ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO TALIA FILECCIA
AIR 539 432
SPECIAL THANKS TO MY GROUP MEMBERS
SLING, FRANK & JANICE TUTORS
DAVID & MICHAEL
Part A: Expression of Interest Case for Innovation
A.1. Architecture as a Discourse A.2. Computational Architecture A.3. Parametric Modelling A.4. Algorithmic Explorations A.5. Conclusion A.6. Learning Outcomes 28
Part B: Expression of Interest Design Approach
B.1. Design Focus B.2. Case Study 1.0 B.3. Case Study 2.0 B.4. Technique - Development B.5. Technique - Prototypes B.6. Technique Proposal B.7. Algorithmic Sketches B.8. Learning Objectives & Outcomes
74 Project Proposal C.1. Gateway Project - Design Concept C.2. Gateway Project - Tectonic Elements C.3. Gateway Project - Final Model C.4. Algorithmic Sketches C.5. Learning Objectives and Outcomes 103
INTRODUCTION TALIA STELLA FILECCIA
I am the type of person who never knew what career to pursue. I have always been creative and organized though was unaware of how to turn this into an occupation. Up until about four years ago, in my 11th year of secondary school, I discovered my passion for architecture. I suppose sometimes I feel disadvantaged as my knowledge of building design may not be at the level of others who have wanted to be an architect most of their life. However, focussing on the point â€˜quality not quantityâ€™ tends to reassure these insecurities and remind me that no-one person is the same, were design is a form of art, not a measurement of experience.
My understanding of Digital Design within architecture is a new age tool that aids the formation of concepts into a form. It is malleable and far more advanced then any previous methodology. Digital Architecture has allowed design to become a reactive process as oppose to a process of evolution. It has been implied that if chosen to incorporate digital design throughout your development, you are allowing the computer to do the work for you. I strongly disagree with this statement. While the computer may assist the process in which you produce the design, without the architect, how would the design be created? Design stems from an idea and the designer controls the computer much like a person controls a car. The vehicle is a tool that aids a personâ€™s transportation just like digital design software is a tool that aids the designer. This forms the basis of my understanding regarding the purpose of digital design software.
The Technical Knowledge I have obtained in terms of digital design was during my first semester of university, 2011, when I studied the subject, Virtual Environments. The basis of this revolved around the modelling software Rhino where it was required to produce a paper lantern that can be worn on the body and included a panelized surface with curvilinear geometries. The design had to link to a natural process of which, mine was honeycombs and the way bees formed this hexagonal structure. Due to this being the first time I was exposed to digital design, I struggled with the concepts and functions required to produce a digital model. With the assistance from my tutor, David Lister, I succeeded in completing a lantern that wrapped around the arm and reached to the neck. The concept behind this positioning on the body was drawn to points were a personâ€™s pulse resided, the neck and wrist. At these areas, the lights of the lantern would remain, symbolizing life and the beating of the human heart. Included on below are images of the Rhino design, demonstrating the basic outline of the structure and how it developed into the final model, with the inclusion of the panelled hexagonal surface.
EXPRESSION OF INTEREST CASE FOR INNOVATION
ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE
Architecture as a Discourse can be similarly thought of as communication through architecture. Thinking of building design as a form that speaks to you rather than a structure for protection from the elements allows an alternative perspective to be considered. I believe architecture can deliver a Philosophical, Social, Professional & Material message, as mentioned by Williams, 2005.1 However, I don’t agree that design is limited to communicating those messages alone. Architecture not only contains aesthetic appeal, it also works to both enclose and open spaces. Additionally, it can draw attention to spaces that would otherwise be overlooked or ignored, much like public art. Although the two designs can be considered as incredibly different, they can also be seen as serving similar purposes, even though architecture is capable or serving many. This is better understood when thinking of an empty piece of land, rarely will you get someone stopping and taking notice of empty space. However, placing a building or sculpture on the empty space draws attention to the area and acts as a form of discourse. Furthermore, this is not to limit architecture to simply communicating an empty space. There is also the reaction to what exists in general knowledge and how this goes beyond drawing attention to vacant land. It is the many complex ideas that architecture addresses that is the format in which it communicates. Therefore, I believe Architecture to be Influential. While it is also space, form, surface, shelter and art, all these concepts allow the formation of inspiration. This is why the U-House and the Walt Disney Concert Hall are later explored. Personally, they grasp this idea of architecture. The idea of spatial experiences formed by the structures. I see these buildings and feel motivated I become influenced.
Williams, Richard. 2005. ‘Architecture and Visual Culture’, in Exploring Visual Culture : Definitions, Concepts, Contexts, ed. by Matthew Rampley (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press), pp. 103. 1
U-HOUSE Influential Architectural Project #01
The U-House by Jeorge Costa is a residential project that meets energy efficient design principles as well as look aesthetically compelling. The compacted box effect it embodies sets this building aside from other ‘typical’ housing designs. The house sits upon a hill overlooking the surrounding landscape and includes the social spaces on the first level, associating with the pool, and the private sections on the top floor. I find the spatial organization compelling in the sense that the design is thought out and organized in a logical format, which only adds to the appeal in my opinion. Prior to the implementation of the U-House, the site was a boring, empty hill. Costa has not only given the space a house, but also an intriguing and interesting building that draws attention and compels you to explore and understand it. He uses plain, sharp forms as well as a unique composition to individualize what a generic house would look like. The U-House shows what it is like to push the boundaries by thinking ‘inside the box’ in an unexpected way. Instead of continuing with the known and creating historically influenced architectural design, Costa becomes innovative and lets his imagination produce an exquisite and simple building - one which inspires me to be different in my designs and be confident when choosing to stray from the norm and not follow what is expected or safe.
Influential Architectural Project #02 The Walt Disney Concert Hall by Frank Gehry was designed to be one of the most sophisticated melodic spaces that provides an unparalleled musical experience, as well as a visual one. The building contains a sharp, angled, swooping facade that completely fits with the environment, yet stands out from its surroundings. Gehry is an incredibly influential architect, as his building ideas mostly stem from simple yet composed scribble on a page. He turns the shape of this scribble into a form and eventually develops buildings so aesthetically pleasing that they cast shade onto anything around them. This design process, workflow and way of thinking is unique when compared to other patterns and techniques. This approach to modern architecture through sculptural design and reflective surfaces is a defining factor that separates Gehry from your typical architect. Gehryâ€™s style instills appreciation for the bravery he shows when producing buildings that are completely left of center. His work inflicts a positive change in the world, one that is difficult to forget.
WALT DISNEY CONCERT HALL
Computational Architecture is a topic a lot of people feel strongly about. From my understanding, you are either for or against the evolution of digital design. Simply put, using computers in the design process is not only faster, but also more accurate and adaptable. The opposing groups who see digital architecture as an ‘excuse’, due to their belief that the computer formulates the design rather than the architect, are naive. In my opinion, they don’t understand, so they judge. They neglect change. If people can adapt to the changes in design, they can adapt to the changes in design technique. Computational Architecture has a significant affect on the process of design. Simply put, it alters architectural design from the “making of form” to the “finding of form” (Kolarevic, 2003).2 This relates to the capabilities computer-aided architecture allows - capabilities that may not have been considered if left to the old mechanical process. For example, testing the compatibility of certain materials for a design normally would require extensive research, with digital design, the time required to do this is almost halved by the efficiency provided by computational architecture. Hence, this also highlights how technology impacts design and construction industries - it improves them.
The range of conceivable and achievable geometries is severely impacted by computation. Digital modeling alone opens up an entire concept to design that was previously neglected or unimaginable. The way in which surfaces and curves can move, link, collide and exchange with one another in itself is influential. The opportunities these concepts provide bring design to a whole new level. One that is far more advanced then anyone may have predicted. Furthermore, Computational Architecture establishes unique opportunities and innovations that were previously inconceivable. Buildings of the past were mostly generic, repetitive and of uncomplicated forms. The most advanced designs revolved around height - how tall a building could be as well as integrate stability. Now, it has changed, we see a new ideology forming. Gradually, the entire idea of design will shift further to include forms, which are individualized, complicated and distinctive.
Kolarevic, Branko. 2003. Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press), pp. 3 - 4.
Parametric Modeling has been touched upon in the previous pages in terms of computational and digital architecture. To further explore specificities in this area, research involving the communication of parametric modeling along with scripting cultures in Architecture must be explored.
In my opinion, Parametric Modeling is project simulation. This simulation is achieved through the use of mathematical and analytical methods. However, in saying this, we are limiting the extent of complexity involved in this design process. Similarly, the algorithms can define scripting cultures and definitive processes behind the parametric programs.
It is my understanding that the scripting cultures are of those plug inâ€™s such as Grasshopper and the parametric modeling software are of those programs such as Rhino. As mentioned previously on numerous occasions, these elements that produce parametric modeling communicate Architecture in a more complex and time efficient way. This is supported by Woodbury (2010) who states, â€œparametric systems bring fresh and needed new capabilities in adapting to context and contingency and exploring the possibilities inherent in an ideaâ€?.3
The influence Parametric Modeling has had and will continue to have on the architectural design process is evident. Not only has it allowed more efficient and sophisticated outputs, it has created a possibility of producing works far beyond anything previously imagined. While some may argue that even without parametric modeling, further development of ideas would have eventually surfaced, the time and form of those ideas has been greatly improved by the use of parametrics. Mentioned above, architecture has been said to be influential. Parametric Modeling to an extent, allows the influence to blossom and grow beyond what is known. It allows a mix and confusion of curves and angles to form an advanced idea and possibly inspire the concepts behind a design.
Woodbury, Robert. 2010. Elements of Parametric Design (London: Routledge) pp. 7-48.
While it has been noted that Parametric Modeling has greatly impacted the architectural world, this approach to design has both advantages and shortcomings. It is my opinion that the advantages outshine the shortcomings as the main benefit to parametric programing includes the capability to create something that cannot be formed or formed as efficiently by hand drawing. For example, looking at the Walt Disney Concert Hall, previously explored, it is apparent that the interaction of forms would have produced a large amount of overlapping output. Hence, this overlapping output can be produced much more accurately via parametric design as oppose to the conventional way.
In terms of shortcomings, the only negative to parametric modeling, in my eyes, is the difficulty in terms of learning something new and adjusting to the varied methods and techniques this comprises. However, as previously mentioned, this disadvantage is greatly outweighed as like all unknown techniques, once grasped, the advantages to them are clearly comprehended. This is further explored within the analysis of the following parametric projects.
Parametric Project #01 The Burnham Pavilion by UNSTUDIO is a perfect example of a project, which fully grasps the concept of parametric modeling. It uses geometries in a floating and continuous form that aim to highlight and reflect the surroundings. The Pavilion successfully completes this agenda via the assistance of parametric modeling. This new design process allows the concept to be developed and explored in a more time efficient manner, allowing forms and the interactions between them to be tested far more effectively. Without Parametric Modeling, this structure may not have been completed to the extent it has, meaning the result produced may not have been achieved. Considering this and considering the context through the communication of architecture, the Burnham Pavilion would not have achieved the same result and finished design without parametric programming and this in itself highlights the importance and influence parametric modeling holds on architecture. This creation by UNSTUDIO is a prime example of a parametric project, which in its purest form, emphasizes the inspiration of curvilinear and geometrical objects interacting. Parametric modeling not only inspires this, it makes the idea of it a reality.
SNOWFLAKE TOWER Parametric Project #02 The Snowflake Tower by LAVA is another example of a parametric project that not only grasps the concept of parametric modeling, but also takes it one step further. Exploring the idea of movement and how parametric modeling assists the process of developing responsive structural systems. This is an advantage when considering the conventional method, which in comparison would be long and tedious. The design of the building was inspired by the geometry of a snowflake and the aerodynamics of a Formula 1 racing car. The idea was to draw inspiration from these concepts rather then mimic them. Much like designs in parametric modeling draws inspiration from the software capabilities, not clone hand drawn ideas and reproduce them through computation. Further addressing the concept of responsive structural systems, the reflective fins of the tower aim to track the sun and hence control solar shading. This movement not only changes the facade of the building, it also requires a complex process to identify the timing and direction of movement. Therefore, highlighting the ineffectiveness of completing this process by hand as oppose to using parametric modeling. The method is not only faster, but also more accurate and reactive. Thus, the Snowflake Tower allows a context to be formulated in which, Architecture communicates the idea of new possibilities â€“ it communicates inspiration. This inspiration is possible through the process of using digital programming and this emphasizes the benefits of using parametric architecture, were the Snowflake Tower is a prime example.
EXPLORING THE CURVE MENU
The images to the right represent explorations of the curve menu in Grasshopper. Initially I investigated the division of points along two curves and the formation of arcs between those adjoining points. This created a lofted surface, which had a soft and smooth appearance. Following on from this, I explored the geodesic component that creates a curve between two points of which this curve is of the shortest possible path. This can also be seen in the images to the right as the shape and structure of the curve has altered and become somewhat more complicated. In the original tutorial for this exploration, the process for completing these functions was explained however, I altered the original shaping of these curves and produced a form that looked no where near as neat or defined. After the geodesic component was added, I noticed that the arcâ€™s formed in my object were vastly different in comparison, as they were more sparse in certain areas and congested in others. Therefore, the knowledge provided throughout the tutorial was extended through self-research and exploration. These images were included above others as they clearly demonstrated the simple yet effective functions available through the curve menu in Grasshopper. They also highlight the production of arcs along a curve and the simplified process of creating them. From completing this tutorial, it was found that inspiration was drawn from the shapes created by the arcs between juxtaposed curves. The forms that were generated conjured ideas of a shell or igloo, which provides shelter for inhabitants. This developed thoughts of interesting building designs, including how curved forms could be created as architecture. These algorithmic sketches demonstrate the arguments made previously - that parametric modeling could form project simulation, which in turn produces inspiration through architecture. Hence, parametric architecture is produced via the explorations undertaken in programs such as Grasshopper.
EXPLORING TRIANGULATION ALGORITHMS
The images to the left represent explorations of triangulation algorithms in Grasshopper. The algorithms that were closely investigated included the voronoi and octree components. In the original tutorial for this exploration, the process for completing forms with these algorithms were initiated with a box and a curved plane, as can be seen in the images on the right. The voronoi component creates cells around points were the bounding lines of those cells are perpendicular to the point, while the octree component partitions space into a structured set of boxes. Moving on from the basic structures used to demonstrate these components throughout the tutorial, I explored the use of the voronoi tool with a triangular geometry. Much like the box, a cube like form was created of which the internal cells were visible. Removing the external cells from the shape, an interesting form was produced which was different to the forms created via the box geometry. Similarly, both triangular and cylinder geometries were explored with the octree component instead of the curved plane that was demonstrated with in the tutorial. As can be seen in the images on the right, these altered geometric forms produced a different structured set of boxes within the partitions of space when compared with the curved plane. Again, these boxes were removed in certain areas and varied shapes were created. Thus, the knowledge distributed throughout the tutorial was extended through self-research and exploration. These images were included above others as they specifically demonstrated the exploration of the voronoi and octree components within Grasshopper. By completing this exercise, inspiration was drawn from the unique and interesting forms that were produced. They are comparable to a style of linear architecture, which I personally find the most influential. The forms produced remind me of the U-House by Jorge Costa, which was addressed earlier. This new knowledge that represents the link between parametric modeling and architecture is initiated via the components in Grasshopper and henceforth likened to architectural projects such as the U-House. Similar to the previous exploration of curves, these algorithmic sketches demonstrate the argument that parametric modeling can form project simulation. This in turn produces inspiration through architecture and therefore, parametric architecture is produced through the explorations instigated in programs such as grasshopper.
Throughout Part A- a Case for Innovation, many concepts were identified and explored. The idea of digital design being a reactive process rather then a process of evolution was addressed and this led to the contemplation of Architecture as a discourse. While it was found that Architecture communicates philosophical, social, professional and material aspects, it was noted that it is not limited to these. Architecture addresses many complex ideas along with drawing attention to empty space. Through this, an observation was articulated in that Architecture is influential - the space, form, surface, shelter and artistic aspects of design conveys this inspiration. However, this inspiration is created by the spatial experiences produced via a structure. Subsequently, Computational Architecture was analyzed in the way it has improved the process of design and the significance of this. It was stated that people adapt to changes in design over time and thus will adapt to changes in design technique. Thus, following on from this, Parametric Modeling was also identified as improving design in that this technique is not only faster, but also capable of producing more sophisticated and accurate outputs. Therefore, this section has discussed how digital design has influenced Architecture in distinctive ways, including the way in which it has become influential. Through this an understanding of the benefits of computational design are explored and used to help draw associations between its benefits and the improved structural forms that allow inspiration. In identifying the impact of digital design and what Architecture communicates, there is clarity in discovering a design approach. Through summarizing the information analyzed, the important aspects of influential Architecture is found by the way forms interact with space and express intrigue encouraged by the structure. From this it can be understood that inspiration is subjective to personal opinions, however, this subjectivity is what forms innovation. By delving into the way form interacts with space, like the U-House and the Walt Disney Concert Hall, the idea of influential design can be explored. It is an understanding that forms which push the boundaries of what is known or expected inspire people and this gamble allows the creation spatial experiences. By differentiating design, you are drawing attention to it and parametric modeling improves the ability to produce this. Therefore, I have come to the conclusion that unique designs inspire me for the courage and appreciation they entail. This is what makes design significant. This is what makes design influential.
By exploring computational architecture in theory and in practice, it is evident that my general knowledge of the topic has improved, as would be expected. The experience of evaluating the effect of digital design as well as architecture as a discourse has beneficially altered my mindset and identified what it is about architecture that entices me. However, I have found myself questioning design a lot more. There is more critique in my approach to architecture in that I analyze how a form is produced and the effect it holds rather then simply appreciating the design. By being forced to examine digital design and parametric modeling, my overall understanding has developed. Hence my new knowledge of past projects and the effect computational architecture entails has influenced and motivated me to participate in the unknown and exciting new design process that is now architecture.
EXPRESSION OF INTEREST
STRIPS & FOLDING This specific parametric method is a valid and interesting approach for a project like the Wyndham City Gateway Design. Strips and folding is a technique, which uses linear and curvilinear forms that are strategically bent in certain ways and appear to be malleable. Summarizing my fascination for this specific form, I find it to be an intriguing concept that can create appealing structures through its defined outlines, which leads to the production of inspiring spaces, shadows and structures. Addressing the precedent project selected for this method - The SEROUSSI PAVILLION by BIOTHING, it demonstrates this concept of strips and folding. This precedent uses curvilinear structures as oppose to sharp linear forms, which I find more intriguing, however, it is a project that stimulates interest through its modulated and manipulated configurations. This is illustrated in the images below - more specifically, the axonometric view highlighting the folding and malleability of the structure.
This precedent highlights the theme of my groups design focus and the context in which is intellectually stimulating. This design focus involves four main aspects, which in certain ways overlap with each other. However, this is required, as having mutually exclusive intents can cause contradiction within our potential design. These four discourses include: 1. Material performance 2. Spatial experience via structure 3. Spatial experience by responding to the environment 4. Personal engagement though recollection
CASE STUDY 1.0
01. MANIPULATING ORIGINAL CURVES
EXPLANATION C.01 - original curve and form it produces, similar to Biothing Pavilion C.02 - manipulated curve to neglect central space, change in form C.03 - manipulated curve to simpler form, interesting interaction of form C.04 - manipulated curve to connect spaces, circular form created C.05 - manipulated curve to symbolize abstract bridge, intersecting form
02. ADJUSTING DIVIDE CURVE COMPONENT
EXPLANATION D.01 - adjusted D.01 - adjusted D.03 - adjusted D.04 - adjusted D.05 - adjusted D.06 - adjusted
number number number number number number
slider slider slider slider slider slider
from from from from from from
5 to 50, complicates form 5 to 15, creates overlay of stems 5 to 2, simplifies form and adds space 24 to 4, reduces stems and creates interesting spaces 24 to 10, simplifies form whilst achieving interaction 24 to 48, joins components to overlap and intersect
03. ADJUSTING FIELD LINE COMPONENT
EXPLANATION F.01 - adjusted F.02 - adjusted F.03 - adjusted F.04 - adjusted F.05 - adjusted
number number number number number
slider slider slider slider slider
from from from from from
100 100 100 100 100
to to to to to
5, reduces individual nodes and increases space 25, nodes still small but more detail and depth 60, more interaction with more interesting spaces 200, increases overlap and reduces depth 300, complicates form, flattens and confuses space
04. MANIPULATING MULTIPLICATION SLIDER
EXPLANATION M.01 - altered number M.02 - altered number M.03 - altered number M.04 - altered number M.05 - altered number
slider slider slider slider slider
from from from from from
-1.9 -1.9 -1.9 -1.9 -1.9
to to to to to
1.9, flips form and retains original shape 10, flips form, reduces depth and space 5, flips form, reduces more depth and space -10, increase height and creates more space -50, dramatically increases height and creates space
05. ALTERING GRAPH MAPPER COMPONENT EXPLANATION G.01 - altered points G.02 - altered points G.03 - altered points G.04 - altered points G.05 - altered points
in in in in in
graph graph graph graph graph
mapper, mapper, mapper, mapper, mapper,
flattened shape and limited space flipped form and retained similar spacing flipped form and created more space and intersects inversed center and lengthened exterior rounded form and increased intersections and space
06. ADJUSTING POINTS OUTLET ON DIVIDE COMPONENT
EVALUATION P.01 - removed flatten command on points outlet, removed nodes and simplified form P.02 - added graft command on points outlet, made linear stems and interestingly altered form P.03 - added reverse command on points outlet, removed and mirrored nodes simplifying form
ANALYSIS OF RESULTS By observing the results of the â€˜mutationsâ€™ created through case study 1.0, certain aspects can be addressed which help to move forward in producing a design for Wyndham. Firstly, the strategy used to extend the explicit design space included making basic adjustments to the major components in the original definition, which resulted in drastic changes in the forms created. These adjustments included manipulating the original curves, adjusting the divide curve and field line components along with altering the multiplication slider, the graph mapper and the points outlet of the divide component. As represented throughout the previous pages, these mutations produced some intriguing and interesting forms that inspired further extensions in experimentation. However, these were not as successful as they did not create many varied forms and thus did not achieve the flexible stimulation that I was looking for by experimenting with this parametric definition. Hence, this also highlights the decision made to include these certain species of the original form. By creating sequences of geometric variations, the goal was to achieve a variety of forms, which greatly differed in appearance but were from the same initial structure and stimulated vastly different intrigues.
SPECULATION Considering this definition has created geometries that substantially differ from the original project, the architectural application drawn from this could include the spatial experience produced by these overhanging segments, an aspect of sculptural elegance, an ideal of repetition, the influence of light and shadows, as well as a sense of continuity through curvilinear forms and contrasting this with linear structures. These concepts can be explored in order to determine the potential forms, surfaces and spaces. The qualities and effects created by such structures obviously differ with each form however, referring to the structures produced by P.01 to P.03, this concept of strips and folding manipulates the design in a way that stimulates potential for the above mentioned spatial experiences such as, sculpture, repetition and light. It is these experiences that produce the effects inspired by the design focuses mentioned previously.
CASE STUDY 2.0
The project selected for Case Study 2.0 is
by DRS & FARMM. This projects design intent began with the desire of exploring parametric design and digital fabrication. Throughout the development, it became a design, which uses the moiré effect to create an architectural sculpture highlighting the resolve of complexity. In one simplified statement, the Contemplay Pavilion “manipulates viewers’ perceptions through its overall form and carefully arrayed details, inviting the user to discern the boundaries between public furniture, shelter and art” (ArchDaily, 2013).4 Personally, I feel as though this precedent has achieved it’s design intent as it appears to be furniture, shelter and art. It is a complex geometric form that uses the mobius strip as well as incorporating the moiré effect to produce an inspiring sculpture that somehow makes sense amongst all its confusion. It is an influential study delving into the depths of parametric design and addresses the majority of concepts my group is intending to incorporate. Therefore, the Contemplay pavilion is a successful project through its explorations of parametric design.
ArchDaily, 2013, 06/05/2013, http://www.archdaily.com/258929/the-contemplay-pavilion-drs-farmm/
PARAMETRIC TOOLS through
Areas of Compression and Tension
Diagram B.01 Parametric diagram dissecting how Contemplay was produced using parametric tools
The vector line works on the right highlight the progression made while attempting to regenerate Contemplay in grasshopper. Below are brief explanations of the redevelopment process. V.01: V.02: V.03: V.04: V.05:
simple curvilinear lines implied by the precedent mobius strip created by the curvilinear lines mobius strip used to reproduce panels throughout the form moirĂŠ effect explored via doubling form alternative technique used to produce panels through use of lines between points
The outcome of our regeneration of Contemplay was successful in certain aspects and limited in others. But more importantly, it was influential in instigating ideas of designs for the Wyndham City Gateway Project. It was successful in the reproduction of the overall form in such a way that our outcome looks very similar to the original structure. The creation of panels throughout the mobius strip was also a similar outcome when juxtaposed against the precedent. However, the incorporation of the support structure throughout the form was not included and this is a major difference. It is limiting the outcome as it would be near impossible to fabricate due to there being no way to join and support the structure computationally. The duplication of the mobius strip in V.04 is an attempt to reinforce the moirĂŠ effect however was unsuccessful in my opinion as it is overly complicating the structure and confusing the form. Clearly this effect is achieved through the original configuration. This is evident in both V.03 and the image below where there is a clear moirĂŠ effect occurring as a result of the layering.
From this exploration, the technique of using a mobius strip to create the moirĂŠ effect is an interesting approach when addressing the gateway design project. Taking this definition further, the following will be investigated and improved. Addressing material properties, manipulating the mobius strip (whilst being unrestricted by the original form), using a more sustainable construction technique and exploding the size of the panels and exploring itâ€™s effect.
01. Progression of Mobius Strip EVALUATION The evolution of the mobius strip was far more successful then evolutions of the new forms (0.5). This can be seen through the overly simple structures created using a divide component - which produced unsatisfying results.
02. Investigating influence of Wind on Mobius Strip EVALUATION There was an exploration with the influence of wind on the structure and the effects this created. It was an interesting experiment that would need further development and inclusion into the chosen form, which is evaluated throughout the following.
03. Original attempt at Mobius Strip, baking V.05
04. Interchanging shape outputs
04.1 Interchanging shape outputs - Increased diameter
05. Manipulating the grids applied to the mobius strip through lunchbox
EVALUATION The manipulation of varied grids applied to the mobius strip produced stimulating outcomes however, experimentation through the use of differing forms is an intended direction for future explorations.
06. Exploring new form
06.1 Exploring new form - Using points on curve to define lines 52
07. Experimenting with Strips EVALUATION Investigating with strips produced interesting outcomes and again was an intriguing exploration but produced unsatisfying results. However, this did further inspire the use of panels in future experiments.
08. Introducing Helicoid function into Mobius Strip
EVALUATION Returning to the mobius strip, components explored through this were found to be successful. Introducing the Helicoid function into the mobius strip produced an inspiring outcome and lead to the development and refinement of concepts and ideas.
09. Exploring the influence of the sun on the helicoid structure
EVALUATION Introducing a sun component into the experiments provided alternative outputs however; they were restricted in producing a direction for development.
10. Experimenting with the influence of wind on the helicoid structure
EVALUATION Similarly, the experimentation of the wind component on the helicoid structure produced outcomes that were intriguing but the direction for future possibilities were limited.
DOUBLED PLANES STABILIZING STRUCTURE
The elements fit together by the technique of folding and creating incisions to produce the form. Using two planes to stabilize the structure was a successful idea, as it allows an extra layer of support and prevents collapsing. These strip or panels will be indented in position and orientated by the bending of the surface and insertion through the planes. The building sequence is simple, labeling both the planes and the strips will allow easy assembly of the structure as simple cuts and folding will lead to the insertion of the strips into the plane and hence the formation of the prototype. Visual and compositional effects are dependent on the material choice, which is intended to be timber and steel. These contradicting materials are on some level, planned to symbolize the contrast of community in Wyndham and structure of the CBD. This concept is to be explored through the production of models through future developments. The production of model 01 produced satisfying results, where the structure itself became an intriguing sculptural form. In order to develop this further, the concept of duplicating the structure to introduce more of a complex appearance was explored. This is evident in model 02 were the dual strips are providing a complicated output. Although model 02 created some interesting outcomes, it disrupted the intent of the moirĂŠ effect and distracted the overall form. Therefore, model 01 was the successful prototype as it produced both the moirĂŠ effect through the layered strips and a sculptured form that could provide interesting future developments in a variety of ways. In addition, the materialization of the structure is not yet at a point of representing what the intended material of the sculpture will be - timber and metal. This is to be addressed through further experiments and prototypes.
COMPUTATIONAL MODEL 01
COMPUTATIONAL MODEL 02
The technique of using the mobius strip and helicoid function to create a panelized system that varies from curvilinear and linear forms can be applied on site by linking it analytically as well as linking it through the material use. The intention is to use both metal and timber throughout the artwork as an analogy of the contrasting ideals that we are hoping to instill. Where Wyndham is a community-based city - focusing on nature and sustainable development, the central business district is a dense area - largely defined by heavy, strong materials. Using this concept, the metal panels will tapper towards Wyndham, representing the CBD and the timber structures will shorten towards the CBD, highlighting the idealisms of Wyndham. This is expressed in the diagram below and is an innovative conception as it directly compares the two separate yet linked areas. It compares these in both a literal sense through the selection of materials and in a structural sense through the juxtaposition of elements. Therefore, this technique achieves the intended approach by linking to the site, addressing Wyndham cities objectives and associating with the multiple design intents.
This proposal needs to be developed further as there are still segments of the form that can be explored to make the intent of the structure more perceivable. It is an intriguing concept with the inclusion of detail and depth and this approach to the project is unique in the way it directly associates structure and meaning to formulate a strong link to the brief. However, like all designs, there are some limitations to the current structure as it is yet to be positioned and dimensioned on site to understand if it indeed stipulates the intended concepts. The structure itself needs to be prototyped with materials that are likened to timber and metal - which is envisioned to be used. In addition, the heights of the form need to be addressed and how that is prominent sculpturally. Also, the appearance of the project at night is something that needs to be considered and developed further. All these drawbacks can be overcome by continued experimentation, computationally and through models.
The structure produced thus far requires further development as mentioned earlier. However, it is a good starting point as it has an interesting form and creates vast opportunities for improvement. It meets the direction in which the gateway project is intended to pursue and also inspires concepts and ideas to be formulated, explored and produced. It is a form that is at a point of opportunity, at a point of intrigue.
01. RECENT STRUCTURE 70
LEARNING OBJECTIVES & OUTCOMES
Following the mid semester presentation, much feedback was given to guide the progression of the Gateway Design Project. This response consisted of points such as the successful application of location through the use of materials relating to the design content, the potential to develop this intriguing design further, the interesting effect incorporated in the design and the complicated yet simplistic concept. The advice received encouraged the exploration of the movement of the structure and how this effects the appearance, the improvement of the design being more site specific by highlighting the material use further, the diagram explaining the form requires context to improve understanding, the simulation of wind in grasshopper would be better explored through the creation of prototypes and manually producing wind, investigation regarding variation in location of the bends on the panels allowing diverse flexibility of the sections and finally, consideration of the effect passing car headlights may have on the structure. Relating to the feedback received, the concern with including context when diagraming the association with materials and the direction of the cities was addressed and can be seen on page 67. In terms of the other recommendations for improvement, these are still to be explored. The theoretical research conducted earlier has effected my knowledge of architecture and the roles of computation in the process, simply by broadening my understanding of the topics. Creating, manipulating and designing through parametric modeling is still difficult at times, however, through persistence and the aid of my group members and tutors, my appreciation and skills in this area have improved dramatically. The main learning objective taken from this involves the benefits of prototyping a design as well as the advantages of creating multiple variations to enhance developments and inspire progression.
The feedback from the mid semester presentation suggested improvements in terms of the movement and appearance of the structure, along with creating a more site specific relationship between design and Wyndham through emphasis on materiality. In response, the movement of the panels will be explored through the creation of prototypes and manual simulation of wind. This should lead to adjustments in the structure and may instigate manipulation in regards to the location of bends in the panels in order to achieve this ideal of stable flexibility. Through this experimentation, changes will occur in terms of the visual aspects of the design and this alteration may hinder or improve the overall appearance. Addressing the link between site and concept, perhaps investigating locally sourced timber and efficiently manufactured steel will help to strengthen this correlation as the Wyndham city council are an environmentally conscious association. As a result of this, changes will most likely occur within the conceptual ideas or argument of our design approach and these modifications have the possibility to result in an improved outcome. Model 03 highlights the design after adjustments were implemented from the mid semester presentation.
After reviewing the Gateway Design Project documents, it is apparent that they place a strong emphasis on creating a design that will become a symbol for Wyndham. It should respond to the site and the people who will encounter it. From this, further development of our technique is required to ensure these components are met. Therefore, development regarding the movement of the form in response to the wind, visually enhancing the aesthetic aspect of the structure, and emphasizing the association with materiality and Wyndham will hopefully create an iconic and inspiring design that responds to the site and the users. To further strengthen this ambition, ensuring the moire effect is implemented and effective will allow an element of illusion and transition to be included in the design. With the intent to enhance the appeal and overall cohesion of the structure, introducing another visual component will hopefully accomplish this. The appearance of the form at night will produce a different experience and this should be analyzed with the association of lighting whether that be headlights alone or artificial illumination. If the appearance of the structure were dependent on users alone, it would implement an ever-changing element within the form that was responsive to the users. However, this source of lighting alone would be determined by the passing through of users and would not highlight the form from a distance, which is an important aspect in our design. Therefore, a combination of the two modes of lighting would be the most appropriate and intriguing direction.
Diagram C.01 Diagram describing the workflow of the design definition with consideration of the technique extension that produced the physical structure.
DESIGN DEFINITION HELICOID FROM LUNCBOX
APPLY CURVILINEAR STRIPS
ROTATE TO INTERLOCK EXISTING HELICOID
TRIM FORMS AT GROUND PLANE
TRIANGULATE CURVED PANELS
INTO TRIANGLES WITH DIAGONAL BEND
JOIN TRIANGLES AT MIDPOINT
PROJECT MIDPOINT OF PANELS
FORM RECTANGULAR SUPPORT
MEETING CANTILEVERED PANELS
ADJUST WIDTH OF PANELS & SUPPORTS The helicoid function was taken from lunchbox and evenly spaced into curvilinear strips. It was then rotated 180o on the y-axis to interlock with the existing helicoid. The two helicoids were trimmed through the ground plane (xy), cutting each in half. The curved panels were then triangulated into two triangles with a single diagonal bend and the midpoint of these surfaces was located. Following this, the midpoint was projected onto the xy plane for each panel. The rectangular support at the location of this point was implemented at the same width of the corresponding panel and then adjusted to an overall width of 10cm for both the panels and the supports.
CONSTRUCTION PROCESS MOVE TIMBER AND METAL TO SITE
MAX LOAD CAPACITY OF APPROX 40t
EXCAVATE SITE A
POUR IN MOLD FOR FOOTING SYSTEM
CREATE & ERECT VERTICAL SUPPORTS
CREATE & ERECT PANELS
USING A CRANE
Diagram C.02 Diagram describing the construction process inclusive of fabrication, site works, transportation and assembly.
Allows comparison of surrounding environment and how design sits within this context as well as form an association with it.
SELECTION OF SITE A The selection of site a was decided due to the proximity of the space in relation to the freeway as well as the concept of placing a design on a central, integral area for maximal exposure.
POSITIONING OF DESIGN The progression regarding the position of the design was imperative as the approach is an important aspect where it ensures the moire effect is present. As traffic towards Geelong moves southwest to north east and towards Melbourne is reversed, the final positioning ensures this layering of panels.
The core construction elements of this design would include both the sails and the structural supports. Both these components are repeated across the form and are integral to the concepts driving this project.
The sails have been implemented in the design, as the stability of the structure would be compromised if it were to have wind responsive flexibility. This component is cut through the top of the panel and fixed with an opaque waterproof canvas that adds a subtle transparent element to the design. This would also be responsive to the nighttime experience of the structure as it would both illuminate and move through the form.
The development of the initial design commenced with the heightening of the structure, which altered the visual appearance of the form and limited the stability of the panels more so then previously. Following this, the bending point of the structure was adjusted to manipulate the flexibility of the panels, leading to the discovery of instability within the design. The idea of increasing the space between panels was explored, however resulted in the removal of the aesthetic aspect of segments and transition. This eventually led to the incorporation of the sail component, a flexible material that allowed diversity within the design without compromising the stability of the structure.
After analysis of producing the design with timber and metal, it was discovered the structural stability was sacrificed and the overall form was not constructible. Thus, investigation into the structural support was initiated, which lead to the progressions of triangular and rectangular backing systems to aid the performance of the cantilevered panels. This progression is driven by the need of a structurally sound design, which is highlighted through the matrix - demonstrating the initial form and the following improvements.
The first installation is a triangular support spanning the base segment of the panel, however this provided no stability to the upper section, which would experience the majority of force. The next development was an expansion of the initial support by increasing the length of the triangular section so it reaches the top of each panel. A final variation was the inclusion of a rectangular backing system that met the bending point of the panel and extended to the base.
As a result of these experimentations, the last installation is the most effective and efficient. The joints provide structural rigidity and the appearance of the form is kept intact, ensuring the inclusion of cantilevered panels. The triangular support was unstable in comparison as the joints were exposed to compressive forces.
DETAIL 01 The 1:20 detail of the structural support was created to explore the constructability of this implementation. As can be seen in the images, the form is intact and stable. Thus, it is apparent the reasoning behind selecting this system.
This model was created at a scale of 1:100 due to the length of the total form, extending over 100 meters. The final model incorporated plywood into the form to conceptualize an implementation of timber in the proposed design. This however, doesnâ€™t prove the contractibility of the structure due to the small scale. The model does achieve a projection of the design intent proposed to be included as the tapering of timber and metal is apparent, conveying the link and direct association of Wyndham City and the CBD. In terms of the kinetic elements of the design, shading plays a dominant role as the shadows produced are as intriguing as the structure itself. This is also apparent in the moire effect that is created by the overlapping panels visible on approach from both directions. This effect is present through the passing of the structure however, the movement along the form is too fast to experience it fully.
The final structure has reached a point were an intriguing form has been produced, meeting the objectives of the gateway design project. This proposal is achieving all the design approaches previously outlined and does so in a simple technique when juxtaposed with the complexity of previous propositions. The materiality of the design is demonstrated through the material selection. The spatial experience via environment is attained by the use of locally sourced, sustainable resources and the experience via structure is achieved through the dynamic form, which manages to stipulate an occurrence of curiosity. Inclusive of all these elements, reflection of the design is encouraged as a result of this transitional sculpture. This proposal would not have been achieved without the use of digital design. The flexibility provided through the use of computation has inspired and provided opportunity for such a structure to be created. Before this project, I had no idea what a mobius strip was or a helicoid function, but through experimentation with computational principles, I have grown and expanded my knowledge, resulting in the final installation for the gateway design project.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES & OUTCOMES
The feedback received from the panel identified the multiple concepts within the design and identified the complexity as an overwhelming approach to the installation. After reflection of this, the design was stripped back of certain elements. The sails were removed from the design, as they were a multifaceted component that wasnâ€™t integral to maintain the intended conceptual approach. Therefore, leaving the proposal to material association and the moire effect.
LEARNING OUTCOMES If there is one thing that I have learnt over the development of this project, it is that there is always room for improvement. Developing ideas and concepts not only pushes for further progression, but also for a resulting design which satisfies and exceeds your own expectations. I have found myself enlightened throughout the semester as each milestone was met. I became motivated to continually strive to produce an inspiring design, that is something I can look back on and feel proud. The sequence of components that advanced our design has enhanced my knowledge in relation to design. I have found myself considering elements associated with a realistic proposal that I otherwise, would never have addressed before. This has broadened my understanding of design and the depth to which it can go. This was especially evident to me when advice was given to back up declarations made in relation to the form. I found myself approaching things from a new perspective- expanding my exposure to design. The roles of computation in the design process are imperative and difficult. Especially approaching a new project with minimal experience whilst understanding its importance and efficiency. Amongst this, I have found myself reaching a level where my skills have developed beyond what I thought possible. It is a slow and tedious process however, once youâ€™ve attained a basic understanding of any program, improving and refining abilities is simple. After struggle and frustration, I have realized that creating; manipulating and designing with the use of parametric modeling are possible. Even though at times, it seems unmanageable.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES Through exploration of computational architecture, my general knowledge on this topic has improved simply through enlightenment of approaches to design, which were always there, just never explored. I have continuously been critical of everything throughout the project and this altered mind-set was stipulated by the enhancement of ideologies. Thus, my understanding has improved and my examination of architecture has developed. This was discussed earlier in section A.6 (page26) and continued through. The exploration and theoretical research into digital design has broadened my understanding of it. I have always been aware of the importance of concept models however, I have never acknowledged the benefits of prototyping. I have begun to realize that model making leads to enhanced development and in turn inspires progression within and throughout design. This was recognized earlier in section B.8 (page72) and reiterated throughout the remainder of my evaluations. Overall, I have explored, experimented and enhanced my exposure to digital design and computational architecture. I have failed, succeeded, struggled and excelled. However, I decided to take the approach that anything worth learning should be hard; otherwise, everyone would learn it.
REFERENCES Williams, Richard. 2005. â€˜Architecture and Visual Cultureâ€™, in Exploring Visual Culture : Definitions, Concepts, Contexts, ed. by Matthew Rampley (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press), pp. 103. 1
Kolarevic, Branko. 2003. Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press), pp. 3 - 4. 2
Woodbury, Robert. 2010. Elements of Parametric Design (London: Routledge) pp. 7-48.
ArchDaily, 2013, 06/05/2013, http://www.archdaily.com/258929/the-contemplay-pavilion-drsfarmm/ 4