins MP, Alf Dubs MP, Prof Michael Dummett, Darek Fatchett MP, Mark Fishery MP, Martin Flannery MP, Michael Foot MP, Roy Hattersley MP, Simon W H Hughes MP, Lord Jenkins, Russell Johnston MP, Robert Kilroy-Silk MP, Ted Knight, Sir David Lane, Terry Lewis MP, Bob Litherland MP, Ken Livingstone, Tony Lloyd MP, Weddle Loyden MP, Max Madden MP, Joan Maynard MP, Willie Mckelvey MP, Bill Michle MP, Dr Paul Noone, Bob Perry MP, Alan Roberts MP, Ernia Roberts MP, Allan Roberts MP, Aubrey Rose, Ernie Ross MP, Steven Ross MP, Clare Short MP, Dennis Skinner MP, Prof Peter Townsend, Jim Wallace MP, Garath Werdell MP, Dafydd Wigley MP, and many others. 21 © PROJECT ENLIGHTEN
How Tamil Homeland Was Colonized by Sinhalese Aided by the Government
Systematic Land Grabbing In Progress Sinhala vagabonds and a Buddhist monk with guns. This Buddhist Monk, who calls Sri Lanka 'The Sinhala Dheepa' (The Sinhala Island), has publicly exhorted Sinhala people to terrorize Tamil people into fleeing the island. 22
Colonization - Land Grab Ceylon s First Prime Minister Stated: The following excerpt from a speech attributed to Ceylon’s first Prime Minister, D.S.Senanayake, addressed to colonists in Padaviya, is self‑explanatory: “Today you are brought here and given a plot of land. You have been uprooted from your village. You are like a piece of driftwood in the ocean; but remember that one day the whole country will look up to you. Ceylon’s first Prime The final battle for the Sinhala people Minister. D.S.Senanayake will be fought on the plains of Padaviya. You are men and women who will carry this island’s destiny on your shoulders. Those who are attempting to divide this country will have to reckon with you. The country may forget you for a few years, but one day very soon they will look up to you as the last bastion of the Sinhala.” "Witnesses also confirmed allegations made to us that whole (Tamil) villages have been emptied and neighborhoods have been driven by the army from their homes and occupations... We can say, without doubt, that the Government is driving Tamils from their homes and does intend to settle Sinhalese people in these areas..." - Robert Kilroy-Silk MP and Roger Sims MP
UK Parliamentary Human Rights Group Report (1985) 23 © PROJECT ENLIGHTEN
Thimpu Talks -1985
While Talks was continuing, hundreds of Innocent Tamils were Massacred by the Sinhalese colonists in the East of Sri Lanka. TAMIL DELEGATION CONSISTED OF EPRLF, EROS, PLOT, TELO, TULF AND LTTE
Joint statement made by the Tamil Delegation on the concluding day of Phase I of the Thimpu talks on the 13th of July 1985 It is our considered view that any meaningful solution to the Tamil national question must be based on the following four cardinal principles: The Thimpu Declaration 1) Recognition of the Tamils of Ceylon as a nation 2) Recognition of the existence of an identified homeland for the Tamils in Ceylon 3) Recognition of the right of self determination of the Tamil nation 4) Recognition of the right to citizenship and the fundamental rights of all Tamils in Ceylon 24 ÂŠ PROJECT ENLIGHTEN
THE 1987 INDO-SRI LANKA ACCORD Temporary Merger of North and East Provinces to Single Administrative Unit. President J.R. Jayawardene with his political guile managed to lure India to be involved in the Tamils Struggle, by assuring its Regional and Strategic Interest.
Signed on July 29, 1987 in Colombo between Mr. J.R. Jayawardene the president of Sri Lanka and Prime Minister of The Republic of India, Mr. Rajiv Gandhi.
Chief Minister Varatharaja Perumal 1987 - 1990
Mr Varatharaja Perumal announced an unilateral declaration of Independence after failing to secure adequate powers for the Council. He is currently exiled in India. 25 ÂŠ PROJECT ENLIGHTEN
President Chandrika Kumaratunga LTTE Peace Talks: 1994/1995
Peace talks with Chandrika Kumaratunga were not effective as the delegation did not have any Executive decision making authority. The GOSL failed to create normalcy to the people of NorthEast and did not lift the economic embargo on the Tamils. Chandrika was not able to put forward an appropriate devolution package and the one she proposed later was watered down even before it was submitted to the Parliament. 26
ÂŠ PROJECT ENLIGHTEN
CFA Agreement : Between LTTE and the GOSL on the 22nd February 2002 Agreement on a ceasefire between the Government of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (GOSL) and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) on the 22nd February 2002 was mediated by the Norwegian Government.
President Rajapakse Ready for an All Out War on Tamils GOSL unilaterally withdrew from the CFA on the 16th January 2008. Despite serious condemnation from the International community including UK, GOSL acted irresponsibly endangering innocent Tamil Civilians President Mahinda Rajapakse inspecting a Fighter Jet of Sri Lankan Air force. 27 ÂŠ PROJECT ENLIGHTEN
Killing of Leading Tamil Politicians
N Raviraj Joseph Pararajasingham
An onslaught of the Tamil Leadership - A price paid by the Tamils.
Chandra Nehru A. Amirthalingam
The List Continues with hundreds of Names………… 28 © PROJECT ENLIGHTEN
Joseph Pararajasingham MP Killed in the Church during Christmas eve mass (2005) by Sri Lankan Army
Not a word of Sympathy or Condemnation From the International Community or the Churches ! 29 ÂŠ PROJECT ENLIGHTEN
Raviraj MP was Killed (2007) In the High Security area of Colombo in broad daylight in just 24 hours after this protest
Nadarajah Raviraj, 44, Jaffna District Tamil parliamentarian ,a lawyer turned politician. He was an outspoken defender of Human Rights who voiced against extrajudicial killings and forced disappearances perpetrated by Sri Lanka State 30 ÂŠ PROJECT ENLIGHTEN
Leading Tamil Politician and ExMinister T Maheswaran MP Assassinated in a Hindu temple in High Security area of Colombo on the New years Day (2008)
31 ÂŠ PROJECT ENLIGHTEN
Tamil MP is killed Jaffna District Tamil National Alliance parliamentarian, K. Sivanesan, was killed in a Claymore attack carried out by the Sri Lanka Army Deep Penetration Unit [TamilNet, Thursday, 06 March 2008]
32 ÂŠ PROJECT ENLIGHTEN
Tamil Political Negotiator S P Thamilselvan Assassinated by GOSL Air Raid on the 02nd November 2007
The Assassination of S P Thamilselvan was the major set back to the Cease Fire Agreement signed in February 2002 and the ongoing Peace Negotiations between GOSL and LTTE
The Sri Lankan State killed many Tamil Leaders during Cease Fire Agreement and Peace Negotiations 33
Sri Lanka : Embargo on its Own Citizens NGOs and International media are forbidden from Tamil Homeland
Many Essential Items are banned from Tamil Homeland. There is an Embargo on Food, Medicine, Fuel, Batteries, Building Materials, School books……..
U.N. Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs John Holmes said on a visit to Sri Lanka last week the island had one of the worst records in the world for humanitarian aid worker safety. He said almost 30 aid workers had been killed over the past 18 months 34
© PROJECT ENLIGHTEN
Economic Embargo Leading to Starvation
A World Food Programme (WFP) survey found at least a quarter of children entering school in the north-east of the island suffered from acute malnutrition. (Source :BBC) The above survey was done during ceasefire period!!!!!!! If then....... at present???
Source :BBC 35
ÂŠ PROJECT ENLIGHTEN
Post Tsunami Operational Management Structure - PTOMS Aftermath of tsunami
PTOMS drafted with the help of international donor countries was subsequently turned downed by the Sri Lankan Supreme court due to the influence of the extremist and chauvinistic attitude of the Sri Lankan coalition Govt. 36 ÂŠ PROJECT ENLIGHTEN
Destruction of Civil Infrastructure in the Tamil Homeland
Systematic Approach by the Sri Lankan Sinhala State Apparatus to drive Tamil speaking people from their Homeland. 37 ÂŠ PROJECT ENLIGHTEN
Destruction of Civil Infrastructure continues…..
Jaffna Rail Station: Bombed and Destroyed
Jaffna Bus Depot: Bombed and Destroyed 38 © PROJECT ENLIGHTEN