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Post erus Tex tilus 2015 Ta m a r a H o o g e w e e g e n

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Posterus Textilus


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Index

Introduction

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Posterus Textilus

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My inspiration My approach

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The system

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The product

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The service

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Contextualization and validation

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The process

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Reflection

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Posterus Textilus

Semester: B3.2 Coach: Oscar Tomico With special thanks to Pieter van Boheemen who made the Biohack academy possible, Maria Boto for supporting all my ideas when working in the lab and the Indutrial Design Faculty of Eindhoven University of Technology with a great system and freedom that supported my development over the last 3 years.


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Posterus Textilus

1. 2.

/’pos.te.rus/ adjv following, next, coming after figuratively - inferior

/’tex.ti.lus/ noun 1. woven fabric 2. pertaining to a man-made fibre or filament


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2050:

_Weather: warmer, wetter and wilder (WMO 2014) _ Population: 9.6 billion (UN, 2013) _ Resource depletion (Anderson, 2012) _ Water scarcity (FAO, 2009) _ Oil shortage (Anderson, 2012)


Introduction

Introduction

In 2050 the world will look differently than now (see left page). We will have 9.6 billion people on the planet and we have to provide textiles for all of them. Carolle Colet (2014) states: “The mainstream textile and fashion industry is linked to resource pressures and thus faces a future shaped by providing for a growing population, at the same time as reducing ecological impact�. Currently the textile industry is one of the more polluting ones (Chapman, 2010). The chemicals used to dye and finish fabrics are harmful for human health, and the production of textile goods causes one-half of the world’s wastewater problems (Mcdonough & Braungart, 2002). Taking the world of 2050 into account and the impact of the current textile industry, a disruptive technology is needed. When a technology challenges and disturbs an industry and has a major impact on innovation and business models, it can be defined as disruptive (Christensen and Bower, 1995).

The following researchers and institutions seem to be aware of the need for change and that biotechnology is a good candidate. Carolle Colet (2014) believes that synthetic biology can have the same impact on our society as the Internet. The Foresight programme of the UK Government Office for Science (2013) predicts that in the future biotechnology will be used for personalized organ fabrication, engineered leather and meat, and sustainable production of fuel and chemicals. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation (OECD, 2012) and Development has stated that the 21st century is the era of biology.

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Posterus Textilus

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Posterus Textilus


Introduction

Posterus textilus is a project that resulted in a product, a service and a system from a journey in the world of biotechnology. As a designer I’m interested in designing innovation in the world of textiles and wearables. This I combined with my curiosity in biodesign to create textile alternatives for the world of 2050.

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My inspiration By looking at the world around me and getting inspired from it I rolled into biodesign for this project. What it is that gets my attention is a changing flow. After doing an internship on 3D printing textiles with Bradley Rothenberg, my attention unconsciously shifted to more natural ways of making. I wanted to create in a way that would feel more natural to the body, more natural materials or more naturally manufactured. The exhibition Future of Fashion (2014) at the Booijmans van Beuningen, in Rotterdam, differentiated various themes. One of themes was Materiality & Experience. This theme focuses on the development of materials, making and perceiving fashion has changed its experience. With the development of different materials it’s allowing designers to use them for the very functional or more of a symbolical fashion. From intelligent fabrics to sustainable garments, I believe the biggest development is necessary in the materials used. At the symposium of Future of Fashion I saw Carolle Colet speaking about her work Biolace. Biolace proposes to use synthetic biology

as an engineering technology to reprogram plants into multipurpose factories. This speculative project has a very interesting vision that has inspired me for my design project. Carole

B Plants providing food and


My inspiration

Me for Bradley Rothenberg C e l l u l a r Te x t i l e s 3D printed plastic textiles

Collet Biolace fabric

Nervous System 3D printed Kinetic Sculpture Algorithems mimic natural growth

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S u z a n n e L e e ’s Biocouture Jackets made from bacterial cellulose

William Myers Biodesign book Full of inspiring projects

Mycelium the p


My inspiration

Ingrid Nijhoff Living Pixels Inks from bacteria

Corpuscoli Mycelium bowls plastic of the future

Laura Marinez Digicrafted 3D printed but with an organic feel

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My approach

My project comes from my curiosity in biodesign and personal interest to innovate the textile industry. I see biotechnology as a disruptive technology with great potential to innovate the textile industry especially with the world of 2050 in mind. The following paragraphs explain how I approach biodesign. In current society the biotechnology is starting to become a grassroot movement, just like the maker culture. The maker culture is engineering oriented and tends to focus on using electronics, robotics, 3D printing and CNC-tools. It encourages informal and shared social learning. As Tanenbaum et al. (2013) argue the movement is a democratized technological practice. What it does is unifying playfulness, utility, expressiveness and creating demand for new types of tools and literacies. A similar movement is appearing when it comes to biotechnology. One example is the Open Wetlab in Amsterdam. They ‘focus on life sciences and

the design and ethics of life. We want to involve the industry, artists and designers, but also the political forces and the public, hands-on in the shaping of biotechnology, as well as in what biotechnology creates’ (Open wetlab 2015). Besides the Open wetlab in Amsterdam there are many more of these spaces. Daily Laurel maps biohack spaces and communities over the whole world in his Biohacking Safari (http://biohackingsafari.com/). Just like the maker movement the biohacking movement embraces and democratizes technology, and in this case more specific the biotechnology. Biohackers have a DIY and opensource mentality. They combine making research, education and disruptive innovations. Besides Biohacking communities biotechnology is being used in a much broader field. In September 2013 het Nieuwe Instituut had an exhibition called Biodesign. Curator, William Myers, states that: ‘Designers initiate interaction between people


My approach

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B iote c h n olog y

L oc a l economies

D I Y c om mu n i t y

and nature, mediating a historical troubled relationship and creating opportunities to connect in new ways for mutual benefit. Biodesign is an expression of this integration, of harnessing or altering nature for human purposes, foretelling beauties and new functions for design yet also dangers.’ Also his book Biodesign captures the breath of the field where biodesign is being applied to, from architecture to fashion and from graphic design to food. These different activities,

such as the hacker spaces and the broad development of biodesign seem to be manifestations of the 21st century being the Biology-era as predicted by the OECD. Beside the maker culture and biotechnology starting to fuse, another fusion can be seen with the trend of the local economies. Local economies are what empower DIYcommunities; it’s where it empowers the makers and takes them onto the market.


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So to close the circle: Biotechnology can be the disruptive technology of the future and is starting to manifest in a variety of fields. Through Biohacker-spaces and communities the technology is being democratized just like it happened with the maker community. To make the step of taking biotechnology from DIY communities to the market the trend of local economies and the strong sharing values of hackers comes together. This circle is how I see that biotechnology will influence society by democratization and being local. Biotechnology will be a democratic disruptive technology in different fields, amongst others in the textile and fashion industries.


My approach

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II.

The System


The system

To be able to use biotechnology in my design project I participated during a period of 10 weeks in the Biohack Academy at the Waag Society in Amsterdam. During these 10 weeks I learned about working in a biolab, the protocols, the tools and the microorganisms I could work with. Part of the program was to build your own lab tools. On the github page all the details are made available open source to build the tools (http://biohackacademy. github.io/). By building my own lab tools I experienced how easy and simple it can be and that you can easily redesign the tools to fit your goals. The biohacking community together with the open source lab tools altogether forms the system that enables to create your own biolab. The community provides you with the needed information and a platform for information exchange. And the all the tools together enable you to, for example, put petri dishes in and get beautiful bacteria patterns out.

Hacking existing lab tools is part of the biohack movement to democratize the technology. An example of a community doing this is the Public Lab (2015). The Public Lab researches open source hardware and software tools and methods to produce knowledge and share data about community environmental health. Also Cambridge University (2015) is researching about it with the aim to provide a forum and knowledge center for the development of low cost and open access scientific tools.

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The incubator

Before starting to build the incubator I decided to build it out of acrylic sheets so I could see what I would be growing and it would be easier to clean than MDF. Because I wouldn’t be using polystyrene, which in the initial design ensures isolation and stability, I had to adjust the design of the incubator. I chose for 4mm acrylic sheets to ensure stability and created double-glazing for the isolation. After a long process of having the 3D model completely right, the electronics working, and having ruined one relay and one Infrared lamp I got my incubator completely working. It can reach temperatures between 18 and 50 ºC. (http://biohackacademy.github.io/ biofactory/class/1-incubator/)


The system

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The microscope

I wanted to keep my tools in the same style so I also decided to go for acrylic sheets. The interesting part of the microscope is the lens. The lens consists of a 3D printed holder and 4 lenses set at the correct distance to get a magnification of 75 times. I collected the lenses from disposable cameras that had been developed. (http://biohackacademy.github.io/ biofactory/class/2-microscope/)


The system

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Posterus Textilus

The magnetic stirrer

The magnetic stirrer is a relatively easy design. The interesting thing about it is its simplicity. Just by placing two magnets on a ventilator, placing a magnetic rod in a glass flask and adding a potentiometer to control the velocity, you get a magnetic stirrer. A magnetic stirrer is used if a liquid needs to be constantly stirred or aerated. The prices for professional magnetic stirrers can vary from 100 up too 1000 euro. The costs of making one your self is around 25 euro. (http://biohackacademy.github.io/ biofactory/class/6-magnetic-stirrer/) After having gained some basic knowledge on how to work in a lab I could start exploring what I could do with microorganisms to innovate the field of textile and wearables.


The system

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Posterus Textilus

III.

The Product


The product

Once I had gained enough basic knowledge of how and with what I could work in the lab, I started an explorative journey. My initial idea was to grow textiles. This exploration is still at a research phase and needs further development but I’ve gotten some pretty interesting results. But my final products are textiles printed with Bacteria Patterns.

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Growing textiles

Recipe for Acetobac I’m interested in alternative materials for textiles because the way they are currently produced needs to become more environmental and human friendly for the world of tomorrow. I did explorations with bacterial cellulose and mycelium.

Bacterial cellulose The acetobacter xylinum bacteria produce cellulose. Over time the layer of cellulose will grow thicker. After drying it this could be used as a textile. By laser cutting it, the material becomes more flexible, hence more textile-like. The result is bacterial cellulose lace.


The product

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The ingredients

r 250 ml of ter medium

Medium in autoclavable bottles

Bacterial Cellulose after 3 weeks


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The product

Dried bacterial cellulose From left to right 3, 6, 10 and 2 weeks of growing.

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Bacteria Textiles

Dried bacterial cellulose 3 weeks old Dried for 2 weeks Pressed for 2 hours Before pressing 5mm thick After pressing 0.1 mm thick Laser cut hexagonal pattern

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Bacteria Textiles

Dried bacterial cellulose 3 weeks old Dried for 2 weeks Pressed for 2 hours Before pressing 5mm thick After pressing 0.1 mm thick Laser cut hexagonal pattern

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Bacteria Textiles

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Mycelium Textiles While working with bacterial cellulose I also started looking for other biomaterials. I discovered mycelium. Mycelium is the roots of fungi. It consists of a network of interconnected filamentous cells called hyphae. This organic network of filamentous cells is characterized by peculiar properties, such as strength, elasticity, thickness, homogeneity and water repellency (Officina Corpuscoli, 2015). The way mycelium works is like an adhesive it grows on structures and holds them together. Therefor I envision growing non-wovens with mycelium. The mycelium would function as an adhesive on fibers of waste or bacterial materials. In the process of this research I tested a variety of things: growing different types of mycelium on synthetic and organic materials, on different agar media and on a variety of liquid media. So far I can say that the oyster mycelium and the Schizophyllum mycelium grow the

easiest. To grow pure mycelium it is better to grow it on liquid medium rather than agar and Malt medium works well. From a bunch of tests the most interesting one is the piece where the mycelium grew on strips of bacterial cellulose. This is a piece of material completely grown from microorganisms. It would be interesting to grow this on a larger scale so it comes closer to textiles.


The product

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Baby sock covered with oyster mycelium 3 weeks old.


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The product

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Oyster mycelium on rabbit food 3 weeks old


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The product

Oyster mycelium grown on strechy synthetic fabric in malt and water medium 4 weeks old

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The product

Schizophyllum mycelium grown on jute in malt and water medium 5 weeks old

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The product

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Close up mycelium growint on jute structure.


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The product

Oyster mycelium grown on dried bacterial cellulose 5 weeks old

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Bacteria patterns

Parallel to the growing textiles research I started collecting contaminated petri dished that contained, in my eyes, pretty patterns. These contaminated dishes were ready to be thrown out. In the lab the aim is to avoid contaminations and work as sterile as possible to isolate the bacteria you want to work with. So if you have a contamination you basically failed. I started collecting all the pretty contaminated petri dishes without knowing what I wanted to use them for, but I knew I wanted to do something with it. I also noticed that one of the incubators in the lab dried the normally jelly agar media. This resulted in thin films of agar that could easily be removed from the petri dishes. But these films were often too fragile. So I decided to add glycerin to the agar mixture to make the dry agar films more flexible. Then while holding one of the agar films, I had the idea of ironing and pressing it onto a textile, which worked! I also tried it

with a heat press at 120ยบC and that worked even better. At this high temperatures the bacteria are killed. With this I had a proof of concept now I could upscale production and print in on larger scale. The idea of transfer printing bacteria onto textiles shows how biotechnology can be used in the field of textiles. I see the bacteria patterns applied as a way of creating beautiful highly customizable patterns. Customization and personalization are the future of fashion. With the increasing connectivity in society the world is getting smaller. Due to the blurring borders and blurring differences on the Internet, we will want to differentiate ourselves more. On our bodies only we carry over 1,5 kilo of microorganisms and there are much more in the world around us. I see these microorganisms as a great tool to make unique bacterial patterns for the world of tomorrow.


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User Feedback Session To get an impression of what potential users think of having textiles printed with bacteria I conducted a user feedback session. I used fellow students as we are the designers of the future and are taught to design innovation. I used a technique called Bipolar laddering. With this technique the users write their own positive and negative feedback on the prototypes, give it a mark and answer how each point could be improved. The main positive outcomes relate to the colors. To improve it more color could be added and less black/dark bacteria could be used. The shape was assessed positively, and there is a preference for the bigger dots, but more shapes could be added.

The users also like how it used bacteria that are all around us. And the textiles are seen as one-of-akind and personal, this could be even more when the user would be involved in the making process. Looking at the negative feedback the most notable is that most of the users are grossed out or disgusted by the idea of having bacteria on a textile. They don’t like the idea and find it weird. Bacteria are seen as negative. To improve it, it would be better to either not tell that it are bacteria or explain well why you use it. The users were also concerned about the safety and health impact. And they wondered where it would be applied, because it might be hard to sell. This feedback session shows that we are not yet ready to wear bacteria, but there is a sense of intrigue.


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The product

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Main inspiration for bacteria patterns.


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The product

Great colors from the medium and the bacteria.

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The product

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Pretty pattern from contamination


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The product

Bacteria from canal water

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The product

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Inspiring colors and patterns from bacteria.


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The product

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Bacteria Patterns transfered onto textile


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Agar from petri dish

Transfering to textile

Ironing


The product

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Growing contaminations

g the agar on textile

Transfer printed Bacteria Patterns


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The product

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II.

The Service


The ser vice

The booklet Bacteria Patterns for dummies, links the system and the product back to DIY-communities and its sharing values. It shows how easy it can be to create Bacteria Patterns. Many tools you have around the house, or are easy to make yourself. The format I used of hand drawn illustrations fits its communication goal; to show that biotechnology doesn’t have to be scary and is pretty easy. The booklet enables anyone to grow bacteria at home and his own bacteria patterns. It facilitates anyone to customize their fabrics and they can use it however they want. For upgrading old garments, customizing fabrics to create their own designs or have unique decorative curtains. By bringing basic technologies to the world as a service to society, democratizes access and encourages participation in the commerce of the future (Woo, 2015). It empowers the users and it’s up to them what they use it for. The following images give an impression of the booklet.

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The ser vice

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The ser vice

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The ser vice

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The ser vice

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The ser vice

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Contextualization and validation

Since I started the Biohack academy and I’ve gotten closer to the world of Biodesign and Bioart, I’ve learned that there is a lot happening on the subject, discussions arise and the border of how far we can go is tested. The development of biotechnology and its link to design and art manifests itself in society through different events. By going to these events it placed my work in a context, I learned about the discussions on the subject of biodesign in society and became more aware of how it might evolve in the future.

Open Wetlab at Waag Society Biohack Academy Starting with the Biohack academy. Over the course of the program we were introduced to different aspects of the Biohack movement and its implications. During the lectures we learned about existing Bioart projects, and questions that arise.

As stated by Lucas Evers (2015): “_Is this bio art, bio design, creative biotech, ethics art, is this science propaganda, ecological hazard? _ Do we need to define a taxonomy of creative works that involve life and living matter and organisms?” The Biohack academy also addressed topics around licensing. How does it work when bacterial ink is developed or when a DNA sequence of bacteria is modified for it to give light? Can we patent the living? Or do we need a biocommons, similar to the creative commons? And is there a chance of Biopiracy? (Boheemen, 2015a) The Open Wetlab is currently challenging the status quo when it comes to Genetically Modifying Organisms. In the Netherlands it’s at the moment only allowed for educational and research labs to get a license to genetically modify organisms. Since the Waag Society is profiling itself as an educational institution, it has requested a license to practice genetic engineering (more precicely


Contextualization and validation

a licence to transform e.coli strains to produce GFP). This would open up genetic engineering to interested citizens. It raises questions such as: What would this mean for the development of biotechnology in hands of society?

Mediamatic Mediamatic is a cultural institution interested in cultural developments that foster new technologies, and new technologies that spur cultural developments. Currently Mediamatic is researching and developing new ways of organizing resources and people. At Mediamatic I did two workshops on growing Mycelium. They have a big online database with a lot of information on Mycelium : mediamatic.net/366472/en/ myco-design-lab. Mediamatic sees mycelium as an alternative to plastic, (see: http://motherboard. vice.com/nl/read/schimmel-hetplastic-van-de-toekomst). Mediamatic also organizes

Biotalks, a monthly lecture series with leading figures in the field of Bio Art, Science and Design. In these talks they address the following: What are the social, cultural en technological implications of new bio-based materials? And what possibilities do they offer for artists, designers, engineers, architects, scientists, farmers and chefs? (Mediamatic, 2015). I was asked to present my project at a Biotalk on Printing Algae, Fungi and Contaminations. Presenting my project to a broad audience was a very enriching experience. Plus seeing what fellow designers are doing, places my work into a context of fellow ‘Biodesigners’. In many of these presentations it was noticeable how there is a wish for change in the field of textiles and fashion. And besides change, there is also the idea that we need to change our current perceptions and expectations of fabric and wearables. An example is the work of Blond and Bieber called Algaemy.

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They use microalgae to print textiles, over time the color of these microalgaes changes. This process of change creates a range of beautiful colors; the change of color is embraced.

affect other textiles. This shows that the sector is aware of the Biodesign developments and that it is open to embrace it.

Biodesign in Textile

V2_lab is an interdisciplinary center for art and media technology in Rotterdam. V2_ does research at the interface of art, technology and society. On the 7th of May V2_ hosted its first Bio+Art Community MeetUp. This is a new initiative to give the community of artists, designers, makers, and researchers that work on/with biotechnologies a place to meet and discuss their work, ideas and recent developments. V2_ has planned monthly Bio+Art MeetUps. After being in contact with V2_lab about my work I was invited to join the MeetUp. Interesting is the broadness of the background of the attendees. You could find anything from artists, to scientists and from phd researchers to designers. From this meeting I learned how important

The textile committee organized a symposium called Biodesign in Textiles. I had the impression that the average age of the attendees was between the 40’s-60’s. This might be linked to the fact that the Textile committee exists since 1962. The subject was seen as ‘different’ and refreshing by the Textile committee (Textielcommissie, 2015). For me it was interesting to hear how people from the field of textiles think of this upcoming development. There was a technical textile expert who experienced the symposium as very inspiring and sees chances for development. And textile curators have to deal with new questions, on how to conserve textile with bacteria and how might it

Bio + Art _ V2 Lab


Contextualization and validation

and complex the relation is between scientists and artists/designers. Scientists have their own protocols on how to work with biomaterials, and artist/designers don’t often want or can stick to these protocols. These events show the broad field where biotechnology is being applied to, its implications and make society more aware of it. I see this as a first step before biotechnology will be applied on a larger scale

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The process

Looking back at my project I didn’t go through a very linear process. There were moment were I had to take steps back to then continue. The following image illustrated the process I went through.

Kiem project Material reseach

Biohack Academy Learning about the system

Growing textiles Explorations and research in the lab


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Contextualizing my approach

Bacteria Patterns Research

Grown textiles

Bacteria Patterns Final textiles and booklet.


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Reflection

Reflecting on my project I’m happy with what I got out of it and the experiences I learned from. Personally I think the strengths of it are that it communicates the possibilities of biotechnology for the future as a combination of a system, product and service. By having this combination it all compliments each other and gives the project more context and it also communicates the process.

Process What I’ve learned is that the process is often as important as the final prototype. Therefor to design and think of the way to communicate the process I see as important. Taking the feedback from the demodays into account I realize it gives the project more depth and it becomes more understandable for the visitors.

Documentation What I think I can improve is

my documentation process. While working in a lab a lot of different factors might influence your outcomes, that’s why good documentation is essential. I think my main struggles with documentation came from trying to balance time, designing the data and still wanting to document as much as possible.

New Technolog y Diving into the world of biotechnology has brought me a lot of new insight. I learned about a new way of working, thinking and designing. Because biotechnology entails working with living organisms it the design process becomes more symbiotic as I depend on the microorganism and I need to take care of the microorganism. As it’s a new way of working I didn’t always know before hand how the bacteria would grow. So to get what I wanted I developed my own theories on what would happen if, for example I added glycerin to the agar. I went through a lot of trail and error to get


Reflection

closer to what I wanted and along the way I learned from the behavior of the microorganisms. Concluding I’ve really enjoyed working on this project I’ve noticed that the closer the project is to my vision the more energy and enthusiasm I can put into in and get better results from it. The project has clarified that my interest is the right one and that Material Futures is the perfect Master fitting to my field of interest. I will take everything I learned with me for the projects I’ll do at Material Futures.

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References _ Anderson, R. (2012) ‘Resource depletion: Opportunity or looming catastrophe?’, Business reporter, BBC News. url: http://www.bbc.com/news/ business-16391040 _ Boheemen, P. van (2015a) ‘Open Source Licensing & Publishing’, Lecture week 2, Biohack Academy. url: http://biohackacademy.github.io/biofactory/ class/2/pdf/3%20Open%20Source%20licensing%20&%20publishing.pdf _ Bower, J. L., & Christensen, C. M. (1995). Disruptive technologies: catching the wave (pp. 506-20). Harvard Business Review Video. _ FAO (2009) ‘Global agriculture towards 2050’ url: http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/ templates/wsfs/docs/Issues_papers/HLEF2050_Global_Agriculture.pdf _ Cambridge University (2015) “The OpenLabTools project”. url: http:// openlabtools.eng.cam.ac.uk/ _Collet, C. (2012) ’BioLace: An Exploration of the Potential of Synthetic Biology and Living Technology for Future Textiles’ url: https://www. materialthinking.org/sites/default/files/papers/SMT_V7_P2_Collet.pdf _Collet, C. (2014) ‘The new synthetics. Could synthetic biology lead to sustainable textile manufacturing?’ In Fletcher, K., Tham, M. ‘Routledge Handbook of Sustainability and Fashion’ _ Chapman, A. (2010) ‘Mistra Future Fashion - Review of Life Cycle Assessments of Clothing’, Oakdene Hollins for Mistra, Stockholm. url: http:// www.oakdenehollins.co.uk/media/232/2010_mistra_review_of_life_cycle_ assessments_of_clothing.pdf _Evers, L. (2015) ‘Art and the Bio Hack Academy between creating technology and creating understanding’, Lecture week 1, Biohack Academy. url: http:// biohackacademy.github.io/biofactory/class/1/pdf/3%20Art%20&%20Bio%20 Hacking.pdf


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_ Foresight, Government Office for Science (2013) Future of manufacturing: a new era of opportunity and challenge for the UK - summary report _ Mcdonough, W. and Braungart, M. (2002) ‘Transforming the Textile Industry Victor Innovatex, eco-intelligent polyester and the next industrial revolution.’ url: http://www.greenatworkmag.com/gwsubaccess/02mayjun/eco.html#name _Mediamatic (2015) Biotalk. url: http://www.mediamatic.net/380693/en/ printing-algae-fungi-and-contaminations _ OECD (2012) ‘The 21st Century: The Age of Biology’ url: http://www.oecd. org/sti/biotech/A%20Glover.pdf _ OECD (2009) ‘The Bioeconomy to 2030: designing a policy agenda’ url: http://www.oecd.org/futures/long-termtechnologicalsocietalchallenges/ thebioeconomyto2030designingapolicyagenda.htm _ Officina Corpuscoli (2015) ‘Mycelium Design’ url: http://www.corpuscoli.com/ projects/mycelium-design/ _ Public Lab (2015) ‘About Public Lab’. url: http://publiclab.org/about _ Tauber, A. (2015) ‘Schimmel: Het Plastic van de Toekomst’, Motherboard. url:http://motherboard.vice.com/nl/read/schimmel-het-plastic-van-de-toekomst _ UN (2013) ‘World population projected to reach 9.6 billion by 2050’ url: https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/news/population/un-report-worldpopulation-projected-to-reach-9-6-billion-by-2050.html _ WMO (2014) ‘The Weather in 2050: Warmer, Wetter, Wilder’. url: h t t p s : / / w w w. w m o . i n t / p a g e s / m e d i a c e n t re / n e w s / M e d i a A d v i s o r y _ TheWeatherin2050WarmerWetterWilder_en.html _ Woo, G. & Brandt, M. (2015) ‘Humans: The Next Platform’, Tech Crunch. url: http://techcrunch.com/2015/03/18/humans-the-next-platform/


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