Case Studies: The Study of Typologies Arc 3020/ Housing/Spring 2019 Profesor Irma Ramirez JIAQI HUANG MIZUKI TAKAHASHI ALICE TENG
TABLE OF CONTENT
PROJECT I Eduardo Souto de Moura Courtyard Houses Matosinhos, Porto 1999 PROJECT II Atelier 5 Seidlung Halen Bern 1959-61 PROJECT III Steven Holl Housing at Makuhari Japan c. 1995 PROJECT IV Lorcan Oâ€™Herlihy Formosa 1140 Formosa Ave., West Hollywood 2009 CONCLUSION
Courtyard Houses in Matosinhos -EDUARDO SOUTO DE MOURA
KEY INFORMATION Project Year: 1993 Construction Year: 1999 Address: Rua Cartelas Vieira Location: Matosinhos, Portugal Client: Miguel Pereira Leite e Outros 1 Collaborators: Silvia Alves, Manuela Lara, Filipe Pinto da Cruz, Teresa Gonçalves, Laura Peretti Structural Consultants: G.O.P. Electrical Consultants: Engo. Raul Sera m General Contractor: Comporto Photographer: Luís Ferreira Alves Building Size: 3,033 m2 Lot size: 7,340 m2 Typology: Courtyard Housing, Row Housing Project Density– dwelling units per acre Number of units: 10 Number of unit types: 3 (5-type 1, 4-type2, 1-type3) Private outdoor space per dwelling unit: 1/3 or 1/2 is outdoor depending on the unit type Parking spaces per dwelling unit: 2
Plans and Sections
1 2 3 4 5ft
Site Plan 1’-0”=1/100”
1 2 3 4 5ft Sections 1’-0”=1/50”
1 2 3 4 5ft Floor Plan of a typical unit 1’-0”=1/50”
Livability Each unit can be personalized by its 2â€™ x 2â€™ front gardening space. It is a very small plot of land, but it plays an important roll. It allows the residents to grow different plants and makes their own unit identifiable from other units. Access to dwellings is straight forward; there is a newly proposed road that cuts through the property and that takes the residents home. The parking space is available on the side of the road. A long rectangular unit is divided into 2: the front half is private space where bedrooms and bathrooms are located, and the rear half is the common/public space such as living room, dining and kitchen. Even though there are three types of units, every unit gets a courtyard, backyard and a pool. The units are adaptable because there are 4 bedrooms and even their garage space seems like it could be an additional bedroom by remodeling. In terms of urban context, there is a large garden of a church next to the site and the unitsâ€™ backyard looks as if they are a part of the garden, even though they are separated by tall walls.
Concept The site 1 plan was driven from a chapel that is located on the south side of the property. The chapel has a big, beautiful garden next to the site, and Eduardo Souto de Moura decided to lay out the backyards of the units right next to the garden. From the sky, it reads as one garden rather than a garden and backyards. The units are also parallel to the chapel and the angle organizes the grid of the project. R. Dr. Miguel Martins (street) seems to be a copy of R. Dr. Jose Ventura (street) which is the street that is facing the chapel.
Site Plan Logic/ Circulation to each unit The site plan was driven from a chapel that is located on the south side of the property. The chapel has a big, beautiful garden next to the site, and Eduardo Souto de Moura decided to lay out the backyards of the units right next to the garden. From the sky, it reads as one garden rather than a garden and backyards. The units are also parallel to the chapel and the angle organizes the grid of the project. R. Dr. Miguel Martins (street) seems to be a copy of R. Dr. Jose Ventura (street) which is the street that is facing the chapel. Pedestrian and Automobile Relationships For the pedestrians, there is a set of stairs that takes them to the north side of the property which is the main road where there are metro systems. For the automobile, they will be entering from R. Cartelas Vleira street and turn onto R. Dr. Miguel Martins, the street specifically developed for the residence.
1 2 3 4 5ft
Public/private; Human Safety
Each unit is completey private (pink) even though it looks like they share their courtyard or backyard spaces. The open spaces are divided by 9 feet tall walls. The only space shared with other tennants is the additional parking space next to the street (yellow). The exit way is quite straightforward; each unit has a front door that is facing the main street.
Indoor/outdoor; Structural Ordering Systems Whether itâ€™s a backyard or a courtyard, this project has a great amount of outdoor space (green). They are not shared and are divided by walls for the privacy purposes. The indoor spaces are also divided by walls but the roofs are shared (orange). The ordering system is a grid based on the width of a unit (pink), which is 40 feet. Repetition occurs by three components of the roofs, but by alternating the first and the third roof, it creates adifferent rhythm within the system.
Blue - private space (bed and bath) Pink - public space (living, dining, kitchen) Light pink - Semi- public (Backyard )
Natural Light/ Ventilation
SInce a unit is a long rectangle shape, it is a challenge to bring in light effeiciently. This problem was solved by adding a courtyard in the unit. Natural light comes in through the courtyard, entry space and the backyard (Orange). Ventilation (blue) is also through these lightwells. They efficiently circulates the air.
Seidlung Halen, Bern - Atelier 5
KEY INFORMATION 1. Project Name: Seidlung Halen 2. Project Architect: Atelier 5 3. Date built: 1957-1961 4. Location: city and country: 3037 Herrenschwanden, Switzerland(5 km outside of Bern, Switzerland) 5. Cost if known (Cost per SF): â‚Ź88,250 approximately USD$99,254.33 6. Typology: Terraced Rowhouses 7. Project Densityâ€“ dwelling units per acre: High density, low rise, and shared community amenities 13 houses per acre 8. Number of units: 79 9. Number of unit types: 33 larger dwellings (type 12 houses), 41 smaller dwellings (type 380 houses) and five studios 10. Private outdoor space per dwelling unit: 48% of the site is built up by the houses, 16% used for parking and roads, and 36% left for open space 11. Parking spaces: Underground parking
Livability The site consists of 79 courtyard row houses grouped with services that complement the residential use. Surrounded by the forest that highlights its status as artifact immersed in nature. The exterior facades look very similar with its long narrow facade with the main material use of reinforced concrete. However, raw concrete is not applied to all faĂ§ades that make it an identifying element of the architecture. The dwellings are opened onto the pedestrian through an entrance lock so that the entry doors for each unit would not open onto each other. Each group of dwellings has its own access to vehicular traffic and parking through filtered transfer points. The noises from the public spaces such as rest and play area can be minimized by the pedestrian alleys. Each dwelling unit would have a private room with own view of both the earth and the sky. Even though the house is laid out as a terrace, the architects develop a composite pattern of many-courtyard dwellings arranged so that each court never abuts another court while permitting high density with maximum privacy and acoustic separation. The public contains walking streets, a public plaza defined by a tower, a shop, restaurant, petrol station, and shared laundry. The whole estate gets almost an urban character with its central place and clearly hierarchical system of paths.
Concept Private homes + Private outdoor space + Communal facilities = SIEDLUNG HALEN The concept was to protect both the internal and external private spaces while isolating each unit and promoting social interaction in the common areas. The design was influenced by Le Corbusier to create a high-density suburban community emphasizing a relationship with nature and a strong connection between private family homes and community facilities. The design may seem like it is lack of privacy and was also what so many people feared when looking at the houses for the first time in the 1960s. Beyond its appearances, one of the architectâ€™s more groundbreaking concepts was the idea of shared ownership of communal spaces. The units were oriented for maximum solar gain in the winter, terraced for privacy, and oriented to allow cross ventilation.
Site Plan Logic/ Circulation to each unit The five rows of houses contain 79 units, mainly based on two types of narrow individual one-family-houses (wide approximately 4.20m/5.15m) on three levels with a courtyard to the access road with its covered pathway and a garden to the south with a covered seating area at its end. The cars are parked in a large parking hall, the paths in the whole estate are free of wheeled traffic. The central road only may be used for limited service cars. Communal facilities are a key point of the project, therefore each owner of the house acquires ownership of 1/79 part of all the public constructions and installations, the common facilities are taken care of by the owners.
1 – Access road 2 – Parking area 3 – Central parking garage (above the gardens of the upper 1 row) 4 – Petrol station 5 – Central square 2 6 – Shop and club-room 10 7 – Power station for heating, 4 electricity and water (above 3 gardens of the upper row) 8 – Swimming pool and sun bath 9 – Stair connection 10 – Upper rows 11 – Lower rows 12 – Ateliers.
Scale: 1/256” = 1’-0”
8 10 12 6 5
10 7 11
CIRCULATION The entrance of the building is through the small courtyard garden in the middle story, which has a kitchen, living space, and a terrace that is big enough to fit in a dining table and chairs. The above floor has bedrooms, a bathroom, and a small balcony. The bottom floor can be used as a home office or another bedroom that opens to a long garden. A defining characteristic of the design is that no internal wall is structural, so the owners could make or change their interior layout however they liked.
PUBLIC and PRIVATE Because the architecture is built on a slope and the walls that divide between gardens are high, people can still keep privacy in any of the outdoor spaces. According to the residents, â€œYou can sunbathe on the top floor balcony as god intended without anyone seeing.â€? When lokking at the aerial view of the architecture, it may be hard to imagine how privacy works. An air cavity separates each house from its neighbour for noise insulation, and as soon as the door is closed, the living space becomes an enclosed space.
UNIT ANALYSIS The layout of the houses is almost the same, regardless of size. The only difference is the direction of the staircase, which affects the spatial distribution, the relationship between the kitchen and dining room, and the position of the bathrooms. Every house is three stories, long and fairly narrow, between 120-170 sq m in floor space and with a basic six-room layout. There are a total of 79 units with 3 unit types
STRUCTURAL ORDERING SYSTEMS / HUMAN SAFETY The use of reinforced concrete for the main facades forms the structural system of cross walls in the material, the units are created, but embedded in a primary structure, forming the frame for the partitions that limit the space of each house and its vertical structural bearing. The facilities by structural property creates a similar facades at the same time. All the floors are composed of single corridor that created by two parallel reinforced concrete walls. The blue arrows represent the exit way for the residents.
NATURAL LIGHT and VENTILATION The building are situated on a south-facing hillside that creates a terrace like sequence. The gaps in the facade and different level shifting ensure that both the house and gardens receive perfect natural lighting and natural ventilation.
Floor Plan + Section
Scale: 1/32” = 1’-0”
PEDESTRIAN and AUTOMOBILE RELATIONSHIPS
There are no cars in Halen. The cars are housed in a garage. Everything is reachable by walking through the well-lit open stairs or covered walkways, which take their cue from the loggias in the old city of Bern. The distance between Halen and Bern is just about 4.5 km apart and can travel by means of public transport. The bus stop is within easy walking distance. In direct connection with the vehicle entrance to the neighbourhood, there is a covered parking lot whose upper pavement surface is main pedestrian route and village square. A gas station is available to residents. The whole set-up is as perfect for children as it is for older people, too.
MATERIALS The architecture is made of concrete in the middle of precious woodland. The house is significant because of the use of architectural palette of raw concrete, modular form and construction, and repetitive planning that is normally associated with industrial brutalism.
MAKUHARI BAY NEW TOWN -STEVEN HOLL
KEY INFORMATION Project Year: 1992 Construction Year: 1996 Address: Tokyo Bay Location: Chiba, KantĹ?, Japan Client: Mitsui Fudosan Group Collaborators: Tomoaki Tanaka, Koichi Sone and Toshio Enomoto Structural Consultants: Kajima Design Built-up Area: 2,7601 m2 Site area: 8,415 m2. Covered area: 4,243 m2. Typology: Colorfulness,Inner court, Loch Fassade Use: Residential complex, small shops Number of units: 190 Number of unit types: 93 different types Private outdoor space per dwelling unit: 1/2 use for open space Parking spaces: Parking lot
Livability Makuhari Bay New town is composed by six different buildings. The main intervention of architect Steven Holl was mixed residential, commercials and other public use areas. Unlike common residential building promoted by real estate companies to minimize the public space since it only has little commercial value. However, in this case the common space is conceived as an integrator in the complexity of the site and of crucial importance to residents of the new city. Usually courtyard housing included one inner public space and surrounding buildings, differ from this case Steven Holl maximized the open space. There are two garden in the center both are open to all members of the resident community. The space has been placed at two different levels above the area for parking. The rooms active dialogue with the community space. The project meets the basic requirements of open corridor systems. All access routes and galleries are located behind the walls. An open corridor system allows the use of less expensive facilities. mize
Concept The new town of Makuhari is sited on a dredged fill at the rim of Tokyo Bay. The concept interrelates two distinct types: silent heavyweight buildings and active lightweight structures. The silent buildings shape urban space and passage with apartments entered via inner garden courts. The concrete bearing walls have thick facades and a rhythmic sequence of openings. Slightly inflected according to sunlight they gently bend space and passage. Celebration of natural phenomena is taken up by the lightweight "activist" forms. Individuated "sounds" invade the heavyweight "silence" of the bracketing buildings. Inspired by Basho's The Narrow Road to the Deep North, the semi-public inner gardens and the perspectival arrangement of activist houses form an inner journey.
Site Plan Logic
The site is located in Chiba, and stands on a filling of dredging on the shores of Tokyo Bay. This side of the bay is charactarized by a special housing typology that creates it's own community that becomes introverted within itself. As appose to the community we will find on the other side of the bay which is more of an urban suburbs and housing projects.
Circulation to each unit
Holl's work in particular breaks up the plan of the original structure at the four points of the compass so as to create "doors", with the addition of a new building in the centre of the courtyard to form two smaller gardens or "patios".All the members of the community would take different entrance that close to unit, furthermore they would pass through the green space in the inner space to their own unit. Even though the units in the center lost the exterior view, it would got the both view of pool and green space. All the corridors are nex to the front door of each units.
Private Public Circulation
Steven Holl total designed 6 uncommon activist buildings, left one named on the North gate named as Color Reflecting House. Upper one located in West gate called House of Fallen Persimmon. Number of units: 190 Number of unit types: 93
Automobile and Pedestrain Access
For the vehicular entering from west and east road and turn into the south side of the project to entry the building to the parking lot. For pedestrian each direction of the property had walkable entrance.
Vehicular Access Pedestrain Access Site
Structure Orgnization / Human Safty (Exit)
The structural parts and facades also comply with the principles set in the regulation of urban development. The supporting structure of concrete has solid walls in which openings are rhythmically repeated (with variations on windows and cover) interacting with lightweight structures. The structural system and openings provide a unique sensation that can be performed only at the level of the city. So with the economy of a large residential building has been possible to obtain a great individuality. The exit way is next to the front door of each unit. Structure Orgnization Human Safty
Natural Light/ Ventilation
This general placing of the housing blocks is slightly altered in some places to provide a better adaptation to the sun's path by means of chamfered shapes and inflections, which allow more light to enter. There are also large openings on the ground floor, allowing access and views of the interior courtyards.
Formosa 1140 - Lorcan Oâ€™Herlihy Architects KEY INFORMATION 1. Project Name: Formosa 1140 2. Project Architect: Lorcan Oâ€™Herlihy 3. Date built: 2009 4. Location: city and country: 1140 Formosa Ave., West Hollywood 5. Cost if known: Units range from $798,500 to $868,500 6. Typology: Courtyard 7. Project Density: Low density 8. Number of units: 11 9. Number of unit types: 3 10. Private outdoor space per dwelling unit: Each unit gets a private outdoor patio or rooftop deck 11. Parking spaces: Each unit comes with two underground parking spaces
Livability There is a shared garden within the community, that is the Formosa Park. According to the architects, Lorcan O’Herlihy Architects, the Formosa Park was developed as a part of Courtyard housing typology. They claim that the park on the side of the apartment is a developed form of a courtyard, as known as “a reversed courtyard (courtyard being outside of a building.) Even though the unit floor plans are repeated and are to maximize efficiency, space and cost, the identity is not sacrificed because of the unique, asymmetric facade. The change in material, color, and height will give the units a sense of variety and therefore personalization. These modules also helps breaking down the big mass into a human scale. Access to dwellings were made easy by a simple walkway that leads the residents straight to their doors. Since there are only 6 units on a floor, it is not as difficult to identify their own units. Although The Formosa Park is on the property of 1140 Formosa, it is a semi-public park. Anybody has an access to the park even if they are not the resident there. As opposed to the park, there is a rooftop deck where it is a semi-private outdoor space specifically for the residence. These public outdoor spaces relate to the urban context of West Hollywood where the city intended to have more ”pocket parks” like the Formosa. Concept Architect Tone Wheeler once said that, "Building a freestanding prefab home is, in a sense, building a greener SUV: You're greening up the wrong thing.” However, Formosa 1140 addresses the issues of urban density and residential community-building that relates to prefab. The architects of Formosa 1140 negotiated with the city to convey the idea of emphasizing the shared open green space is not only offer for the residents, but also the community. The architecture office encourages sketch to structure where they use color sketched hint at the chromatic intensity and compositional rhythms of the building yet to come at early development stages. The architect and the developer pull buildings outdoor space to one side of the lot which is different from what other conventional courtyard projects just leave it in the middle.
Site Plan Logic/ Circulation to each unit The architecture is located in the heart of West Hollywood. The modern housing project emphasizes the central importance of shared open space for the residents and the community. The architects takes the internalized open space and move it to the exterior of the building to create a approximately one third (4,600 sf) of the project site park. The blue line shows how the circulation path of how to enter the units.
External circulation is used as a buffer between public and private realms and articulated through layers of perforated metal and small openings. The stairs can be found on the West and East side, and the elevator on the West. The entrance of the apartment is via outdoor walkway. There are outdoor spaces on the site that can be used by both residence and the public. The roof also has some green spaces that help cooling down and act as air-conditioning and air-cleaning.
PUBLIC and PRIVATE
Each dwelling has its own small outdoor space. The lower floor residents have their balconies facing the park or the street. The open space allows lower sun angles to enter the building, helps air move through the site, and create a cooler climate. The buildingâ€™s orientation also makes the outdoor space more private.
UNIT ANALYSIS Each unit is oriented for views onto the park. The unique front unit faces street and park and extends to 3 levels of entry corridor, upper living room, 2 bedrooms, 3 baths & large terrace. The remaining 2-story units comprise open living/dining/kitchen areas with study and bath on one floor, 2 bedrooms, 2 baths with balconies occupy another floor. The 4 top-tier units enjoy roof deck views of the Hollywood hills.
Natural Light and Ventilation
Natural light comes through the open walkway and windows (orange.) By making the units double-story, the walkway was made double height and was made possible to be open to the above. Ventilation is described with arrows where the air comes in from the Formosa Park and it goes through the units, and finall exits out of the window on the opposite side of the park.
Material The outer skin panels and inner skin fenestration both reveals and conceals the interior of the buidling. At the same time, this facade adds a unique touch to an ordinary box-shaped buidling. Form and materials were manipulated to make the apartment building into an outstanding landmark. These materials also works as a sun-shading devices as they were installed on the south facade of the building.
Automobile and Pedestrian Access
Pedestrians access (blue) through a walkway between the building and the Formosa Park (property of the Formosa 1140.) There is a bus stop on the same street which makes it convenient for the residents to take a public transportation. Vehicular access (pink) is through the ramp on Formosa Ave, that takes to the underground parking of the building. It is predicted that most of car access will be coming from Santa Monica St.
Structural Organization / Human Safety (Exit) Exit way (light blue) is straightforward as there is a walkway from the entrance to the street. The structure organization is according to the grid (pink) where the ground floor is divided into 6 rectangular units. Each unit faces the Formosa Park where residents can enjoy the beautiful weather of California and interact with the community.
Eduardo Sotou’s Courtyard Houses in Matosinhos is a courtyard typology housing where each unit had a courtyard within the unit and also a backyard that essentially because a courtyard of the neighbourhood combined with the chapel backyard. Seidlung Halen, Bern by Atelier 5 is also a courtyard typology housing in terms of having a public open space as a courtyard of the entire building. This project was focused on community and that drove the plan to have a central courtyard space. Formosa 1140 by Lorcan O’Herlihy Architects is, again, a courtyard typology where it is a “reversed courtyard” which means it is not a traditional courtyard in the middle of the building or units but is an open space outside of or next to the building. To compare, Seidlung Halen and Formosa 1140 are similar in a way that the “courtyards” function as a communal space for the residents. The Formosa Park could be used as a community park, so it is more public compared to Seidlung Halen where the courtyard is segregated from the public. Courtyard Houses in Matosinhos is different from these types; each unit has courtyard spaces within the units but they are all surrounded by walls and therefore they are strictly private. It is more of a way of bringing in natural light and ventilation rather than having an outdoor gathering space. The advantage of having a big open courtyard within a building is to have a means of natural light and ventilation, as well as it can provide a communal space depending on the size of the courtyard. In terms of density, Formosa 1140 and Courtyard Houses in Matosinhos are similar project sizes (10-20), whereas Seidlung Halen and Makuhari are similar sizing (close to 100.) Each are livable because of efforts put by the architects to bring light to each unit, well-thought of circulations, and ventilation. As far as efficiency in repetition, all the buildings are efficient except for Steven Holl’s Makuhari. Most of the units in the building are somewhat similar to each other yet they are all in unique shapes. The floor plans are repeated then modified to fit within the form of each unit.