Page 1

DRINKING WATER MANUAL

101

DRINKING WATER MANUAL

2012

taliaYsebastian.com

ADDRESSING LOCAL COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS FOR ENERGY AUTARCHY REGIONS WORLDWIDE

1/150


2/150


taliaYsebastian.com

This project has been kindly supported by:

3/150


PREFACE

7

1. INTRODUCTION

9

Design, Development & Drinking Water Projects Recommended Practice on Water & Hygiene- Choosing the right combination of solutions Community projects vs. Private Household Projects Water and alternative Medicine Water and Religion Water Cycle - drinking water for people & animals; hygiene; industry & agriculture NGOs and Government Interests Succesful Developemnt Projects: Points to Observe for Succesful Implementation

2. METHODS WATER MANAGEMENT 2.1 COLLECTION Rain Water Spring Water Groundwater Fogwater

4/150

16

17 - 57 21 - 31 33 - 41 43 - 53 55 - 57


2.2 STORAGE Refillable Personal Containers Buckets Tanks and Reservoirs

2.3 FILTRATION Sedimentation Filtration through a Mesh Charcoal and Activated Charcoal Slow Sand Filter Ceramic Filters Iron Oxide Filter

2.4 NEUTRALIZATION UV Cooking Chemical Disinfection

3. HUMANITARIAN HELP

59 - 83 62 - 63 65 - 71 73 - 83

85 - 103 88 - 89 90 - 91 92 - 93 94 - 95 97 - 101 102 - 103

105 - 129 108 - 111 113 - 121 123 - 129

131

Development Projects vs. Humanitarian Help 133 - 145

BIBLIOGRAPHY

146

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

148

IMPRINT

149

taliaYsebastian.com

4. INFORMATION TOOLS AND SOURCES

5/150


6/150


PREFACE

This manual seeks to provide basic outlines and impulses to social designers and entrepreneurs working on developing projects for safe and clean drinking water. It is a collection of basic instructions when dealing with different types of water, climate and geology and broken down into the four main processes to achieve clean and safe drinking water: Collection, Storage, Filtration, Neutralisation (in order). Not all of these processes are always needed, but they are separate and can be combined to best suit the needs of the individuals or communities addressed, as well as the types of source water available. This manual should be considered as a stepping stone in the right direction to inform the design. In-depth research on the chosen methods is needed to fully understand the possibilities and limitations of each of these. We conceived it to be a reference manual.

taliaYsebastian.com

The content is divided into three sections: Chapter 1 is an Introduction with considerations to take into account when given the task of developing drinking water projects; Chapter 2 Methods is broken down into 4 sections - collection, storage, filtration, neutralization, with bullet-points and illustrations to describe the pros and cons of each sub category. Chapter 3 includes a list of identified and successfully implemented drinking water projects in development regions, as well as readily available projects when confronted with a humanitarian crisis.

7/150


1. INTRODUCTION

8/150


1. INTRODUCTION DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT & DRINKING WATER PROJECTS

When developing water projects that are to be implemented within communities in the Global South, a holistic approach should be implemented at the early stages of research in order to make the resultant project as meaningful as possible. Particularly important is research in interdisciplinary fields such as engineering, economy, local politics, natural sciences, social and cultural anthropology and,

taliaYsebastian.com

In the past, the trend has been to implement more and less successful grand engineering projects in the Global South to deal with the distribution of water for health and sanitation needs. Due to their scale these engineering projects, although at times successful, are built at the cost of the environment and often misplace entire populations, excluding the precious balance between conservation and community needs. These large scale projects profit densely populated areas but hardly the more remote communities, and often leave a massive debt at national scale. Proposing and building solutions for safe and clean water supply in remote communities goes beyond technical frames: The social frame in which this occurs marks the true success of the project and its long-term sustainability. In this sense, development projects (in the Global South) should aim to benefit the individuals within a community and their environment and work towards poverty reduction, food and water security and well-being.

9/150


1. INTRODUCTION

of course, design. Just as important for the success of a project is the in-depth exchange with the right partners. It is always advisable to work with an NGO who is working on site as they will become an important communication channel, even at the early stages of research, between the design solution and the target audience. An NGO working onsite can provide in-depth knowledge on the community as well as in governmental aspects. It is usually a trustworthy entity within the community and in many cases be the administrative force behind project implementation. In this sense and NGO on-site is a key contributor to the success of development projects. Sustainable development projects are contained within a well thought-out business model and therefore, depending on the focus of the project, consider partnering with the materials and manufacturing industries as well as outlining funding from foundations, the government and MNCs. IDEO has created a fantastic guide on how-to Design for Social Impact (See Chapter 4. Information Tools and Sources), which can be downloaded from IDEO’s webpage.

RECOMMENDED PRACTICE ON WATER & HYGIENE CHOOSING THE RIGHT COMBINATION OF SOLUTIONS It is important to identify certain factors before starting the design process. Here are a few key questions which are good for a start:

10/150


• What type of water source are we dealing with? Mist/rain/ Spring/river/ground/sea water • What is the quality of the water? - turbidity/heavy metals/ bacteria/ virus/ particles/ smell • What quantity of water is needed? Individuals/ small family/ animals/ community • What resources does the community have? Infrastructure/ energy/materials/skills • What understanding does the community/individuals have to water? Religious/scientific • What are the expectations of the community/individuals and their level of commitment? All these questions will help to identify the right combination of solutions when considering collecting, storing, filtering and pasteurizing methods.

COMMUNITY VS. PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD PROJECTS

• Should the project belong to individuals or the community? • Who in the community/household is in charge of the project? Do they need special training? • Who pays for the project – individuals or the community as a whole? • What expectations does the community/individual have from you?

taliaYsebastian.com

When considering water projects, it is important to be strategic about the impact –

11/150


1. INTRODUCTION

Be aware of daily rituals that happen within a community through water such a socialisation, as well as the importance of integrating the community in decisions. By rule of thumb always remember the groups of individuals dealing with water : For example, most of the current efforts are focused on women and children; Women represent one of the most important target groups in regards to water supply in the global south by default because they take charge of the household and supplying it with water.

WATER, RELIGION AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE In many communities and cultures, water is often strongly rooted in religious, spiritual or shamanic understanding. Consider contacting anthropologists and medical doctors who have had experience in the region that is the focus of your work to understand the significance of water within that community.

WATER CYCLE - DRINKING WATER FOR SELF, ANIMALS, HYGIENE, INDUSTRY, AGRICULTURE Access to and use of clean and safe drinking water is paramount for the sustainability of life. We must be aware how many uses clean and safe drinking water has. This helps us to define what quantity is needed daily by each individual and so define which methods are best suited to their needs.

12/150


Many uses for water include drinking, cooking, agriculture, giving the animals water, cleaning oneself, washing clothes, sanitation (toilets), but also for celebratory reasons such as ritual, ceremony, divination, healing. In small communities, particularly those in remote regions or without infrastructure, water for these many uses may come from only one source. Make sure that the quantity of water your solution offers, represents at least 120% of the daily need (to accommodate growth of community, for example) and that the sources and tools are not contaminated by unhygienic habits where cross-contamination can occur. Important and holistic considerations in project implementation are efforts that invest in such diverse fields such as hygiene, environment, water management and education, which directly impact people and water sources.

Until now we´ve considered research and design using bottom-up approaches. Since mostly projects in social design are dependant on external funding and help with dissemination (to increase impact), it is important to also implement a top-down approach and consider the agendas of local governments, NGOs social investors etc. Be aware of local and government policy – what projects are they interested in implementing? Are there any programmes planned or currently running to which your project could contribute? (education, hygiene...)

taliaYsebastian.com

NGOs, GOVERNMENT AND INTERNATIONAL INVESTORS’S INTERESTS

13/150


1. INTRODUCTION

What NGOs or network of NGOs and investors exist in the country or are connected that could help in or be the implementers of your solution? If you are already working with an NGO – what design service are they looking to receive from you? Investors – how is the project structured so that it is interesting for rich philanthropists, organizations or companies for subsidizing or financing it?

SUCCESSFUL DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS POINTS TO OBSERVE FOR IMPLEMENTATION According to WASH (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene, a UNICEF strategy), there are 5 criteria which have to be considered and determine the success of a project. Many times, a project will only fulfil one or more of the criteria, but rarely all five. The following should be considered: • • • • •

Application Technical success Financial success Social success Institutional succes

From page 134 onwards a list of successful projects and their sources presents some precedents that account for the characteristics and properties of projects in development as well as humanitarian help.

14/150


15/150

taliaYsebastian.com


2. METHODS WATER MANAGEMENT

16/150


taliaYsebastian.com

2.1 COLLECTION

17/150


18/150

W AT E

R

FU CO LL LL SCA EC L TO E F RS OG

G

FO

M H

G

UG

L

EL

W

EL

W

L

ER

DW AT

ED

IN

DU

D-

AC

H AN

UN

RO

G

RA VI TY

G

G

IN

G

N

H

FE TC

SP RI W AT ER

EL L

W

F-C

O

RO

AN AL

RO

G

AN AL -TA N K

W AT ER

F-C

O

RO

IN

RA

UN D

TA N K

2.1 COLLECTION


19/150

taliaYsebastian.com

PI PE L

IN

PU M

ES

N

G

PI N

IZ AT IO

C AN AL

R

W AT E

ES

IN

PI PE L

N

IZ AT IO

AN AL

C

DA M

KDA M

SA N D-

C

RO


2.1 COLLECTION

20/150


RAIN WATER ROOF-CANAL-TANK ROOF-CANAL-GROUND TANK WELL ROCK-DAM SAND-DAM

Rain water harvesting is the collection and storage of rain water before it reaches an aquifer for reuse during dry seasons or to compensate water scarcity. Water is collected and stored in containers and reservoirs before it reaches underground aquifers, which are more difficult to reach. Rain water has been used to provide drinking water, water for livestock and irrigation, as well as other typical uses. The water collected from the roofs of houses and local institutions can make an important contribution to the availability of drinking water in times of scarcity.

If the collection and storage of rain water is a practice suitable for the purpose of the project, it is vital to engage people or communities in the implementation of the methods. That way acknowledgment and sensitization with the advantages and importance of the method will ensure the adoption of sustainable and long term practices.

taliaYsebastian.com

It is mostly suitable for areas where one or two rain seasons per year are common. The methods vary and depend on very diverse factors, like household or communitarian use and water yield.

21/150


2.1 COLLECTION

YIELD

Low

Low capital investment for implementation Easy to build Household supply

Rainwater harvested from roofs can contain animal and bird faeces, mosses and lichens, windblown dust, particulates from urban pollution, pesticides, and inorganic ions from the sea (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, SO4), and dissolved gases (CO2, NOx, SOx). Water not recommended for immediate human consumption! Filtration and Neutralization needed

Cover the containers to avoid access of insects or solid particles into the tank Avoid influence of sunlight into the water container Divert the initial flow of run-off rainwater to waste to reduce the concentration of contaminants accumulated on the roof during the dry season.

22/150


ROOF-CANAL-TANK RAIN WATER

Collection of rain water directly from the roofs of houses and buildings through channels that convey water into a storage unit.

taliaYsebastian.com

ROOF-CANAL-TANK ROOF-CANAL-GROUND TANK WELL ROCK-DAM SAND-DAM

23/150


2.1 COLLECTION

YIELD

Low-Medium

Easy to build Household supply Kitchen Garden irrigation Low Running Cost

Rainwater harvested from roofs can contain animal and bird faeces, mosses and lichens, windblown dust, particulates from urban pollution, pesticides, and inorganic ions from the sea (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, SO4), and dissolved gases (CO2, NOx, SOx). Water not recommended for immediate human consumption! Filtration and Neutralization needed High Capital Investment for implementation

Create training programs for the users and shareholders to build, operate and repair the technical equipment Design easy access to the tank for eventual maintenance

24/150


ROOF-CANAL-GROUND TANK RAIN WATER

Collection of rain water directly from the roofs of houses and buildings through channels that connvey water into an underground storage good.

taliaYsebastian.com

ROOF-CANAL-TANK ROOF-CANAL-GROUND TANK WELL ROCK-DAM SAND-DAM

25/150


2.1 COLLECTION

YIELD

Low-Medium

Moderate Capital Investment for implementation Communitarian Supply

Rainwater can contain windblown dust, particulates from urban pollution, pesticides, and inorganic ions from the sea (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, SO4), and dissolved gases (CO2, NOx, SOx). Water not recommended for immediate human consumption! Filtration and Neutralization needed Open Catchment area

Cover the well to avoid access of insects or solid particles into the tank

26/150


WELL RAIN WATER

1

2

3

4

It consists of a hole dug in the ground with brick walls, and a combination of cement, sand and concrete. Wells for storage are also lined at the bottom to avoid water disappearing into underground aquifers.

taliaYsebastian.com

ROOF-CANAL-TANK ROOF-CANAL-GROUND TANK WELL ROCK-DAM SAND-DAM

27/150


2.1 COLLECTION

YIELD

Medium-High

Low capital investment for implementation Communitarian Supply

Rainwater can contain windblown dust, particulates from urban pollution, pesticides, and inorganic ions from the sea (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, SO4), and dissolved gases (CO2, NOx, SOx) Water not recommended for immediate human consumption! Filtration and Neutralization needed Open Catchment area

Rock surfaces should not be fractured or cracked. Alternative: cover the catchment’s ground with impermeable material Dam foundations must be of solid impermeable rock. Build stone or mortar gutters across the rock to channel runoff water into the dam Protect the catchment area against pollution and erosion Plant abundant trees surrounding the dam to decrease the levels of evaporation 28/150


ROCK-DAM RAIN WATER ROOF-CANAL-TANK ROOF-CANAL-GROUND TANK WELL ROCK-DAM SAND-DAM

BEFORE

Lowlands often have natural hollows or valleys which can be turned into water resevoirs by building a dam. This can be a simple stone wall, constructed around the downstream end of hollows or valleys.

taliaYsebastian.com

AFTER

29/150


2.1 COLLECTION

YIELD

Medium-High

Low capital investment for implementation Communitarian Supply Durability

Rainwater can contain windblown dust, particulates from urban pollution, pesticides, and inorganic ions from the sea (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, SO4), and dissolved gases (CO2, NOx, SOx). Water not recommended for immediate human consumption! Filtration and Neutralization needed Open Catchment area

Dam foundations must be of solid impermeable rock with no soil pockets or fracture lines. Alternative: cover the catchment’s ground with impermeable material Avoid soil erosion in the catchment area Protect the catchment area against pollution and erosion Plant abundant trees surrounding the dam to decrease the levels of evaporation

30/150


SAND-DAM RAIN WATER

Sand dams are reservoirs built across seasonal rivers. The dam can be built with walls of reinforced concrete or sand sacks.

taliaYsebastian.com

ROOF-CANAL-TANK ROOF-CANAL-GROUND TANK WELL ROCK-DAM SAND-DAM

31/150


2.1 COLLECTION

32/150


SPRING WATER FETCHING GRAVITY CANALIZATION PIPELINES

A spring is a source out of the ground out of which water naturally flows. This might be seasonal or permanent, depending on climatological and geographic characteristics. Spring water has been traditionally used for collection and consumption of water directly from the source. This practice can however put the water at a high risk of contamination. Measures should be taken to protect the spring and its surrounding area from animal or human fecal contamination, as well as a daily surveillance of the spring catchment to avoid blockage of the filter from foliage, snakes, and insects. Be sure that people of the community acknowledge the privilege of having spring water by including them in the planning and building process, procuring a sense of ownership and motivating them to protect the spring and its conditions.

In case the spring is seasonal, couple it with complementary collection techniques such as rain water harvesting and bare in mind its utilization for communitarian supply depends on a flow rate of at least 4litre/1gallon per minute previously measured at the source.

taliaYsebastian.com

Biological and chemical tests should be performed to determine the water’s quality and if further treatment is necessary for its safe consumption.

33/150


2.1 COLLECTION

YIELD

Low - Medium

Low Running Cost

Bio-Chemical testing necessary before human consumption High risk of polluting the spring Time consuming

Pay special attention to the careful usage of the spring Good accesibility should never compromise the health of the spring Protect the catchment area against pollution and erosion Plant abundant trees surrounding the spring to decrease the levels of evaporation from the soil and erosion

34/150


FETCHING SPRING WATER

People serve themselves with natural spring water direct from the source. It is a very time demanding method, a major development concern for women and children who are often the ones doing this chore.

taliaYsebastian.com

FETCHING GRAVITY CANALIZATION PIPELINES

35/150


2.1 COLLECTION

YIELD

High

Low Running Cost

Bio-Chemical testing necessary before human consumption High risk of polluting the spring

Pay special attention to the careful usage of the spring. Be aware that a reliable water flow is available throughout the year. Good accesibility should never compromise the wealth of the spring.

36/150


GRAVITY SPRING WATER

If the stream or spring is at higher elevations water flows naturally through the action of gravity.

taliaYsebastian.com

FETCHING GRAVITY CANALIZATION PIPELINES

37/150


2.1 COLLECTION

YIELD

High

Low running cost Communitarian Supply Contribution to reforestation efforts

Moderate capital investment for implementation Bio-Chemical testing necessary before human consumption Open catchment and stream areas

At least a 4litre /1gallon per minute flow previously messured at source Create programs that promote the protection of the spring against pollution and erosion Keep the water channels constantly monitored and protected Channels can be built of halfed bamboo trunks

38/150


CANALIZATION SPRING WATER

Water runs through open channels conveying it to a tank or cistern. The stream of water flows naturally through the action of gravity.

taliaYsebastian.com

FETCHING GRAVITY CANALIZATION PIPELINES

39/150


2.1 COLLECTION

YIELD

High

Direct household supply and distribution possible Low running cost Comunitarian Supply

Bio-Chemical testing necessary before implementation High capital investment for implementation Slow implementation Specialized technical know-how necessary for the operation and maintenance of devices

At least a 4litre /1gallon per minute flow previously messured at source Create programs that promote the protection of the spring against pollution and erosion Develop a long term strategy for the use of the spring

40/150


PIPELINES SPRING WATER

Water runs through pipes installed under the ground conveying water to a tank or cistern. The stream of water flows naturally through the action of gravity.

taliaYsebastian.com

FETCHING GRAVITY CANALIZATION PIPELINES

41/150


2.1 COLLECTION

42/150


GROUNDWATER

Groundwater is located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations. A unit of rock or an unconsolidated deposit is called an aquifer when it can yield a usable quantity of water. The depth at which soil pore spaces or fractures and voids in rock become completely saturated with water is called the water table.

HAND-DUG WELL MACHINE-DUG WELL WATER PUMPING CANALIZATION PIPELINES

Aquifers are recharged by rain. Natural discharge often occurs at springs and seeps, and can form oases or wetlands. Typically, groundwater is thought of as liquid water flowing through shallow aquifers, but technically it can also include soil moisture, permafrost (frozen soil), immobile water in very low permeability bedrock, and deep geothermal or oil formation water.

It is obvious that a greater effort and even specialized technical equipment is necessary to reach the aquifer and pump water for its further use or treatment. Therefore help the communities to understand the need to invest in these devices and the capacitation of personal to operate and repair them. Local organizations are the most recommended partners, since they generally have an insight in the community and are trusted partners.

taliaYsebastian.com

Biological and chemical tests should be performed to determine the water’s quality and if further treatment is necessary for its safe consumption.

43/150


2.1 COLLECTION

YIELD

Medium

Low capital investment for implementation Low running cost Comunitarian Supply

Bio-Chemical testing necessary before implementation Restricted to suitable types of ground, such as clays, sands, gravels Filtration and Neutralization needed Open Catchment area

At least 1,5m/3,3feet diameter for the excavation The volume of the water in the well below the standing water table acts as a reservoir Water table should not be lower than 6m/20feet

44/150


HAND-DUG WELL GROUNDWATER

It consists of a hole dug in the ground with walls built with bricks, and a combination of cement, sand and concrete. When compared with wells for rain water collection, these wells give open access to groundwater.

taliaYsebastian.com

HAND-DUG WELL MACHINE-DUG WELL WATER PUMPING CANALIZATION PIPELINES

45/150


2.1 COLLECTION

YIELD

Medium - High

Low running cost Comunitarian Supply No access for insects or bigger particles into the reservoir

Moderate High Investment Bio-Chemical testing necessary before implementation Spare parts for machinery

Implement the simplest methods of drilling, particularly those which can be operated by users and stakeholders themselves The volume of the water in the well below the standing water table acts as a reservoir

46/150


MACHINE-DUG WELL GROUNDWATER

Machine-dug wells are usually quicker and cheaper to sink than hand-dug wells, need no dewatering during sinking, require less lining material, and are safer in construction and use.

taliaYsebastian.com

HAND-DUG WELL MACHINE-DUG WELL WATER PUMPING CANALIZATION PIPELINES

47/150


2.1 COLLECTION

YIELD

Medium - High

Low running cost Comunitarian Supply No access for insects or bigger particles into the reservoir

Moderate High Investment Bio-Chemical testing necessary before implementation Spare parts for machinery & pump

Implement the simplest methods of drilling, particularly those which can be operated by users and stakeholders themselves Create training programs for the users and shareholders to build, operate and repair the equipment

48/150


WATER PUMPING GROUNDWATER

Water pumping from a fresh water source in a lower stream is a basic and far more effective practice than scooping or lifting water in a hand-held bucket.

taliaYsebastian.com

HAND-DUG WELL MACHINE-DUG WELL WATER PUMPING CANALIZATION PIPELINES

49/150


2.1 COLLECTION

YIELD

High

Low running cost Comunitarian Supply Contribution to reforestation efforts

High capital investment for implementation Bio-Chemical testing necessary before human consumption Open catchment and stream areas Technical know-how necessary for the operation and maintenance of devices

Create training programs for the users and shareholders to build, operate and repair the equipment Keep the water channels constantly monitored and protected. Channels can be built of halfed bamboo trunks

50/150


CANALIZATION GROUNDWATER

Water runs through open channels that convey it to a tank or cistern. The stream of water flows through the action of mechanical devices such as water pumps.

taliaYsebastian.com

HAND-DUG WELL MACHINE-DUG WELL WATER PUMPING CANALIZATION PIPELINES

51/150


2.1 COLLECTION

YIELD

High

Direct household supply and distribution possible Low running cost Comunitarian Supply

Bio-Chemical testing necessary before implementation High capital investment for implementation Slow implementation Specialized technical know-how necessary for the operation and maintenance of devices

Create training programs for the users and shareholders to build, operate and repair the equipment Keep the water pipes constantly monitored and protected against leaking

52/150


PIPELINES GROUNDWATER

Water runs through pipes nstalled under the ground conveying water to a tank or cistern. The stream of water flows through the action of mechanical devices such as pumps.

taliaYsebastian.com

HAND-DUG WELL MACHINE-DUG WELL WATER PUMPING CANALIZATION PIPELINES

53/150


2.1 COLLECTION

54/150


FOG WATER FULL SCALE FOG COLLECTORS

Through a process known as condensation, atmospheric water vapour from the air naturally condenses on cold surfaces into droplets of liquid water known as dew. The phenomenon is most observable on thin, flat, exposed objects including plant leaves and blades of grass. As the exposed surface cools by radiating its heat to the sky, atmospheric moisture condenses at a rate greater than that of which it can evaporate, resulting in the formation of water droplets.

The consequences of industrial emissions have driven fog water and rain water to be poisoned by chemicals. Therefore, in case there are doubts about the quality of the water and no chemical testing is possible, use it for toilets and practices that do not imply direct consumption.

taliaYsebastian.com

Fog collectors work best in coastal areas where the water can be harvested as the fog moves inland driven by the wind. However, the technology could also potentially harvest water for multiple uses in mountainous areas should the water be present in stratocumulus clouds, at altitudes of approximately 400m to 1200m/1300 to 3900feet.

55/150


2.1 COLLECTION

YIELD

Low-Medium

Low capital investment for implementation

Bio-Chemical testing necessary before human consumption Climatologically sensible system Time consuming

Create training programs for the users and shareholders to build, operate and repair the equipment Arrange the collection net perpendicular to the direction of the prevailing wind In case there is no certainty about the water quality, use it for toilets and cleaning

56/150


FULL SCALE FOG COLLECTORS FOG WATER

The morning dew is collected on the net. Droplets join to form larger drops that fall under the influence of gravity into a channel at the bottom of the panel, from which it is conveyed to a storage tank or cistern.

taliaYsebastian.com

FULL SCALE FOG COLLECTORS

57/150


2.2 STORAGE

58/150


2.2 STORAGE

Water is stored to have constant access to it. The amount of water required, its further distribution as well as the target group (from individual, over family to community), serve to determine what technique suits best. Accordingly the storage goods for water vary in volume capacity, material, and portability. Nearly all water systems include some form of storage, most commonly a tank.

REFILLABLE WATER BOTTLE BUCKETS TANKS AND RESERVOIRS

Storage can be used to: • cover peaks in demand • smooth out variations in supply • provide water security in case of supply interruptions • save buildings, constructions or forests from fire • meet legal requirements • improve water quality • provide thermal storage and freeze protection • enable a smaller pipe to serve for a distant source • provide daily water supply for households • transport water

For the purpose of differentiation between collection and storage containers, let’s say the former are used in conjunction with water sources, the latter with the points of distribution for end-users.

taliaYsebastian.com

The containers for water collection ideally should not be the same as the containers for water storage, although this is not always the case. Stored, stagnated water can easily foul, especially if the storage good is open or the water is exposed to sunlight. Therefore water that has been stored for a longer period should be filtered and neutralized.

59/150


60/150

UN

RO

G

K

ED

RC

FO

TA N

IN

RE

D

C TA EM N EN K T

T RE AN SE KS RV A O ND IR S

ET AL

M

PL AS TIC

ET S

CK

BU

RE FI

LL

LE

AB

W AT ER

BO TT

LE

R CO EFI N LL A TA BL IN E ER PE S RS O N AL

2.2 STORAGE


61/150

taliaYsebastian.com

R

W AT E

L

EL

W

ER

TO W

EA RT H E

W AR


2.2 STORAGE

YIELD

Low (Personal)

Low Cost Portability

Water Quality can not be determined

Refill containers regularly and do not let water stored for longer periods Transparent plastic PET-bottles are widely used for solar disinfection (see SODIS in NEUTRALIZATION)

62/150


REFILLABLE WATER BOTTLE

There is a huge offer in the market of refillable containers with different capacity, quality, and materials. Plastic and aluminium bottles are the most popular.

taliaYsebastian.com

REFILLABLE WATER BOTTLE BUCKETS TANKS AND RESERVOIRS

63/150


2.2 STORAGE

64/150


BUCKETS REFILLABLE WATER BOTTLE BUCKETS: PLASTIC BUCKETS METAL BUCKETS EARTH WARE BUCKETS TANKS AND RESERVOIRS

A variety of buckets with different volume capacity, quality, and materials are available in the market.

Choosing the right material for storing water in buckets is crucial and often dependant on the type of water: for example, if water is acidic it may react with specific metals; scratches in plastic buckets become bacterial breeding ground that is hard to clean; the usage of transparent containers for long term storage is not recommended, since sunlight can encourage the development of vegetation, which at the same time can feed bacteria.

taliaYsebastian.com

Containers should in their shape and form discourage water contamination. The contamination can happen because of variety of reasons, such as dipping bacterially contaminated hands or utensils into the water as well as the water becoming a breeding ground for insects and vegetation.

65/150


2.2 STORAGE

YIELD

Low (Personal)

Low Cost Portability Shock resistant

Water quality cannot be determined High risk of contamination Transportation

Clean containers regularly and do not let water stored for longer periods Cover the containers to avoid access of insects or solid particles into the tank Promote creative sanitation practices that restrain users from deeping objects or body parts into the water

66/150


PLASTIC BUCKETS

Highly popular because of their price, low weight and high durability. However, how does the introduction of plastic encourages environmental issues and interferes with local production?

taliaYsebastian.com

REFILLABLE WATER BOTTLE BUCKETS: PLASTIC BUCKETS METAL BUCKETS EARTH WARE BUCKETS TANKS AND RESERVOIRS

67/150


2.2 STORAGE

YIELD

Low (Personal)

Low Cost Reparability

Water quality cannot be determined High risk of contamination Corrossion (Iron, Steel, Tin)

Clean containers regularly and do not let water stored for longer periods Take care that the chemical quality of water does not react with the metal Cover the containers to avoid access of insects or solid particles into the tank Promote creative sanitation practices that restrain users from deeping objects or body parts into the water

68/150


METAL BUCKETS

Although metal can be significantly more expensive than plastic its main advantage is it can be locally manufactured and repaired. Copper & Brass are among the most popular and widesrpead options.

taliaYsebastian.com

REFILLABLE WATER BOTTLE BUCKETS: PLASTIC BUCKETS METAL BUCKETS EARTH WARE BUCKETS TANKS AND RESERVOIRS

69/150


2.2 STORAGE

YIELD

Low (Personal)

Low Cost Local Production

Water quality cannot be proved High risk of contamination High Weight

Clean containers regularly and do not let water stored for longer periods Cover the containers to avoid access of insects or solid particles into the tank Promote creative sanitation practices that restrain users from deeping objects or body parts into the water

70/150


EARTH WARE BUCKETS

Earthenware containers are less popular because of their comparatively higher weight and low durability, especially when compared with plastic. However, they have a high social impact as they can normally be locally produces, and the raw material has a low environmental footprint.

taliaYsebastian.com

REFILLABLE WATER BOTTLE BUCKETS: PLASTIC BUCKETS METAL BUCKETS EARTH WARE BUCKETS TANKS AND RESERVOIRS

71/150


2.2 STORAGE

72/150


TANKS AND RESERVOIRS REFILLABLE WATER BOTTLE BUCKETS TANKS AND RESERVOIRS: PLASTIC VERTICAL TANKS GROUND TANKS WELLS CEMENT REINFORCED TANKS WATER TOWERS

Several methods of construction for water storage can be found around the world. Communities adapt different solutions, mostly for the collection of water. In most cases, according to the volume of water stored, there is no difference between water collection and water storage goods (i.e. rain water harvesting). Tanks are defined by their size and capacity. Starting at 100litres/27gallons full tanks cannot possibly be moved around without the help of specially designed tools and carriers. That is why tanks are stationary and used for both collection and storage of water. They also vary on their materiality and placement, from plastic through to reinforced concrete and either underground or even on water towers.

Projects of this size should be consulted by water experts and engineers, to properly build, together with the community, to identify the most adequate location.

taliaYsebastian.com

Reservoirs are micro-infrastructural projects (see Rock and Sand-Dams) designed to collect and store a far greater quantity of water for communitarian use.

73/150


2.2 STORAGE

YIELD

Medium

Low running cost Easy installation Protection from sunlight

High capital investment for implementation Logistics of building materials

Place the tank on a safe space away from objects or tools that can damage it Positioning of the water outlet is informed by the sediment build-up on the bottom of the tank

74/150


PLASTIC VERTICAL TANKS

Plastic vertical water tanks are used for multiple purposes including above-ground residential cisterns that store safe drinking water, rainwater harvesting, long-term water storage, emergency potable water storage, fire protection water tanks and farm irrigation.

taliaYsebastian.com

REFILLABLE WATER BOTTLE BUCKETS TANKS AND RESERVOIRS: PLASTIC VERTICAL TANKS GROUND TANKS WELLS CEMENT REINFORCED TANKS WATER TOWERS

75/150


2.2 STORAGE

YIELD

Medium - High

Low running cost Protection from sunlight Durability

High capital investment for implementation Logistics of building materials Low Reparability Pumping device necessary

Create training programs for the users and shareholders to build, operate and repair the equipment Design easy access to the tank for eventual maintenance

76/150


GROUND TANKS

Plastic or cement water tanks are installed underground to store water.

taliaYsebastian.com

REFILLABLE WATER BOTTLE BUCKETS TANKS AND RESERVOIRS: PLASTIC VERTICAL TANKS GROUND TANKS WELLS CEMENT REINFORCED TANKS WATER TOWERS

77/150


2.2 STORAGE

YIELD

Medium

Low capital investment for implementation Low running cost Comunitarian Supply

Water not recommended for immediate human consumption! Restricted to suitable types of ground, Filtration and Neutralization needed Open Catchment area

Cover the well to avoid access of insects or solid particles into the tank At least 1,5m/3,3feet diameter for the excavation The volume of the water in the well below the standing water table acts as a reservoir Create training programs for the users and shareholders to build, operate and repair the equipment

78/150


WELLS

It consists of a hole dug in the ground with walls built with bricks, and a combination of cement, sand and concrete. Wells for storage are also lined with bricks at the bottom and do not give access to underground water streams or reservoirs.

taliaYsebastian.com

REFILLABLE WATER BOTTLE BUCKETS TANKS AND RESERVOIRS: PLASTIC VERTICAL TANKS GROUND TANKS WELLS CEMENT REINFORCED TANKS WATER TOWERS

79/150


2.2 STORAGE

YIELD

Medium - High

Low running cost Easy installation Protection from sunlight Durability

High capital investment for implementation Logistics of building materials

Cover the well to avoid access of insects or solid particles into the tank Place the tank on a safe place away from objects or (agricultural) tools that can damage it The tank should be partially installed underground to secure it Create training programs for the users and shareholders to build, operate and repair the equipment Make sure to design an opening for eventual cleaning and maintenance

80/150


CEMENT REINFORCED TANKS

Depending on the quality of construction and the climate of its location, cement reinforced water tanks are remarkably durable constructions with almost zero maintenance and high durability.

taliaYsebastian.com

REFILLABLE WATER BOTTLE BUCKETS TANKS AND RESERVOIRS: PLASTIC VERTICAL TANKS GROUND TANKS WELLS CEMENT REINFORCED TANKS WATER TOWERS

81/150


2.2 STORAGE

YIELD

Medium - High

Functionality

Water not recommended for immediate human consumption! High capital investment for implementation Maintenance Specialized technical know-how necessary for the operation and maintenance of devices

Only recommended when larger budget is available Building site should be stable, flat and not endangered by landslides or earthquakes Create training programs for the users and shareholders to build, operate and repair the equipment

82/150


WATER TOWERS

A water tower is an elevated structure supporting a water tank. The elevated water builds sufficient pressure to provide for domestic water distribution systems.

taliaYsebastian.com

REFILLABLE WATER BOTTLE BUCKETS TANKS AND RESERVOIRS: PLASTIC VERTICAL TANKS GROUND TANKS WELLS CEMENT REINFORCED TANKS WATER TOWERS

83/150


2.3 FILTRATION

84/150


2.3 FILTRATION Filtration is the first step in purifying water to remove solids from the water, (from stones, foliage, insects to micro-particles), turbidity, dissolved metals and chemicals which may interfere with subsequent purification steps. Filtration not only makes the water look clearer; by removing particles you are removing potential breeding ground for pathogens.

SEDIMENTAITION FILTRATION THROUGH A MESH CHARCOAL & ACT. CHARCOAL SLOW SAND FILTER CERAMIC FILTERS IRON OXIDE FILTER

The techniques hereby presented are most effective when they are combined in order, according to the size of particles that are intended to be eliminated from water. The most effective techniques outlined here are for domestic use, therefore most suited for point-ofuse implementation. Engage the community in their construction and promote a strong, solid awareness campaign that sensitizes people and encourages them to implement, properly care for and build upon the techniques that best suit their needs.

taliaYsebastian.com

Water should be filtered BEFORE treating it against pathogens. Filtration not only makes the water look clearer; by removing particles you are removing potential breeding ground for pathogens.The process requires water to be driven through one or more physical barriers that free it from physical particles and even micro-particles. There are even some filtration techniques that are highly effective in filtering out bacteria and germs (see Slow Sand Filter and Ceramic Filters, reverse osmosis).

85/150


N

IR O

86/150

O XI D

E

FI

R

LT E

ER

C IC

AM

FI

DL ES

AN

C

D

N AT E

RS

LT E

PR EG

IC

SI PO LVE TS R IM

M

RA

CE O

D FI

RS

LT E

SA N

FI

SL O W

BI

LT ER

TH

N

RO

M EN TA TIO

FI A LTR M AT ES IO H N

SE DI

H

UG

2.3 FILTRATION


87/150

taliaYsebastian.com

C C HA H RC AR O CO A AL L & AC

TIV AT ED


2.3 FILTRATION

YIELD

Low - High

Simple Moderate capital investment

Time consuming Does not remove dissolved metals or chemicals

Sedimentation processes can be used to treat waste waters Sedimentation can not be the only step of the purification process for drinking water Create training programs for the users and shareholders to build, operate and repair the equipment Moringa Oleifera seeds accelerate the processes of flocculation and coagulation of particles and speed up the sedimentation process

88/150


SEDIMENTATION

Sedimentation is a process used to settle suspended solids in water under the influence of gravity. Its purpose is to reduce the content of suspended solids as well as the pollutant embedded in the suspended particles.

taliaYsebastian.com

SEDIMENTATION FITRATION THROUGH A MESH CHARCOAL & ACT. CHARCOAL SLOW SAND FILTER CERAMIC FILTERS IRON OXIDE FILTER

89/150


2.3 FILTRATION

YIELD

Low - High

Low capital investment for implementation Versatility Adaptability Effective

Does not remove dissolved metals or chemicals

Create training programs for the users and shareholders to build, operate, clean and replace the equipment Beware: depending on mesh density, water can be filtered from large particles or micro-particles such as pathogens When designing a system, make meshes accessible for easier maintenance

90/150


FILTRATION THROUGH A MESH

Meshes are physical barriers of inter-woven fibres that retain particles while letting fluids flow through. The more dense, the higher the retention of particles, but also the more energy needed to pass the water through.

taliaYsebastian.com

SEDIMENTATION FITRATION THROUGH A MESH CHARCOAL AND ACT. CHARCOAL SLOW SAND FILTER CERAMIC FILTERS IRON OXIDE FILTER

91/150


2.3 FILTRATION

YIELD

Low - Medium

Low capital investment for implementation Easy to make Effective removal of removing chlorine, mercury, iodine, and some inorganic compounds

Does not remove dissolved metals Should not be used as a filter to remove suspended particles

Activated charcoal can be “cleaned� by exposing it to sunlight Create training programs for the users and shareholders to build, operate, clean and replace the equipment When designing a system, make filter accessible for easier maintenance

92/150


CHARCOAL & ACTIVATED CHARCOAL SEDIMENTATION FITRATION THROUGH A MESH CHARCOAL & ACT. CHARCOAL SLOW SAND FILTER CERAMIC FILTERS IRON OXIDE FILTER

1

2

3

Activated charcoal is charcoal that has been especially treated with O2 to open up millions of tiny pores between the carbon atoms, giving it a larger surface area for a highly effective chemical filtration.

taliaYsebastian.com

Charcoal consists of elemental carbon in its graphite configuration. These filters are employed in commercial home water treatment systems as well as in large scale municipal treatment facilities to remove chemicals such as chlorine from the water.

93/150


2.3 FILTRATION

YIELD

Low - Medium

Low capital investment for implementation Can be locally and easily produced Effective removal of organic substances and microorganisms Versatile

Not usable against most inorganic chemicals No removal of viruses Slow flow rate Proper care can be tricky because of the delicate biofilm

Filters should be cleansed regularly Create training programs for the users and shareholders to build, operate, clean and replace the equipment The water from a well-managed slow sand filter can be of exceptionally good quality with 90-99% bacterial reduction.

94/150


SLOW SAND FILTER COVER

SEDIMENTATION FITRATION THROUGH A MESH CHARCOAL & ACT. CHARCOAL SLOW SAND FILTER CERAMIC FILTERS IRON OXIDE FILTER

MESH

OUTLET PIPE

SAND

Slow sand filters work thanks to a biofilm that formed in the top few millimetres of the fine-sand layer within the first 10–20 days of operation. This layer provides the effective purification in potable water treatment. Slow sand filters are typically 1-2m/3-6feet deep, depending on the desired flow rate.

taliaYsebastian.com

GRAVEL CHARCOAL

95/150


2.3 FILTRATION

96/150


CERAMIC FILTERS SEDIMENTATION FITRATION THROUGH A MESH CHARCOAL & ACT. CHARCOAL SLOW SAND FILTER CERAMIC FILTERS SILVER IMPREGNATED POTS CERAMIC CANDLES IRON OXIDE FILTER

Household-scale ceramic filter technology is considered among the most promising options for treating drinking water at the household level in developing countries. Although several different kinds of ceramic filters are used for household water treatment worldwide, among the most widespread are those promoted by Potters for Peace, a US and Nicaragua-based NGO.

taliaYsebastian.com

The properties of ceramic are used to filter water, by letting it seep through the tens of millions of pores in the ceramic material, which is usually in a cartridge form, blocking the way for solids which accumulate in it´s large surface area.

97/150


2.3 FILTRATION

YIELD

Low - Medium

Low capital investment for implementation Can be locally and easily produced Effective removal of organic substances and microorganisms

Does not remove dissolved metals or chemicals No removal of viruses Slow flow rate Improper care can greatly reduce the effectiveness of the filter

Filters should be cleansed regularly Create training programs for the users and shareholders to build, operate, clean and replace the equipment The water from a well-managed filter can be of exceptionally good quality with up to 99% bacterial reduction

98/150


SILVER IMPREGNATED CLAY POTS

Silver impregnated ceramic filters dramatically increase the effect of the ceramic filter since silver is an effective bactericidal. Most common impregnation is made with Silver Nitrate (AgNO3) or colloidal silver, 3-4 days after the pots have been hard-baked.

taliaYsebastian.com

SEDIMENTATION FITRATION THROUGH A MESH CHARCOAL & ACT. CHARCOAL SLOW SAND FILTER CERAMIC FILTERS SILVER IMPREGNATED POTS CERAMIC CANDLES IRON OXIDE FILTER

99/150


2.3 FILTRATION

YIELD

Low - Medium

Low capital investment for implementation Can be locally produced Effective removal of organic substances and microorganisms and anorganic substances Simple

Limited flow rate (~2 liter/hour) Prone to stuck through highly turbid water

Ceramic candles should be cleansed regularly Do not pour water too rashly or above the candle The water from a well-managed filter can be of exceptionally good quality with up to 99% bacterial reduction

100/150


CERAMIC CANDLES

Ceramic candles are clay cylinders that take advantage of the ceramic’s micro-scale pores. They are used to remove turbidity, suspended materials and pathogens. Dirty water from the upper container flows through a ceramic candle into the lower container.

taliaYsebastian.com

SEDIMENTATION FITRATION THROUGH A MESH CHARCOAL & ACT. CHARCOAL SLOW SAND FILTER CERAMIC FILTERS SILVER IMPREGNATED CLAY POTS CERAMIC CANDLES IRON OXIDE FILTER

101/150


2.3 FILTRATION

YIELD

Low - Medium

Low capital investment for implementation Can be locally and easily produced Effective removal of arsenic

Not usable against chlorine No removal of viruses Not effective against pathogens

Create training programs for the users and shareholders to build, operate, clean and replace the equipment In case there is uncertainty about the water’s content of arsenic, a layer of old rusty nails can be added to common filters to reduce the content of arsenic

102/150


IRON OXIDE FILTER

Iron Oxide effectively removes arsenic from water through a chemical process, essentially absorbing it out of the water. The simplest method is to include iron nails in a filter system. Arsenic has been linked to cancer of the bladder, lungs, skin, kidney, nasal passages, liver, and prostate.

taliaYsebastian.com

SEDIMENTATION FITRATION THROUGH A MESH CHARCOAL & ACT. CHARCOAL SLOW SAND FILTER CERAMIC FILTERS IRON OXIDE FILTER

103/150


2.4 NEUTRALIZATION

104/150


2.4 NEUTRALIZATION UV COOKING CHEMICAL DISINFECTION

After filtration, the water may look clear and therefore safe and clean to drink. However, most filtration methods do not remove pathogens – viruses, bacteria, of fungi that cause disease and so must be submitted to a pathogen neutralizing process. Attention: dissolved metals and chemicals can only be removed through previous filtration methods.

However, many other factors affect the level of contamination in water, including the length of time water has been stored and therefore stagnant, the amount of algae in the air, upriver contamination through animal activity etc. The list is endless, and it is known for a fact that pathogens are the biggest and most direct killer, causing diseases, specially diarrhoea – particularly when a body is already malnourished, it becomes harder for it to fight minimal pathogen infection.

taliaYsebastian.com

Bear in mind that most contamination happens at pointof-use through cross-contamination: open sources of collection and storage; infected hands dipped into the water; containers that are used for the daily rations of water have been used as a bath for toddlers and babies and have not been fully disinfected prior to use for drinking water etc.

105/150


106/150

LT ER S

SL (se OW e Fil SA tra N tio D n) FIL TE

R

SI PO LVE TS R IM (se P e REG Fil tra NA tio TE n) D

FI

N

DI SI

aC lO XI DA TIO

N

E

IC AL

RI N

LO

C H

EM

CH

FE

N N

CT IO

DI ST ILL

RA VI TY

G

R

LA

SO

G

KI N

O

CO

N

AT IO

DI SI N FE CT IO N

UV C

-LA

M P

DI S速

SO

UV

2.4 NEUTRALIZATION


107/150

taliaYsebastian.com

IN

M

RA

LO

C H ES

G AS

ITY

TR IC

EC

EL


2.4 NEUTRALIZATION

YIELD

Low (Personal)

Low capital investment for implementation Can be locally and easily produced Effective removal of pathogens Versatile

UVA radiation varies according to latitude, altitude, air pollution and cloud cover Very slow

Create training programs for the users and shareholders to build, operate, clean and replace the PET-Bottles PET can not be replaced by glass, because a lot of glass bottles have built in UV-filters Paint the base of the PET-Bottles in black to retain more radiation

108/150


SODIS速 (SOLAR DISINFECTION) UVA

Clear PET bottles are filled with water and set out under skylight for some hours. The UVA rays of sunlight kill germs such as viruses, bacteria and parasites. The method also works when air and water temperatures are low.

taliaYsebastian.com

UV SODIS速 UVA UVC-LAMP COOKING CHEMICAL DISINFECTION

109/150


2.4 NEUTRALIZATION

YIELD

Medium - High

Encourage local entrepreneurship Highly effective on a broad range of pathogens Low running cost Community supply

Not usable against chlorine or arsenic High capital investment for implementation Requires regular power supply

Create training programs for the users and shareholders to build, operate, clean and replace the technical equipment Promote creative self-sustaining, long term models that ensure all users have access to clean drinking water

110/150


UVC-LAMP

The biological effect of UVC radiation is to destroy the capacity of living organisms to reproduce. Through it germs are neutralized and inhibited to produce any negative consequences on humans.

taliaYsebastian.com

UV SODIS速 UVA UVC-LAMP COOKING CHEMICAL DISINFECTION

111/150


2.4 NEUTRALIZATION

112/150


COOKING UV COOKING SOLAR DISTILLATION WOOD, ELECTRICITY & GAS CHEMICAL DISINFECTION

Boiling or heating water has been used to pasteurize household water since ancient times. Pathogens are killed at temperatures that exceed 65째C, however the WHO recommends bringing the water to a rolling boil as an indication that a sufficient temperature has been reached to kill bacteria and co.

A major disadvantage of boiling is its energy consumption in relation to the availability, cost and sustainability of fuel. Areas of the world where wood, other biomass fuels or fossil fuels are in limited supply and must be purchased make the costs of boiling water prohibitive. However, where affordable and sustainable sources of fuel are available without causing environmental degradation, boiling household water is an effective and accessible method of neutralization.

taliaYsebastian.com

It is further recommended that boiled water be consumed soon after it has cooled down and preferably within the same day.

113/150


2.4 NEUTRALIZATION

YIELD

Low

Low capital investment for implementation Can be locally produced Effective removal of pathogens Can be used to make drinking water from salt water

Time consuming Rather a short term solution Dependant on hot atmospheric temperatures

Avoid access of insects or bigger particles into the tank Create training programs for the users and shareholders to build, operate and repair the technical equipment This solution is rather recommended for disaster relief and emergency cases

114/150


SOLAR DISTILLATION

A solar still is a simple way of distilling water, using the heat of the Sun to drive evaporation from humid soil, and ambient air to cool a condenser film. The pure water vapor condenses on the cool inside plastic surface and drips down from the weighted low point, where it is collected and removed.

taliaYsebastian.com

UV COOKING SOLAR DISTILLATION WOOD, ELECTRICITY & GAS CHEMICAL DISINFECTION

115/150


2.4 NEUTRALIZATION

YIELD

Low

Low capital investment for implementation Removal of pathogens

Rather a short term solution Burning wood for water disinfection increases the pressure on the forests High CO2 emissions

Create training programs to raise awareness regarding the use of wood and effects of deforestation Promote creative self sustaining, long term models that ensure all users have access to clean drinking water

116/150


WOOD

Boiling low turbid water is one of the most effective methods for neutralization, but the great amount of energy is a major concern for sustainable, long term development. It is estimated that 1kg of wood is needed to boil 1 liter/0,25gallon of water.

taliaYsebastian.com

UV COOKING SOLAR DISTILLATION WOOD, ELECTRICITY & GAS CHEMICAL DISINFECTION

117/150


2.4 NEUTRALIZATION

YIELD

Low

Removal of pathogens Effective

Not usable against chemical pollution High capital investment for implementation Requires regular power supply

Create training programs to raise awareness regarding the use of energy in relation to the environment Promote creative self sustaining, long term models that ensure all users have access to clean drinking water

118/150


ELECTRICITY

The great amount of energy needed and the infrastructure to supply it are major issues. Electric devices are also not very suitable because of the high amount of energy they consume and their availability in remote areas.

taliaYsebastian.com

UV COOKING SOLAR DISTILLATION WOOD, ELECTRICITY & GAS CHEMICAL DISINFECTION

119/150


2.4 NEUTRALIZATION

YIELD

Low

Can be locally produced Low running cost Effective removal of pathogens Community supply of gas

Production of gas not applicable to all climates High capital investment for implementation

Create training programs to raise awareness regarding the use of energy in relation to the environment Promote creative self sustaining, long term models that ensure all users have access to clean drinking water

120/150


GAS

The great advantage of using gas is it can be locally produced. Manure and human feces can be managed through especially designed containers and toilets to produce methane.

taliaYsebastian.com

UV COOKING SOLAR DISTILLATION WOOD, ELECTRICITY & GAS CHEMICAL DISINFECTION

121/150


2.4 NEUTRALIZATION

122/150


CHEMICAL DISINFECTION UV COOKING CHEMICAL DISINFECTION CHLORINE NaCl OXIDANT CHLORAMINES

Chemical disinfection is considered by WHO the essential and most direct treatment to inactivate or destroy pathogenic and other microbes in drinking water. Today, chemical disinfection of drinking water is widely recognized as safe and effective and is promoted and practiced at communitarian as well as at individual pointof-use levels. The most widely used chemical treatments of drinking water are all relatively strong oxidants of chlorine.

There is a risk of over-saturating water with chemicals, which can cause long-term health problems. Chemical disinfection strategies require clear communication tools between experts and users that teach people about the right use and dosage of these substances.

taliaYsebastian.com

Alternative chemical disinfectants sometimes used for drinking water are acids and bases; these agents inactivate microbes by creating either low or high pH levels in the water, respectively. The combined use of multiple treatment processes or “barriers� is a widely embraced principle in drinking water science and technology that is widely applied in community drinking water supplies, especially for surface waters.

123/150


2.4 NEUTRALIZATION

YIELD

Low - High

Moderate continual investment for implementation Effective removal of pathogens

It generates particular taste and odour Restricted availability in rural and remote areas It can cause health issues in the long run

Promote creative self sustaining, long term models that ensure all users have access to clean drinking water

124/150


CHLORINE

Free chlorine is the most easy and affordable chemical disinfection method. It is also highly effective against nearly all waterborne pathogens. At doses of a few and contact times of about 30 minutes, chlorine inactivates more than 99% of enteric bacteria and viruses.

taliaYsebastian.com

UV COOKING CHEMICAL DISINFECTION CHLORINE NaCl OXIDANT CHLORAMINES

125/150


2.4 NEUTRALIZATION

YIELD

Low - Medium

Low running cost Can be locally produced Effective removal of pathogens

Moderate capital investment for implementation Requires regular power supply

Create training programs for the users and shareholders to build, operate, clean and replace the technical equipment It can be generated on site by electrolysis of table salt Promote creative self sustaining, long term models that ensure all users have access to clean drinking water

126/150


EC GENERATED OXIDANT FROM NaCl

The availability of chemical disinfectants is limited in many parts of the world due to lack of production facilities, transport limitations and high cost. It has been known for many decades that chlorine, perhaps mixed with other oxidants, can be generated on-site by the electrolysis of a solution of table salt.

taliaYsebastian.com

UV COOKING CHEMICAL DISINFECTION CHLORINE NaCl OXIDANT CHLORAMINES

127/150


2.4 NEUTRALIZATION

YIELD

High

Effective removal of pathogens Community supply

High capital investment for implementation Not suitable for drinking water Requires regular power supply

Bare in mind it is not as effective as free chlorine treatment Create training programs for the users and shareholders to build, operate, clean and replace the equipment

128/150


CHLORAMINES

Chloramines are most commonly formed when ammonia is added to chlorine to treat drinking water. The most typical purpose of chloramines is to protect water quality as it moves through pipes and it is therefore NOT recommended for point-of-use applications.

taliaYsebastian.com

UV COOKING CHEMICAL DISINFECTION CHLORINE NaCl OXIDANT CHLORAMINES

129/150


130/150


3. HUMANITARIAN HELP

3. HUMANITARIAN HELP DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS VS. HUMANITARIAN HELP Humanitarian relief/aid deals with the displacement of a large amount of people and so solutions must be delivered quickly and for a limited time. Usually pre-manufactured solutions are delivered in terms of safe and clean drinking water, and do not provide a sustainable structure. They serve purely to bridge the gap in infrastructure and the urgent need behind these solutions, relying on large-scale logistical and organizational efforts.

It is worth investigating successful social design projects, both in humanitarian aid and development areas, and the terms under which they worked, who they partnered with, issues that caused difficulties and how these difficulties were overcome. It is also worth noting that a social design project should be developed hand-inhand with a thorough social business plan, which by all means increases the chances of succesful sustainability. It is also worth

taliaYsebastian.com

Development projects, on the contrary, ask us to think into the long term future in terms of sustainability - economically, ecologically and in a socio-cultural context. They must be framed bottom-up as well as top-down to ensure meaningfulness and success of the project. In this sense, every development project should begin with local NGO´s and experts working in the designated pilot region; these ensure trusted access to the target group and area and are valuable suppliers of important information in socio-cultural terms, or information as to what the government is interested in implementing (if at all), and under what context any project is implemented in the region.

131/150


3. HUMANITARIAN HELP

while understanding that, in the past, different projects have found support and praise by different disparate players: the end user (who in a direct or indirect sense is the owner), the government (who has the power and money to decide to further implement and disseminate the project) and international investors (who by rule of thumb support beautiful design projects that have unfortunately shown little value to the end-user). Ideally, the project should be appealing to all, as social projects must be meaningful to the end-user, approved by the government so that it is subsidized and therefore the impact disseminated, and appealing to international investors who will donate making the project accessible to the largest amount of people possible.

132/150


133/150

taliaYsebastian.com


4. INFORMATION TOOLS AND SOURCES

134/150


4. INFORMATION TOOLS AND SOURCES The following list is a collection of significant projects that deal with water, sustainable development and/or humanitarian help. We find it important to draw on other people´s experiences for the future design and implementation of projects of this nature. This list should help gain insight, and will grow together with the Social Design movement. We´ve added three major catalogues for social and humanitarian design at the end of this chapter.

CAPTION COLLECTION

Humanitarian Aid

RAIN WATER HARVESTING

Development

STORAGE

Outdoors

FILTRATION

Project Tools

NEUTRALIZATION

SANITATION SAFE CONSUMPTION

taliaYsebastian.com

CHEMICAL DISINFECTION

135/150


IS W HA T

PR O JE CT

IT

4. INFORMATION TOOLS AND SOURCES

AQUAPLENTY®

The Aquaplenty® produces water out of air, using the humidity in the air. It is a simple and robust waterproduction device, powered by a wind wheel. It has a water production rate of about 1000litres/264gallons per day, with about the quality of rain water.

ROCK-DAM

Rock catchments utilise the surface run-off of water from flat rocky outcrops on hill tops. By building channels around the rock, rainwater is guided into a pipeline that supplies one or more water tanks. Rock catchments can collect up to 150,000 litres per tank for domestic use.

SAND DAM

A cost-effective and innovative solution to compensate water shortages in semi-arid areas. Despite having been built successfully in Africa, Asia and South America for at least the last fifty years, they are still an under-utilised solution for providing clean water and improving the environment.

HIPPO WATER ROLLER

It’s a barrel-shaped container that con store up to 90litres/24gallons of water. Its design enables people to transport almost five times of water than the traditionally used 20kg buckets by rolling the barrel, which is attached to a steel wireframe to pull or pull.

136/150


M h2onsite.com

Excellent

Excellent – Pioneers of Sand Dams

excellentdevelopment.com

Excellent

Excellent – Pioneers of Sand Dams

excellentdevelopment.com

Emily Piloton, Project H

The Hippo Water Roller Project

hipporoller.org

taliaYsebastian.com

H2OnSite S.V.

O RE

IZ AT IO N O RG AN

N DE SI G H2OnSite S.V. Hans van der Vliet

137/150


IS W HA T

PR O JE CT

IT

4. INFORMATION TOOLS AND SOURCES

RAM PUMP

A pump that pushes water with the pressure from down streams up through pipes. The Aid Foundation Inc. has been working on its design to meet sustainability goals of humanitarian projects (like local production and repairability). In field the highest delivery of the pump has been 200m/656feet.

FOG WATER COLLECTION

The technology employed today essentially mimics the function of trees and other natural features, using large polypropylene mesh nets erected on ridgelines to intersect moving fog that is being carried by the wind. During the dry season the water collectors are able to produce water for a small community.

WATER BOBBLE速

A reusable water bottle which filters water as is been drunk, using a replaceable carbon filter. Intended for the consumption of municipal tap water, the carbon filter removes chlorine and organic contaminants making tap water taste better.

LIFESAVER速

A reusable water bottle that removes all bacteria, viruses, cysts, parasites, fungi and all other microbiological waterborne pathogens without the aid of any foul tasting chemicals like iodine which is now banned within the European Union.

138/150


NEWAH (Nepal Water for Health)

M

O RE

IZ AT IO N O RG AN

N DE SI G

Aid Foundation Inc.

aidfi.org

newah.org.np wateraid.org

Water Aid UK

Michael Pritchyard

Bobble, MOVE Collective

LIFESAVER速 Systems

waterbobble.com

lifesaversystems.com

taliaYsebastian.com

Karim Rashid

139/150


IS W HA T

PR O JE CT

IT

4. INFORMATION TOOLS AND SOURCES

SUPER DELIOS

It is a portable water filter that can produce safe and clean water by squeezing the container connected to the filter, consisting of a micro-mesh and activated carbon. The produced water can be used for drinking, cleaning wounds and so on.

LIFESAVER® JERRYCAN

A reusable can that uses the same principles of the LIFESAVER Bottle, removing all bacteria, viruses, cysts, parasites, fungi and all other microbiological waterborne pathogens without the aid of any foul tasting chemicals like iodine which is now banned within the European Union.

LIFESTRAW®

A personal combination of water filters for the direct consumption of contaminated water. To use it, a person sticks the LIFESTRAW® directly into the water and drinks as using a normal straw. After finished, the user blows air to clear the filter. LIFESTRAW® can filter up to 1000litres/264gallons of water

LIFESTRAW® FAMILY

A stationary combination of water filters through which water flows through the action of gravity. Down the running tube a chlorine-saturated purification filter riddled with micro-pores acts as a sieve for bacteria. It can provide water at household level and filter up to 18.000litres/4755gallons of water

140/150


M

O RE

IZ AT IO N Urban Tech

LIFESAVER速 Systems

LIFESAVER速 Systems

Vestergaard Frandsen S.A.

Vestergaard Frandsen S.A.

vestergaard-frandsen.com

Vestergaard Frandsen S.A.

Vestergaard Frandsen S.A.

vestergaard-frandsen.com

delios.net

lifesaversystems.com

taliaYsebastian.com

O RG AN

N DE SI G Urban Tech

141/150


IS W HA T

PR O JE CT

IT

4. INFORMATION TOOLS AND SOURCES

3 POT SEDIMENTATION

This method treats water by moving it between three different clean pots, or containers, over time to allow water to settle so that germs and solid matter fall to the bottom of the container. This is safer than settling water in one pot, but it does not make the water completely free of germs.

POTTERS FOR PEACE

Active since 1998 this initiative has been assisting local partners in certain countries of the Global South to set up filter production and distribution facilities. The advantages of the silver impregnated clay pots are used to encourage entrepreneurship, capitalizing humanitarian help into a social business.

SONO WATER FILTER

An arsenic filter using three pitchers containing cast iron turnings with sand in the first pitcher and activated carbon with sand in the second. Test results indicate SONO can remove arsenic, manganese (a neurotoxin), iron, and all transition metal ions. Filters can last at least fourteen years at the present usage rate of 100l/26gal per day.

JOMPY It is an innovative, environment-friendly, fuel-efficient water boiler. It can be used over any open flame and de-contaminates the water as it passes through.

142/150


M

O RE

IZ AT IO N O RG AN

N DE SI G

Burkinabe Red Cross Society ghanaredcross.org

Dr. Fernando Mazariegos

Abul Hussam Abul K. M. Munir

David Osborne

Potters for Peace

pottersforpeace.com

Manob Sakti Unnayan Kendro

msuk-bd.org

Jompy – Instant Hot Water Outdoors

jompy.co.uk

taliaYsebastian.com

Ghana Red Cross Society

143/150


X-RUNNER

WADI

144/150

IS W HA T

PR O JE CT

IT

4. INFORMATION TOOLS AND SOURCES

A portable toilet for private households in poor urban areas, where the population is living in small crowded spaces without sewage systems. Every 3-5 days the tank’s content is shipped to a local biogasplant for processing. Gas and electrical energy and then produced for the community.

It is an inexpensive high-tech tool that traces the progress of solar water disinfection (SODIS). Designed to fit in most common PET-Bottle tops, solar it serves as a tool to inform users if the process has been finished and if the water can be consumed.


Helioz R&D GmbH

M xrunner-venture.com

helioz.org

taliaYsebastian.com

X-Runner Venture

O RE

IZ AT IO N Martin Wesian

O RG AN

N DE SI G Noa Lerner

145/150


SUSTAINABLE SANITATION & WATER MANAGEMENT BOX

eTOOLKIT ON RAINWATER HARVESTING

DESIGN FOR SOCIAL IMPACT GUIDE

146/150

IS W HA T

PR O JE CT

IT

4. INFORMATION TOOLS AND SOURCES

This toolbox recognizes that sectoral approaches are not going to solve the global water and sanitation challenges. It highlights that holistic approaches are needed and the consideration of the entire water cycle from source to see, and back, is imperative for the successful implementation of strategies, understanding that human influence on the water and nutrient cycle are at the center.

This electronic toolbox has been designed to assist planners, developers and stakeholders for the implementation and construction of rain water harvesting systems. The content is kept at a level that development workers as well as engineers can understand the concept. The modules are designed for a study time of around 20-30 hours in total.

The downloadable pdf summarizes the bulk of IDEO’s learnings and presents them as an invitation to the design industry to participate in the initiative. In addition to the design principles and modes of engagement developed by IDEO, the book includes case studies and prompts to inspire continued learning and involvement.


UNEP, Nairobi

IDEO The Rockefeller Foundation

M sswm.info

rainwater-toolkit.net

ideo.com

taliaYsebastian.com

IDEO

Seecon International GmbH

O RE

IZ AT IO N Elizabeth Khaka, UNEP Nairobi; Maimbo Malesu, RELMA Nairobi; Dirk Hangstein, Margraf Publishers Weikersheim; Hans Hartung, FAKT Weikersheim

O RG AN

N DE SI G Conradin, K., Kropac, M., Spuhler, D. (Eds)

147/150


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Alternativas de Captaci贸n de Agua, Nicaragua; Cajina, Ing. Mauricio; CATIE, 2006. Analysis and Comparison of Sustainable Water Filters; Mc. Allister, Skye; WHO/Unicef, 2005. A Critical Look at the Development of Fog Water Collection in Nepal; Apigian, Jeffrey; Nepal Community Development Foundation & Nepal Water for Health, 2005. Biosand Household Water Filter Project in Nepal; Lee, Tse-Luen; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2001. Cultures Connect Report; Tautscher, Gabriele; June 2011 Household Water Storage, Handling and Point-of-Use Treatment; Nath,Prof. KJ; Bloomfield, Prof. Sally; Jones, Dr Martin; International Forum on Home Hygiene, 2006. Human-Centered Design Toolkit; IDEO, 2009 Multiple-Use Water Service Implementation in Nepal and India; Mikhail, Monique; Yoder, Robert; IDE, CPWF & IWMI, 2008 Re-Thinking Water and Food Securit; Martinez-Cortina, Luis (ED); Garrido, Alberto (ED); L贸pez-Guna, Elena (ED); CRC Press, 2010 Use of Ceramic Water FIlters in Cambodia; Water and Sanitation Program, UNICEF, 2007 WASHtech Review 2012 WASHtech Africa review

148/150


Water Aid, Technology Notes; www.wateraid.org, 2012 Water Technology and Society: Learning the Lessons of River Management in Nepal; Gyawali, Dr. Dipak; ZED Books, 2003 Compedium of New and Emerging Health Technologies; www.who.int,

taliaYsebastian.com

2011

149/150


ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This manual has been realised thanks to the support of many people and institutions. Among them AWS (Austrian Commerce Service) has been indisputably an indispensable financial support thanks to their funding programme Impuls XS. We have been very lucky to count with the support of Architecture for Humanity, through which we first embarked on a hands-on water project and so found the need for a manual such as this. Our partner organisations Edge of Seven (US) and The Small World (Nepal), who have introduced us to wonderful people and take us to beautiful places that despite their display of generosity and abundace would benefit most from interventions that include a combination of the techniques we have presented here.

We are deeply grateful (in no particular order) to, Cameron Sinclair, Matthias Reisinger and the HUB-Vienna, Karma Sherpa, Emily Stanley, Petra Busswald, Tulga Beyerle, Doris FrĂśhlich, Franziska Zibuschka, Andreas Gmeiner, Sangitha Sundaresan, Bandana Pradhan, Basudha Gurung, Indira Shankar, Kalayan Gurung, Harald GrĂźndl, Willibald Loiskandl, Lena Goldsteiner and her graphic skills, Stephan Lutter, Vitus Angermeier, the girls of Salleri Girls Hostel, Suman Shakya, Tatjana Pernkopf, Krishna Mani, Barry Katz. The pressure we are putting on our planet and its treasures require the best humans have to offer. We feel as well, that we can contribute. And this manual is our first step.

150/150


IMPRINT

taliaYsebastian taliaYsebastian is small Industrial Design Studio based in Vienna, Austria and founded in 2011 by Talia Radford and Juan Sebastián Gómez. Responsible sustainable design with consideration for nature and human needs is taliaYsebastian’s central concern. Their mission is social change - a conscious transformation of behaviour and consumption for a better co-existence with oneself, one another and our envionment - through design. In short, quality of life. By involving expert opinions from disparate disciplines in hard and soft sciences and the economy as well as from experienced Social Designers, their developments are precisely targeted to meet user needs.

taliaYsebastian.com

Following international internships with Michael Young in Hong Kong and Spime Technologies in India, taliaYsebastian have specialized on “Human Design” in conjunction with new technologies. They have already received several awards, among them the 2011 Victor J. Papanek Social Design Award; the 2012 red dot Design Award and the iF Design Award 2013 for product design.

151/150


101 Drinking Water Manual Adressing Local Community Development Projects for Energy Autarchy Regions Worldwide Edited and Produced by: taliaYsebastian, 2012 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution - NonCommercial - NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.

Graphic Design: Talia Radford, Juan Sebasti谩n G贸mez, Lena Goldsteiner www.taliaYsebastian.com

This project has been kindly supported by:

152/150

Drinking Water Manual 101  

taliaYsebastian is a design studio focussing on Design for Social Impact. While working on a clean and safe drinking water project for the m...

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you