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Photo-based New Media Works by

Tamas Waliczky

以 照片為 基礎 的 新媒體 作品


Ingrid Hoelz Tamas Waliczky,家 – 實務現實主義之旅 Tamas Waliczky, Homes – A Journey into Pragmatic Realism

Miklós Peternák 甚麼是個人的,甚麼不是 Tamás Waliczky作品中照片的作用 What is Personal and What Is Not The Role of Photographs in Some of the Works of Tamás Waliczky


Tamas Waliczky, 家 – 務實 現實主義之旅 Ingrid Hoelzl

家 Homes. Lumenvisum Gallery, Hong Kong, 2015


為了《家》這個作品,Tamas Waliczky和他

面,我們就如跟着製作團隊進行他們的定格拍

的五個研究助理在以風光明媚聞名的大澳漁

攝之旅(停下來,拍照,走到下一景點),這過

村內,採集七間棚屋的住戶數以千計的照片。

程可稱作遊走攝影。與記時攝影不同,遊走攝

《家》顯示了村內一種與別不同的棚屋:單層

影着重的不是時間的變化,而是視點的變化,

的樓房,向着大 街的一面白天打開作店面使

從而影響事物的外觀。

用,把街道與私人空間融合在一起。這些照片

正 如 W a l i c z k y 所 解 說,使 用照 片 作

(使用標準的佳能D50相機拍攝)之後變成了

記 錄 需 要 依 循 一 定 規 則,以 便 圖 像 軟 件

一個互動式的三維動畫,在2015 年首次在香

AgiSoft PhotoScan)能夠通過比較物件

港的光影作坊展出。

在二維影像內的不同位置,計算出三維空間。

這項目集合紀 錄和教育性質,把大 澳的

越複雜的物件(如線條細緻的神像),便需要更

傳統文化視覺性存檔,用數碼科技保存並以虛

多的照片。照片需要有準確對焦及光線要一

擬的形式向大眾展示,確保 就算將來這些棚

致,否則軟件不能 對比從不同角度拍攝的物

屋與及裏面的居民不復存在,他們的生活模式

件。軟件然後生成點雲,並連接這些點,產生

也可保留。這項目獲香港大學教育資助委員會

三角形(即三維多邊形)。原來的照片便會繪

和利銘澤黃瑤璧慈善基金資助。我對這項目感

製在這個三維線框之上,從而把從照片製成的

興趣的原因不是因為其歷史價值或它着重的

抽象空間與裏面的所有物件以寫實的手法再

生活模式,而是Waliczky選擇明確表達的攝

現。稍後我再談現實的問題。

影和三維動畫之間的關係。事實上,這裝置只

單獨的圖像可以用剛才描述的方法製作

由兩幅數碼屏幕組成,分別放在畫廊的兩面相

詳細的三 維圖像,但要 製 成三 維 動畫,便必

對的牆上,觀眾視線水平之上,讓觀眾可使用

須簡化細節,例如減少多邊形,意味把它們放

軌 跡球探索其中兩個家庭的三維模型。屏幕

大,令圖像更粗糙。就如JPEG壓縮令圖像視

背後的牆壁變成了一種背景讓人們可欣賞屋

覺模糊化(B u o n a ri和Lib e rati 2 0 0 9),

外面的空間,其餘兩面牆展示出每間屋的小型

在人眼無法判斷複雜的多邊形結構和簡單長

相片,固定在畫廊的牆上。有了這個清 晰 的設

方形(例如一道門)的分別的情況下,減少多邊

置,Waliczky把整個畫廊空間轉化成三維立

形。這 方法要經不斷嘗 試,複 雜的物件需要

體環境,不但再現兩個不同的空間,還把這兩

用更詳細的多邊形 結構繪製,效果才更真實

個空間再現實化。

(Waliczky的長遠計劃是把不同的物件存檔。

沿着這些照片牆行走,很容易理解這些

在這種情況下,詳細的多邊形可以保留,因為

疏落的圖像覆蓋了這兩個位置的整個三維空

單獨物件只需較少電腦處理能力來實時呈現。)

間;相同的東西以略為不同的角度和不同的位 置出現,有的在牆壁上較高位置,有的靠近地


現實的問題

產生如 Jameson (1990)提出的「認知地圖」。 攝影寫實主義的教條包含巴贊所提出的

直接攝影」提倡用攝影機捕捉不經預先安排

從照片到模型的「現實轉移」 (2 0 0 9) ,不管

的現實,拍攝前後或中途都不能干預被拍攝的

如何模糊不清,照片就成為了模型,他把這過

對象。《家》似乎跟從這原則,把被拍攝的家

程與宗教拉上關係(羅倫巴特則稱之為魔術 。

居仔細掃描,攝影師在被拍攝的物件前走動,

在三維圖像中,這種現實轉移是在三維模型

不主動移動物件以獲得更「完美」的影像。但

和照片之間發生:模型就是照片(魔術般的自

若遇到觀看的角度被阻隔,藝術家和他的助手

動 攝影 與 數碼 化電 腦計算掛 鈎,實際上,特

便會仿造隱藏的部分(即相機捕捉不到但是

別是在 這 種情況下,涉及花很多小時 製作的

仍然存在的一面),這算不算把影像的「不完

手動」造型)在《家》這作品中,以攝影作為三

美現實」改造?

維模型的原形,傳輸是雙向的:從照片到模型

對於Waliczky 來說,平衡速度(運作)與

真正的位置),並從有紋理映射照片的三維

質量(現實)最為重要。我在他的工作室訪問他

模型到照片。但動畫的互動部分又怎樣?實時

時,他認為早期美國電腦遊戲側重於視覺相

瀏覽把媒體技術從定格圖畫帶到活動和互動

似度(比如樹葉在風中擺動) ,日本電腦遊戲則

或身臨其 境的影像,滿足了巴贊提 倡的現實

着重 動作 相似度,要求軟件馬上感應玩家的

性的慾望,也提供了對無盡的渴望,不受時間

動作。他的動畫是兩者之間,是務實的現實主

空間所限的沒邊界的圖像,這不是最佳的現

義,既「忠實」表現現實,也提供一個順暢的虛

實嗎?從Waliczk y延伸,對遊戲玩家最重要

擬旅程,讓使用者遊歷這兩個家居住宅。這個

的 – 也對他的互動三維動畫的使用者最關鍵

虛擬旅程由一個有特定高度(約1 70 厘米)、

的 – 是虛擬世界中導覽指令的即時反應;視

重量和容量的所謂「身體」提供,是一個「行動

覺真實性的缺陷可被容忍,只要虛擬世界反應

的三腳架」,每當遇到阻礙如桌或牆壁便會停

是即時性的……

下,這「身體」所經歷的旅程是否較在兩面照 片牆之間走動的幻想之旅更真實?跟那三維動 畫不同,我們不是從不同位置和角度瀏覽一個

藝 術 家的痕 跡:意 外、自拍 像 或

連貫的整體,而是只有零碎的視點,即從整體

媒體反思?

空間切割出的不同照片。這種雙重的割裂在顯 示的模式下更為明顯:就如模擬攝影時代的小

瀏覽三維動畫的過程中,可發現幾個藝術家和

型照片,中間隔着畫廊白色的牆壁,就像攝影

他的團隊的「痕跡」:在一個電視屏幕的倒映

拼貼之間的間距。與三維動畫的全景觀相比,

看到其中一個助手,在抽水馬桶中也看到拍攝

在照片牆之間走動的人自己填補想象的空隙,

者。這些都不是自拍像(鏡子是自我表現的一


個突出工具和模式),不過它們是否如攝影師

複雜 (Latour/Woolgar 1986):照片全面捕

Atg e t 試圖記錄老巴黎時將自己模糊的面目

捉室內環境後,自動轉換成三維空間,但隨後

拍進照片中的簡單意外呢?我的閱讀是這些痕

製作隊選擇加添或刪減若干細節,在某些物

跡別有所指,是想向大家宣佈「我們曾到此一 遊」,就如日常攝影般,目的是宣示圖像的真 實性,抗衡三維模型的虛假。同時亦提供媒體

件作紋理映 射,還決定把意外自拍的影像保 留而不是全部刪除。這樣,這些影像變成了一 種宣示:有關整個項目的紀錄性質(這不是遊

反思的一面,突出工作鏈的另一端:攝影師在 現場的存在。在其中一個《家》之中,可看到書 架上釘着藝術家的名片,是他之前拜訪屋主詢 問參加這項目時留下的。正如之前提及到,屋 內的物件沒有被移動或移除,因此這名片是證 據的一部分 – 有點像在量子物理學中,探測者 能夠影響所探測的情況。屋內其他個人文件都 被模糊化以保障屋主私隱,因為這項目不是有 關個別棚屋和裏面的居民,這些空間代表的是 典型的大澳家庭。 雖然反射和名片都是攝影師捕捉瞬間時 產生的意外細節,他們也選擇讓它在三維模 型中出現,把這種無意中的自拍變成表現自我 的機會,強調這些圖像的紀實性,提示這項複 雜和費時的項目的第一步,是攝影師的現場拍 攝。這樣一來,這些「痕跡」反而暴露出《家》的 人工化,當中涉及把真實空間變成照片,然後 化為點雲像,最後變成紋理映射的三維動畫。 這例子說明指向性與三維電腦動畫不是 對立的,建 構性也與攝影 不相違。 《家》的導 覽圖像屬 指向性,因為作品不只是近似真實 環 境,而是 建 基 於照片記 錄。但他們的 指向 性 比 經典攝影理論更複 雜,在這些論述中, 照片被認 為是描繪的 對象的直接視 覺化學 印記 (Krauss 1977)。而這作品的關係鏈更

戲,而是用細緻的捕捉和模型數碼重建真實的 空間),也關乎整個創作過程:攝影捕捉、攝影 測量、三維建模和導覽,是媒體反思作為程序 反思。


Tamas Waliczky, Homes – A Journey into Pragmatic Realism by Ingrid Hoelzl

For Homes, Tamas Waliczky and his

Yewpick Lee Charitable Foundation. But

five research assistants have taken

it was not the digital heritage aspect of

thousands of photos at seven family

the project or its valuation of a popular

homes in the Tai O fishing village,

lifestyle that made me interested in

which is famous for its picturesque stilt-

the project. It was its relation between

houses. Homes shows a different kind of

photography and 3D animation, and the

house found in the same village: single-

peculiar way Waliczky chose to make

storey houses whose front consists of

this relation explicit in his installation.

shutters that are opened during the day,

In fact, the installation consists not

transforming street- and private space

merely of two digital screens – fixed

into a continuum. These photographs

at eye-level onto opposite walls – that

(taken with a standard Canon D50) were

allow the viewer to interactively explore

subsequently turned into an interactive

a 3D model of two of these homes by

3D animation, shown for the first time at

manipulating a trackball. The walls

Lumenvisum, Hong Kong in 2015.

behind the screens are turned into a

The

project

is

documentary

and

kind of prospect, featuring views of the

educational in nature: it is a visual

outside space, and the remaining two

inventory of traditional lifestyle in Tai O,

walls feature a selection of small-scale

a digital heritage project that seeks to

photographic prints of each location,

make this lifestyle accessible in virtual

directly fixed onto the gallery wall.

form and to preserve it for the future

With this sober setup, Waliczky has,

when these family houses – and the

in fact, turned the entire gallery space

people that inhabit them – no longer

into a 3D-environment that not only

exist. As such, it was funded by the

represents two different spaces, but

Hong Kong University Grants Council

that is a spatial re-actualisation of both

and the Drs Richard Charles & Esther

at once.


Walking

along

these

photowalls,

representation

of

the

photographed

one quickly understands that these

space and the objects contained within

sparsely hung images cover, in fact, the

it, with photographic realism. I will come

entire 3D space of the two locations;

back to the question of realism.

with the same objects appearing from

Whereas a single image could work

slightly different angles and in different

with

positions – high up on the walls, close

map thus obtained, for an interactive

to the ground, etc. It is as if we followed

3D animation, one actually needs to

the team on their stop-motion journey

downscale the details, i.e., to reduce the

(stop, take a photo, move to the next

polygons, which means making them

viewpoint) in what might be called

larger and the representation coarser.

peripathetic photography. Contrary to

Similar to JPEG compression, where the

chronophotography, it is not the change

aim is “visual losslessness” (Buonari and

over time that counts here, but the

Liberati 2009), one reduces the polygons

change of perspective, and thus, of the

for objects where the human eye cannot

objects’ appearance.

distinguish between a complex polygon

the

astonishingly

detailed

3D

As Waliczky explains, there are rules

structure and a simple rectangle (as in the

for the photographic recording, so that

case of a door, for instance). This is based

the photogrammetry software (AgiSoft

on trial and error: more complex objects

PhotoScan) that calculates the position

generally need a more detailed polygonal

of the objects in 3-dimensional space

structure in order to be credible, i.e., to

by comparing their different positions in

appear realistic. (Waliczky’s long-term

the 2-dimensional images can recognise

plan is to have separate objects in an

the objects and generate a realistic

archive; in this case, detailed polygons

rendering: the viewpoint must always

could be retained, as less processing

be different; and the more complex

power is needed to render single objects

the

in real-time).

object

(an

ornate

devotionary

statue, for instance), the more photos are needed. The photos need to be in sharp focus, and the lighting needs to

The question of realism

be consistent; otherwise, the software cannot correctly correlate different views

“Straight photography” advocates the

of the same object. The software then

unstaged

generates a point cloud and connects

manipulation before, during, or after

those points, resulting in triangles (i.e.,

taking an image. Homes seems to

3D polygons). The original photos are

follow the same logic in its meticulous

then texturemapped on top of this 3D

photoscanning of the locations, where

wireframe; thus, re-infusing this abstract

the photographers try to walk around

capturing

of

reality:

no


objects, never rearranging anything

resemblance: the software responding

to get a “better view”. But if there is

immediately to the movement of the

occlusion, the artist and his assistants

player. His animation is a compromise

“model” something, meaning that the

between both: a pragmatic realism, both

hidden part of an object (that could

“faithful” documentation and a smooth

not be captured by the camera, but

virtual

was nonetheless there) is added to

family homes. But is this virtual journey

the image. Staging, then, to perfect

enabled by a so-called “body” with a

photography’s imperfect realism?

given height (about 170 cm), gravity

journey

through

these

two

For Waliczky, it is all about the need

and volume – a “walking tripod” with a

to balance speed (of navigation) with

rotating camera mounted on it – that is

quality (realism). In our interview at his

stopped when this “body” encounters

studio, he argues that whereas in the

obstructing objects such as tables or

early years, American computer games

walls – more real than the imaginary

focused more on visual resemblance

journey that we may embark on while

(think of, say, leaves moving in the

walking along the two photowalls?

wind),

games

Contrary to the 3D animation, we do not

focused on what we could call kinetic

navigate a coherent whole from different

Japanese

computer

家 Homes. Lumenvisum Gallery, Hong Kong, 2015


positions and angles, but we are given

interactive

only fragments of fragmentary views,

Doesn’t

i.e., a selection of photographs that have

provide the ultimate realism, following

been cut out from the coherent whole

technical media’s teleology from still to

of the photographed space. This double

moving to interactive/immersive image,

fragmentation is highlighted by the

which satisfies not so much a desire

chosen mode of display: small photo-

for realism, as Bazin would have it, but

prints recalling the era of analogue

a desire for endlessness, of an image

vernacular photography with the white

without borders, neither in space nor in

gallery wall in between operating as

time? In fact, following Waliczky, what is

a “spacing” similar to the spacings of

crucial for gamers – and thus also for the

photomontage. But contrary to the 3D

players of his interactive 3D animation –

animation’s total image, here it is the de-

is the immediate reaction of the virtual

ambulating viewer herself who bridges

world to navigational inputs; deficiencies

the gaps in her imagination, generating

in visual realism are tolerated, so long as

what Jameson has called “cognitive

the virtual world reacts to the player in

mapping” (1990).

real-time...

part

the

of

the

real-time

animation? navigability

The dogma of photographic realism consists of what André Bazin has called the “transfer of reality” (2009), from the photograph to the model. No matter how blurry or fuzzy the photograph, the

The artist’s traces: accident, self-portraiture or mediumreflexivity?

photograph IS the model, in a procedure that he relates to religion (and Roland

There are several “traces” of the artist

Barthes to magic). In 3D graphics, this

and his team that one discovers as

transfer of reality is the one between

one navigates the 3D animation: the

the 3D model and the photograph: the

reflection of one of the assistants in a

model IS the photograph (the magic of

TV screen, and in a toilet bowl, caught

photographic automatism correlating

while photographing these very same

with the magic of digital computation,

objects. These are not self-portraits (in

which, in fact, and particularly in this

the mirror, a prominent tool and mode

case, involves many hours of “manual”

of

modeling). In Homes, with photography

But are they simple accidents, like the

as the basis of the 3D model, the transfer

reflection of Atget’s blurred face in

goes both ways: from photograph to

one of his street photographs of the

model (the real location), and from 3D

Old Paris that he sought to document?

model

photos

I would like to argue that they are

to photograph. But what about the

something else: statements of the kind:

with

texturemapped

photographic

self-representation).


“we have been there”, that we also find

Homes, where real spaces are turned

in vernacular photography, but here

into photos, point clouds and finally

with the aim to support the documentary

photomapped 3D animations.

status of these images, to counter their

What

this

exemplifies

is

that

artificiality as 3D digital models. And

indexicality is not antagonistic to 3D

they are something else: an expression

computer animation, nor constructivity

of

highlighting

to photography. The navigable images

the other end of the work chain: the

medium

reflexivity,

of Homes are indexical in the sense that

presence of the photographer on site.

they not only resemble these locations,

In one of the two Homes, one can also

but

spot a business card of the artist pinned

recordings. But their indexicality is more

to the bookshelf – given at a previous

complex than classical photo theory

visit when asking for permission to

would have it, where photographs are

carry out the project. As mentioned

considered as the direct opto-chemical

earlier, no objects have been moved

traces of the objects they depict (Krauss

or removed, so this business card is

1977). What we have here is a more

part of the documentary evidence –

complex chain of reference (Latour/

a bit like in quantum physics, where

Woolgar 1986): the photomechanical

the measurement alters the measured

capture (of an interior in its quasi-

situation. Other personal documents are

totality) is automatically transformed

blurred for anonymity’s sake, since the

into a 3D space, but then the team

project is not so much about individual

chose to add more detail to this object,

houses and their individual inhabitants,

remove detail from that object, add

represented by these interiors, but

texturemaps onto another one, etc. –

about typical family houses.

and to keep their accidental reflections,

Now, even though the reflections

are

instead

based

of

on

photographic

systematically

removing

and the business card were, in fact,

them. Thus, reflections that directly

unintentional details at the moment of

point to their cause, the photographing

capture, choosing to keep them in the

photographer,

3D model transforms this unintentional

concerning the documentary nature of

self-photography into an intentional

the entire project (this is not a game,

self-representation

that

this is a digital reconstruction of a real

the

status

documentary

emphasises of

become

statements:

these

space based on painstaking capturing

images, requiring the photographer to

and modelling), and concerning the

be present on site as the first step in

entire process of creation: capture,

a complex and time-consuming work

photogrammetry, 3D modeling – and

process, so that, paradoxically, these

navigation:

traces also expose the artificiality of

process reflexivity.

medium

reflexivity

as


作 者 簡 介 Author bio Ingrid Hoelzl 是香港城市大學創意媒體學 院的助理教授,著有兩本有關攝影的書,包括 最近面世、與Rémi Marie合著的Softimage:

Towards a New Theory of the Digital Image (2015)。她曾撰寫不少有關數碼文化 下 影 像 的 地 位 的 文 章,在 不 少 期  包 括

Photographies, History of Photography, Leonardo, Digital Creativity 和 Visual Studies等出版。她正與 Rémi Marie合寫下 一本著作,有關從後人民主義的角度下看圖像 在機器視點下的命運。

Ingrid Hoelzl is Assistant Professor at the School of Creative Media, City

參考 文 獻 References

University of Hong Kong. She is the author of two books on photography,

Bazin, André (2009), “Ontology of the Photographic Image”, 3–12 in What is Cinema?

including, most recently, Softimage:

Translated by Timothy Barnard. Montreal:

Towards a New Theory of the Digital

caboose.

Image (2015), co-authored with Rémi

Buonora, Paolo and Franco Liberati (2008), “A

Marie. Her articles on the status of the

Format for Digital Preservation of Images: A

image in digital culture have appeared in

Study on JPEG 2000 File Robustness”, D-Lib Magazine 14, ⅞. http://www.dlib.org/dlib/july08/ buonora/07buonora.html. Accessed 1 May 2013. Jameson, Fredric (1990), “Cognitive Mapping”.

Photographies, History of Photography, Leonardo, Digital Creativity, and Visual Studies. With Rémi Marie, she is currently

347-360 in Cary Nelson and Lawrence Grossberg

working on a new book addressing

(eds), Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture.

the fate of the image in the age of

Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press. Krauss, Rosalind (1977), “Notes on the Index: Seventies Art in America”, October 3 (Spring, 1977): 68-81. Latour, Bruno and Steve Woolgar (1986), Laboratory Life: The Construction of Scientific Facts. Princeton: Princeton University Press (2nd edition).

machine vision from the perspective of posthumanism.


甚 麼 是 個 人 的 ,甚 麼 不是 Tamás Waliczky作品 中照片的作用 Miklós Peternák 我們當時稱之為 攝影的這個範疇,或者可說 第一批技術影像,在三十年前,即1 9 8 0 年代 開始發生基本和不可預知的轉變,即Tamás Waliczky出道那時候開始。 Wa l i c z k y 作品的出現,與 有些人稱之 為後攝影,有些人稱作攝影中介的時代 (這只 是其中兩個現今流行的 稱號 ) 的轉變吻合。 這 轉 變的主旨是,通 過 聚透 鏡 調節的光,不 再在特定的物料上留下因化學變化產生的印 記,因而把不規則圖案 轉化成有意義的表面 Flusser),而是在記憶卡、芯片或其它存儲 設備的輔助下,光的圖案被儲存作 數 據和訊 息。以前的照片,通過沖印使我們可看到光映 射在特定的物料上展現,而在數碼影像中只能 以間接方式顯示:有 許多工具如軟件和硬件 可以「沖印」影像。我們將這些工具統稱作電 腦,而圖片則稱為數碼影像來提醒自己,當我

照片 Pictures (1988)


們說我們已「拍了張照」,其實是把光化為個

照 片 19 8 8

別訊息然後儲存,這訊息可被拆解成數字。特 定的機器自動和方便地把這一組獨特訊息標

隨着約翰施特勞斯的圓舞曲作品第410號響

籤並加上序號,以確保我們不會與下一個文件

起,我們踏上私人照片之旅,其中很多家庭照

混淆。

片,以ATARI 520+電腦的256種顏色轉成電

我 們 的 手 永 遠 不會 被 沖 印 室 的 液 體 弄

腦 檔,在今 天看來色 彩 幾 乎 帶點 迷 幻。我們

濕 – 可能要解釋這改變,用感官的方法可能是

觀看每張照片,或者說,從通過計算機變焦、

最清楚的。

特寫、提取和變形觀看一張張照片。從牆上的 照片開始,隨着華爾滋舞曲的節奏,又回到原 處。照片就是播放器,保留着照片中被攝的物 件在拍攝當時的形象,但這旅程卻是 倒  式 的,從現時開始回到童年。是倒  的自傳或重 組的家庭相冊,同時也是一種聲明、新申論、 宣示、序曲、及時行樂和死亡象徵 – 忠實於華 爾滋舞曲的情調。當然,它也是一個旅程的中 站。這是一個展覽,展示畫家、攝影師、電影定 格、畫架上的畫,但畫畫的不再是人手。相反, 是機器控制人手,即數碼圖像:雖然超8米厘 投影機所顯示的圖像清晰可見,我們正處於新 媒體的桌面上。從開始到結束,過程都是由光 標控制。 告別一個即將結束的時期,一個消失的 影像世界正完全被以前從未經歷過的新態度 改變。

照片 Pictures. Apt Art exhibition, Hong Kong, 2011


景 觀 19 9 7年

與白正正是Waliczky稱為《景觀》這作品的 主題。我不是指它的形式或它的技術數據(黑

19世紀混合 赭褐色和紫色調的照片,很快 便

與白 ,而是不止於此,是德語稱之為Gestalt

變 成 2 0 世 紀 初 的 黑白照,通 過 哲學 性 的 化

(整體)的東西,換言之,不是指各式出現在框

學反 應,體現了對 客 觀性 的信念,這信念植

內的元素(如教堂、樹木、馬和模擬雨滴),而

根於19世紀的實證主義,過渡到20世紀。這

是黑與白本身成為重點,指示配置簡單圖像的

信念力求把世界展現成黑白色,通過清楚 劃

時間和空間性。

分 的 對立,化 為可 認知 和可 記 錄 的現實。文

Peter Weibel 有一美麗的早 期短篇錄

檔的顏色是黑白的,我們知道黑 與白不是 顏

像作品,我只能依稀記得(我寧願保持這種記

色。黑白的紀錄片看來似乎更真實 – 至少直

憶,所以沒有在互聯網上搜尋這作品),其中

到1990年代都是如此,對某些人(比如我)

一名男子跳入水中,令水花四濺。在那一刻,

自小看到的照片 都是黑白的,到現在仍把黑

畫面凝結,變成了抽象的雕塑,以黑白的形式

白等同真實。即使到了1970年代,彩色照片

出現。又或者匈牙利優秀藝術家Gyula Pauer

仍 然 較 罕見,除 非 是油 畫。電 視、初 期 的 視

的概念派作品,展示了一個人正躍入水中,只

頻 影像、大多數 報刊與及影院張貼的電影廣

見到兩條凸出在水面指向天空的腿。這個黑白

告通常都是黑白的。很難向互聯網出現後出

作品的標題是:一張照片表面的照片。對我們

生的年輕 人解釋這情況,直到他們在沖印房

來說,表面就是照片開放的介面,通過它我們

中 親 眼看 到 照 片 在白色 感 光 紙 上 顯 影 的 過

可以看到曾經存在的一刻,今天我們定義為時

程。當然,即 使 如 此,也 不能 肯 定他 們 對 解

間和空間平面一瞬間的接合。《景觀》內的水

釋的 對 象的理 解,是 否和作解 釋的人一樣。

滴(或者說數碼影像元素希望產生的這種錯

今天,黑白已是過去式 – 絕不是代表懷舊,

覺)強行開放、放鬆、舒展,並重新放置這凝結

如棕色的19世紀照片與黑白照片相比時那樣。

的平面,當中滑梯、教堂、十字架仍可見。但由

相反,黑白是沉悶和勞累的象徵。它是被看作

所造的「前景」的「空氣」與及時間性和新畫面

歷史的過去 – 能夠辨認,但不太具啟發性。

的移動元素,我們看到的,是世界還在黑白年

黑白照片並非 顯 示 這一 切(這光、這 些人與

代時的風景。

物)曾在某時某地存在過。與今天我們已習慣 了的顏色和高解像影像相比,黑白照片代表了 一種虛構,換句話說,與它在2 0 世紀的論述 完全相反。 這與我們的當前主題有何關係?在我看 來,或者更準確地說,根據我的目光,這種黑


焦點 Focus. ZKM, Karlsruhe, Germany, 1998 焦點 Focus (1998)

焦點 聚 焦中 19 9 8

Tamás Waliczky在他的網站客觀地描 述,作品開首出現的影像是模擬的街景,包括 街道兩旁的房屋與中間面向鏡頭的人群。但調

為了記錄適當的畫面,攝影師根據三個互有關

整畫面某些部分的清 晰 程度的任務則交由觀

連的元素,選擇鏡頭(攝影目標),決定曝光

眾負責,在介面協助下完成。Waliczky 的朋友

時間和快門大小。後兩個元素所涉及的數值,

及認識的人在800張照片中獨立或三五成群

在攝影史上比較後期才出現,在1870年代和

地出現,點擊這些人像令畫面變得清 晰,再點

1 8 8 0 年 代 期 間 才 發 明「即 時 攝 影」( 如

擊便退出這空間,看到 Waliczky 拍攝的這些

Ottomar Anschütz 1887年發明的1/1000秒

人的照片。作者再一次展示自己的照片冊,但

快門)。數碼相機仍未自動化的兩組數字(這

與「照片」不同,這些照片的人物來自更大的家

數字是指一秒的若干分之幾,1、2、4、8、15、

庭,是地球村的村民。對焦和選擇光圈的動作

30、60、125、250、500、1000 等等,以及

來自攝影傳統上兩個操作,在這作品中佔據突

光圈數值的大小:1.4、2.8、4、5.6、8、11、16等

出和戲劇性的位置。這作品把自從自動化攝影

等),是那個時期攝影技術發展的結果。後一

普及以來被遺忘了的構圖動作,為攝影賦予新

組數字在《焦點》聚焦中 的使用者介面中出

功能,好像為攝影在不斷變化的影像世界漩渦

現在影像之下,在標誌距離的那組數字之上。

中加上個人的註腳。


快 拍 照 片 的 微 動 作 2 0 14

家 2 0 12 / 2 0 15

正如作品的名稱所指,這裝置由六張數碼快拍

我常想為何當我們在很短時間內先後看到兩

照片組成。對我來說,作品用說教的方式 – 說

張略為不同的照片時,會產生動感的錯覺(早

教在這裏是一個良好、非批判性的詞語 – 顯

期電影),而把兩張照片左右並排放在一起,我

示了這批快拍照與業餘或私人攝影師在過去

們大腦便會產生三維(立體)的錯覺,讓我們

一個多世紀拍的快拍照有多大的分別。這項目

理解眼前的圖像。雖然我們可用電腦和gif動

可題為「我們應該如何在 21世紀看待照片?」

畫製造上述兩種幻覺,基本情況依然如此。三

的數碼攝影課程的教材。這作品在作者創作的

維空間的立體感,或電腦製造的虛擬空間是兩

儀器上(換句話說,是電腦),展示一系列串連

種不同種類的映射。前者需要用介面把兩個圖

成5分鐘37秒片段的圖像,我可以在過程中任

像或兩組圖像分開,而後者則有時序性,如互

何時候暫停、快退或快進影像。因此,我可以

動的動態影像,能呈現多方向分支、多角度、能

很容易地辨別Waliczky表達每張照片可能的

移近或縮小等功能。《家》屬於後一個類型,

角度的行動。如何能令被串連起來的圖片通過

具有各種表現形式,也可向不同方向發展。

精心挑選的元素移動?如何能令靜止的影像

大澳漁村是香港一個稀有景點,也保存着

動」起來,就如 Gusztáv Hámos以照片電

一個正消失的生活方式。從外面看,它就像一

影為題作演講以及出版的著作《動與不動:這

個露天鄉村博物館(一個skansen – 身處村

就是問題》中提出的基本公式般?在這作品的

內這博物館幾乎是無形的。這作品的工作人員

六張照片,作者選擇用不同方法讓 觀 眾重看

與當地人接洽後,選擇把某些房屋的內部以三

或者把照片的內容展示出來。這也可視 為一

維數碼展現,這是一種現代的快拍,是把眾多

種獨特的編目方法,申明若我這樣做(例如把

實際快拍照結合的印記。為了建構與原物幾乎

個別鳥籠快速地連續展示),那麼看來是靜止

相同的高解像模型,屋內每一個元素,例如每

的影像便會以這種方式動起來。若我以稍微不

件物件,都必須從至少三個不同角度拍攝。因

同的方式做的話(把各個步驟一起處理),那

此,就有可能徹底和以實證主義的態度記錄和

麼照片中的相似之處便會平均分配,動畫的各

永久保存一個隨機選擇的室內空間。

種技巧如搖鏡、像素化、重複剪接等,變成分

我們通常保存的是典型和尋常的東

析單一圖片的方法,一種新的圖像意識正在發

西 – 被遺忘的多是隨機和獨特的。十九世紀

展中。

的露天博物館建立在這一原則之上,博覽會中 的偽民族志的景點也是如此。分類學的本質 是殘酷的:它擅於分門別類,但不利於異於尋 常的東西。虛擬模型通常也是這樣的,繪製的


通常不是獨特的細節,而是相同的、易於管理

反 映 2 0 14

的結構,因為它必須在硬件和軟件兩隻巨獸之 間游走,不會徘徊在細節之中,因這只會減慢

在花園裏的原型。在http://www.waliczky.

視像化和其使用者,兩者都習慣立竿見影的效

net這 網 站,每 個項目的 意念 和版權 都屬於

果。在三維空間中,我們往往側重於快速移動

Waliczky Tamás & Szepesi Anna,而Anna

的元素(例如玩電腦遊戲時),或者我們正在

Szepesi是Waliczky的妻子不是一個秘密。

尋找的東西(如虛擬博物館),很少見到空間

作品「隱藏」的內容是一個家庭式三聯畫。我

本身就是內容。就算是,也是一個有代表性或

們看到三個如鏡子的人形剪影,他們身體的

神聖的空間,而不是21世紀初的一個小漁村的

輪廓化為照片中央的人影鏡子,他們同時也出

生活空間。

現。旋轉、鮮花、快樂家庭,三層的畫面,誰的

在Waliczky的作品中,在私人領域展開

輪廓會出現在誰的照片中,甚麼時候出現?我

虛 擬 旅程是 一 個反複出現的主 題。《照片》

們可以問,箇中有沒有系統?剪影本身也在旋

中的 影像曾經 是 個人 空間,《焦 點》也有這

轉,但維持在畫面的同一位置。數碼的影像吻

樣的一 個領域,正如業 餘態度(amateur這

合得天衣無縫,但這並不奇怪,因為我們能夠

個詞的詞源,意思是做他/她喜歡的事的人)

精確地控制每一個像素。循環、旋轉、繞圈,

總 是 他 作 品 主 題 的 一 部 分。我 們 可 離 題 一

跳華爾茲,但沒有音樂。我們面前的是看似簡

點,把《照片》中最後站在地毯上的小孩,與

單的視覺背景,在這現實中,我們很難找到方

花園 – 21世紀業餘電影》中的主角比較,但

向。這引發圖像創作深層原型(或者本體論?)

我現在放下這樣做。在視覺世界的根本轉變,

的反思。古時候剪影的來源是人影的投射。最

技術性圖像的出現之前,不可能研究沒有根據 的私人空間。Umberto Eco的 1 比 1 比例地圖 的出現 – 雖然有些瑕疵 – 在虛擬空間中變 得可能。要進行這種研究,需要很多數據與及 大量已作數據存儲的照片(不知為何我們稱之 為數碼照片)。今天,我們經常拍攝這樣的照片 做筆記。

反映 Reflections. New Budapest Gallery, Hungary, 2015


早期的圖像(油畫或浮雕—根據所選,即使用 普林尼的方法)是從人影的投射繪圖的,在這 作品中被用作鏡子。鏡 是我們看見自己的工 具 – 否則我們只能在其他人的面貌認出自己。 花園中三聯的鏡像是張家庭照 – 在畫廊裏展 出讓陌生人觀看:是倒向的親密?這作品可能 的詮 釋,不在於了解私人元素的細節或解構 圖中的人物,也不是因為從觀者的角度,這資 料只是附帶性的,因為在作品的鏡子中,任何 人、任何家庭、任何花園也會認得自己。正因在 這個展露的過程中,盛開的金鏈花(高解像的) 和剪影中的樹枝變得感性地刺激,兩個方面也 反映 Reflections (2014)

是(即人像的環境中可看見的東西,與及反空 間中被人影掩蓋而以虛構鏡子的方式出現的

The fundamental and unpredictable

那方面。)正是這個重複的結構讓他們可在同

transformation

一空間內同時出現,但同時不是在自己身旁,

photography at the time, or the first

因為現實這並不可能。從自己身影的改變,我

of

what

we

called

technical image, commenced precisely when (thirty years ago) the first works

們認出當前時間的過程與及時間邊界的存在。

of Tamás Waliczky began to appear in

我們內在的圖像,是其他人看到的世界的一部

public, namely in the second half of the

分。我們形像的影像所造成的邊界,在我們和

1980s.

投射的對象之間形成,是向着那對象而發表。

Thus, the evolution of Waliczky’s oeuvre runs parallel to the decisive turn which is referred to by some as the post-photographic condition, or as photomediation by others, to mention only two versions of the possible attempts at categorisation currently in circulation. The gist of the transformation is that a unique pattern of light regulated through a convergent lens no longer leaves a mark causing chemical changes on

a

material

previously

prepared

according to a given recipe, thereby


What is Personal and What Is Not The Role of Photographs in Some of the Works of Tamás Waliczky by Miklós Peternák

transforming the irregular pattern into

numerical forms. The given machine

a meaningful surface (Flusser). Rather,

automatically and conveniently labels

with the aid of some card, chip, or other

this exact and unique set of information,

memory device, it is stored as data, as

adding its own serial number in order to

information. While in the case of the

ensure that we will not confuse it with

photograph as it used to be known,

the next file.

through developing we were able to see

Never again will our hands get wet in

the unique map of light directly on the

the photo lab – as a sensory experience,

special surface of the image-object, in

perhaps this is the best way to describe

the case of the digital image this is only

this difference most clearly.

possible in an indirect fashion: numerous tools are at our disposal, i.e., pieces of software and hardware with which to

Pictures 1988

“develop” an image. We refer to these

To the melody of Johann Strauss’ waltz

means with the comprehensive term

opus 410 we embark on a journey of

computer, while we refer to the pictures

private photographs, many of them

as digital to remind ourselves that while

family photographs, that have been

we say we have taken a “picture”, we

transformed with the use of the 256

are storing in a file light that has been

colours of an ATARI 520+ computer:

transformed

of

rendering an effect that today seems

information and can be broken up into

almost psychedelic. We travel from

into

discrete

units


picture to picture, or rather, from one

Landscape 1997

picture into another picture, by way of a string of computer zoom, close-

The ochre-brownish colour mingled with

ups, extraction and morphing. The

violet tones of 19th-century photographs

movement begins with pictures on the

changed fairly quickly, at the beginning

wall and, in harmony with the nature

of the 20th century, to black-and-white,

of the waltz, returns here. The pictures

embodying

are the players, and they preserve

metaphysical chemical transformation,

the representations of the subjects in

of the faith in objectivity, a faith rooted

the pictures fixed to the time of their

in 19th-century positivism, into the 20th

production, but it is as if the journey

century. This faith sought to present

were taking place going backwards

the world as black and white, as a unity

in

of

time,

beginning

in

the

present

clearly

the

survival,

partitioned

through

opposites,

a

as

childhood.

cognizable and documentable reality.

A rewound autobiographic-photo, a

The document’s colours are black and

reorganised family album, at the same

white, which, as we know, are not colours.

time a statement, a new assertion,

A documentary film shot in black and

declaration, overture, carpe diem and

white seems much more authentic – at

memento mori all in one – faithful to

least this was the case until the 1990s, and

the characteristic mood of a Walzer.

it remains the case for people (like me)

Of course it is also a medial journey.

who were socialised with the idea that a

It presents an exhibition, the role of

photograph is black and white. Even in

the painter, the photographer, the film

the 1970s, colour pictures were a rarity,

frames, a picture on an easel, but the

unless they were paintings. Television,

gesture of the hand is no longer painting

the first video images, the majority of

the picture. Rather, the machine moves

newspapers, and advertisements for

the hand itself, its digital image: the

films posted on cinema billboards and

figure of the hand separating from the

cabinets were black and white, and

hand shows that although the image of

this was commonplace. It is difficult to

the Super8 projector is clearly visible,

explain this to youngsters born after

we are now on the desktop of the new

the appearance of the World Wide

medium. From beginning to end, the

Web, until they see with their own eyes

processes are controlled by the cursor.

the process of a picture emerging on a

and

traveling

back

into

Farewell to a period that is coming

white, light-sensitive exposed sheet of

to a close, a disappearing image-world

paper in the developing room, a photo

which is being completely transformed

lab. And of course, even then it is not

by a new attitude that has never before

certain that the person to whom it is

been experienced.

explained understands the process in


exactly the same way as the person who

the colour and high resolution images to

is explaining it. Today, black and white

which we have grown accustomed today,

is a sign for the past – and by no means

they represent a kind of fiction, in other

a nostalgic-sentimental sign, like the

words, exactly the opposite of what they

brown 19th-century pictures once were

represented in much of the discourse of

when compared with the black-and-

the 20th century.

white images. Rather, they are a sign of

In what sense is all this relevant to

an act of impending boredom requiring

our current subject? In my view, or, to

exertion. This is the past understood

be more precise, according to my gaze,

as history – perhaps recognisable, but

this black-and-whiteness is the subject

not

Black-and-white

of Waliczky’s work entitled Landscape. I

suggests not that all this (this light, these

really

inspiring.

am thinking not of its form or its technical

figures in the picture) existed at some

data (black-and-white), but of more than

time and somewhere. Compared with

that, of something that in German one

風景 Landscape. Bury Art Gallery, England, 2010

風景 Landscape (1996)


refers to as Gestalt, in other words, not

temporality, and the movement of new

the elements of the picture appearing in

picture elements, we see the landscape

individual frames (church, trees, horse

that probably existed when the world

and raindrop simulations), but this black-

was in its black-and-white age.

and-whiteness itself, which becomes an emphasised,

indicative

configuration.

The timeliness and spatiality of simple images.

Focus, Focusing 1998 The photographer, in order to record the

Peter Weibel has a beautiful, short,

appropriate picture, works according

early video work, which I can only faintly

to the well-selected values of three

recall (I would prefer to preserve this

parameters, which are interrelated. The

memory as it is, so I have not looked for

photographer selects the camera lens

the video on the internet), in which a man

(the photographic objective), decides

jumps into water with a great splash. At

the length of time for which the sensitised

that very moment, the picture freezes

surface of the picture should be exposed

and the splashing water becomes a non-

to light, and determines the size of the

figurative sculpture, and all this is in black-

aperture through which this should

and-white. Or one might think of the

occur. The mechanical ordering of the

Conceptualist work of the outstanding

latter two parameters with standardised

Hungarian artist, Gyula Pauer, again

values occurred in a relatively late period

showing a figure jumping into water

in the history of photography, during the

where only the two legs pointing upwards

1870s and 1880s, with the appearance of

towards the sky are sticking out of the

“instantaneous photography” (e.g., the

surface. The title of this black-and-white

1/1000 second shutter speed is linked

picture is: a photograph of the surface

to Ottomar Anschütz, 1887). The two

of a photograph. The surface for us is

sequences of numbers still used in digital

the open interface of the photograph,

cameras that are not fully automated

through which we can see the once-

(the numbers refer to the fractions of

existing duration that today is undefined

seconds on the time range, 1, 2, 4, 8, 15,

with the aid of a rather brief conjunction

30, 60, 125, 250, 500, 1000… etc., as

of the planes of time and space. The

well as the aperture, the opening for the

water drops of Landscape (or the digital

light: 1.4, 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 11, 16, etc.) are the

picture-fragment-elements wishing to

result of this period of development. The

produce this illusion) force open, loosen

latter of the two number sequences is

up, stretch, and re-spatialise this frozen

visible in the viewer’s interface of Focus

plane, in which a slide, a church, and a

(Focusing), underneath the picture and

crucifixion are still visible. But because of

above the number sequence signifying

the “air” of the created “foreground”, the

the distance.


In an objective description on his website, Tamás Waliczky states that

Micromovements in Snapshots 2014

the beginning frame of Focus is a street simulation, with houses on either side,

The installation is based on six digital shots,

and people who look into the camera at

snapshots, as the title itself suggests. For

the centre, but the task of adjusting the

me, in a rather didactic manner – in a

sharpness of certain segments of the

good, non-critical sense of the word – it

image and thereby bringing the faces

shows how very different this snapshot

into focus and making them visible is

is from that of the amateur, the private

left to the viewer, who does so with

photographer, who took snapshots over

the help of an interface. Friends and

the course of a century. The work would

acquaintances from various countries,

be a good example to include in a course

alone and in groups, are represented

on digital photography, entitled “How

in some 800 photographs. Clicking

should we look at photographs in the 21st

on them sharpens the image – and

century?” As I watch the visual material,

with an additional click it is possible

which can be presented as a stream of

to exit this space and view the given

images lasting 5 minutes and 37 seconds

person in a photograph taken by Tamás Waliczky. Again, we are confronted with a photo album, but not as we saw in the case of Pictures. The characters here are members of a larger family, of the global village. The act of focusing and

the

become

selection two

of

an

operations

快拍照片的微動作 Micromovements in Snapshots. New Budapest Gallery, Hungary, 2015

aperture from

the

former photographic tradition that are endowed here with a prominent and dramaturgical quality. Thus, the work revives

the

compositional

gestures

that, since the advent of everyday automated digital snapshots, have been forgotten. It gives photography a new function, as if appending a personal medium-archaeological

footnote

to

the possibilities of fashioning that are disappearing in the whirlpool of the changing world of images.

快拍照片的微動作 Micromovements in Snapshots (2014)


on a device that the author himself used

at the sensory experience of how,

when working on this project (in other

when we look at two, slightly different

words, a computer), I am able to pause it

photographic images in quick succession,

at any time and rewind or fast forward it.

we experience the illusion of motion

Thus, I can easily discern the actions with

(elemental cinema), while if we look at

which Waliczky expresses the possible

the two pictures separately with our

perspective domains that are part of

two eyes, side-by-side, our brain creates

the individual pictures. How can the

a spatial, 3D (stereo) illusion in order to

picture be set into motion through the

enable us to understand what we have

arrangement of well-selected elements

seen. Although with computers and

in a sequence? How does a “still” image

gif animations a combination of these

become an image of “motion”, recalling

can also be created, the fundamental

the basic formula by Gusztáv Hámos,

situation remains the same. The three-

who gave lectures on Photo-films and

dimensional sense of spatial illusion, or

published books: “To Move, or Not to

the

Move: That is the Question”? In all six

of a given space are different kinds of

cases, the author selects a different

mappings. For the former, it is necessary

manner for re-watching them, or for

to separate the two images or two sets

unfolding the “picture content”. This can

of images with an interface developed

also be regarded as a unique cataloguing

for the eyes, while we can reveal the

initiative, declaring that if I do this (e.g., I

latter in time, like an interactive moving

show the bird cages individually in quick

picture

succession), then what appears to be still

multidirectional embranchment, motion,

moves in this manner. If I do it in a slightly

and approaching and distancing as

different manner (I place various steps

inherent features. Homes belongs to the

on top of one another), then I will average

latter type, which, of course, with the

out the similarities in an entirely different

various modes of presentation, can take

manner. The panning, the pixilation, and

on shades in various directions.

virtual,

computer

endowed

with

representation

a

dynamic,

the technique of repetitive editing known

The fishing village of Tai O is one of Hong

from animations become the analytic

Kong’s curiosities and also a surviving

method of a single file. A new image-

example of a vanishing lifestyle. From

consciousness is evolving.

the outside, it is almost like an open-air village museum (a skansen) – while from the inside it is almost invisible. Conferring

Homes 2012/2015

with the locals, the authors selected the interiors of certain houses to create a

Whenever it occurs to me to think

three-dimensional digital representation,

about it, I am compelled to wonder

a modern snapshot, an imprint which


厜 Homes. Goethe Institut, Hong Kong, 2013

厜 Homes (2012, 2015)

appears as a synoptic agglomeration of numerous actual snapshots. In order to build the high-resolution model, which is almost identical with the original, every element, for instance every object, had to be photographed from at least

is also generally like this: it is drawn not

three different angles. Thus, it became

to unique details, but to the identical,

possible to record and eternalise, with

easily

singular thoroughness and in a manner

must function between the Scylla and

that seemed to fulfil the aspirations of

Charybdis of hardware and software. It

the positivist mind frame, an incidental,

does not linger over details. That would

random

only slow down the visualisation and

state

of

an

interior

space

selected by chance.

manageable

structures,

as

it

its user, which are both accustomed

What we usually store is the typical,

to quick results. In 3D spaces, we often

the characteristic – and what usually

focus on rapidly moving elements (e.g.,

falls through the cracks is the random,

when

the unique. Nineteenth-century open-

we are looking for something (virtual

air museums were built on this principle,

museums), but rarely is it the space itself

as

that we examine. Rarely is the space

were

attractions

the of

pseudo-ethnographic Universal

playing

computer

games),

or

expositions.

itself the content. And even if it is, it is a

The nature of taxonomy is ruthless: it

representational or sacred space, not the

creates schemes, and does not favour

living space of a fishing village from the

occasional anomalies. The virtual model

early 21st century.


The virtual tour in private spheres is

The “hidden” content of reflections

a recurring theme in the work of Tamás

here is a family-triptych. We see three

Waliczky. It can be linked to what were

figures as silhouettes defined as mirrors,

once the personal spaces of Pictures,

in which the characters, who otherwise

but Focusing also has a domain of this

loan their figures to the boundaries of the

kind, much as the amateur attitude (the

figures in the middle ground functioning

etymological source of the word: s/

as a mirror, themselves sometimes also

he who likes what s/he does) is always

appear. Rotation, flowers, domestic idyll

a part of his subject. One could digress

– threefold picture, whose silhouette

and consider the picture of the small

will appear in whose, when? Is there

child at the end of Pictures, who appears

a system behind this? – we could

on the carpet – comparing it with the

ask. The silhouettes also rotate, but

protagonist of The Garden – 21st-Century

topographically they all remain in the

Amateur Film, but I will refrain from doing

same place. The digital fits are exact,

so for now. The study of private spaces

which is not surprising, as we are able

before the radical transformation of the

to control each pixel precisely. Loop,

visual world, before the appearance

rotation, circumvolution, waltz, but there

of technical images, without sources

is no music. A visual wallpaper is projected

is in reality an impossible endeavour.

in front of us which is seemingly simple,

The materialisation of Umberto Eco’s 1:1

but within which, in reality, it is hard to

scale map – true, with some blemishes

get our bearings. It leads to the deep

– became possible in the virtual space.

archetypical (or maybe ontological?)

A tremendously large amount of data

layers of image-making. The ancient

and large numbers of snapshots stored

origin of the silhouette is the projected

as data, which for some reason we

shadow. The first image (painting or

call digital photographs, are needed.

relief – based on the selection of the

Today we often take notes by taking

source, even if we consider only Pliny)

photographs like this.

is the drawing of the outline of a figure’s shadow, which here is given a mirror function. The mirror in which we see

Reflections 2014

ourselves – otherwise we would only be able to recognise ourselves in the face of

Archetypes in the garden. Under the

another person. The trinity of the mirror-

concept and copyright of every work on

phase as a family idyll in a garden – which

the website http://www.waliczky.net we

we expose to the gaze of strangers on

find the names Waliczky Tamás & Szepesi

the gallery wall: inverted intimacy? The

Anna. It is not a secret that the co-author,

possible meanings of the work reside not

Anna Szepesi, is Tamás Waliczky’s wife.

in the knowledge of the details of private


elements, in the deciphering of the depicted persons, and not just because from the viewers’ perspective, this would only be incidental information, as in the mirrors of the work, any person, any family, any garden could recognise itself. Mostly because with this exposure the blossoming laburnum (in high resolution) and the branches appearing on the silhouettes become sensually exciting, as do the two directions (that which is visible in the environments of the human figures on the one hand, and the antispace that is concealed by them and shown by the fiction of the mirror on the other). And it is this repetitive structure that makes it possible for them to be present beside each other in the same place, and at the same time, while also

作 者 簡 介 Author bio

not being present beside each other, for this is not actually possible in reality. We recognise, reflected in our own changes

M i k l ó s P e t e r n á k 曾修讀 歷史和

of figure, the process and time of our

藝 術史,1 9 8 0 年代 製 作 電 影 和 錄 像 作

present and presence and the borders

品,並發 表了眾多關 於 藝 術 和 媒體 歷 史

of its time. The other picture inherent in

的 文章。現任 職 匈牙利 藝 術 大學 跨 媒體

us, the picture that others see as part of their world. The border that the image of our image forms between us and those

學 系 主 任,並 且 是 C 3 文化 與 傳 訊 中 心 主任,http://www.c3.hu。

for whom the projection is presented, to whom it is addressed.

Miklós Peternák studied history and history of art, has produced films and videos during the 1980’s and published numerous texts on art and media history. Head of the Intermedia Department at the Hungarian University of Fine Arts, director of C3: Center for Culture and Communication, http://www.c3.hu.


作品目錄 List of works 照 片 Pictures (1988)

反 映 Reflections (2014)

設計與動畫 Design and animation: Tamas Waliczky (作品內的圖片是用Caesar Computer Software Studio 繪製 The “Pictures” were made with the help of the Caesar Computer Software Studio) 內部軟件 In-house software: Art Director, Art Expander, Film Director, Scroll Up I, II, Expshow 工作室主任 Studio director: András Császás 特別鳴謝 Special thanks to: Nándor Czeiner, Anna Szepesi, Vilmos Thernesz, György Pálos 軟件支援 Software support: Zoltán Császár, Nándor Czeiner, Emil Venyercsán

概念、圖像及錄像 Concept, images, video: Tamas Waliczky 攝影、演出 Photography, acting: Tamas Waliczky, Anna Szepesi, Annamária Waliczky 藝術顧問 Artistic adviser: Anna Szepesi

版權所有 Copyright © 1988 Tamas Waliczky & Anna Szepesi

風 景 Landscape (1996) 概念 Conception: Tamas Waliczky & Anna Szepesi 導演 Direction: Tamas Waliczky 電腦動畫助手 Computer animation assistant: Christina Zartmann 助手 Assistant: Manuela Abel 音樂演奏 Music performed by: Alex Kammerlocher 製作單位 Produced by: ZKM Institut für Bildmedien, Karlsruhe

版權所有 Copyright © 2014 Tamas Waliczky & Anna Szepesi

家 Homes (2012, 2015) 研究計劃主持人 Project Investigator: Tamas Waliczky 意念及概念 Idea & concept: Anna Szepesi, Tamas Waliczky 藝術總監 Artistic Supervisor: Anna Szepesi 聯合調查 Co-Investigator: Jane Prophet 攝影 Photography: Tamas Waliczky, Tong Yee Tak, Anna Szepesi 三維模型及紋理貼圖 3D models & texture map: 唐懿德 Tong Yee Tak, 李單吾丹 Li Danwudan, 文駿業 Man Chun Yip, 陳心怡 Chen Xinyi, 張子南 Zhang Zinan 版權所有 Copyright © 2015 Tamas Waliczky & Anna Szepesi 項目資助 Sponsors:

版權所有 Copyright © 1997 Tamas Waliczky & Anna Szepesi

焦 點 Focus (1998) 概念 Conception: Tamas Waliczky & Anna Szepesi 設計與概念 Design: Tamas Waliczky 電腦程式 Programming: Wolfgang Münch & Tamas Waliczky 版權所有 Copyright © 1998 Tamas Waliczky & Anna Szepesi

快 拍 照 片 的 微 動 作 Micromovements in Snapshots (2014) 概念、攝影及動畫 Concept, photography, animation: Tamas Waliczky 藝術顧問 Artistic adviser: Anna Szepesi 版權所有 Copyright © 2014 Tamas Waliczky & Anna Szepesi

香港城市大學創意媒體學院 School of Creative Media, City University of Hong Kong 大學教育資助委員會優配研究金 General Research Fund (GRF), Research Grants Council (RGC) of HK 利銘澤黃瑤璧慈善基金 Drs Richard Charles & Esther Yewpick Lee Charitable Foundation 英文翻譯 English translation: Zsuzsa Szegedy-Maszák 英文校對 English proofreading: Adele Eisenstein 中文翻譯 Chinese translation: 鍾德勝 Simon Chung 中文校對 Chinese proofreading: 吳彥真 Fion Ng 設計 Design: 林嘉雯 Kaman Lam 藝術顧問 Artistic adviser: Anna Szepesi


藝 術 家 簡 介 About the Artist Tamás Waliczky,新媒體藝術家,1959 年生於匈牙利,九歲開始創作動畫,曾 任職畫家、插畫師及攝影師。自 1983 年開始鑽研電腦影像創作,憑着卓越才華,先 後獲邀到德國 ZKM 新媒體藝術中心及日本歧阜情報科學藝術大學院大學任駐場藝 術家,並於多所學院教學及研究,當中包括德國美茵茨應用科學大學、及德國薩爾美 術學院。2010 年 9月起於香港城市大學創意媒體學院擔任教授。

Waliczky自1980 年代開始便與妻子 AnnaSzepesi 合作,她通常在他的作 品中擔任藝術顧問的工作。

Waliczky 屢 奪 國 際 獎 項,當中包 括奧 地 利電子 藝 術中心 頒發之電子 藝 術 大獎 最高殊榮「金尼卡獎」 。他亦是世界 各地媒體藝術節及國際展覽場館的常客, 曾於 IMAGINA、SIGGRAPH、里昂雙年展、東京 ICC 畫廊、德國 MultiMediale

Karlsruhe、英國 Photo98、西班牙西維爾雙年展及香港歌德學院展出。作品為多 國博物館收藏,包括巴黎龐比度中心、墨爾本澳洲影畫中心及布達佩斯路德威格藝 術館等。

Tamás Waliczky, born in 1959, is a new media artist from Hungary. He started out by creating animations at the age of nine. Then he worked as painter, illustrator and photographer. He began working with computers in 1983. He was artist-in-residence at the ZKM Institute for Visual Media in 1992 and at the IAMAS in Gifu, Japan in 1998-99. He has taken up various professorships at Fachhochschule Mainz, HBK Saar and currently School of Creative Media, City University of Hong Kong since September 2010. Waliczky works together with his wife Anna Szepesi since the early eighties. Anna is usually the artistic adviser in most of his works. Waliczky’s works have won numerous international awards, including the Golden Nica of Prix Ars Electronica, Linz, shown at major festivals and venues worldwide, including IMAGINA and SIGGRAPH, Biennale de Lyon, ICC Gallery Tokyo, Multimediale Karlsruhe, Photo 98, the Biennial of Seville SKMBT_C452_16041718300

and Goethe-Institut Hong Kong, and are in various public collections including the Centre Georges Pompidou (Paris), the Australian Centre for the Moving Image (Melbourne) and the Ludwig Museum (Budapest).

網頁 web-site: http://www.waliczky.com Vimeo: https://vimeo.com/user12361024/videos Issuu: http://issuu.com/tamasw


Photo based New Media Works by Tamas Waliczky  

Ingrid Hoelzl: Tamas Waliczky, Homes – A Journey into Pragmatic Realism | Miklós Peternák: What is Personal and What Is Not - The Role of Ph...

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