Taiwan Review January-February 2021 (Vol. 71 No. 1)

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January / February 2021

TA I WA N R E V I E W

January / February 2021

台 灣 評 論

INSIGHT

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Smart Water

New innovations are win-win for the public and private sectors.

DIPLOMACY

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Sowing Change

Potential world leaders of the future are gaining practical experience in Taiwan.

PHOTOGRAPHY

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Mirror Images

TaiwanICDF workers capture images from projects around the world.

TA I WA N R E V I E W Vo l . 7 1 No. 1

TAI WA N R E V I E W GPN2004000005

Liquid Revolution The Forward-looking Infrastructure Development Program is laying the foundation for water security.

NT$120 / US$4.50

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“The Earth Runway Show,” taken by Taiwan foreign-aid worker Huang Tsung-hsien, documents a slice of daily life in Haiti. (Photo courtesy of Huang Tsung-hsien and International Cooperation and Development Fund)

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EDITORIAL

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Potable Prosperity

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ffective and integrated water management policies play a critical role in promoting sustainable development and shared prosperity. They are also at the heart of borderless efforts to realize the U.N. Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), especially SDG 6: clean water and sanitation. Taiwan—as a responsible member of the international community—is devising and implementing related measures local in focus, but global in outlook so as to help avert a crisis of unparalleled proportions. This commitment comes at a time when development is under pressure worldwide as a result of restricted access to safe water, increasingly frequent natural disasters and a heightened threat of droughts. It is why water dominates landmark U.N. agreements such as the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 and 2015 Paris Agreement. Organizations like Switzerland-headquartered World Economic Forum similarly recognize the perils of failing to address the challenge, explaining its elevation of water crises to a societal risk. Taiwan’s water resources policymaking response is anchored by the Forward-looking Infrastructure D e ve l o p m e n t Pro g r a m ( F I D P ) . Launched in September 2017, the initiative aims to meet the country’s development needs for the next 30 years. It comprises eight categories: aquatic environments, child care facilities, digital infrastructure, food safety, green energy, human resources, railways and urban-rural renewal projects. Responsibility for realizing the FIDP aquatic environments programs is shouldered by the Water Resources Agency under the Ministry of Economic Affairs. Its mission statement includes upgrading strategies for securing water supplies, preventing floods, enhancing public access to ecologically friendly waterfront areas, and fostering cooperation and coordination among the public, private and nongovernmental organization sectors. Although Taiwan boasts 95 reservoirs, a relatively large number given the

country’s land mass of 36,000 square kilometers, it is a constant battle to keep them functioning at optimal levels. The culprit is sedimentation, largely stemming from a combination of environmental, developmental and design factors. FIDP-funded remedies include dredging, construction of desilting tunnels and analyzing the impact of daminduced land system changes. Another FIDP undertaking paying liquid dividends is conservation of reservoir watershed areas spanning more than 12,000 square kilometers in total. Much of the task is performed by the Council of Agriculture via afforestation measures such as replanting collapsed areas previously cleared of trees, plantgrowing and erosion-control efforts. Complementing these projects at the aquatic resources coalface is Taiwan’s high-tech nous. Smart monitoring networks—installed over the past two years—cover 955 low-lying locales at risk of flooding in 12 cities and counties countrywide. They are providing a fighting chance of mitigating damage caused by extreme weather events. Equally impactful are Internet of Things data capture units at around 400 groundwater wells used by major industrial consumers in Yilan County and Taoyuan City in northern Taiwan, as well as Kaohsiung City in the south. These smart devices can detect the amount of water taken and transmit information in real time to local governments, allowing drawing times to be staggered accordingly to prevent overpumping. Tap water meters are smartening up as well, with Taipei City setting a rapid pace for installation in residences, schools and hospitals. With an array of water management policies enacted or in the pipeline under the FIDP, the people of Taiwan can look forward to a brighter future in which the effects of industrialization, urbanization and climate change on the country’s aquatic resources are kept in check. They can also take pride in the fact Taiwan Can Help build more resilient ecosystems, economies and societies on the road to realizing the SDGs, as well as safeguard water as a precondition to life and universal human right. 3

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CONTENTS

January / February

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E DITORIAL

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POTABLE PROSPERITY The government is clear-eyed in its mission to ensure stable water supplies.

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S NAPSHOTS News and events concerning Taiwan from the past several months

I NSIGHT

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FLOWING FORWARD Careful oversight of the country’s liquid resources is more important than ever. BY PAT GAO

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SHORING UP RESERVOIRS Tailored policies are protecting the nation’s water reserves. BY OSCAR CHUNG

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NATURAL VIEW National Scenic Areas help preserve many of the country’s lakes, rivers and oceans. BY PAT GAO

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SMART WATER Cutting-edge technologies are revolutionizing Taiwan’s water management systems. BY OSCAR CHUNG

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LITTORAL TRANSFORMATION Riverbanks and coastlines are central to the government’s aquatic development plans. BY KELLY HER

D IPLOMACY

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BROAD STROKES A state-funded initiative is sending top art talent on overseas experiences. BY OSCAR CHUNG

PHOTOS BY CHEN MEI-LING, PANG CHIA-SHAN AND COURTESY OF TAIPEI WATER MANAGEMENT OFFICE

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SOWING CHANGE A local university are teaching international students sustainable development principles. BY KELLY HER

C ULTURE

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GLITTERING LIGHTS A self-taught artisan reignites the practice of handmade lanterns. BY KELLY HER

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SOY SOURCE Taichung City’s May-dong still makes sauces using classic techniques. BY PAT GAO

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Taiwan Review 2020 Index

P HOTOGRAPHY

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MIRROR IMAGES

Human moments lie at the heart of the country’s foremost aid organization. PHOTOS COURTESY OF INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT FUND

Taiwan Review PUBLISHER Jaushieh Joseph Wu DIRECTOR Henry M. J. Chen EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Jeff Lee MANAGING EDITOR Jim Hwang EDITORS John Scott Marchant, Ed Moon, Torie Gervais STAFF WRITERS Kelly Her, Oscar Chung, Pat Gao PHOTOGRAPHERS Chen Mei-ling, Chin Hung-hao, Pang Chia-shan ART DIRECTOR Tsai Mei-chu ART EDITORS Lin Chien-ju, Lin Hsin-chieh, Hu Ju-yu PRODUCTION Cheng Hsiao-yen COVER PHOTO BY PANG CHIA-SHAN

ADDRESS Kwang Hwa Publishing Co. 2 Aiguo West Road, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China PRINTER Choice Development, Inc. 9F, 288, Sec. 6, Civic Blvd., Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China

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OTHER LANGUAGE EDITION Taiwan Review is also published bimonthly in Spanish. INTERNET Multimedia information about Taiwan is available at https://www.mofa.gov.tw Taiwan Review is available online at https://taiwanreview.nat.gov.tw 中華郵政台北雜字第29號

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GPN 2004000005 The views expressed by individual authors do not necessarily reflect those of the Taiwan Review.

COPYRIGHT Taiwan Review (ISSN 1727-5148) is published bimonthly by Kwang Hwa Publishing Co. 2 Aiguo West Road, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China © 2021 by Kwang Hwa Publishing Co. All rights reserved. The magazine was published as the Free China Review from 1951, the Taipei Review from 2000 and the Taiwan Review from 2003. 中華民國40年4月1日創刊

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SNAPSHOTS

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MOFA thanks European Parliament for resolutions supporting Taiwan

POLITICS

Tsai pledges to continue Taiwan’s effective COVID-19 response, boost economic growth President Tsai Ing-wen (蔡英文) said Nov. 29 that Taiwan will continue taking decisive action against COVID-19 while working with businesses and citizens to boost the country’s economic growth. Success in combating coronavirus can be attributed to the unflagging efforts of ministries and agencies under the leadership of Premier Su Tseng-chang (蘇 貞昌), Tsai said. The swift passage of economic relief measures by the Legislature has also played a vital role in alleviating the impact of the disease, she added. Efforts to bolster the economy are paying dividends, the president said, citing the country’s estimated 2.54 percent 2020 growth rate according to the latest figures released by Directorate-General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics under the Executive Yuan. Tsai made the remarks during an assembly of a New Taipei City-based hometown association for individuals originally from northeastern Taiwan’s Yilan County. 6

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Two resolutions recently adopted by the European Parliament supporting Taiwan’s participation in international organizations and opening negotiations on a bilateral investment agreement (BIA) were welcomed Nov. 27 by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA). The first advocates Taiwan’s observer membership in the World Health Organization and its decision-making body—the World Health Assembly. Equally positive is the second on the EU Trade Policy Review, in which parliamentarians urge the EU Commission to start the scoping exercise and impact assessment for initiating talks on a BIA with Taiwan as soon as possible. According to the MOFA, the trade resolution demonstrates growing support for a BIA following the passage of a similar measure by the European Parliament last month.

President Tsai inaugurates MIT submarine program President Tsai Ing-wen (蔡英文) inaugurated the Made in Taiwan (MIT) submarine program Nov. 24 in the southern city of Kaohsiung, underscoring government commitment to further strengthening the country’s indigenously developed military capabilities. Strong national defense hinges on the heroism of service members, Tsai said. This needs to be backed by ensuring the country’s fighting men and women possess superior equipment enabling them to successfully carry out all manner of missions, she added. Set for construction at CSBC Corp., Taiwan, shipyard in Kaohsiung, the submarines are expected to enter service in 2025. They are produced under an agreement concluded in March 2017 by the Ministry of National Defense with locally based CSBC and Taoyuan City-headquartered National Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology in northern Taiwan.

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MOFA Minister Wu discusses Taiwan-US relations, WHA bid with Norwegian media

Taiwan attends virtual religious freedom ministerial in Warsaw

The government is confident the Taiwan-U.S. partnership will continue to grow from strength to strength regardless of any changes in White House leadership, Foreign Minister Jaushieh Joseph Wu (吳釗 燮) said Nov. 19. While Taiwan has a close relationship with the Trump administration, it also enjoys bipartisan support from both the executive and legislative branches in Washington, Wu said. He made the remarks from Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) headquarters in Taipei City during a video interview with journalist Kristoffer Ronneberg of Norwegian daily Aftenposten. With regard to escalating cross-strait tension, Wu said the government is determined to maintain its selfdefense capability. Standing firm on the front line of democracy, Taiwan can succeed as David prevailed over Goliath, he added.

Taiwan took part in the virtual 2020 Ministerial to Advance Freedom of Religion or Belief hosted by Poland’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs Nov. 16-17 from Warsaw, spotlighting its commitment to working with like-minded partners in advancing human rights around the world. According to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, it is the third time Taiwan has been invited to take part in the event. The country was represented by Foreign Minister Jaushieh Joseph Wu (吳 釗燮); Hsiao Bi-khim (蕭美琴), head of Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in the U.S.; and Ambassador-at-Large for Religious Freedom Pusin Tali.

ECONOMY Taiwan, US hold 1st Economic Prosperity Partnership Dialogue

Morris Chang shares Taiwan’s success at APEC Economic Leaders’ Meeting

The inaugural Taiwan-U.S. Economic Prosperity Partnership Dialogue (EPP) wrapped up Nov. 20, underscoring the like-minded partners’ commitment to creating mutually beneficial opportunities. Staged in Washington, the EPP featured Taiwan and U.S. delegations led respectively by Chen Chern-chyi (陳正祺), deputy minister of economic affairs, and Keith J. Krach, undersecretary of state for economic growth, energy and the environment. Officials participating virtually from Taipei City included Foreign Minister Jaushieh Joseph Wu (吳釗燮), Minister without Portfolio John C. C. Deng (鄧振中), Minister of Economic Affairs Wang Mei-hua (王美花), Minister of Science and Technology Wu Tsungtsong (吳政忠) and American Institute in Taiwan Director Brent Christensen. Talks touched upon an array of areas such as 5G and telecommunications networks; global health security, infrastructure cooperation, investment screening, science and technology, supply chains and women’s economic empowerment.

Taiwan is happy to share its success in managing the COVID-19 pandemic and embracing digital technology with fellow AsiaPacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) member economies, according to Morris Chang (張忠謀), founder and former chairman of the world’s largest chipmaker Hsinchu City-headquartered Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co. As the country’s envoy to the online 2020 APEC Economic Leaders’ Meeting Nov. 20, Chang said Taiwan has recorded only 611 confirmed coronavirus cases and seven deaths so far among a population of 23.5 million people, while timely government stimulus programs have kept the local economy on the growth track. No country has a complete high-tech supply chain, but Taiwan has a significant role to play in terms of semiconductor design and manufacturing, as well as engineering and assembly, Chang said. The government and people are eager to share this expertise with other APEC members, he added. 7

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MOFA hosts webinar promoting entrepreneurship for young women in Latin America, Caribbean

President Tsai touts Microsoft investment plan as opportunity to deepen Taiwan-US ties

A webinar promoting entrepreneurship for young women in Latin America and the Caribbean was hosted Nov. 18 from Taipei City by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA). Jointly organized with Taipei-headquartered International Cooperation and Development Fund (TaiwanICDF), the one-day event was attended by nearly 260 participants from the region. According to the MOFA, the webinar focused on key issues related to women’s economic empowerment, including capacity building, eliminating legal and social hurdles, and identifying available resources.

Taiwan participates in SICA forum promoting post-pandemic economic recovery Taiwan participated in a Central American Integration System (SICA) forum aimed at advancing postpandemic economic recovery throughout the region by spurring entrepreneurship, digital transformation and innovation, according to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA). Staged virtually Nov. 18-20, the event involved nearly 1,000 academics, experts and officials from SICA member states such as allies Belize, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua, as well as the Central American Bank for Economic Integration and InterAmerican Development Bank. The ministry said Taiwan regularly takes part in SICA cooperation projects on the basis of shared principles of equality, reciprocity and mutual benefit. The government will continue deepening friendship with Taiwan’s allies and like-minded partners in Central America while playing a greater role in regional development, the MOFA added.

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President Tsai Ing-wen (蔡英文) welcomes an investment plan recently announced by Microsoft Taiwan Corp. as a key avenue to expanding the country’s cooperation with the U.S., according to the Presidential Office Oct. 26. Microsoft is a long-standing partner that has made substantial commitments to Taiwan, Tsai said. This is evidenced by the global software leader’s establishment of a local Internet of Things innovation center in 2016 and an artificial intelligence R&D center in 2018, she added. Tsai made the remarks during a news conference in Taipei City announcing Microsoft’s latest investment project, under which the technology giant will build a regional cloud data center and expand its operations team. The plan is expected to cultivate 200,000 digital professionals, generate 30,000-plus jobs and create a production value of more than NT$300 billion (US$10.53 billion).

MOEA investment plans yield impressive results A total of NT$1.12 trillion (US$39.30 billion) in investments from 682 Taiwan firms based locally or operating offshore has been pledged since January 2019, according to InvesTaiwan overseen by the Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) Oct. 15. This commitment has created 94,050 new jobs and marks 83 percent completion of the government’s NT$1.35 trillion (US$47.37 billion) investment goal, the interministerial organization said. Such strong numbers are contributing to Taiwan’s economic growth, boosting export numbers and enhancing the business environment, InvesTaiwan said, adding that the country’s performance has been impressive at a time when the COVID-19 pandemic continues to impact the global economy.

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SOCIETY VP Lai urges support for groups working with mentally, physically challenged in Taiwan

CECC unveils new COVID-19 protocols for winter

Groups working to give the mentally and physically challenged opportunities to lead full lives and contribute to the economy warrant widespread support from all segments of society in Taiwan, Vice President Lai Ching-te (賴清德) said Nov. 26. Nongovernmental organizations like Eden Social Welfare Foundation (ESWF) are playing a key role in enabling these groups to fulfill their missions, Lai said. The people should follow suit and back such good work to the hilt, he added. Lai made the remarks while touring a sheltered workshop established by the foundation in eastern Taiwan’s Taitung County. Taipei City-headquartered ESWF, launched in 1982, aims to assist the disabled and members of other socially marginalized groups via support services like rehabilitation and vocational training.

The Cabinetlevel Central Epidemic Command Center (CECC) issued new border control and community disease prevention measures Nov. 18 as the government implements plans to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in Taiwan this winter. Given the worsening pandemic situation in many parts of the world, the CECC said beginning Dec. 1 until Feb. 28, 2021, all airline passengers entering or transiting in Taiwan must present a negative real-time polymerase chain reaction test for COVID-19 issued within three working days prior to boarding the flight to the country. The new rule applies to all individuals regardless of nationality or travel purpose, the CECC said, adding that noncompliance will result in a fine of between NT$10,000 (US$351) and NT$150,000 (US$5263), with those falsifying their results subject to criminal investigation. All arrivals must still undergo a mandatory 14-day quarantine after entering Taiwan, it added.

President Tsai lauds Taiwan’s public, private efforts promoting sustainable development President Tsai vows to build Taiwan into bilingual country President Tsai Ing-wen (蔡英文) said Nov. 23 that the government is sparing no effort in building Taiwan into a bilingual country by 2030 and affording the people every opportunity to fully participate in the international community. Achieving a high standard of English proficiency is key to raising Taiwan’s profile abroad, Tsai said. This policymaking goal will enable younger generations to better connect with the world, she added. Tsai made the remarks during the first consultation meeting for the bilingual country 2030 policy in Taipei City. High-profile participants included Vice President Lai Ching-te (賴清德), Minister of Education Pan Wenchung (潘文忠), National Development Council Minister Kung Ming-hsin (龔明鑫) and representatives from the academic and private sectors.

Taiwan’s public and private sector efforts promoting sustainable development are paying dividends, according to President Tsai Ing-wen (蔡英文) Nov. 18. The government has left no stone unturned in recent years to bring policy in line with international best practices such as the U.N. Sustainable Development Goals, Tsai said. A key example is the inclusion of the green energy sector in the six core strategic industries initiative, the president said. Tsai made the remarks during the third Global Corporate Sustainability Forum and 13th Taiwan Corporate Sustainability Awards presentation ceremony in Taipei City. Unveiled by Tsai during her 2020 inauguration and building on the five-plus-two innovative industries program, the six core strategic industries are set to transform Taiwan into a dynamic force in the global economy. They comprise information and digital technology, cybersecurity, biotech and medical technology, national defense, green and renewable energy, and strategic stockpile industries. 9

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Diwali function staged at historic Taipei Guest House

Taiwan, Japan, US, Netherlands stage GCTF workshop on marine debris management

A celebratory function for Diwali—the Hindu Festival of Lights—was staged Nov. 13 at historic Taipei Guest House, underscoring the growing friendship between Taiwan and New Southbound Policy target country India. Organized by Taipei India Music and Culture Organization and Indians in Taiwan, the event attracted around 200 officials, business representatives, expatriates and students. Among the participants were Foreign Minister Jaushieh Joseph Wu (吳釗燮); Wu Yu-chin (吳玉琴), chairwoman of the TaiwanIndia Parliamentary Friendship Association; Gourangalal Das, director general of the India-Taipei Association; and Kish Harkishin, president of the Indians’ Association of Taipei. According to organizers, the function featured traditional art forms like rangoli, Bollywood-style music and dance performances, henna body painting and cuisine such as chana masala.

The first of a two-part virtual workshop on managing marine debris was held by Taiwan, Japan, the U.S. and first-time participant the Netherlands under the Global Cooperation and Training Framework (GCTF) Nov. 3 in Taipei City, spotlighting the like-minded partners’ commitment to sustainable oceans. Jointly organized by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, JapanTaiwan Exchange Association, American Institute in Taiwan and Netherlands Office Taipei, the one-day event addressed developing innovative solutions to waste management issues. According to the organizers, around 700 attendees from 16 countries and territories took part in the seminar. Launched in June 2015 by Taiwan and the U.S. to build capacity and strengthen multilateral cooperation, GCTF has grown to include Australia, Japan, Sweden and the Netherlands.

Taipei becomes first in Asia to join Rainbow Cities Network Taipei became the first city in Asia to join Germany-based Rainbow Cities Network (RCN) in October. According to Taipei City Government (TCG), the inclusion is of particular significance as the city gears up for its annual Pride Parade scheduled for the end of the month. The step is a recognition of TCG policies in recent decades, the agency said, adding that it will enhance Taipei’s global image as a diverse and inclusive city. Originally founded by Amsterdam, Barcelona, Cologne and Turin, the RCN has since expanded to include 33 cities from 17 countries. Through exchanging best practices and staging joint activities, the network is dedicated to encouraging municipal authorities to propose policies protecting and supporting LGBT residents, according to the organization.

C U LT U R E CIP stages Austronesian Forum executive meeting in Taipei The annual executive council meeting of the Austronesian Forum was held Nov. 23 in Taipei City, spotlighting the government’s dedication to advancing the concerns of Austronesian peoples across the Indo-Pacific. Organized by Cabinet-level Council of Indigenous Peoples (CIP) , the event was attended by delegates from 14 Pacific countries and territories, including Marshall Islands Ambassador to Taiwan Neijon Rema Edwards, Canadian Trade Office in Taipei Executive Director Jordan Reeves, Australian Office Taipei Deputy Rep. Michael Googan and Papua New Guinea Trade Office in Taiwan Rep. Tommy Kambu Kunji. Also participating via videoconference were Palau’s Queen Bilung Gloria Salii and forum Deputy Secretary-General Uroi Salii. Initiated by Taiwan and headquartered in Palau, the forum includes allies Marshall Islands, Nauru, Palau and Tuvalu, as well as Guam, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines and U.S. state Hawaii, with Central American ally Belize participating as an observer. 10

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57th Golden Horse Awards Ceremony held in Taipei

Exhibition highlighting works of 2 late Taiwan poets underway in Tokyo

The 57th Golden Horse Awards Ceremony was staged at National Dr. Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall Nov. 21 in Taipei City, honoring a selection of the finest Chinese-language films from the past 12 months. Organized by Taipei Golden Horse Film Festival Executive Committee and chaired by Oscar-winning director Ang Lee (李安), the event attracted industry heavyweights from home and abroad. Locally made “My Missing Valentine” was the biggest winner of the night, bagging five awards for best director, film editing, narrative feature, original screenplay and visual effects. Another highlight of the event was the presentation of the Lifetime Achievement Award to Hou Hsiao-hsien (侯孝賢). Hou won his first Golden Horse for best director in 1989 with “A City of Sadness,” which became the first motion picture from Taiwan to win a Golden Lion at Italy-based Venice Film Festival earlier the same year.

An exhibition featuring works of late Taiwan poets Yang Mu (楊牧) and Lo Fu (洛夫) is underway in Tokyo, spotlighting the pair’s creative brilliance, according to the Ministry of Culture (MOC) Oct. 9. Co-organized by Taiwan Cultural Center in Tokyo (TCCT) under the MOC and Eslite Spectrum Nihonbashi (ESN), the exhibition features reprints of the writers’ manuscripts and old editions of their books. It is being held through Oct. 30 at TCCT and Nov. 15 at ESN. Highlights of the exhibition include screenings of the documentaries “Towards the Completion of a Poem” on Yang and “River Without Banks” on Lo. The films will make their Japan debuts Oct. 22-23 at TCCT.

8 Taiwan films to feature in GTI Taiwanese Film Week

Eight Taiwan-produced films and documentaries will be streamed online for U.S. audiences Oct. 21-29 during the inaugural Taiwanese Film Week organized by Washingtonbased think tank Global Taiwan Institute (GTI), according to Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office (TECRO) in the U.S. Sponsored by TECRO and Spotlight Taiwan as part of the Taiwan Academy Contact Points Project under the Ministry of Culture, the event aims to highlight Taiwan culture while promoting the country’s talented filmmakers, TECRO said. The lineup includes films such as “The Bold, the Corrupt and the Beautiful,” a thriller depicting a merciless matriarch and her family business that won best feature film at the 2017 Golden Horse Awards, and “Small Talk,” a documentary exploring the relationship between the heterosexual director and her homosexual mother, a Taoist priestess. All stories are sourced from Taiwan Today and can be read in full at https://www.taiwantoday.tw/

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Taiwan Arts Festival to kick off in Hong Kong The annual Taiwan Arts Festival will get underway Oct. 9 through Nov. 22 in Hong Kong, spotlighting friendly cultural exchanges between the two sides. Organized by Hong Kong-based Kwang Hwa Information and Culture Center (KHICC) under the Ministry of Culture, the event titled “Ciao! Taiwan” reflects upon the festival’s development over the past 15 years. According to the KHICC, this year’s edition features eight activities paying tribute to tradition while honoring avant-garde innovation. The program includes exhibitions of traditional Taiwan handicrafts and design works of young talents from both sides; Hakka dance and jazz music performances; an online exhibit showcasing Taiwan comic artists and their works; and a seminar on children’s literature.

Photos: Central Epidemic Command Center, Central News Agency, Council of Indigenous Peoples, Global Taiwan Institute, Kwang Hwa Information and Culture Center, Liberty Times, Ministry of Culture, Ministry of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Presidential Office

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INSIGHT

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台 灣 評 論

Flowing Forward Progressive policymaking is boosting water resources management while preparing the country for climate change. BY PAT GAO PHOTOS COURTESY OF WATER RESOURCES AGENCY

he Taiwan Water Con­ gress held in December 2 0 1 6 i n Ta i p e i C i t y brought to a c lose a monthslong debate on the future of the country’s strategy for managing water supplies after several rounds of regional forums. The meeting, organized by the Water Resources Agency (WRA) under the Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA), was attended by representatives from government, academia and busi­ ness as well as nongovernmental organizations (NGO), and it set out actions plans for preventing floods, securing water supplies and enhanc­ ing public access to waterways. These recommendations laid the founda­ tion for the aquatic environments component of the ongoing Forward­ looking Infrastructure Development Program (FIDP), a comprehensive initiative aimed at addressing the nation’s infrastructure needs for the next three decades.

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01. Taiwan is working to promote a “waterled society” across the country. 02. The northern city of Hsinchu is enhancing public access to waterfronts in coastal areas with funding from the central government’s Forward-looking Infrastructure Development Program. Illustration by Lin Hsin-chieh 01. Photo by Chin Hung-hao

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WRA Director­General Lai Chien­hsin (賴建信) sees the inclu­ sion of water­related initiatives in the FIDP as a crucial step forward in meeting basic needs and follow­ ing international trends in water resources management. “Extreme weather events resulting from cli­ mate change are becoming more and more common,” Lai said. “There’ve been fewer rainy days on average, but when it rains it tends to be larger volumes in shorter periods of time.” He referenced a recent survey conducted by state­run Science and Technology Policy Research and

Information Center in Taipei show­ ing climate­related issues are becom­ ing a mainstream concern in Taiwan. “Environmental protection and sus­ tainability are top priorities among younger people, and of course water supply and quality are components of that,” Lai said. Increased rainfall intensity poses a particular danger to the country. According to Lai, drainage channels and pumping facilities in built­up areas struggle to keep up with pre­ cipitation exceeding 100 millimeters an hour, an increasingly common occurrence. To counter this, the

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Taiwan Review January / February

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01. The projected look of an artificial lake currently under construction in Caotun Township of central Taiwan’s Nantou County 02. A flood detention pond completed in July 2020 strengthens flood defenses in Tainan City’s Anding District near Southern Taiwan Science Park. 03 & 04. The water storage facility in Caotun is set to complement larger reservoirs.

FIDP is targeting over 200 square kilometers of urban land across Taiwan. This is backed by a larger scale strengthening of flood defenses such as reinforcing or constructing riverside and coastal levees, Lai said.

Steady Stream

Ensuring stable water provision throughout the country is also a core component of the FIDP’s develop­ ment pledges. Water shortages may occur when few typhoons make landfall in Taiwan, a situation that unfolded last summer and autumn. Several projects are underway to address this danger, notably the soon­to­be completed channel between the Feitsui and Shihmen reservoirs in northern Taiwan, which will enable better coordination of liquid resources in a region that encompasses Taipei, New Taipei and Taoyuan Cities, as well as the city

and county of Hsinchu. The new infrastructure is set to guarantee a stable supply of water in the nation’s most populous area as well as in centers of economic growth such as Hsinchu Science Park. Providing the country’s indus­ trial base with sufficient water to operate at full capacity is a key concern for the WRA, Lai said, cit­ ing the MOEA’s Action Plan for Welcoming O verseas Taiwanese Businesses to Return to Invest in Taiwan and two other similar under­ takings launched in 2019, which to date have attracted return invest­ ment of more than NT$1 trillion (US$35.09 billion) from over 600 companies. One supportive measure seeks to recycle wastewater collected from factories through special­ ized treatment plants in line with the Reclaimed Water Resources Development Act. The latest such 15

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facility to be completed in Tainan City will begin sending treated water to Southern Taiwan Science Park this year. Equally important is filling out the remaining gaps in Taiwan’s tap water network, which boasted a

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penetration rate of 94.5 percent in June 2020 according to WRA sta­ tistics. Areas off the grid still rely on groundwater wells, such as in remote parts of the central county of Changhua. These sources, however, are under threat as reduced rainfall

and industrial pollution limit avail­ able clean water. To ensure water security, alterna­ tive sources—such as an artificial lake under construction in neigh­ boring Nantou County’s Caotun Township, subsurface water beneath

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the Gaoping and Zhuoshui rivers in southern and central Taiwan, respec­ tively, and desalinated water pro­ duced on outlying Penghu County— are being tapped to provide a steady supply piped directly into out­of­ coverage areas.

New Direction

For Yu Gwo­hsing ( 虞國興 ), dean of New Taipei­based NGO Taiwan R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e o n Wa t e r Resources and Agriculture, the FIDP represents a progressive move to guarantee a sustainable water sup­ ply for generations to come. He cited the Caotun project as an example of building smaller, decentralized water storage facilities in contrast to a few larger reservoirs. According to Yu, only 18 percent of Taiwan’s annual rainfall totaling around 2,500 millimeters is currently captured for use. “We must address how to better retain water over the course of the year and distribute it equitably around the country,” he said. Global warming is raising concerns, as seven of the nation’s 10 most serious droughts over the past six decades have occurred in the last 20 years, he added. Determined to learn lessons from the recurring droughts, the govern­ ment is taking an active approach to resolving the underlying factors,

Yu said. He noted instructions from Premier Su Tseng­chang ( 蘇貞昌 ), who recently made an inspection tour to Shihmen Reser voir and emphasized placing water security front and center of national develop­ ment efforts. Government plans involve pro­ moting what Yu terms a “water­led society” across Taiwan in both rural and urban settings. One example of this can be seen at Taipei’s Daan Forest Park, where eco­friendly con­ struction methods such as water­ absorbing pavements are utilized as part of a so­called sponge city policy. “Previously, water would just run off into drainage ditches, but now it’s retained in the soil, which helps sta­ bilize local ecosystems,” Yu said. Thanks to the FIDP’s aquatic environment initiatives, the country is fully prepared to tackle the challenges to Taiwan’s water supply presented by a changing climate and population demographics. From strengthening flood defenses to ensuring industrial and agricultural heartlands have ample supplies on tap, the govern­ ment has a clear, farsighted vision for water­related policymaking. “We’re not only trying to be forward­ looking,” WRA’s Lai said. “It’s about seeking long­term, maximum benefit for the good of the people and natu­ ral environment alike.”

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01 – 03. Aquatic environment management measures along central Taiwan’s Zhuoshui River— the longest waterway in the country—include covering dry riverbeds with straw mats to prevent dust emission, planting foliage and installing water storage ponds. 04 & 05. Taipei City’s sponge city policy aims to promote initiatives stabilizing local ecosystems at sites such as Daan Forest and Tianhe Parks. 04 & 05. Photos by Pang Chia-shan

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D Shoring Up Reservoirs

redgers and excavators busil y remove sediment from Zengwen Reservoir in southern Taiwan’s Chiayi County, a job picking up pace at artificial lakes across the country that face a growing risk of silting up. By the end of 2019, approximately 26 percent of Zengwen’s 748 million cubic meter capacity was choked with unwanted materials despite the largest water storage facility in Taiwan having cleared out an average of 2.43 million cubic meters of sediment annually from 2017 to 2019, up from 1.39 million cubic meters during the 2009-2016 period.

“It’s quite difficult to build new reservoirs today, so the focus is on ensuring the longevity of existing ones,” said Chien Chao-chun (簡昭 群), Conservation Division chief of the Water Resources Agency (WRA) under the Ministry of Economic Affairs. “Concern over environmental damage caused by dam construction has grown over time, and relocation of people living on land slated for flooding has become more challenging,” the official said. Taiwan has 95 reservoirs and weirs—the majority of which are managed by the WRA and stateowned entities like Taiwan Water

Government agencies take action to ensure water storage facilities provide a clean and stable supply of the invaluable resource. BY OSCAR CHUNG PHOTOS BY CHIN HUNG-HAO

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01 & 03.Desilting efforts like those at Shihmen Reservoir in northern Taiwan are picking up pace at water storage facilities around the country. 02. A dredger sets to work on Chiayi County’s Zengwen Reservoir in southern Taiwan. With a capacity of 748 million cubic meters, the reservoir is the largest in the country. 01 & 03. Photos by Jimmy Lin 02. Courtesy of Southern Region Water Resources Office of the Water Resources Agency

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Corporation and Taiwan Power Company, the country’s largest providers of the respective utilities—but no dams have been constructed since Hushan Reservoir in the western county of Yunlin began operating in 2016. Maintaining the health of these facilities is no easy task as the region is prone to natural disasters like typhoons and earthquakes, which can wreak havoc on infrastructure. In 2009 Typhoon Morakot alone brought 91 million cubic meters of 19

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01. Feitsui Reservoir and Xindian River provide drinking water to millions of people in Taipei City and large parts of New Taipei City. 02. The Forestry Bureau utilizes nets and wattles when replanting collapsed areas to improve chances of successful regrowth. 03. Officials from the Forestry Bureau prepare an unmanned aerial vehicle to distribute seeds in highly inaccessible mountain areas. 04. A tunnel under construction at Beishi Creek downstream from Feitsui Reservoir will greatly reduce the risk of weather-induced water shortages for Taipei residents. 02 & 03. Courtesy of Forestry Bureau

sediment into Zengwen, prompting the government to build a desilting tunnel that commenced functions in 2018. Similarly, Typhoon Soudelor caused a record high level of turbidity in 2015 in Nanshi Creek, which converges downstream with Beishi Creek to form Xindian River, the primary source of drinking water for Taipei City and much of New Taipei City. In response, Taipei Water Department (TWD) began construction on a tunnel bringing water directly from Beishi to treatment facilities. To reverse the degradation of reservoirs and ensure stable water supplies, the government launched the Forward-looking Infrastructure Development Program (FIDP) in March 2017. A comprehensive initiative aimed at meeting Taiwan’s development needs for the next 30

years, the program speeds up desilting efforts at facilities countrywide. Among other projects, it has allocated NT$800 million (US$28.1 million) to finance the NT$2 billion (US$70.2 million) tunnel at Beishi. “The climate is set to become more extreme in the future, so this is definitely money well spent. Each suspension of water due to weather takes a considerable toll on the economy,” said Chen Wei-cheng (陳維政), deputy superintendent of TWD’s engineering division.

Proactive Measures

Conserving watershed areas—which cover 1.2 million hectares, or 34 percent of Taiwan’s land—is another major component of FIDP. Much of the task is performed by the Cabinetlevel Council of Agriculture (COA), whose Forestry Bureau and Soil and

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Water Conservation Bureau (SWCB) are respectively responsible for woodland along the upper reaches of rivers and slopes above the timberline. The agencies primarily focus their energies on reforesting collapsed areas, shoring up replanted locations with nets and wattles to boost chances of successful regrowth. “This is the most farsighted job when it comes to bringing a reservoir back to health,” said Lin Jen-yang (林鎮洋), director of the Water Environment Research Center at National Taipei University of Technology. “A watershed with good forest coverage retains soil that would otherwise wind up in reservoirs and is capable of storing large amounts of water.” According to SWCB, 29,000 hectares of land currently await restoration, a portion of which is highly inaccessible terrain. While the government previously relied on the forces of nature to return such areas to their original states, the COA has launched an experimental project utilizing unmanned aerial vehicles to speed the process up. From April to June 2019, the Forestry Bureau sent out single-rotor drones to distribute 210 kilograms of seeds over a collapsed forest deep in the mountains of northern Taiwan’s Yilan County. A survey conducted in August 2020

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showed the vegetation coverage rate in the area has risen from 31 to 53 percent. Based on these encouraging results, the bureau is drawing up plans to upgrade the mission with more sophisticated equipment. COA agencies also perform the essential task of preventing sand in waterways from migrating downstream. This is primarily accomplished through the construction of groundsill works, elevated structures spanning a river to slow the current in line with ecological engineering concepts. The most recent example is a set of structures completed in 2020

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by SWCB on Alibudong Creek, which feeds Jiji Weir in central Taiwan’s Nantou County. Featuring five groundsills and ecofriendly pathways for animals, the project has already successfully prevented 60,000 cubic meters of mud from reaching Jiji’s reservoir, thus protecting water resources for farms, households and factories in neighboring Changhua and Yunlin Counties.

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Ensuring Purity

While the health of all reservoirs is important, particular attention is paid to the 22 that chiefly provide drinking water to households. Since 2017 water

quality is tested on a monthly basis, an increase in frequency from the previous quarterly standard. To ensure water meets criteria for human consumption, agencies at the national and local levels are taking steps to minimize potential sources of pollution. Leading the charge is Taipei Water Management Office (TWMO) under the WRA, which is responsible for jointly managing Feitsui Reservoir’s 717-square kilometer watershed with the COA as well as the Cabinet-level Council of Indigenous Peoples and the Ministry of Finance’s National Property Administration. In the late 1980s, TWMO took major steps toward improving the reservoir’s water quality by banning pig farming and boating around the lake. At the same time the government began working on sewage pipelines connecting households in the area to treatment facilities. Homes in remote locations were equipped with mini-systems for processing their own wastewater. Today, sewage produced by 75 percent of all residences in Feitsui’s watershed

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is treated before being released into waterways, with the goal of reaching 100 percent in the near future. Reducing contamination from agriculture is also high on the agenda for TWMO. It is now promoting the installation of systems using natural materials like vegetation or pebbles to filter runoff containing fertilizer and pesticide residue that leaches from fields during heavy rainfall. “We’ve also been encouraging people to adopt organic farming. The use of chemicals harmful to the human body has already been banned, but we’re sparing no effort to further improve water safety,” said Chou Wen-shang (周文祥), director of TWMO. As a result of the agency’s efforts, levels of phosphorus and nitrogen—two major culprits of eutrophication—have been greatly lowered. Feitsui Reservoir has become a model example of water resource management in Taiwan. Meanwhile, the WRA has completed its 2020 survey on reservoir conditions around the country, using seven newly adopted

indicators aimed at thoroughly assessing a body of water’s health, including forest coverage in watershed areas, sediment accumulation rate and the level of eutrophication. “The government used to focus mainly on the structural safety of dams, but since the mid-2000s it’s paid growing attention to whether reservoirs can provide a steady supply of clean water,” Chien said. The findings of the latest survey have been sent to the relevant authorities so they can draw up plans to address any weaknesses. With the stability of reservoirs ensured by a range of proactive approaches—from desilting and forest restoration to comprehensive health checks—the countr y has every reason to anticipate a worryfree future regarding water supply. “ Taiwan is moving in the right direction,” Lin said. “It’s good to take action after something happens that alerts us to the vulnerability of our water sources, but it’s truly wise to take preventive measures.”

01 & 02. To ensure the quality of water in Feitsui Reservoir, Taipei Water Management Office constructs systems using natural materials like pebbles or vegetation to filter agricultural runoff and installs pipelines carrying domestic sewage to treatment plants. 03 & 05. Structures built on Alibudong Creek in central Taiwan to prevent sand in the river from moving downstream feature pathways for aquatic and terrestrial animals to pass through safely. 04. The civil engineering project on Alibudong has effectively prevented over 60,000 cubic meters of silt from entering Jiji Weir. 06. Wushantou Reservoir in southern Taiwan’s Tainan City is a beneficiary of government efforts to ensure water storage facilities can provide clean and stable supplies. 01 & 02. Courtesy of Taipei Water Management Office 03 – 05. Courtesy of Nantou Branch of Soil and Water Conservation Bureau

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Natural View Taiwan’s national scenic areas are defined by majestic waterways. BY PAT GAO PHOTOS BY PANG CHIA-SHAN

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n afternoon stroll along the 1.8-kilometer Bitou Cape Trail in New Taipei City is an ideal way to appreciate a breathtaking view of one of Taiwan’s most important natural resources: the Pacific Ocean. Making an unforgettable day trip for outdoor enthusiasts, the walkway is one of nine major trails in Northeast and Yilan Coast National Scenic Area (NSA). Encompassing more than 100 km of coastline, Northeast and Yilan Coast NSA was established in 1984 as the first such recreational area, administered from New Taipei’s Gongliao District near the popular summer resort of Fulong Beach extending into neighboring Yilan County. While the Water Resources Agency under the Ministry of Economic Affairs is responsible for managing related matters in urban locations, Taiwan’s NSAs oversee the protection and development of many of the largest natural water resources countrywide. A total of 13 NSAs are situated across Taiwan, all of which are

01. Nanfangao Fishing Port is one of the many spectacular areas under the protection of Northeast and Yilan Coast National Scenic Area. 02. The NSA encompasses an extended stretch of coastline running from New Taipei City into neighboring Yilan County in northeastern Taiwan. 03 & 04. The 1.8-kilometer Bitou Cape Trail in New Taipei is one of nine major trails in Northeast and Yilan Coast NSA. 01. Courtesy of Chen Min-ming

overseen by the Tourism Bureau (TB) under the Ministry of Transportation and Communications. In October last year, Northeast and Yilan Coast NSA entered the Sustainable Top 100 list announced by the Netherlandsbased Green Destinations Foundation in keeping with U.N. Global Sustainable Tourism Council criteria. The recognition also went to Sun Moon Lake NSA in the central county of Nantou. Together with the 10 national parks administered by the

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Construction and Planning Agency under the Ministry of the Interior, as well as the 18 national forest recreation areas managed by the Cabinetle vel Council of Agr iculture ’s Forestry Bureau, NSAs are a cornerstone for protecting Taiwan’s natural beauty, according to Northeast and Yilan Coast NSA Director Chen Mei-hsiu (陳美秀). “Despite somewhat different guiding principles, these systems are all about public outreach and environmental conservation,” she said.

Hidden Gems

With tourism and related business development two of their main priorities, NSAs work alongside local governments to ensure long-term viability, said Lin Jiun-chuan ( 林 俊全 ), a professor of geography at Taipei City-based National Taiwan University (NTU). The spirit of collaboration also extends to the NSA administration’s relationship with the Forestry Bureau, which oversees

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geological preservation in such places as Northern Coast Bitou-Longdong Geopark within Northeast and Yilan Coast NSA. Nine geoparks are located around Taiwan, including one in outlying Lienchiang County. These areas are governed by even stricter protections than those for NSAs, helping to distinguish between places for tourism development and those focusing on ecological protection, said Lin, who also heads NTU-based Geoparks Association of Taiwan. “It’s about striking a balance between regulation and development,” he added, citing Turtle Island, home to one of the country’s two active volcanos, as a model example within Northeast and Yilan Coast NSA. Formerly a military base, Turtle Island is now open to the public. Relaxing access restrictions has led to a growing interest among tourists from home and abroad keen to

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01. A former military sentry post on the Bitou Cape Trail is now a popular cafe surrounded by mountains and the Pacific Ocean. 02 & 03. Fulong Beach in New Taipei’s Gongliao District is a top choice among tourists from home and abroad looking for a summer getaway. 04. Northern Coast Bitou-Longdong Geopark contains some of Taiwan’s most striking coastal scenery. 05. An elderly man enjoys a relaxing seaside bike ride in Yilan with Turtle Island’s distinctive outline visible on the horizon. 05. Courtesy of Zhuchen Bo-qing

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discover what the isle, named after its distinctive shape, has to offer. According to Chen, aside from the area’s natural beauty, defunct military installations are a standout attraction for visitors. These include an abandoned 800-meter tunnel carved into the rock that reveals the island’s fascinating geological history. Turtle Island is not the only site known for its militar y past now under the management of Northeast and Yilan Coast NSA. One of the most popular locations on the Bitou Cape Trail is a former sentry post doing roaring trade as a cafe celebrated among social media users as a check-in and photo hot spot due to its mountainous location and ocean scenery. “Whether it’s an old army building or a civilian structure, our guiding principle 28

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is the same—reuse and adapt rather than build,” Chen said.

Sustainable Development

Each of the NSAs seeks to utilize local strengths and specialties to target different demographics, Chen said, giving the example of Sun Moon Lake NSA, which has made a name for itself among cyclists as Taiwan’s go-to spot for both recreational and competitive cycling. Sun Moon Lake’s natural beauty, with towering mountains surrounding a large, tranquil oasis, means the area is no stranger to tourists. But it is the winding cycling path tracing the water’s edge that is steadily transforming the area’s fortunes. Once reliant on buses of tourists ready to stop for a quick picture, Sun Moon Lake NSA is attracting the

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01. Pine trees line the banks of Sun Moon Lake in central Taiwan’s Nantou County. 02, 04 & 05. Sun Moon Lake NSA is renowned for its natural beauty. 03. The lake is home to a hydroelectric power plant.

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type of visitor who stays for multiple days to explore all there is to see and do in the area from the convenience of two wheels, according to Director Hung Wei-hsin (洪維新). The cycling route has repeated ly ranked highly on polls of best biking trails, earning the top domestic honor in 2015 and gaining global recognition from U.K.headquartered travel search engine Skyscanner in 2017. An upcoming 15-km expansion will soon double its length, joining a series of walking trails funded by TB as part of promotions for 2021 as the year of cycling tourism. In the past two decades, Sun Moon Lake NSA has gradually spread its jurisdiction from Nantou’s Yuchi Township to include parts of neighboring Jiji, Puli, Shuili and

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Xinyi Townships. With the latest expansion to forestlands in Puli and Yuchi in July 2020, the NSA encompasses over 19,000 hectares, almost 10 times its original scope. The process was not just administrative, but also involved significant upgrades to local infrastructure as the lake is a reservoir and home to a hydroelectric power plant, Hung said, adding that the NSA administration’s ability to work closely with the central and local governments assisted in smoothly navigating the interests of different stakeholders. Professor Lin also considers Sun Moon Lake a clear beneficiary of the NSA system, as oversight of a single governing authority was crucial in the decision to promote sustainable tourism development. “The old model had run its course, with

many domestic tourists opting to stay away,” he said. “The area is set to thrive as eco-tourism and adventure activities become the future direction of the industry.” Looking forward, the NSA system has the potential to boost citizen awareness of the importance of both fresh and saltwater ecosystems, Lin said. “These areas of outstanding natural beauty demonstrate how water played an integral role in forming the land we live on today—if people feel a deeper connection, they’ll be more eager to learn and bring friends along next time they visit. “Smart management can ensure Taiwan’s aquatic beauty spots are developmentally and ecologically cared for, but the optimal outcome is sparking a wider societal commitment to cherishing water resources.”

01. Sun Moon Lake NSA’s visitor center welcomes tourists all year round. 02. Travelers can explore the area by boat with a tour launching from the local dock. 03. The cycling path around the lake is the recipient of domestic and international awards. 03. Courtesy of Sun Moon Lake National Scenic Area Administration

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Smart Water Taiwan is gearing up to fight floods and save water with the latest information and communication technology. BY OSCAR CHUNG PHOTOS BY CHIN HUNG-HAO

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n a summer day last year, the smart floodmonitoring network in southern Taiwan’s Chiayi County commenced operations with great fanfare after months of extensive testing. Residents long plagued by flooding in the region eagerly anticipated the system’s launch, as did Wu Chia-rong (吳家 榮), technician at the local government’s water resources department responsible for building the network. “Data is transmitted from sensors to my cell phone in real-time,” he said. “The rapid, highly accurate information allows us to limit damage from heavy rainfall because we can take decisive action much sooner than in the past.” Consisting of 193 sensors covering 955 flood-prone places across the county, the system is part of efforts to strengthen Taiwan’s aquatic environments. In addition to Chiayi, 11

cities and counties in Taiwan have implemented similar networks over the past two years under the guidance of the Ministry of Economic Affairs’ Water Resources Agency (WRA). Internet of Things (IoT) solutions are also being employed to ensure intelligent use of water resources across the country, WRA Deputy Director-General Wang Yi-fung (王 藝峰) said. “There is growing urgency to manage water wisely, as climate change is causing more droughts and instances of severe flooding than ever before,” the official said. “Water supplies have a huge influence on quality of life and constitute a major pillar of Taiwan’s economy. Not a single drop should be wasted.” By the end of 2020, WRA had installed smart monitors in roughly 400 wells used by industrial consumers that draw more than 1,000 tons of groundwater per month in Taoyuan City and Yilan County in

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northern Taiwan and Kaohsiung City in the south. Previously factories could pump unlimited quantities of groundwater, using up resources faster than they could be replenished. With the new devices instantaneously transmitting water levels to local governments, authorities can quickly respond to alerts by alternating well access to slow down usage. Municipal water networks are going smart as well, with Taipei City Government’s Taipei Water Department (TWD) leading the way by installing sensors throughout its vast supply system, from water purification plants to pumping stations. The network has been rapidly boosting sensor density since 2015, when the local government launched the Taipei Smart City initiative. Designed to continuously transmit changes in flow, pressure and quality, devices ensure the department can act quickly to address any issues that arise.

01. Taipei City’s vast tap water network, including Changxing Purification Plant, is intensifying efforts to install smart technology. 02. Taipei Water Department monitors water pressure and quality around the clock through data automatically sent 03 to headquarters from sensors citywide. 03. A worker installs a sensor for detecting water levels during floods in Shuishang Township in southern Taiwan’s Chiayi County. 03. Courtesy of Chiayi County Government

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At the same time, the city began installing smart water meters, starting with major users like hospitals and schools. “The benefits of digitalization are well worth the extensive effort required to install equipment,” TWD’s Deput y Commissioner Frankie Chen (陳明州) said. “In the past workers checked traditional 33

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on-site meters every two months, but the new devices can record the amount of water used and send the data to the department wirelessly every day, helping save manpower while providing earlier warnings about potential leaks.” As of January 2020, all new buildings in the city are required to install smart meters, with older structures expected to follow suit in the coming years, Chen said.

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Fruitful Cooperation

The government has additionally tapped the corporate sector in its push to implement smart water management. One standout publicprivate partnership involves Taiwan S emiconductor Manufactur ing Co. (TSMC), the largest pure-play foundry in the world. In October 2018 the enterprise signed a memorandum of understanding with WRA and Chianan Irrigation Association, which coordinates agricultural water supply systems across Chiayi County as well as Chiayi and Tainan Cities in southern Taiwan. Enhancing water efficiency in the industry is essential, as farming accounts for 70 percent of total water consumption countrywide.

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TSMC also equips its 20-plus facilities with smart water systems, making it the perfect partner to advance government goals. So far the company has donated designs for a solar energy-powered sluice gate for irrigation canals to the WRA and upgraded the agency’s sensors for detecting water levels in irrigation channels and soil moisture in fields. Traditionally farmers needed to operate sluice gates manually, which can be physically challenging for those in their advancing years. Now gates can be operated remotely at any time through mobile phones. It is estimated this IoT solution, if adopted across all 18,000 hectares of farmland covered by the project, would save 95 million tons of water annually, enough to satisfy the demand of Tainan’s 1.8 million residents for three months. “ Taiwan’s advanced information and communication technology [ICT] industry is making essential contributions to water management efforts,” said Pi Lan-chieh (畢 嵐杰), engineer at Water Resources Planning Institute (WRPI), WRA’s research division in central Taiwan’s

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Taichung City. “Enterprises are excellent at designing and manufacturing high-quality ICT products, but they don’t always know where they are most needed,” he said. “That’s why cooperation between the government and corporate entities strikes the perfect balance; the former excels at identifying target areas for improvement while the latter shine at devising innovative solutions.”

Forward Mindset

Looking to the future, TWD is also seeking collaboration with private enterprises to expand access to smart solutions. In 2019 the agency initiated a testing process encouraging corporate teams to develop infrastructure for smart water networks. Beginning around 2023 TWD is expected to invite all interested teams of manufacturers and telecom companies to bid for providing metering services, with each vying to demonstrate their superiority by improving product durability and stability of signal transmissions. “Businesses are incentivized to optimize their services during the testing process, which will help both the city and the rest of Taiwan in the long run,” Chen said. “Much of the country has not begun installing smart water meters, so the market prospects for these products and services are huge.”

The advancements are also expected to boost the countr y ’s economic growth and international competitiveness. “ These products have great potential for export to countries under the New Southbound Policy, as much of the region is affected by extreme weather,” Pi said. A key plank in the government’s national development strategy, the policy seeks to enhance Taiwan’s agricultural, business, cultural, education, tourism and trade ties with the 10 Association of Southeast Asian Nations member states, six South Asian countries, Australia and New Zealand. Meanwhile, WRPI is also exploring new frontiers, developing novel water management models and applications. Among other initiatives, the institute is pursuing a collaborative project with Google that would merge the government’s flood data with the company’s navigation services to guide motorists away from submerged areas. “IoT solutions are increasingly economically and technologically viable, a trend that has become clearer over the past two years with the rollout of low-cost, energyefficient sensors that can transmit signals over long distances,” Pi said. With such innovations, Taiwan is poised to become a regional leader in the fight against climate change.

01. A solar-powered sensor measures water flow in an irrigation channel in southern Taiwan’s Tainan City. 02. An engineer from Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co. tests a smart sluice gate designed by the enterprise. 03. All TSMC fabrication plants have dedicated staffers to monitor their smart water systems. 04. Taipei is leading the way in expanding coverage by smart water meters, which save manpower and effectively detect leaks. 01. Courtesy of Water Resources Agency 02 & 03. Courtesy of Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co. 04. Courtesy of Taipei Water Department

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Littoral Transformation Areas along Taiwan’s waterways are becoming vibrant public spaces thanks to the Forward-looking Infrastructure Development Program. BY KELLY HER PHOTOS COURTESY OF TAINAN CITY GOVERNMENT

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nce considered a no-go area among local residents, Bamboo Creek in southern Taiwan’s Tainan City is now a community hub and source of pride for those responsible for its transformation. “ The extent to which the water quality and overall environment has improved is incredible, with kids’ playgrounds, sports facilities and walking paths,” said Han Rong-hwa (韓榮華), director-general of Tainan City Government’s Water Resources Bureau. “Birds, fish, turtles and other wildlife are all returning.” Over the years, industrialization, urbanization and massive population growth caused pollution of many waterways, as was the case with Bamboo Creek. But with a determination to restore rivers and streams to their former glory, Taiwan’s central and local governments have taken aggressive action. A perfect example of this is the four-year Bamboo Creek revitalization project implemented

under funding from the central government ’s For ward-looking Infrastructure Development Program (FIDP). The comprehensive plan, which includes aquatic environments, is aimed at addressing Taiwan’s key infrastructure needs over the next 30 years and ensuring future generations enjoy greater prosperity.

For the People

Establishing publicly accessible and ecologically friendly waterways is one of the major goals of the FIDP, with 420 hectares of waterfront spaces spanning beaches, lakes and rivers scheduled to be rejuvenated under the plan. As a coastal city blessed with ample water resources, Tainan is one of the main beneficiaries of the project. Its canals, harbors, lagoons, ponds, rivers and wetlands are closely linked to the region’s physical and cultural development, providing an extra incentive to restore polluted and forgotten waterways.

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01 – 03. Bamboo Creek in southern Taiwan’s Tainan City is revitalized with dedicated walking paths, lush vegetation and kids playgrounds after a four-year project completed with funding from the central government’s Forward-looking Infrastructure Development Program. 04. In addition to improved water quality, Yuejin Harbor in Tainan’s Yanshuei District is now easily and safely accessible through newly installed bridges, pedestrian thoroughfares and viewing platforms.

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According to Han, the special budget allocated under the FIDP has played a key role in the revitalization of Tainan’s historic waterways including Bamboo Creek, Yuejin Harbor and Tainan Canal. Factors such as ecology, flood prevention, community development, local culture and history, as well as green infrastructure techniques and sustainable materials are taken into account when planning a project. Like Bamboo Creek, the revitalized Yuejin Harbor in Tainan’s Ya n s h u e i D i s t r i c t h a s m a d e remarkable strides in improving public access and water quality, but it has also honed the visitor experience. Improvements in this regard 37

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01. Yuejin Harbor is the setting for a popular annual lantern festival. 02 – 04. The first and second phases of the Annong River regeneration project in northeastern Taiwan’s Yilan County include construction of a golf course, docks, pavilions, restrooms, seating areas and traffic-free routes for cycling and walking. 02 – 04. Courtesy of Yilan County Government

include new bridges, parks, pedestrian pathways and viewing platforms that provide the public with safe spaces to enjoy all the harbor has to offer. The changes have transformed Yuejin from a sterile industrial zone to a popular scenic area for locals and tourists alike to enjoy a peaceful walk, while it remains an important ecosystem for various animals. Bird watchers especially have something to cheer, as protected species like crested goshawks and pheasant-tailed jacanas are frequently spotted nearby. As for Tainan Canal, the installation of art pieces and decorative lighting fixtures has proven a hit with those seeking the perfect shot for social media. Plus, guided boat tours are available for visitors to learn more about the area while taking in the cityscape. “Restoring urban watercourses helps tackle flooding and secure water supplies while improving the environment for local flora and fauna,” Han said. “But just as importantly, these spaces allow people to reconnect with nature and enjoy outdoor recreational activities once more.”

Way of Life

Y ilan Count y in nor theaster n Taiwan is another part of the country known for its abundance of water resources ranging from hot springs to wetlands. It has a steady supply of clean water with lower levels of pollution than Tainan due to less industrial activity. “ Wa t e r s h a p e s t h e l i v e s o f Yilan’s inhabitants and has even become a tourist attraction for the county,” said Chung Ming-ta (鐘明 達), a section chief in the Business and Tourism Department under 38

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Yilan County Government (YCG). “Cr ystal c lear streams running down from the mountains are perfect for spa treatments and water sports, while the coastline offers surfing and whale watching.” The most famous of Y ilan’s waterways is the Dongshan River. One of its riverside water parks in Wujie Township is the venue of the well-known International Children’s Folklore and Folkgame Festival, which offers visitors an eclectic mix of art performances, exhibitions, water activities and workshops. Another such park in Yilan City features a multipurpose recreation area that frequently hosts

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festive celebrations, music events and sports. Given the critical role of water in the lives of Yilan’s people, YCG has made improving aquatic environments and flood control two of its

top priorities. With funding from the FIDP, several large-scale upgrade plans have been launched. One example is the Annong River regeneration project in Sanxing Township. The implementation of

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its first and second phases from 2017 to 2020 saw the construction of a golf course, docks, pavilions, restrooms, seating areas and trafficfree routes for cycling and walking, together with planting tracts of lush vegetation. According to Chung, concrete embankments were once the primary method of flood prevention, but this came at the cost of destroying much of the river’s natural ecosystem. The new development favors the eco-engineering approach, which involves shaping the riverbank and covering it with a blanket of graded rock to slow erosion; this riprap also serves as a natural habitat for aquatic plants and animals. “Such projects have broadened from focusing solely on flood control to ecological sustainability and connecting with the people,” Chung said. “The ultimate goal is to achieve harmony between the environment and its inhabitants.” As part of improving Yilan’s waterways, YCG has worked closely with local residents, township offices and nongovernmental organizations (NGO), whose ideas have been shared with architectural firms in order to formulate designs that benefit the different needs of the community. In addition to ecological surveys, the planning process involves public hearings for people to air any concerns, as well as discussions with NGOs on how to ensure proposals stick to sustainable development principles. Community involvement is encouraged every step of the way, including in maintaining facilities once construction has finished. For example, the golf course by the Annong River is operated and managed by a community group. 39

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Former Splendor

Recent years have seen a consensus emerge between the government and NGOs that the natural environments and ecosystems surrounding riverbanks must be protected. Yu n l i n R i v e r C u l t u re C l u s t e r Alliance ( YRCCA) based in the

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western county is among the NGOs playing an active role in safeguarding waterways while monitoring government performance and promoting related education. According to YRCCA’s CEO Huang Li-ting ( 黃莉婷 ), decades of industr ial de velopment had

transformed the Yunlin River into a barely recognizable concrete-encased drainage ditch. Many historic buildings and trees were also removed in the name of progress. “People no longer had any desire to go near the river because the environment was bad and access was often blocked anyway,” Huang said. The changes created problems with drainage, flooding, waste management and a lack of quality open spaces, she added. These issues are now being addressed as part of the ongoing Yunlin River revitalization project under the FIDP, and YRCCA is working closely with local government officials to ensure its success. “The biggest advantage of the FIDP is that it calls for citizen engagement in

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01 & 02. The Dongshan River is a top destination for water sports, while its riverside park in Yilan’s Wujie Township plays host to the International Children’s Folklore and Folkgame Festival. 03 – 06. Yunlin River Culture Cluster Alliance based in the western Taiwan county holds regular events including field trips, public forums, river cleanups and painting workshops to raise public awareness regarding waterrelated issues. 01 & 02. Courtesy of YCG 03 – 06. Courtesy of Yunlin River Culture Cluster Alliance

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policymaking and the design of public infrastructure,” Huang said. “We can finally make our voices heard.” Currently in its third phase, the major tasks in the Yunlin project include removing concrete structures and improving water quality through sewage interception and wastewater treatment, as well as growing plants native to the area along the riverbank. YRCCA has also hosted a wide variety of activities including exhibitions, field trips, public forums, river cleanups, seminars and workshops

to raise public awareness of issues regarding Taiwan’s water resources. “People of all ages attend our events, including nonagenarians sharing childhood memories of playing in the river,” Huang said. “It’s really inspiring to imagine the river once again becoming a focal point of community activity.” As waterways up and down the country find a new lease on life under the FIDP, Huang is certain that Taiwan’s future generations will be able to enjoy cleaner, greener aquatic environments as a part of their daily lives. “Climate change demands that we build more resilient ecosystems, economies and societies,” she said. “With backing from government resources and an enthusiastic public willing to meet the challenge, the country’s lakes, rivers and oceans can be at the forefront of those efforts.” 41

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DIPLOMAC Y

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Broad Strokes The Overseas Arts Travel project is expanding the horizons of Taiwan’s up-and-coming artists. BY OSCAR CHUNG

ound artist Winnie Cheng (鄭琬蒨) knew her trip to the U.K. and Ireland in May 2018 would be a life-changing moment as soon as her application for funding under Taiwan’s O verseas Ar ts Travel (OAT) project was approved. The grant, reaching up to NT$300,000 (US$10,526) for each successful recipient, gave Cheng the opportunity to gain deeper insight into life in her host country while pursuing a passion for all things creative. “The overseas experience was eye opening, inspiring me to move forward in my career when I returned to Taiwan,” she said. Launched by state-backed National Culture and Arts Foundation (NCAF) in 2013, OAT sponsors individuals under age 35 for stays of at least 30 days abroad to de velop c areers in the ar ts. Competition for funding is fierce, with nearly 60 applicants in 2020, so proposals must be carefully crafted with references to past experience and plans to put the time spent in a foreign culture to good use on returning to Taiwan.

Social Mission

Cheng was inspired to apply for the OAT grant after her grandmother passed away in 2017. Seeing her bereaved grandfather struggle to adjust to life alone made her wonder how her artistic talents could be put to use helping older adults. With a newfound motivation, she put together a winning proposal combining her interest in British and Irish culture with an itinerary including visits to various art therapy organizations and artists to learn more about how her skillset could be utilized to assist the elderly back home.

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01. Kuan Yen-ting, second left, attends a symposium on bridging art, design and technology in The Hague, the Netherlands, during her 2019 journey to western Europe made possible by the Overseas Arts Travel project. 02. Mediamatic, an Amsterdamheadquartered nongovernmental organization promoting new developments in the arts, provides a transformative experience for Kuan with its experimental approach. 01 & 02. Courtesy Kuan Yen-ting

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The U.K. and Ireland were natural choices for Cheng, who lived in England for over a year studying for her master’s degree in sound arts at the University of the Arts London. But the OAT project enabled her to gain a far more nuanced understanding of British and Irish societies, especially the challenges facing older adults in both countries and related services available. Through the arrangement of London-based social enterprise Creative Minds,

for example, she visited local care homes alongside artists who delivered fun and therapeutic art sessions for residents. “I paid close attention to how the artists and seniors interacted and really got a strong sense of the enterprise’s mission. It was inspirational and made me think about what I could achieve by launching my own projects in Taiwan,” she said. Her travels also included visits to art exhibitions and lectures, as well 43

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as interviews with local sound artists and Creative Minds founder James Cropper. These provided her with new ideas for utilizing the power of audio to stimulate seniors’ creativity, such as by having older adults listen to sounds from everyday life and describe them through drawings. In early 2019, months after returning to Taiwan, Cheng put the lessons learned into practice by conducting sound art workshops for the elderly, working with more than 100 individuals to date.

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New Blood

Kuan Yen-ting (官妍廷), who made an OAT-funded trip to Western Europe in the spr ing of 2019, believes the project has opened up a world of opportunity for Taiwan’s up-and-coming artists. “ Young people trying to make a name for themselves in the art industry usually don’t have the time or money to travel abroad for long periods and really observe a different way of life—a different art tradition,” she said. “Having financial backing from the NCAF is hugely important to producing globally minded talent.” A master’s graduate of art history from the Netherland’s Leiden University, 34-year-old Kuan specializes in the little known practice of BioArt—using living tissue or organisms to create works. She 44

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applied to the OAT project in 2019 to learn more about the style from Dutch masters. “I grew a lot as an artist during those five weeks, and now I’m determined to make a career using these techniques,” she said. In the Netherlands, Kuan toured Mediamatic, an Amsterdam-based nongovernmental organization that hosts lectures and workshops on the latest cutting-edge artistic developments. She also had the opportunity to inter view Ku Kuang-yi ( 顧廣 毅 ), one of the few Taiwan artists focusing on BioArt, in the city of Eindhoven where he is undertaking a residency. At Mediamatic, Kuan took part in an experimental piece of BioArt that helped her truly understand the medium’s power to push boundaries and change the relationship between art and artists. Titled “The Eating of Humans,” the unusual composition required participants to donate and consume small quantities of their own blood along with regular food dishes. “Art isn’t only about producing nice, pretty things. It can also be shocking and force you to confront taboo topics,” she said. “I want to bring that spirit to Taiwan.”

Talent Exchange

The OAT project has also played an outsized role in the career development of dance producer and director Migo Yang (楊帛翰). A lover of Southeast Asian culture, Yang has long been fascinated by the story of Hanuman, a simian warrior featured in the traditional Thai dance Khon. Hoping to introduce the character to audiences back in Taiwan, he travelled to Thailand with NCAF funding to conduct research ahead of his own production of the classic tale. “The grant enabled me to stay overseas much longer and learn

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more about Thai dance than if I had to rely on my own finances,” Yang said. “I really gained a deep insight into the nuances of local production techniques and the subtle cultural cues that are a crucial part of the story.” Yang’s trip lasted two months, much of which was spent at the Pichet Klunchun Dance Company, a renowned Bangkok-based troupe dedicated to promoting the country’s traditional arts at home and abroad. His time spent with the group’s talented members provided him with the inside scoop on bringing Hanuman to life. The training sessions proved invaluable in Yang’s preparation for his own production in Taiwan. Titled “Monkey Show,” the piece combines the story of Hanuman with that of the Monkey King Sun Wukong, a famous character from Chinese literature. Scripted and directed by Yang, the 60-minute performance made its debut in 2019 at National Kaohsiung Center for the Arts in the southern port city. “Without the opportunity to go abroad presented by the OAT project, I don’t think I’d ever have the confidence to integrate Thai culture in my work,” Yang said. “I’m planning to bring ‘Monkey Show’ to Thailand in the near future as a way to show them what I’ve learned and

01 & 02. Winnie Cheng attends a music performance by seniors in Dublin, and visits a therapeutic art session at a care home in London during an OAT-funded trip in 2018, inspiring her to pursue similar initiatives aimed at improving quality of life for the elderly in Taiwan. 03. Migo Yang, a beneficiary of the OAT project, stages “Monkey Show” in September 2019 at National Kaohsiung Center for the Arts in the southern Taiwan city. 04 & 05. Yang (left) learns the moves and gestures of Hanuman, a warrior featured in the traditional Thai dance Khon, from an artist in Bangkok during his trip to Thailand in 2018. 01 & 02. Courtesy of Winnie Cheng 03 – 05. Courtesy of Migo Yang

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introduce Taiwan’s own performance art traditions.” A desire to give something back to society is common among beneficiaries of the OAT project. Cheng is planning to run even more workshops this year while applying new approaches to spark participants’ creativity. Kuan, meanwhile, has done her part by working with high school teachers in New Taipei City to put BioArt on the curriculum, as well as designing related teaching materials. “The OAT project is proving a catalyst for change and growth among the country’s young, upcoming artists. It encourages them to choose a career in the arts while using their talents to give back to society,” NCAF CEO Lee Wenshan (李文珊) said. “Taiwan is better equipped now than ever to reach out to the rest of the world through the cultural and creative industries.” 45

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Sowing Change A university program is empowering young people from around the world to build a sustainable future for all. BY KELLY HER PHOTOS COURTESY OF CHANG JUNG CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY

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or Barnaba Buhombe of Tanzania in East Africa, coming to Taiwan for fur ther study was one of the best choices he has made. He is now a third year student in the International Program for Sustainable Development (IPSD) at Chang Jung Christian University (CJCU) in the southern city of Tainan. “Taiwan offers a wealth of enriching educational experiences unlike anywhere else,” the 25-yearold said. “To top it all off, the country is extremely safe and the people are incredibly welcoming.” According to Buhombe, field trips, hands-on learning and volunteer oppor tunities set IPSD apart from other programs. The depth of community engagement allows students to become more effective citizens by teaching them how to identify and act on important local issues. “Activities outside

of the classroom have helped me better understand how community groups function,” he said. “Plus participation enhances creativity, critical thinking and problemsolving skills.” CJCU as a whole has taken societal development and environmental sustainability to heart. Over the past 20 years, the school has engaged in an intensive cleanup of the adjacent Erren River, establishing a river restoration center in 2002 in partnership with the Cabinetlevel Environmental Protection Administration to promote public awareness and participation. Efforts received a boost in 2012 when world-renowned British primatologist and environmentalist Jane Goodall visited the site and learned of the university’s involvement. On her second visit two years later, she instructed Taipei Citybased Jane Goodall Institute Taiwan

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( JGIT) to collaborate with CJCU to establish a Roots & Shoots EcoCenter on campus. The facility, part of a network incorporating tens of thousands of youths from around the globe, works with educational institutions to equip students with knowledge and skills for developing comprehensive, long-term conservation practices. The eco-center has allowed CJCU to expand its environmental endeavors beyond the river project to pursuit of the U.N. Sustainable Development Goals. Major initiatives to date have included establishment of the International College of Practice and Education for the Environment and the IPSD bachelor’s degree.

Community Engagement

Since its launch in 2017, IPSD has enrolled more than 80 students, with the bulk coming from African countries such as Burundi, Eswatini, Tanzania and Uganda. The curriculum encompasses three modules—climate change adaptation, community building and watershed management—and all courses are taught in English. “O ur program emphasizes interactive instruction, community action and fieldwork, allowing students to get practical training

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and real-world experience,” IPSD Director Huang Chao-hsing ( 黃 肇新 ) said. “ We aim to turn students into global citizens who take the responsibility to create a more ecologically, environmentally and socially aware world.” S ustainable de velopment is one of the most pressing issues of this century, Huang said, adding that it requires practical solutions backed by sound theoretical knowledge. In partnership with JGIT, his school has devised a professional development program that engages students in active learning. Coursework is supplemented by a mandatory semesterlong internship,

01. Barnaba Buhombe, center, a student from Tanzania in the International Program for Sustainable Development at Chang Jung Christian University in the southern city of Tainan, operates a soybean planting machine. 02 & 03. British primatologist and environmentalist Jane Goodall collaborates with CJCU to establish a Roots & Shoots Eco-Center on campus. 04 & 05. IPSD students take samples from the Erren River to test its water quality. Located next to the CJCU campus, the river also provides an excellent recreation spot for students. 01. Courtesy of Barnaba Buhombe

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which students can complete at a number of organizations at home and abroad. Collaboration between IPSD students, local residents and nongovernmental organizations (NGO) delivers win-win outcomes, according to Huang. “Community-based learning offers an important avenue for simultaneously building student capacity, boosting school resources and improving quality of life in target areas,” he said. “This approach also enhances social connection and encourages volunteering.” 48

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Huang Xi-chia ( 黃錫家), chairm a n o f Ta i n a n - b a s e d D a t a n Community Development Association, said in recent years his organization has worked closely with IPSD on cooperative projects such as recycling station operation, architectural restoration and solar panel installation. “I’m glad to see universities like CJCU getting out of the ivory tower and into the public square,” the chairman said. “Community engagement has many potential benefits.” As an example, Huang

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cited his own small rural town, where in the past residents rarely got the chance to interact with foreigners. That dynamic completely c hanged once I PSD students began teaching environmentally themed English lessons at elementary schools and helping with the harvest at nearby farms. Volunteers also get the opportunity to observe local recycling practices, such as trash classification and conversion of food waste into organic fertilizers, as well as flex their creative muscles by turning recycled materials into art installations and useful products. “Exchanges with foreign students have greatly improved mu t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f o u r respective countries and cultures,” Huang said.

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International Influence

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According to the director, IPSD students provide welcome diversity on campus as well. “ When international students take courses alongside domestic peers, it helps cultivate cultural awareness,” he said. Seeking to recruit promising 07

01 – 04. IPSD students learn how to harvest water chestnuts and process their shells into biochar, a form of charcoal used to enrich soil. Such hands-on training is a key component of the program. 05. All courses for the bachelor’s program are taught in English. 06 & 07. As part of community engagement activities, students grow vegetables using organic fertilizer produced from food waste and build a wall out of plastic bottles at a recycling station. 08. Students evaluate the effectiveness of a floating island they created to support aquatic vegetation.

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01 – 05. A variety of enrichment activities are available to IPSD students, including beach cleanups, bamboo furniture workshops, practice setting up of mobile weather stations, preparation of local specialties like zongzi—glutinous rice dumplings wrapped in bamboo leaves—and indigenous cultural experiences. 06. IPSD Director Huang Chao-hsing, left, is all smiles with students Raha Nila from Bangladesh, center, and Barnaba Buhombe from Tanzania. 07. IPSD students wear traditional outfits as they participate in Migrants Day organized by the Ministry of the Interior and Tainan City Government in the southern Taiwan city.

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students of all nationalities and socioeconomic statuses, CJCU utilizes Jane Goodall Institute’s ( JGI) worldwide network to promote the program, Huang said, adding that inquiries and applications have increased ever y year since its launch. The university ensures equal opportunity by providing flight tickets, monthly stipends, tuition waivers and free accommodation to students from nations on the U.N. list of least developed countries. Others can apply for scholarships offered by JGI and the Ministries of Education and Foreign Affairs. One

such beneficiary is 22-year-old Raha Nila from Bangladesh, now in her second year at IPSD. An active member of Roots & Shoots since 2015, Nila is determined to dedicate her life to safeguarding the planet. “I developed an interest in environmental activities at an early age because animals and nature have always fascinated me,” she said. “I want to continue pursuing my passion for conservation, and IPSD is exactly what I was looking for.” A c c o r d i n g t o N i l a , I P S D ’s expansive curriculum covers all essential areas for creating a sustainable future. She is eager to glean knowledge and skills to bring back to Bangladesh, where environmental education has not been integrated into the mainstream curriculum

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despite the country’s vulnerability to climate change and natural disasters. “I feel fortunate to have the chance to study sustainability in Taiwan,” she said. “My goal is to promote environmental awareness by making such education accessible to all and establishing a Roots & Shoots branch in my country. One day I even hope to become the representative of Bangladesh to the U.N.” The wor ld needs exper ts in environmental science now more than ever given the acceleration of climate change and environmental degradation. “IPSD is doing its part, with students from around the world enrolled in the program who can implement what they’ve learned after returning home,” Nila said. “As

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for me, I’ll utilize my know-how to inspire more people in my country to join the fight against climate change and the effort to create sustainable competitiveness.” Likewise, director Huang has high expectations of IPSD students. “While studying in Taiwan, these young adults c an gain a deeper understanding of best practices in sustainability,” he said. “After going back to their home countries, they must become the change our world needs.”

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C U LT U R E

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Glittering Lights Lin Yu-chu is dedicated to the preservation and promotion of the traditional lantern making craft.

or many in Taiwan, the sight of a paper lantern evokes fond childhood memories of carr ying delicately crafted candlelit beacons through one’s neighborhood. Displayed during temple events and holidays like Lunar New Year and Lantern Festival, the lights are an important part of the country’s cultural traditions. Today, however, it is increasingly difficult to find handmade lanterns as fewer and fewer people study the techniques. Enter Lin Yu-chu (林玉珠), who has dedicated herself to preserving the art at home and abroad for decades. Over the years she has been busily creating, teaching and showing her work, receiving invitations to display her pieces and deliver demonstrations and workshops in countries around the globe

BY KELLY HER PHOTOS BY CHEN MEI-LING

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including Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand and the U.S. “I especially enjoy passing on my methods because it brings me such joy to see young and old alike learning to build lanterns from scratch,” she said. “It’s also great to witness the increasing number of teachers in elementary, middle and high schools interested in attending our training programs so they can instruct students in turn.” As part of endeavors to increase interest in the time-honored tradition, Lin also established New Taipei City-based Chinese Artistic Lantern Association in 1999, recruiting

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01. The Chosen One, mixed media, 2014 02. Artisan Lin Yu-chu speaks at the opening ceremony of her solo exhibition at National Taiwan Craft Research and Development Institute’s Taipei branch. 03. The audience can get up close and personal with Lin’s elaborate creations at the indoor exhibition. 04. A Moment of Beauty and Tranquility, mixed media, 2020 04. Courtesy of Lin Yu-chu

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01. Icing on the Cake, mixed media, 2005 02. Lin excels at portraying natural elements like flowers, which she painstakingly recreates through a labor-intensive process. 03. Lin’s handbooks, “The Creative Lanterns DIY” and “The Beauty of Folk Art on Creative Lanterns,” fill a gap in reference materials on the traditional craft. 04. Rabbit Welcomes Spring, mixed media, 2017 05 & 07. Lin endeavors to keep traditional lantern art alive through the use of new materials, techniques and technology. 06. Lin, third left, delivers a workshop in Hong Kong. 01 & 05 – 07. Courtesy of Lin Yu-chu

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like-minded artisans to provide hands-on courses to the Taiwan public. Nearly a decade later, she set up World Taiwanese Lantern Association (WTLA) in Taipei City to further promote lantern making among international audiences. Her efforts are paying dividends, with lanterns included for the first time in the traditional craft category of cultural assets designated by New Taipei City Government in 2014. In recognition of her exceptional skills and long-standing efforts, local officials also named Lin a cultural heritage preserver the same year. According to the artisan, lanterns are symbols of good fortune, happiness and a bright future. Though they were often utilitarian in the past, they are now made primarily for decorative purposes, she said, adding that she hopes the warm ambiance lanterns create can help them regain their former prominence. For Lin, lantern making provides an intriguing challenge. “The final pieces come in a variety of shapes, sizes and methods of construction. To produce an intricate lantern requires a skill set encompassing carpentry, electrical wiring, painting, metalworking and welding,” she said. “Other details such as assembly and transport must also be considered to ensure successful presentation.”

Innovative Spirit

Desiring to push her skills to the limit in the pursuit of awing audiences, the veteran artist is a regular participant in competitions and exhibitions, with Taiwan Lantern Festival one of the biggest events on her calendar. WTLA Chairman Fit Lee ( 李冠毅) attributes the annual display’s growing popularity among

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domestic and international visitors to eye-catching works crafted by experienced artisans like Lin. First staged in Taipei in 1990 by the Tourism Bureau under the Ministr y of Transportation and Communications, the festival highlights the country’s custom of celebrating the first full moon of the lunar calendar. Having seen countless lighting installations, Lee is particularly impressed by Lin’s technical expertise. The artist endeavors to keep up to date with the latest technologies and techniques, incorporating improvements such as light-emitting diodes (LED) into her work. “LED lighting is not only energy efficient but also much cooler than incandescent bulbs, reducing the risk of combustion or burnt fingers. That’s an important advantage for lantern displays in public places,” she said. “Plus, they are available in a wide range of colors, shapes and sizes of varying brightness, multiplying the ways light can be used in an artwork.” As part of her R&D efforts, Lin visits the optoelectronics exposition held annually in Taipei to 55

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learn about the latest lighting solutions and evaluate the feasibility of applying them in her creations. Other experiments involve incorporating different types of fabrics like cotton, silk and velvet, as well as decorative elements like beads, paillettes and ribbons. Lin’s largest contribution to the craft by far, however, is her replacement of the traditional bamboo s t r u c t u re w i t h p a p e r - w r a p p e d wire, which can easily be bent into

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different shapes. When she unveiled her innovation in 1979, it was hailed as a huge breakthrough in lantern making. She also took the initiative to publish two handbooks, “The Creative Lanterns DIY ” and “The Beauty of Folk Art on Creative Lanterns,” in the 1990s to make up for the lack of reference materials on the art form. “Many traditional crafts are at risk of dying out. Lin’s simplified construction methods and manuals have boosted the prevalence of handmade lanterns,” Lee said. Like Lin, the chairman has high hopes for the resurgence of lanterns in homes and commercial locations, and his organization is working closely with artisans to promote the use of lanterns in everyday life.

Artistic Excellence

Wang Shinn-huey ( 王信惠 ), chief of National Taiwan Craft Research a n d D e v e l o p m e n t I n s t i t u t e ’s (NTCRI) Taipei branch, similarly lauds Lin’s artistic ability and efforts to encourage deeper appreciation of lanterns. “Lin’s determination and persistence have given us inspiring works while ensuring her skills are passed down to younger generations,” Wang said. “She has made major contributions to the art’s survival.” The NTCRI branch hosted a solo exhibition of Lin’s work from September to November last year. Titled “Glittering Light Feast: Exposition on Decorative Lanterns C re a t i on by L i n Yu - c h u , ” t h e indoor show highlighted 30 pieces portraying golden pheasants, koi fish, moth orchids, paradise flycatchers, peacocks, peonies, tulips and local species such as the Taiwan blue magpie.

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01 & 02. Lin’s eye-catching works are frequently showcased in lantern festivals around Taiwan. 03 & 04. The veteran artist’s innovative pieces come in a variety of shapes, sizes and methods of construction. 01 & 02. Courtesy of Lin Yu-chu

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“Creating lanterns for indoor display poses an even greater challenge because the craftsmanship must be subtler and the designs more elaborate since the audience can view them up close,” Wang said. “That’s why few lantern makers dare to take on such a task, making this type of exhibition rare.” According to Wang, Lin excels at portraying natural elements like

flowers, which she painstakingly recreates through a labor-intensive process. Overall, her attention to detail and use of color, form, line, shape and texture, as well as the artistic principles of balance, contrast, harmony, movement and proportion place her among the best in the lantern craft. Each piece is also imbued with rich symbolic meaning and cultural significance. “She

wants to spread positive messages of hope, peace and warmth,” Wang said. “That, combined with stunning aesthetic effects, makes her artwork immensely appealing.” Lin’s accomplishments have also received recognition from fellow artists like Hung Hsin-fu ( 洪 新富), who specializes in paper cutting and sculpting. The two became acquainted while delivering grassroots training in communities and schools some 20 years ago. “Lin and I share the same enthusiasm for promoting folk art and handson learning,” Hung said. “We both strive to keep old traditions alive through reinvention.” After all these years, Lin’s passion for lanterns remains undiminished. In fact, the 77-year-old continues to dream about the future, committed to living each day to the fullest. “I’ve made it my mission to reinvigorate traditional lantern art,” she said. “My ultimate goal is to establish a museum dedicated to the collection, display and preservation of sophisticated examples for the public to enjoy for years to come.” 57

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P Soy Source The art of making traditional condiments is alive and prospering in central Taiwan.

erched on a hillside overlooking Dongshi District of Taichung City in central Taiwan, Fu Hung-yen’s (傅宏彥) house resembles any other neighborhood home at first glance. A closer look reveals a storage room with row upon row of shelves, an outdoor space chock full of dark brown jars and tall stacks of firewood occupying a corner of the front yard. The logs are collected from the Fu family lychee farm located nearby. While the fruit provides a source of income, the trees are grown primarily for the purpose of producing an essential element of the country’s culinary scene: soy sauce. Fu i s t h e t h i r d - g e n e r a t i o n operator of May-dong Traditional H a n d m ad e S a u c e s , w h i c h w a s founded in 1928 during Japanese

BY PAT GAO PHOTOS BY PANG CHIA-SHAN

01

01 & 02. May-dong’s soy sauce is composed simply of soybeans, salt, sugar and water. 03. Operator Fu Hung-yen mixes boiled beans with mold cultures.

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colonial rule (1895-1945). Prior to settling in Taiwan, Fu’s grandfather studied soy sauce manufacturing in Japan, putting his knowledge to good use upon arriving in Taichung and establishing the company. Nearly a century later, May-dong continues to utilize its original techniques, bucking the modern trend of mechanized mass production. Fu took up the family mantle after retiring from military police service 10 years ago and has since become a leading member of Dongshi farmers’ association, which gives him a platform for avidly promoting traditional manufacturing methods of local agricultural products. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in such products as people pay greater attention to food safety. May-dong’s soy sauce is made from a handful of natural ingredients without any chemical additives, enhancing its appeal for the increasing number of customers turning away from larger commercial manufacturers. A look at the nutrition label reveals a simple composition of soybeans, salt, sugar and water. “We take care to stick to the basics and avoid any chemicals that are harmful to human health,” Fu said. “The resulting condiment tastes superior to those sold by major labels.”

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01. Fu checks on the fermentation process after salted beans are placed into a ceramic jar with water to brew for up to three years. 02. Beans are boiled in an oak barrel over a heated brick stove. 03. A graphic on the wall of Fu’s house illustrates the process of making soy sauce. 04. Firewood comes from the Fu family lychee farm.

02

Waste Not

Tracing its origins to classical China more than 2,000 years ago, soy sauce has become a staple in diets throughout East and Southeast Asia. At Mei-dong, making the commodity by hand takes at least one year, the process beginning by boiling beans in oak barrels over a heated brick stove for around seven hours. Fuel sourced from the family’s lychee farm adds a unique flavor to the final product. “It’s the ideal firewood because it imparts pleasant smoky notes,” Fu said. After the beans cool, they are mixed with mold cultures and stored indoors for approximately a week. Then the lightly fermented beans are washed, dried, salted and placed into covered ceramic jars with water to brew for up to three years.

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“Time is a decisive factor,” Fu said. “While it takes longer for the beans to properly age here than in hotter areas of the country, our product’s quality is on par with or better than others.” In the final stage, raw sauce from the jars is boiled with sugar and water again in oak barrels and then filtered through cotton cloth to remove bean fibers before it is ready for packaging. Fu still uses glass bottles instead of the more common plastic ones. Many of the containers are washed and reused, as May-dong continues its long-established door-to-door delivery service for local customers in addition to its more recently developed online sales channels. “The cost of hiring a person to wash bottles is about the same as buying plastic ones,” Fu said. “So naturally we chose

the more environmentally friendly option.” As for disposal of leftover materials, the ash and bean fibers are converted into fertilizer or animal feed. “Decades of such practices place my family at the forefront of the circular agriculture movement,” Fu said. “Though we didn’t initially do it out of environmental concerns, we’re happy to keep making full use of available resources.”

Operations Imperiled

May-dong came under threat in 1999 when a massive earthquake registering 7.3 on the Richter scale struck central Taiwan. The resulting devastation included over 2,000 casualties and tens of thousands of destroyed buildings. Among the damaged property were the family’s stove and many of the ceramic jars. 61

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01. Fu’s house has a storage room where beans ferment for approximately a week after the initial boiling. 02. Traditional handmade soy sauces are being promoted under cultural preservation efforts initiated by May-dong and likeminded producers.

“Our first thought was that perhaps it was time to close the business,” Fu said. “Or if it continued, mechanization was probably the way to go.” After much reflection the Fus decided to remain steadfast and continue upholding the family practice, setting reconstruction work in motion. The most demanding part turned out to be restoring the broken stove. Fortunately, Fu managed to locate a craftsman who had studied traditional methods of laying brick stoves. With the purchase of new jars from local kilns, the production line was back in order by the mid-2000s. According to Fu, post-earthquake restoration turned out to have a surprising silver lining because it fostered much closer cooperation within the local agricultural community. A contract with a farm in Houlong Township of Miaoli

County in northern Taiwan now provides May-dong with organic black-hull soybeans meeting about 70 percent of the company’s need. The rest currently comes from imports of the yellow-hull variety from Canada. Fu plans to further expand his use of locally grown beans in the future on the back of government policies encouraging domestic soybean production as a way of bolstering the country’s food self-sufficiency. He also intends to replace some of his imported salt and sugar supply with local yields. Relevant partnership proposals are pending after discussions with farmers in the southern Taiwan cities of Chiayi and Tainan.

Cultural Preservation

These collaborations match Fu’s vision of bolstering sustainable

01

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development in the country’s agricultural sector while fostering awareness of the unique flavor palate of local soy sauces. He heads a traditional brewing culture association comprising several senior sauce makers to promote production of black soybean sauce, which Fu considers emblematic of Taiwan. “In the past, there were few exchanges between individual makers,” Fu said. “Now we’ve got a growing consensus on the need to jointly preserve this significant part of our culinary tradition.” Among other efforts, the group has sought assistance from food scientists at National Chung Hsing University in Taichung to enhance final products by taking environmental factors like temperature and humidity into account. “Each sauce has its own distinct flavor based on the brewing conditions in different locations, and we want to bring that out as much as possible,” Fu said. Intent on ensuring the soy sauce trade is passed down to the next generation, Fu has incorporated an

educational component into his family business as well, inviting students from nearby elementary schools to witness the production process firsthand. “Students receive their finished sauce as a special gift upon graduation, making for a truly memorable experience,” Fu said. He has also been invited to lecture on topics like food culture and community regeneration at tertiary institutions such as National Taichung University of Science and Technology. Plans to establish a museum devoted to soy sauce production are also in the works. Preparatory efforts have already begun with joint exhibitions held by Maydong and like-minded producers in Taichung. Similar events are scheduled later this year at Taipei City’s Huashan 1914 Creative Park. For members of Fu’s association, the museum is a critical step in cultural preservation, but to Fu the endeavor has even greater significance: it is the highest tribute he could pay to his family legacy. 63

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Taiwan Review 2020 Index This index of articles appearing in the Taiwan Review in 2020 (Vol. 70) is arranged by subject as well as by author. Notes in parentheses have been added for clarification.

SUBJECT INDEX ARTS ARCHITECTURE Form and Function (Wang Chiu-hwa’s architectural works feature understated, functional designs) May/Jun., 60–66 CERAMICS Centering on Ceramics (a municipal museum is drawing international attention to Taiwan pottery) Nov./Dec., 56–61 CRAFTS

West Meets East (churches in Taiwan stand out with their architecture) May/Jun., 74–83

ECONOMICS BUSINESS Added Value (the experience economy is becoming a go-to model for young businesspeople) Sep./Oct., 52–59 INDUSTRY

Art of the Cut (a retired teacher brings birds to life with paper and scissors) Mar./Apr., 62–67

Cooking to Success (high-quality training is giving talented chefs a head start) May/Jun., 20–25

EXHIBITIONS

Plants Only (vegetarian food is becoming a mainstream option for local diners) May/Jun., 32–37

Wood Resourceful (from classroom to Presidential Office, a woodworking master has done it all) Jul./Aug., 54–61

Art Houses (museums are making Taiwan artists the focus of their collections) Jul./Aug., 22–27 FASHION Crossover Fashion (brand tie-ups are helping Taiwan designers make their names) Sep./Oct., 46–51 PAINTING

Palatable and Permissible (Muslim diners in Taiwan can find halal food for every budget) May/Jun., 38–43

Tantalizing Transformation (the country’s food service industry is going from strength to strength) May/Jun., 12–19

Taste of Taiwan (local chocolatiers are proving their mastery of the cacao bean) Mar./Apr., 56–61

Up and Coming (galleries and auctions are key cogs in Taiwan’s art market) Jul./Aug., 38–43

Abstract Visions (Paul Chiang brings a lifetime of experience to his Taitung County studio) Sep./Oct., 60–67

TRANSPORTATION

Drawing from the Heart (artist Yang Mao-lin is never afraid to break the mold) Jul./Aug., 62–67

EDITORIAL

Depicting Divine (Jose Hsu creates religious murals blending traditional and modern) Nov./Dec., 62–67

PHOTOGRAPHY Back on Track (newly opened Railway Department Park offers a treat for train enthusiasts) Nov./Dec., 68–75

Bits and Pieces (a New Taipei City resident sews unique dresses for children) May/Jun., 68–73 Images of Democracy (photographers take a look at Taiwan’s 2020 presidential election) Mar./Apr., 68–83

Ironclad Dwellings (a master blacksmith is keeping a dying art alive) Sep./Oct., 68–75

Roasted and Toasted (a wok and open fire are the tools of choice for a Pingtung family business) Jul./Aug., 76–83 Small, Small World (detailed scale models by artist Hank Cheng bring imagination to life) Nov./Dec., 76–83 Stitching a Point (an artist shows her passion with needle and thread) Jan./Feb., 76–83

Sun-kissed Seasoning (salt beds of southern Taiwan are finding new life as tourist hot spots) Sep./Oct., 76–83 Taste of Home (traditional flavors are found at a Taipei pancake shop) Jan./Feb., 68–75 Thirty Thousand Colors (a Taichung Museum is showing the multidimensional side of paper) Jul./Aug., 68–75

Transit Plus (light rail is proving a hit with residents and tourists alike) Jan./Feb., 56–63

Celebrating Democracy (President Tsai Ing-wen’s reelection was a triumph for freedom) Mar./Apr., 3

Clarion Call (Taiwan’s presence in the WHO is more important than ever) May/Jun., 3

Divine Right (farsighted leadership is seeing Taiwan lead the way in religious freedom) Sep./Oct., 3 Healthy Aging (Taiwan is proactively addressing the challenge of a super-aged society) Nov./Dec., 3 New Chapter, A (Taiwan studies are amplifying the country’s voice on the world stage) Jan./Feb., 3

New Life (success in managing the coronavirus pandemic sets the stage for a bright future) Jul./Aug., 3

ENVIRONMENT CONSERVATION Floral Arks (Taiwan’s botanical gardens are multipurpose spaces for learning and leisure) Mar./Apr., 26–33 Greener Cities (preserving urban flora is a priority for local governments) Mar./Apr., 40–45

Space to Thrive (legal protections are safeguarding habitats for vulnerable plants) Mar./Apr., 20–25

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Verdant Island (a red list of Taiwan’s plant species is helping guide conservation efforts) Mar./Apr., 12–19

Wisdom of the Trees (universities’ forest lands are hubs of innovation) Mar./Apr., 34–39

POLITICS DIPLOMACY Borderless Love (Taiwan Can Help displaced people on Thailand’s western border) Jan./Feb., 50–55 Call to Action (Taiwan is committed to climate action despite its exclusion from the UNFCCC) Nov./Dec., 46–51 Commitment to Caring (Taiwan Can Help during the coronavirus pandemic) Jul./Aug., 44–49 Empowering Prosperity (the country boosts livelihoods around the region through APEC initiatives) Nov./Dec., 52–55 Expanding Outreach (health care cooperation is improving lives in Southeast Asia) Jan./Feb., 44–49 Learning from Experience (government-funded overseas visits inspire homegrown social programs) May/Jun., 48–53 Shoots of Friendship (Youth Cultural Gardeners project is fostering links with regional partners) Mar./Apr., 46–49 Taiwan Model, The (Taiwan’s coronavirus success shows it deserves a place in the WHO) May/Jun., 44–47 Thicker Than Water (new immigrant children are deepening ties with Southeast Asia) Jul./Aug., 50–53 Toward a Safer World (INTERPOL is missing a key piece in the fight against crime) Sep./Oct., 42–45 Youth Power (MOFA is cultivating a new generation of leaders) Jan./Feb., 40–43 Willing and Able (volunteers are driving TaiwanICDF’s missions around the world) Mar./Apr., 50–55

SOCIETY ARCHAEOLOGY Forgotten Remnants (a find on Heping Island excites archaeologists) May/Jun., 54–59 CUISINE Taste Gone By (local cooks are reimagining Taiwan cuisine) May/Jun., 26–31 CULTURE

RELIGION Civil Doctrine (Buddhism provides education and spiritual guidance in Taiwan) Sep./Oct., 18–23

Fostering Inclusivity (the country’s Islamic communities are home to people from around the world) Sep./Oct., 36–41

Modern Way, The (traditions and rituals from Taoism and folk religion play vital societal roles) Sep./Oct., 24–29

Spiritual Oasis (Taiwan is among the world’s most religiously diverse countries) Sep./Oct., 12–17 Spreading the Word (Taiwan’s Christians are known for their charitable endeavors) Sep./Oct., 30–35 TAIWAN STUDIES Beauty in Diversity (Taiwan’s cultural diversity creates a vibrant arts scene) Jan./Feb., 32–39 Forging an Identity (scholars at home and abroad are zeroing in on Taiwan) Jan./Feb., 12–17 Labors of Linguistics (local languages are being revived) Jan./Feb., 22–25

Links to the Past (researchers are revealing the country’s untold stories) Jan./Feb., 18–21) Redrawing the Past (local art history is gaining increased recognition) Jul./Aug., 16–21

Turning the Page (native authors are receiving global recognition) Jan./Feb., 26–31 WELFARE Golden Years (a raft of smart policies are being implemented to help the elderly) Nov./Dec., 16–21 Graying Economy (enterprises are catering to local senior citizens’ wants and needs) Nov./Dec., 40–45

Just Rewards (national pension plans are ensuring a secure future for all) Nov./Dec., 22–25

Lifelong Learning (local governments promote active aging through continued education) Nov./Dec., 32–39 Second Home (senior citizens are finding a new life in the country’s eldercare facilities) Nov./Dec., 26–31

Piece by Piece (Taiwan’s art conservators extend the lifespans of cherished treasures) Jul./Aug., 28–33 EDUCATION Telling History (universities are putting the nation’s artistic past at the center of their curricula) Jul./Aug., 34–37 II

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Taiwan Review 2020 Index AUTHOR INDEX CHUNG, Oscar

GAO, Pat

Abstract Visions (ARTS/Painting/Paul Chiang brings a lifetime of experience to his Taitung County studio) Sep./Oct., 60–67

Call to Action (POLITICS/Diplomacy/Taiwan is committed to climate action despite its exclusion from the UNFCCC) Nov./Dec., 46–51

Art Houses (ARTS/Exhibitions/museums are making Taiwan artists the focus of their collections) Jul./Aug., 22–27 Beauty in Diversity (SOCIETY/Taiwan Studies/Taiwan’s cultural diversity creates a vibrant arts scene) Jan./Feb., 32–39 Borderless Love (POLITICS/Diplomacy/Taiwan Can Help displaced people on Thailand’s western border) Jan./Feb., 50–55 Centering on Ceramics (ARTS/Ceramics/a municipal museum is drawing international attention to Taiwan pottery) Nov./Dec., 56–61 Form and Function (ARTS/Architecture/Wang Chiu-hwa’s architectural works feature understated, functional designs) May/Jun., 60–66 Graying Economy (SOCIETY/Welfare/enterprises are catering to local senior citizens’ wants and needs) Nov./Dec., 40–45 Palatable and Permissible (ECONOMICS/Industry/Muslim diners in Taiwan can find halal food for every budget) May/Jun., 38–43 Second Home (SOCIETY/Welfare/senior citizens are finding a new life in the country’s eldercare facilities) Nov./Dec., 26–31 Shoots of Friendship (POLITICS/Diplomacy/Youth Cultural Gardeners project is fostering links with regional partners) Mar./Apr., 46–49 Spiritual Oasis (SOCIETY/Religion/Taiwan is among the world’s most religiously diverse countries) Sep./Oct., 12–17 Spreading the Word (SOCIETY/Religion/Taiwan’s Christians are known for their charitable endeavors) Sep./Oct., 30–35 Taiwan Model, The (POLITICS/Diplomacy/Taiwan’s coronavirus success shows it deserves a place in the WHO) May/Jun., 44–47 Taste of Taiwan (ECONOMICS/Industry/local chocolatiers are proving their mastery of the cacao bean) Mar./Apr., 56–61

Civil Doctrine (SOCIETY/Religion/Buddhism provides education and spiritual guidance in Taiwan) Sep./Oct., 18–23 Cooking to Success (ECONOMICS/Industry/high-quality training is giving talented chefs a head start) May/Jun., 20–25 Depicting Divine (ARTS/Painting/Jose Hsu creates religious murals blending traditional and modern) Nov./Dec., 62–67 Forging an Identity (SOCIETY/Taiwan Studies/scholars at home and abroad are zeroing in on Taiwan) Jan./Feb., 12–17 Forgotten Remnants (SOCIETY/Archaeology/a find on Heping Island excites archaeologists) May/Jun., 54–59 Greener Cities (ENVIRONMENT/Conservation/preserving urban flora is a priority for local governments) Mar./Apr., 40–45 Just Rewards (SOCIETY/Welfare/national pension plans are ensuring a secure future for all) Nov./Dec., 22–25 Labors of Linguistics (SOCIETY/Taiwan Studies/local languages are being revived) Jan./Feb., 22–25 Links to the Past (SOCIETY/Taiwan Studies/researchers are revealing the country’s untold stories) Jan./Feb., 18–21) Modern Way, The (SOCIETY/Religion/traditions and rituals from Taoism and folk religion play vital societal roles) Sep./Oct., 24–29 Redrawing the Past (SOCIETY/Taiwan Studies/local art history is gaining increased recognition) Jul./Aug., 16–21 Space to Thrive (ENVIRONMENT/Conservation/legal protections are safeguarding habitats for vulnerable plants) Mar./Apr., 20–25 Taste Gone By (SOCIETY/Cuisine/local cooks are reimagining Taiwan cuisine) May/Jun., 26–31

Thicker Than Water (POLITICS/Diplomacy/new immigrant children are deepening ties with Southeast Asia) Jul./Aug., 50–53

Telling History (SOCIETY/Education/universities are putting the nation’s artistic past at the center of their curricula) Jul./Aug., 34–37

Up and Coming (ECONOMICS/Industry/galleries and auctions are key cogs in Taiwan’s art market) Jul./Aug., 38–43

Toward a Safer World (POLITICS/Diplomacy/INTERPOL is missing a key piece in the fight against crime) Sep./Oct., 42–45

Verdant Island (ENVIRONMENT/Conservation/a red list of Taiwan’s plant species is helping guide conservation efforts) Mar./Apr., 12–19

Wisdom of the Trees (ENVIRONMENT/Conservation/universities’ forest lands are hubs of innovation) Mar./Apr., 34–39

Youth Power (POLITICS/Diplomacy/MOFA is cultivating a new generation of leaders) Jan./Feb., 40–43

Wood Resourceful (ARTS/Crafts/from classroom to Presidential Office, a woodworking master has done it all) Jul./Aug., 54–61

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HER, Kelly Added Value (ECONOMICS/Business/the experience economy is becoming a go-to model for young businesspeople) Sep./Oct., 52–59 Art of the Cut (ARTS/Crafts/a retired teacher brings birds to life with paper and scissors) Mar./Apr., 62–67

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HWANG, Jim

Commitment to Caring (POLITICS/Diplomacy/Taiwan Can Help during the coronavirus pandemic) Jul./Aug., 44–49

Back on Track (ARTS/Photography/newly opened Railway Department Park offers a treat for train enthusiasts) Nov./Dec., 68–75

Crossover Fashion (ARTS/Fashion/brand tie-ups are helping Taiwan designers make their names) Sep./Oct., 46–51

Bits and Pieces (ARTS/Photography/a New Taipei City resident sews unique dresses for children) May/Jun., 68–73

Drawing from the Heart (ARTS/Painting/artist Yang Mao-lin is never afraid to break the mold) Jul./Aug., 62–67

Images of Democracy (ARTS/Photography/photographers take a look at Taiwan’s 2020 presidential election) Mar./Apr., 68–83

Empowering Prosperity (POLITICS/Diplomacy/the country boosts livelihoods around the region through APEC initiatives) Nov./Dec., 52–55

Ironclad Dwellings (ARTS/Photography/a master blacksmith is keeping a dying art alive) Sep./Oct., 68–75

Expanding Outreach (POLITICS/Diplomacy/health care cooperation is improving lives in Southeast Asia) Jan./Feb., 44–49

Roasted and Toasted (ARTS/Photography/a wok and open fire are the tools of choice for a Pingtung family business) Jul./Aug., 76–83

Floral Arks (ENVIRONMENT/Conservation/Taiwan’s botanical gardens are multipurpose spaces for learning and leisure) Mar./Apr., 26–33

Small, Small World (ARTS/Photography/detailed scale models by artist Hank Cheng bring imagination to life) Nov./Dec., 76–83

Fostering Inclusivity (SOCIETY/Religion/the country’s Islamic communities are home to people from around the world) Sep./Oct., 36–41

Stitching a Point (ARTS/Photography/an artist shows her passion with needle and thread) Jan./Feb., 76–83

Golden Years (SOCIETY/Welfare/a raft of smart policies are being implemented to help the elderly) Nov./Dec., 16–21 Learning from Experience (POLITICS/Diplomacy/governmentfunded overseas visits inspire homegrown social programs) May/Jun., 48–53 Lifelong Learning (SOCIETY/Welfare/local governments promote active aging through continued education) Nov./Dec., 32–39 Piece by Piece (SOCIETY/Culture/Taiwan’s art conservators extend the lifespans of cherished treasures) Jul./Aug., 28–33

Sun-kissed Seasoning (ARTS/Photography/salt beds of southern Taiwan are finding new life as tourist hot spots) Sep./Oct., 76–83 Taste of Home (ARTS/Photography/traditional flavors are found at a Taipei pancake shop) Jan./Feb., 68–75 Thirty Thousand Colors (ARTS/Photography/a Taichung Museum is showing the multidimensional side of paper) Jul./Aug., 68–75 West Meets East (ARTS/Photography/churches in Taiwan stand out with their architecture) May/Jun., 74–83

Plants Only (ECONOMICS/Industry/vegetarian food is becoming a mainstream option for local diners) May/Jun., 32–37 Tantalizing Transformation (ECONOMICS/Industry/the country’s food service industry is going from strength to strength) May/Jun., 12–19 Transit Plus (ECONOMICS/Transportation/light rail is proving a hit with residents and tourists alike) Jan./Feb., 56–63 Turning the Page (SOCIETY/Taiwan Studies/native authors are receiving global recognition) Jan./Feb., 26–31 Willing and Able (POLITICS/Diplomacy/volunteers are driving TaiwanICDF’s missions around the world) Mar./Apr., 50–55 IV

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台 灣 評 論

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or more than five decades, statesupported International Cooperat i o n a n d D e v e l o p m e n t Fu n d (TaiwanICDF) has been providing humanitarian and technical aid to allies and partner countries. In the course of both shortterm missions and yearslong cooperation projects, professionals and volunteers from Taiwan have greatly contributed to the socioeconomic development of their target locations. To c e l e b r a t e t h e p e o p l e - t o - p e o p l e exchanges promoted by the organization, TaiwanICDF put on a special exhibition titled “Seeing Myself in You” in 2017. The display showcased select photos taken by foreign-aid workers scattered across 22 countries, with images highlighting Taiwan’s diplomatic efforts as well as daily life and local customs in a range of developing nations. For viewers, the photos provide a window into other corners of the world, but for the photographers, snapping the shots became far more than an exercise in documenting different cultures. With a click of the shutter, they captured the spirit of their host countries and saw their own humanity reflected in the scenes on the other side of the camera lens. —by Jim Hwang

“Befriend the Banana,” Huang Tzu-hsuan, Nicaragua

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Mirror Images A special exhibition showcases moments captured in faraway locations through the lenses of Taiwan’s foreign-aid workers. PHOTOS COURTESY OF INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT FUND

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01. “On a Worn Path in the Autumn Wind,” Huang Yu-hui, Jordan 02. “Standing on Her Own Feet,” Chou Ya-fen, Haiti 03. “In the Country of Lakes and Volcanoes,” Lee Ti-in, Nicaragua 04. “Gaze,” Yang Shih-yi, Eswatini

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01. “The First Chinese Class in Haiti,” Tsai-Yi-lan, Haiti 02. “Let’s See Who Wins!” Chen Yi-kai, Marshall Islands 03. “Bop to the Top,” Yang Shih-yi, Eswatini 04. “Utter Innocence,” Huang Hung-yi, Nicaragua

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01. “Shoulder to Shoulder,” Pan Po-yuan, Indonesia 02. “The Woman of Sugar Mas,” Wu Ping-hu, St. Kitts and Nevis 03. “Carnival,” Liu Chia-chang, Haiti

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01. “Curiosity,” Liang Jia-huan, Nepal 02. “Gather Together,” Chu Kan-wei, St. Vincent and the Grenadines 03. “Pineapple Prosperity,” Chu Kan-wei, St. Vincent and the Grenadines 04. “Behind the Colors,” Chang Chia-yu, Haiti

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01. “Lullaby After Class,” Huang Yi-chung, Papua New Guinea 02. “Adieu,” Chang Hao-ming, Tuvalu

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01. “A Window with a View,” Chen Yi-ann, St. Lucia 02. “Entrance to the Heart of the Earth,” Chen Po-hung, Nicaragua 03. “A Boat in the Center of the Lake,” Chen Po-hung, Nicaragua 04. “Paddling Home at Sunset,” Lai Yi-chun, Palau

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01. “The Fairy Chimneys and the Hot Air Balloons,” Carrie Hsieh, Turkey 02. “Jacaranda Blossoms,” Lin Tse-yen, Eswatini 03. “Bridge to the World,” Chang Hao-ming, Tuvalu 04. “Just a Stone’s Throw Away,” Peng Yuan-ching, Nicaragua

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