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Bath House for Govan Taina Lund-Ricard 201046888 Y4

“Healing is a matter of time, but it is sometimes also a matter of opportunity.� - Hippocrates

Govan has suffered tremendously for too long. the downfall of its shipbuilding industry and the large scale slum demolitions of the 1960s-70s led to the loss of 80% of its population in under 50 years.The high rise tower blocks that replaced the slums deteriorated immediately and have since been torn down. The urban landscape left behind is one of desolation, empty lots, derelict buildings overwhelm what is still there. The density of the area is extremely low. Although located at a key point for Glasgow, it is highly separated from the rest of the city through a lack of bridges and accessibility. Its river edge is disused and a huge missed opportunity. The Graving Docks are an amazing reminder of the shipbuilding industry that strived in Govan.

The new developments in Govan must be placed within an effort to restructure Govan’s urban frame, celebrate its past and ship building heritage, re-densify its centre and transform its water edge into a pleasant pedestrian promenade with the Graving Docks transformed into a heritage park. Govan must be reconnected to Partick and the rest of Glasgow to attract visitors.

Healing Govan: Intent of Design

The bath house must act as an architectural icon, respectful of its context and industrial heritage.Capable of attracting new visitors and Govan residents without alienating the existing population.

Healing Govan: Intent of Design Chapter Headings


5 IV. Brief

I. Govan Appraisal Present Conditions .............. Glasgow’s Industrial Part ........ Site opportunities .............. Site Overview ..................

6 7 8 10

VII.ii Project Drawings

22 Brief : Govan ................. 23 Brief: Ground floor ........... 24 brief: Bath House ............

22 23 24

V. Site Response V.i Ground Floor

II. Masterplan Pre slum clearance urban form .... Existing building form ........... Masterplanning: Block form study . Masterplan .......................

11 12 13 14

III. Precedents Design Precedents ................ Glasgow existing Pools .......... Glasgow’s Wash houses and bath houses Roman Baths ......................

15 19 20 21

Govan’s existing market .......... The Bath House as a gate ......... A new covered market ............. Pop up instructions .............. existing square ................... Proposed Square ..................

25 26 27 28 29 31

V.ii Bath House The gym .......................... Brick Pattern .................... Industrial landscape of Glasgow .. “Wally close” tiles ..............

33 34 35 36

VI. Design Development


VII. Building Design VII.i.Diagrams Ground floor access .............. 48 ground Floor layout ........... 49 First Floor layout ............ 50 Sectional Organisation ........ 51 First floor organisation ...... 52 Connection to the Hospice ..... CHAPTER HEADINGS

47 48 49 50 51 52

Site Plan ........................ Site model ....................... Ground Floor Plan in context ..... Ground Floor Plan ............... First Floor Plan ................. Elevations ...................... Sections through circulation ..... Section through the pool spaces .. the main pool space ............. The Spa .........................

53 54 55 56 57 58 59 61 62 64

VIII. Technical and Environmental Strategy Structural Frame ................ Materials ....................... Technical Section ............... Roof to Wall Detail ............. Window to Floor Detail ......... Ground Floor Glazing Detail .... Pool Edge Detail ................ Circulation and Escape .......... Water ........................... Pool Cover Detail ................ Water and Air ................... Pool Fixtures ................... Dry and Wet Changing Rooms ....... Natural and Artificial Lighting . Plant Rooms ..................... Air distribution system .......... Acoustics ........................

65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81





Walking through Govan there is a real Sense of Loss, the area, although geographically well located is disconnection from the rest of the city. The urban fabric has a patchwork quality with buildings of interest lost in a sea of poor quality housing, parking expanses, empty lots and winding foot paths. It’s shipping heritage is only guessed at and the Graving Docks, fenced in, are discovered with surprise. The connection to the river has been lost, with little views and little life to be found. Within the established masterplan, the hospice and Bath House must contribute to the effort of re-solidify Govan’s urban identity.

Following page: Photos from Govan’s Industrial Past

Present Conditions

A once active and bustling industrial landscape. Remains of this activity are found dotted around Govan but few if any are celebrated. 6

Govan’s Industrial Past


MASTERPLANNING GOVAN (Above) The area here highlighted was deemed key in the rehabilitation of Govan into an attractive and successful neighbourhood. With Govan Parish Church and the Transport Museum near by; close to the main arterial road: Govan Road, as well as the Govan subway station; good possibility for connecting Govan to Partick and beyond. HOSPICE BY THE CLYDE (centre left) The site was chosen for its connection to Govan and Partick as well as its intimate quality, tucked between a church wall and the river. BATH HOUSE FOR GOVAN (bottom left and Opposite Page) The site was chosen for its centrality, a key area for Govan’s urban centre. Access to the Clyde and views to the Transport Museum makes this an attractive site. A small square has been landscaped but loses any successful sense of identity due to the vast parking lot that runs from its northern side right up to the Clyde. Low rise sprawling housing, a massive and unattractive mall, derelict land, all contribute to a sense of isolation.

Site Opportunities


Site Opportunities


The site is dominated by a vast parking lot. It is extensive, alternatively very busy or desolate. The only active edges are those of the landscaped square framed by the water row tenements and the Govan Linthouse Parish Church (currently under renovation). There are great views to the Clyde and the Transport Museum. Dominant Winds coming from the Clyde blow west. The existing square with views to Govan is south -west facing. The Urban Garden with views to the Clyde and beyond is north-east facing.

Site Overview




Before the City Improvement Trust’s slum demolition, Govan had a traditional tenemental form. Its fabric was denser, more structured and more readable than present day. A regular ferry linked Govan to Partick and the West End Although the Clyde’s edge is predominantly industrial, a public park and views to the river have been arranged.

Pre-Slum Clearance Urban Form


Listed Buildings

Of Conservation Merit

New Build

An understanding of the existing urban fabric, its flaws, empty lots, derelict buildings is key to reimagine Govan urban frame. More important still is to understand which buildings are beneficial to the urban realm and should be retained, celebrated and integrated into a denser and more structured environment.

Study of Existing Urban Form

The above plan highlights those buildings which have been identified as having a positive impact. 12


Present Day


Dominent Block Form

Connecting Govan to Partick

After the downfall of its shipbuilding industry and the large scale demolitions of the 1960s-70s, Govan lost 80% of its population in under 50 years.

It is paramount to increase the housing density in this area and to remember and celebrate Govan’s rich past. Combining Govan’s specific long tenemental forms with today’s understanding of the importance of walkability and accessibility, this masterplan aims to reconnect Govan to its past whilst creating a contemporary, dense, and walkable new waterfront neighbourhood.


Connecting Govan to PArtick

Views and ways to the Clyde









e th




Large Parking under the existing market square

Market square face to the clyde

A pedestrian walkway along the River t es n va Go g ck n i ti ec Part nn Co to

Connecting Govan Block Form Study Large parking to Partick under the

re de ua sq cly t e the rk Ma to e c fa




a ri

y wa




e th









Bath House



Brunel University Lecture Centre, Sheppard & Stillman Brutalist building

Klockarebackens Funeral Chapel, Höör, Sweden The waffle slab and industrial feel, the play with lighting.

geometric expression, staircases expressed, strong language. Inspiration but softened.

Dark Matter: Musée Soulages in Rodez by RCR Arquitectes The expressed boxes that vary in height and width had an initial impact on the design of the bath house.

le Corbusier, Chandigarh, India A concrete statement roof


The Aalto House, Alvar Aalto, Helsinki, Finland The softness and scale, the juxtaposition of openings and windows.

Finlandia Hall, Alvar Aalto, Helsinki, Finland The presence, the rigidness playfully broken.

Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, CT, USA

Meyer Dudesek - Valerio Olgiati

The waffle slab ceiling is particularly appealing here and gives a lightness to the otherwise concrete unity of the space.

A surprising form, a landmark


Victorian warehouse converted showroom, London, UK by McDowell+Benedetti



Public Library, Enric Miralles, Barcelona

Gothenburg Sauna, Architecture Raumlabor

The building roots itself into the landscape. The bath house extend into the market square through identical floor slabs and landscaping.

Playful industrialism

Golden Crust Bakery, Melbourne Factory converted into homes

Ke meridien Hotel, Zhengzhou, China Redesign by Neri&Hu

The industrial aesthetic, combination of steel and brick.

Glass, bronze, wood, tasteful superposition of natural materials


Industrial, old and new


Neuie Building, Mies The columns separated from the glass wall and the way it connects to the ground, seamlessly.

St Brides, East Kilbride, Scotland Massive brick walls, lit from above, modern and traditional at once Santa Caterina floor Plan - Market, Barcelona Inspiration to create a beautiful space that be used all year long. In the end free standing market stalls that can be removed and moved at wish were deemed more interesting than fixed stands.

Victorian Industrial Brick building Shoreham Street, Sheffield Project Orange Celebrate industrial heritage whilst making it to relevant to its evolving context


01. Glasgow Club Gorbals 02. Glasgow Club Drumoyne 03. Crownpoint Sports Complex 04. Sir Chris Hoy Velodrome 05. Glasgow Club Whitehill 06. Tollcross Leisure Centre 07. Glasgow Kelvin Hall International Sports Arena 08. Glasgow Club Bellahouston 09. Scotstoun Stadium 10. Glasgow Club Springburn 11. Glasgow Club Maryhill

Govan does not have any water based entertainment in its vicinity. The closest is Glasgow Club Drumoyne which is just another typical commercial gym building without any real sensitivity to context both built and cultural. a beautiful building which can act as rejuvenator of Govan’s town centre is very much needed. This building possible from gym buildings opportunities

should strive to stay as far away as the lifeless commerciality of other and offer a range of activities and for Govannites and visitors.

Pools In Glasgow


(Above) Govanhill Public Baths and Wash-house in Calder Street, 1917. Originally they had hot baths in the upper storey and three swimming pools on the ground floor. The original wash-house at the rear of the building was converted to a launderette in the early seventies. The baths were subject to much Public support to keep them open a couple of year’s ago with well a documented occupation / sit - in. unfortunately their efforts failed and the baths closed. The Govanhill Baths Trust has now been set up following the encouragement of Historic Scotland to restore and reopen the Baths.

bath houses used to be a prominent part of Scotland and Glasgow’s public life. Many of them have now closed down and the opportunity to meet others, play and exercise in beautiful settings has been for the most part lost. It is essential to combine the bath house with other important roles (such as a market, restaurant, bar..) to ensure its financial viability and contextual relevance.

Glasgow’s Wash houses and Bath Houses


Roman baths were part of the day-to-day life in Ancient Rome. It was very cheap to use a Roman bath. A visitor, after paying his entrance fee, would strip naked and hand his clothes to an attendant. He could then do some exercising to work up a sweat before moving into the tepidarium which would prepare him for the caldarium (a modern sauna). The idea was for the sweat to get rid of the body’s dirt. After this a slave would rub olive oil into the visitor’s skin and then scrap it off with a strigil. The more luxurious establishments would have professional masseurs to do this. After this, the visitor would return to the tepidarium and then to frigidarium to cool down. Finally, he could use the main pool. Bathing was very important to the Ancient Romans as it served many functions, hygiene, socialising and well being. Govan’s Bath House should aim to be a part of Govan’s social and cultural experience. A place where users can meet, learn and take care of themselves. Through healthy food,

Roman Baths


The developments in Govan, that is: the masterplan, the Hospice and the Bath House, should all have the following goals: To restructure Govan’s urban landscape To celebrate Govan’s industrial heritage To embellish Govan To improve the health and wellbeing of Govan’s inhabitants and visitors To encourage pedestrian movement


This project concerns the design of a Bath House, to be sited within a masterplan of the District of Govan, to the west of the City of Glasgow. The Bath House will front the existing square and act as an entry point to an urban garden on the edge of the Clyde from which one can cross the river or follow the promenade along the edge. The existing vast parking lot will be moved underground to attract motorised visitors who can park to enjoy the market and the bath house, the landscaped water front, the Graving Docks, cross over to the Transport museum via a new pedestrian bridge. The Bath house should act as a landmark and a gate to Govan’s development and its connection to Partick.

Brief: Govan


The Bath house building has two main responsibilities:

Accommodation necessary: -Entrance and reception Welcoming, should add to the general sense of activity of the building, with a clear sense of where to go to access the bath house.

To the neighbourhood: It must help shape Govan’s demolished urban context by highlighting that which is positive and replacing that which is destructive.

-Waiting Area Within view of the reception with views to the garden

A small existing landscaped square should be framed and improved to further celebrate the Water Row tenement and the Govan Linthouse Parish Church. It must create a formal and attractive the existing Govan market located on Through the creation of an urban garden encourage the sale and consumption produce.

-Offices Near reception, should add to the general sense of activity of the building, views onto the square

space for the site. it should of fresh

-Restaurant and Bar Onto the Square to add liveliness and attract dwellers

It must add to the general activity of the area with offices, restaurants, bars and cafes.

-Kitchen Accessible from the restaurant but placed in a service block

It should do so with the desire to increase footfall through good design, containment, increased entrance points, ground floor activity (both inside and out), etc.

-Covered market Square Attractive, customisable, glazed to retain heat and protect from dominant winds.

It should encourage the general wellbeing and health of Govan’s inhabitants and visitors.

-Storage for market users and stalls Placed to the side of the building in a service block -Storage for urban garden Placed to the side of the building in a service block -Some nearby accessibly parking spaces Just a few open air spaces for those who most need it. The bulk of the required parking will be placed underground.

S e r v i c e s

Covered Market Bath House Lobby

S e r v i c e s

-A large underground parking lot accessible to all but with spaces allocated to the Bath House. -Refuse area, accessible utility and plant rooms Must be easily accessible through side lanes

Bar & Restaurant

Brief: Ground Floor


To the Bath House users:

Accommodation necessary:

It should offer an attractive new destination for Govan’s inhabitants and visitors.

-Changing Rooms & WCs (both dry and wet) Pleasant, mixed use, naturally lit where possible

It should promote healthy living through its connection to the market and garden which will supply the juices and snacks served in its cafe and rest areas; through the increased physical activity, both swimming and alternative exercise forms such as parkour; through the health benefits linked to temperature alternation in the spa.

-A multidisciplinary gym space Not a normal gym, a space for training -Treatment and massage Rooms Top-lit with natural light, small to heat them easily

It should be iconic without being cold or distant.

-a Hydrotherapy pool

it should celebrate Govan and Glasgow’s visual heritage and create a space that feels grand but familiar.

A space with views to the river and garden, soothing tones, small changing room and storage unit. Spa -Cool relaxing colours, colourful ceramic tiles



-Steam Room, Sauna and Hammam Wood lined, with a plunge pool nearby -Showers and plunge pools placed by hot spaces -An Indoor Bath Low ceiling, framed view, contained space -Fire Bath, Ice Bath and relaxation pool Views to the river, high ceilings, seats to rest -An infrared tepidarium


C h a n g i n g


T r e a t m e n t

-Semi outdoor cold pools located in green-house type environments with openable windows to offer attractive spaces for sunny and not-so sunny days Spa



-A Main Pool space Indirect natural lighting, views to the river -a kiddy training pool nearby main pool -Utility and plant rooms

Brief: First Floor


“Govan Market, which takes place every Saturday morning on the vacant site at Water Row, is an important element of retail activity. It provides a wide range of retailing services from fruit, vegetables and meat to clothing, furniture, small electrical goods and other personal and household goods. The Market is a popular attraction for local residents and consumers from all areas of Glasgow, but while it attracts shoppers to Govan, there are concerns over ground conditions and the need to improve the general retailing environment of the facility. There are also concerns that the Market competes for trade with Govan Cross Shopping Centre and that it has reduced the development potential of the Water Row site. The Action Plan therefore seeks to secure a permanent location for the market to increase the attractiveness of Govan as a retail location.” Central Govan Action Plan commissioned by Glasgow City Council

During my own visits to the market, There were no fresh produce available (vegetable or fruit). Knowing that a huge portion of Govan’s population suffers from health issues, improved access to cheap, seasonal, organic produce is essential. The Bath house will offer a formal and attractive covered space for the existing stalls as well as new opportunities for fresh produce through the creation of an urban garden.

Govan’s Existing Market




Bath House





A place of social and economic activity. a Year long south facing glazed ground floor facade creates plenty of opportunity to see and be seen. A bar and restaurant can spill out onto the square on sunny days. The bath house users become an to the existing commerce users and church goers.

The new covered market opens up onto a large urban garden which can be used by the community. fruit trees and vegetable patches will grown, new jobs created for local residents. The garden will teach residents about the benefits of fresh produce as well as supply a cheap source for these produce. The restaurant will also be used as a way to promote healthy eating habits.



A Proposed covered market


The following two pages have been laid out as to allow the “pop up� of the buildings fronting the square. This allows an initial understanding of the impact of the bath house on said square. The changes in scale and feeling of containment as well as the landscaping and extent of the pedestrianised square are this way clearly illustrated.

Please feel free to fold upwards the pre-cut buildings to form a 3D version of the space.

Pop up instructions


A square has been laid out and landscaped fairly attractively on the existing site. However the large parking expanse that runs north of it completely undermines the sense of place. During the many visits to Govan no one was ever seen sitting on the available benches.

The potential of this small urban square was recognised. Its form was transformed in an effort to be bolder, more inclusive and create a space which would draw activity.

Pop up buildings - existing square


The Square is framed and contained, ground floor activity onto the square now include a bar and a restaurant, which can spill out onto the space, as well as offices. These join the already existing bank, dentist, cake shop, and youth centre.

Pop up buildings - Proposed square

The square becomes a large pedestrian space which unites the listed tenement, the Govan Linton Parish Church and the new bath house. The square is now an attractive entry point to a busy ground floor occupied by a large covered market which can be walked through to access the other side where users can find an urban garden, the river banks, a pedestrian bridge, the transport museum, Partick and eventually the West End. 31

A key concern in the development of Govan is to find a way to balance out the effects of gentrification on its inhabitants. It is essential to retain the existing community whilst attracting new residents and visitors. Govan has suffered from youth crime, they have implemented a scheme known as “operation modulus” which invites young offenders (16-25 yo) to attend training and work experience. this has been hugely beneficial. The Bath House should help that trend in any way it can. For that reason the gym space has been designed as a flexible indoor parkour training space which can also accommodate other classes such as circus training, arial silk, etc. (not currently available in Govan) Drawing Inspiration from the success stories of friend David Banks, Parkour coach in Glasgow, (Daily Record article to the right) The space had been made accessible to the youth to inspire them, allow them to reach new understandings of the abilities of their bodies and improve their relation to their urban environment. The space can act as an indoor free running space, which can be transformed to accommodate all types of arrangements and allow users to practice certain moves in a safe environment. Glasgow is one the leading cities in free running and the trend is ever growing.

“BRIAN FINLAYSON insists that he would have fallen into a bad life if he hadn't discovered daredevil sport parkour. TEENAGER Brian Finlayson was angry, rebellious and on a fast track to trouble with the law. But instead of climbing the walls with frustration, he has transformed his life by jumping off them – as a devotee of parkour. Brian, 16, believes the daredevil sport known as free running has calmed him down and helped him focus on a career. Brian is from Stornoway but his passion for parkour started at the Kibble Education and Care Centre, in Paisley, where he’s been a student for two years. He ended up there after a troubled childhood and, as well as discovering the joys of urban adventuring, he’s found a vocation. ­ “I was your typical ­ rebellious teenager and I was starting down a path that would have ended with me getting in trouble with the law,” he explained. “But being referred to Kibble has changed everything for me. It’s made me ambitious and given me hope that I can do something with my life. He said: “Free running has helped my fitness but it’s made me more confident in myself and I get a lot less frustrated when things go wrong. “It’s changed my personality for the better and I don’t get as annoyed or angry as I used to.”



Brick is common in Govan although sandstone is the prominent material. An Array of bricks are used for closes and secondary buildings, and recently in some of the new builds. In honour of industrial buildings, bricks were chosen for the exterior and some interior facades. To highlight the status of the Bath House, bricks of different colours but similar tones have been arranged in a pattern illustrated to the right.

Wally Close Tiles


Top left: Rear of Twomax buildings clothing factory, Gorbals Top Right: Glasgow ship yards Bottom Left: Templeton on the Green, Glasgow Bottom Right: Harland & Wolff, Belfast & Glasgow, Govan Yard, Glasgow

Industrial landscapes, Glasgow


Glasgow’s high class tenements were usually decorated with tile arrangements in their shared stairway, or “wally close�. The left and centre images consist of examples of these design.

Wally Close Tiles

In honour of this traditional format, a contemporary take on those tiles has been implemented. The top image consists of the tile pattern for the inside of the pools. The above image consists of the tile pattern for the area surrounding the pools. These intend to give the users a playful and familiar feeling when using the pools. These will contrast to the smoothness and paleness of the white concrete. 36

Initial preoccupation were placing the areas of activity in places easily accessible by pedestrians. The south facing square and water row street leading to the new pedestrian bridge were key areas for this. The Bath house organisation was played with through the understanding of the traditional journeys through bath houses (Roman and Greek). 37

The existing market should be re-housed at the ground floor of the Bath House in a covered column filled space. The columns should be designed with an edge that market stands can be attached to. the layout can that way be customised at wish. The existing elevations onto the square (Water Row Tenement and Linthouse Parish Church) drawn to the left were used as a reference point to understand the impact of the bath house onto the composition of buildings. The height of the building should be shorter than the church (traditional urban hierarchy) but have a taller element that can relate to the tenement and act as a landmark. The building’s mass is explored through subtraction. 38

le Corbusier, Chandigarh, India

The bath house should act as a gate between Govan and the river edge (and Partick and beyond). Water Row Street is removed to create one large pedestrianised Square. The building footprint becomes rectangular in shape and spans behind the tenement and the church. The spaces of activity such as the offices and restaurant are placed onto the square to encourage activity. Views to the Clyde are framed for the Spa spaces. 39

The Spa is organised in a way inspired by Roman Baths. circular pools drop into the ground floor’s large vaults, a contemporary take on a traditional form. Services are placed on the short and less public ends of the building.

Meyer Dudesek Valerio Olgiati 40

The Building is divided into segments to allow natural light into the deep covered market. This division also allows natural light to be brought in at interesting angles throughout the first floor. An orthogonal approach is here taken. The ensemble of buildings onto the square is still considered, this time with a very modern approach, respecting the height lines of the church. 41

Views to the Square or the Clyde are carefully organised. A symmetrical layout is utilised in Spa, still a reference to classicism.

Brunel University Lecture Centre, Sheppard&Stillman 42

The ground floor is laid out with a tightly nit forest of columns to allow the market stands to be attached to them in what ever configuration is most desirable at the time. The pool has been mirrored to face the Clyde and prevent any excess glare. 43

The main pool space has been designed into more of a sculptural piece that stands out onto the square.

Finlandia Hall, Alvar Aalto, Helsinki, Finland


In an effort to simplify the circulation in the building a long corridor with benches to sit on and enjoy views to the Square has been moved to the front of the building, it connects to every part of the first floor with thin fingers placed between each segments. Differences in height and roof angle aim to create interesting spaces throughout. 45

The circulation has been transformed to organically transform and create a more pleasant journey for the users, it moves through spaces of activity such as a cafe and the spa reception to smaller corridors, punctuated with views to the square and to the Clyde. The ground floor layout mirrors the structural organisation of the first floor. 46

Urban garden and the River Clyde

Bath House Entrance Covered Market




South-East Facing Square

N Ground Floor Access


GROUND FLOOR The ground floor is almost entirely glazed to allow a flexible and useable space all year long. It acts as a gate between the Square and the river edge. A visual link between the square and the pedestrian bridge over the Clyde is allowed through the glazed walkway which also contains the entrances to the Bath House Lobby and the market.

Urban Garden River BANKS

The covered market opens up towards the urban garden and clyde thanks to large rotatable doors. in an effort to create more activity on the square and create new opportunities for Govan’s inhabitants’ to gather, The South Facing ground floor elevations host the offices, bar and restaurant. Tables from the bar and restaurant can spill out onto the square to encourage further activity. Large glazed window-doors allow the spaces to open up, weather permitting, to create a pleasant outdoor space. The blue arrows illustrate the views each dominant side offers. PARKING Ten parking spaces have been accommodated at the rear of the church to allow easy access to those that need it. A large underground parking located underneath the bath house can accommodate every other user.








the short edges of the building front service lanes for easy access to the refuse of the Bath house and the refuse of the bar, restaurant and market.


Ground Floor Layout



The rectangular foot print is divided into segment at the level of the first floor to allow natural light into the building. These segments vary in length to respond to the brief and views. Building foot print

Segementation of first floor to allow natural light into Ground Floor

Response to brief and views


Wet Changing


Treatment Rooms


The first floor is accessed through a long stair case which ends with a view onto the Square and brings the users to one end of the bath house. From there they can access the dry changing and gym on one end and the wet changing and pool on the other, further along yet are the treatment rooms and finally the spa. Each segment is reacheable through circulation with views onto the Square.

Dry Changing


First Floor Layout


The first floor has been divided into segments to allow natural light into the ground floor market space. Users can move freely through the ground floor. The and The and the

To the north, windows are diminished and views are framed. the more reflective spaces of the spa, the main pool and the gym face towards the garden and river.

circulation merges with spaces of activity feeds into each finger. gym, the pool, the treatment/therapy rooms the spa are all contained and organised along axis.

Sectional Organisation

The circulation alternates between active and passive. The hallways becomes cafe, reception, or public “outdoor� pools. This is highlighted in the diagram above with the circulation in yellow and orange, from passive to active. the loud and animated spaces have been kept to the south of the building to add to the general sense of activity on the square. 50


Wet Changing

Main Pool

Treatment And Therapy





“Outdoor” Pool

“Outdoor” Pool

Dry Changing



Spa Reception

First Floor Organisation



Bath House

The Hospice and bath house are two very different buildings. Although they both have as goal to shape Govan’s urban form and to celebrate Govan’s heritage, their brief has led to completely different buildings. Their relation to the context and their position on their sites is a direct result of their brief. The hospice is a walled building, a retreat, accessible, central but hidden away behind the Govan Parish Church, enjoying views to the Clyde. The Bath House is a landmark, resolutely placed at a key juncture, its ground floor glazed to allow views through, access and plenty activity. Bellow: The edge of the hospice (in red) is seen.

The Hospice and the Bath House


The hospice is interiorised, meant to be experienced within the boundary walls. the bath house is exteriorised, meant to be experienced as an extension of Govan’s centre and the river banks.

Site Plan


Site Model


Ground Floor Plan : Market, Bar, Restaurant, Offices, Bath House reception


Ground Floor Plan Offices, Restaurant, Bar, Market


First Floor Plan Gym, Pool and Spa



The presence onto the Square is strong, a recogniseable landmark with an industrial yet contemporary look. Long windows with wooden louvers allow sunlight into the spaces. At the far south corner, two pools allow a maximum of direct sunlight into them to offer users the feeling of an outdoor pool experience. The bar and restaurant spill tables onto the Square creating activty and attracting further users to the area. A welcomed pitt stop for visitors of the market, Graving Dock park, Govan Parish Chruch, the river banks and/or transport museum.

Elevation onto the Square




South-Eastern Elevation


Windows onto the Urban Garden and Clyde are shorter, views are framed. The market opens up onto the greenery.

North -Western Elevation

North -Western Elevation


“Outdoor� Pools


Spa Reception



Section through the front of the building Circulation throughout the building is pleasant with changes in height and ceiling elements, views to the Square and through the building to the Clyde are framed, with benches to encourage users to sit and enjoy the moment.


The fire escape stairs become sculptural elements that drop into the garden and can be used as informal seating with views to the clyde.

1:100 Connecting Circulation Units

Section through the connecting elements


Section through the main pool space Spaces are hierarchiesed through the use of changing ceiling heights, natural light spills into private spaces through roof lights. Indirect natural light bounces into the larger pool spaces.



Main Pool Space

Massage Rooms

Section through BathHouse

Cold Pool

Warm Pool


The space is industrial and familiar through the use of colourful tiles, concrete and brick. Six lanes are divided by a sitting corridor framming views to the Square and to the Clyde where users can relax, talk or splash about. Light is reflected on flat surfaces to suppress glare. Contained north facing windows frame the green scenery beyond.

Model of the main pool space


Views through the building are framed, reinforcing the connection between Govan Square and the urban garden on the Clyde on the other side.

Model of the Main pool Space


“Outdoor Pool”

Cold Pool

Warm Pool

Plunge Pool Sauna Warm Pool

Hot Pool

The spa offers a multitude of different spaces, where users can enjoy views onto the Clyde. Natural light spills in, either directly (in the outdor pools), filtered in (Tepidarium), through light wells or traditional windows. Natural and colourful materials create an attractive space,

The Spa

“Outdoor” Pool

“Outdoor” Pool



The Bath House is organised along a concrete structural grid. The maximum span is 9m. The building fabric will be well-insulated and effectively sealed from the outside environment. Thermal admittance to be established to the following U-values through a high standard of construction and building services sealing. Elements followed by their desired U-value (W/m2.K) -Walls: 0.28 -Roof: 0.15 -Floor: 0.2 -Doors and windows: 1.76 -Pool Tank: 0.25 The ground floor columns have a rough texture and a small recess has been detailed at the foot and head of the column to soften it somewhat. The columns are 750 mm in diameter. Scale 1:500

Scale 1:500

Ceiling Waffle Slab arrangement with light wells in yellow (Above) (Exploded ceiling plan)

Structural Grid (Bellow)

Structure frame


Triple glazing framed with steel is used throughout the building toughened glass with laminated safety glass is used at the ground floor.

In an effort to reduce volatile organic compounds, the following materials have been chosen. The wood is sealed with water-based polyurethane.

The building’s structure is made of concrete.

Spruce softwood is used on changing room benches, sections of floor and in the sauna, hammam and steam room.

White concrete is exposed on some of the walls and ceilings. Rough dark concrete is used on the ground floor columns.

Scottish Larch weathered to obtain a grey finish used on hallway benches and small sections of floor.

Bricks are used on the exterior facades and on some interior walls.


Ceramic tiles are inert and so emit no gases. The tile patterns bellow will be custom manufactured in British Ceramic Tile companies such as the House of British Ceramic Tiles. Locally crafted tiles will tremendously reduce their embodied energy. The majority of raw materials will be sourced within the UK both to reduce the embodied energy and contribute to the country’s economy. (The house of British Ceramic Tiles sources 85% of its raw materials from the south west of the country) For tiles located around the pool edges, an antigrip form will be implemented.


1:50 Technical Section


3 4 5 6

10. In situ reinforced concrete 240 mm

4. Bitumenised roofing felt

11. Thermal insulation 120 mm

5. Closed-cell thermal insulation

12. Air cavity 50 mm

6. Vapour barrier

13. Outer red brick wall 102 mm

7. Waffle slab (cast in situ) 600x600 mm

14. Shutters

1:10 Roof to Wall Detail


3. Gravel


9. Wall tie


2. White concrete caping

15. White concrete Sill

1. Bitumen coating 2. White concrete caping 3. Gravel 4. Bitumenised roofing felt 5. Closed-cell thermal insulation 6. Vapour barrier 7. Waffle slab (cast in situ) 600x600 mm 8. Inner brick wall 102 mm 9. Wall tie 10. In situ reinforced concrete 240 mm 11. Thermal insulation 120 mm 12. Air cavity 50 mm 13. Outer red brick wall 102 mm 14. Shutters 15. White concrete Sill 16. Double-glazed window

8. Inner brick wall 102 mm









1. Bitumen coating

16. Double-glazed window


24 25 26 27 28


17. Tripple glazing with steel framing 18. Concrete sill 19. Timber sill 20. In situ reinforced concrete 240 mm 21. Thermal insulation 180 mm 22. Concrete pannel 23. Wall tie 24. 10 mm textured tile 25. 20 mm granolithic concrete 26. 80 mm cement screed incorporating pipes for underfloor heating






27. Water proofing layer 28. 40 mm impact sound insulation

1:10 Window to Floor Detail


34 36 30






30. Concrete floor tiles 30 mm 31. Screed 100 mm 32. Rigid insulation with underfloor heating pipes 90 mm 33. Reinforced concrete 250 mm 34. Triple glazed curtain walling pane with height 400 mm (varying widths) toughened glass with laminated safety glass with curtain wall framing 40/170 mm steel 35. galvanised steel grating to drainage channel 36. Concrete column (seen) 750 mm diameter 37. Rain water evacuation to sewers

1:10 Ground Floor glazing Detail











49 40. 12mm ceramic tile 41. Screed with underfloor heating 60 mm 42. waterproofing layer 43. impact sound insulation 40 mm 44.Concrete Pool edge 250 mm 45.Underwater pool lighting fitted into concrete unit with water proofed edges 46. Conduit cast into concrete between pool light 47. Pool surround foul drain 48. Deck level channel 49. Water drainage and treatment pipping

1:10 Pool Edge Detail


Scale 1:750 Right: Users access the Bath house following one large staircase (in green). Users with disabilities or poor mobility can use a lift (in blue) which is easily accessible from the entrance lobby and brings the users to the top of the stairs. Circulation is in yellow. A service lift (in red) allows easy movement from the the service core at the ground floor to the Spa at the first floor.

Left: fire escape stairs have been placed at regular interval across the building to allow a rapid and safe exit on the building into the garden bellow.

Circulation & Escape


The engineering challenge in achieving the functional requirements in a sustainable manner is substantial. For example: • Large volumes of swimming pool water need to be kept warm and continually treated to deal with the pollution from bathers • Air temperature, moisture content and air quality in the pool hall need to be carefully controlled • Potentially corrosive atmosphere needs to be contained and controlled in the appropriate areas • Internal acoustic conditions and noise breakout to surrounding areas need to be moderated. It has been estimated3 that the building services installation can account for between 30 and 50% of the capital costs of a modern pool. The operational sustainability is therefore critical and the full pattern of use, operation and maintenance regimes of the swimming pool have been allowed for within the services design. Energy usage in swimming pool buildings is generally high per square metre when compared to other building types. The proportion of energy not controlled under the Building Regulation (unregulated energy) is also very high. For example, the electricity used for the pool water treatment could amount to 50% of the total electricity consumption but is not controlled. It is important that the energy strategy deals with all of the energy usage.

General Power 5.5%

Space Heating 53%

In an effort to comply to the BREEAM criteria and achieve a minimum rating of a “Very Good”, the following items are to be incorporated in the building design and construction: -CHP system using low carbon technologies assist with carbon emission abatement. -Photocell, PIR and zoned lighting reduce electricity consumption: The organised in such a way that each of can be individually lit, reducing consumption of the building.


controls to bathhouse is its sections the overall

-Energy efficient lighting to be incorporated throughout the building -Inverter controls incorporated into every pump and fan system to ensure flow is matched with the power required -Cross flow plate heat exchangers incorporated into every air handling unit to reduce the heat input required to the building

WATER USAGE Swimming pools use large amounts of water through the backwashing of filters, constant fresh water make-up (30 litres per swimmer), showers and cleaning. The reduction in water usage has an indirect benefit on energy consumption since less water is used, less water has to be heated and transported using pump energy. The following has been implemented: -Low water consumption taps and flushes for toilets and urinals -Automatic shower controls -Automated monitoring equipment for water make-up -Grey water harvesting – collecting water from the pool filtration system and showers to be used for WC flushing -Pool cover

-Solar glare control to be incorporated into areas which require occupancy control and any privacy control -local sourcing of materials -Heat recovery of pool water when discharged to enable a pre-heat for the incoming top-up water -Grey and rainwater harvesting systems to be considered for W.C. flushing within the development -Green / sedum roof could be incorporated to enhance bio-diversity credits with structural amendments

Water Heating 25%

WATER TREATMENT A chlorine system will be used with additional Ultra-Violet equipment to reduce chlorine levels in the pool and improve water and air quality. FILTRATION SYSTEM

Lighting 6.5% Fans & Pumps 10%

As is most common in public pools, sand filters will be used. In order to maintain their effectiveness, they will have to be backwashed regularly. Backwash tanks will be required to allow a controlled discharge of the water.



1. Ceramic tile 12mm


2. Screed 10 mm




3 1

1. 12mm Ceramic Tile 2. 10mm Screed 4. Concrete pool edge 250 mm 3. Waterproofing layer 300mm Concrete pool edge 5. 4. Screed 10 mm 5. 10mm Screed 6. Ceramic Tiles 12 mm 6. 12mm Ceramic Tile 7. Water bar inserted at concrete joint 7. Water bar inserted at concrete joint 300mm Concrete 8. 8. Concrete Slab 300 mm slab 9. Pool cover on s/s rail with 9. Pool cover on rail with retractable motor retractable motor 10.Stainless steel butt hinger 10. Stainless steel butt hinge 120 xtiles 50mm boards, 11.11. Ceramic 12 Oak mm screwed underneath 12. Galvanised steel angle 12. Galvanised steel angle 3. Waterproofing layer



9 6



Pool Cover Detail 1:10

1:10 Pool Cover Detail


WATER TEMPERATURE Higher water temperatures may be attractive to recreational swimmers, disability groups and children, but are likely to be less suitable for fitness swimming or competition. Higher water temperatures may also have an adverse impact on the water treatment and environmental control systems. For this reason the main pool is being kept at 27°C.

The rest of the pools will be kept at the following temperatures:


-Indoor Bath: 26°C

Temperature and humidity control is required in the pool hall to maintain comfortable conditions for bathers. Air temperatures are usually kept at one degree above the pool water temperature to minimise evaporation, relative humidity and air velocity values as follows:

-Fire Bath: 37°C

-Air temperature: approx 30°C

-Ice Bath: 15°C

-Relative humidity: 60% ± 10%

-Relaxation pool: 30°C

-Air velocity: Approx. 0.1 m/s

-Plunge pools: 12°C

-Min fresh air supply: 4-10 air changes/hr

-Kiddy pool: 32°C -Hydrotherapy pool: 35°C

There should be even distribution and extraction of warm air from the pool hall so there are no draughts on the pool surrounds or in the shallow end where people may be standing up. Care should be taken that moisture and smells from the pool hall cannot pass to adjoining areas. Effective moisture vapour barriers are required and gaps should be sealed to avoid potential damage to the building elements, particularly where services and ducts pass through walls. A negative pressure difference between the pool hall and adjoining areas, such as changing areas, can be used to help contain the pool environment. For that reason, each entrance to the pool space has double doors. Changing and clothes storage: Air temp: approx 24-24°C Min fresh air supply: 10 air changes/hr Gym space: 16°C & 20-60% humidity Steam room: 43-46°C & 100% humidity Hamam: 45°C & 90% humidity Sauna: 80-120 °C & low humidity Tepidarium: 37-39°C & 20% humidity

Schematic services diagram for a typical pool

Water & Air






2 12 13

1 Air handling/ventilation plant 2 Slip hazard contained through textured tiles and underwater floor heating evaporates 3 1Level dep pool chosen for the improved Air handling/ventilation plant 1 removal of surface pollutants Air handling/ventilation plant 2 Slip hazard contained through textured tiles and 4 Double set of entrance doors 2 Slip hazard contained through evaporates textured tiles and underwater floorautomatic heating create heat retaining IVS underwater floorpool heating evaporates 3 Level dep chosen for the improved 5 Warm air curtains to reduce 3 Level dep pool chosen for the improvedcondensation on removal of surface pollutants windows reduce heat doors loss at removal of surface pollutants 4theDouble set ofand automatic entrance 4 entry points Double set of automatic entrance doors create heat retaining IVS 6 create glazed area to prevent heat heat retaining IVS 5Reduced Warm air curtains to reduce condensation on loss 7 Indirect natural lighting to prevent glare 5 Warmthe airwindows curtains to reduce condensation and reduce heat loss at on entry points 8 the surface sound pollution diminished windows and reduce heat loss at entry points 6Hard Reduced glazed area to prevent heat loss 6 the uselighting sound insulated pannels Reduced glazed area toof prevent heat loss 7through Indirect natural to prevent glare 7 placed behind the brick walls with vertical Indirect natural lighting to prevent glare 8 Hard surface sound pollution diminished through 8 joint ommited Hard surface sound pollution diminished the use of sound insulated pannels through placed behind the 9 the Pool cover floating floor: 300 mm the use of sound insulated pannels placed behind brick walls with vertical joint ommited brick wallscover with vertical joint ommited 9polystyrene Pool - expanded floating floor: 300 mm polystyrene expanded 10 Lighting placed regular interval 9 Pool cover - floating 300 mm polystyrene 10 Lighting placed floor: at at regular interval to allow expanded fullto visibility of 10 Lighting allow full visibility of pool edges and placed at regular interval to allow full visibility of pool edges and level changes level pool edges and levelfrom changes 12 Foolchanges drainage pool surround 12 Fool drainage from pool surround 12 Fool pool surround 13 drainage Filtration from pipework 13 Filtration pipework 13 Filtration pipework 14 Balance tank 14 Balance 14 Balance tanktank




12 13





6 12 13


12 13

Pool Fixtures


12 13

12 13


Accessible WC

Gym WC

Unisex Showers Wet Changing


Main Pool DRY


Dry Changing accessible Changing Family Changing Cubicles

To avoid cleaning problems, repetitive circulation where users from the wet side use the same routes as those from the dry side were avoided. Dry area in green, wet area in blue.

The “village changing� unisex area with individual cubicles has been chosen (with same sex showers and toilets) for greater flexibility. It can accommodate varying mixes of male and female users, including family changing and changing for people with disabilities. It can allow staff of either sex to supervise, clean and maintain the area. Well-designed cubicles and lockers with suitable materials and robust fittings will, together with good supervision, help to resist vandalism.

Dry and Wet Changing Rooms

natural top-lighting has been used to improved the appearance of the changing area and minimise the use of artificial lighting.


Natural lighting

Artificial Lighting

Natural lighting was carefully controlled and considered with the general orientation of the building. Roof glazing over the length of the pool hall provides good natural light allowing sunlight to be reflected off internal edges while keeping glare, solar gain and heat loss to acceptable levels. Glazing to the north of the building has been limited although views to the river have been framed. Roof lighting has been dotted over the building where necessary.

Light fittings have been located above the pool surrounds for ease of access. Light fittings are directed upwards to cause minimal glare or reflection to bathers in the water, spectators and staff on the pool surrounds. Uplighting is preferred for general illumination as this allows a more even distribution of light.

Fittings will be of the discharge type as the lower wattage type fittings are unlikely to meet the lighting needs. The type of discharge fitting will be selected on illumination performance, colour rendering, lamp life and energy efficiency.

Spot lighting and wall fixtures have been located to mimic natural lighting where possible.

Natural & Artificial Lighting


PLANT ROOMS Plant rooms should be located in close proximity to the areas they serve in order to reduce service runs, system losses, and minimise fan power. They should also be sized to give good access to the equipment that they house and allow for operation, maintenance, replacement and deliveries. Access to the plant room should be available both internally, via a controlled access point, and externally, via a delivery entrance. All doors leading to the plant room must have secure locking mechanisms fitted to prevent access by untrained staff and members of the public.

heat to provide space heating and hot water for the pools. When compared to the 40% efficiency of the electricity grid the 75% efficiency of CHP is a much more advantageous. CHP can cope with the year round demand for heat and hot water within the centre. The ability to provide a large communal plant room allows a macro CHP system to be employed within the building.

Air treatment & Ventilation

-air-handling plant with MVHR Additional Water Treatment

15% of the pool building area. Located centrally and at high-level Accessed by a stair/ladder. -water treatment plant room: 15-30% of the water area that it serves. With holding tanks for the main drainage system to deal with the quantity of filter backwashing water -Additional water treatment plant supplied next to the Spa area with storage area

Plant and Water Treatment

-Biomass Plant and Combined Heat and Power plant Remote to the building, at the back of the ground floor service core; but accessible through a side lane.

Biomass plant and CHP

Natural gas to be provided to the boiler and CHP plant room to meet the maximum simultaneous demand for the heating and hot water requirement. The CHP and heating plant to be housed in the boiler plant room and to consist of gas fired CHP plant, gas boilers and associated pumping and pressurisation systems. Gas requires a flux emerging 3 m above roof level. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is a form of decentralised energy production. A CHP plant burns fuel to produce electricity and utilises the waste

Plant Rooms


Air handling Ventilation Plant

Air distribution system:

For the main pool space

Mechanical Ventilation with Heat Recovery

Air will generally be supplied at low-level through ducts incorporated into the pool tank design. systems either 1 AirThese handling/ventilation plant sit adjacent to the pool water overflow system are tiles setand at low2 Slip hazard contained throughor textured level around thefloor perimeter of the pool hall. underwater heating evaporates Where are large the systems will 3 there Level dep pool chosenwindows, for the improved be placed at their base to reduce condensation. removal of surface pollutants Low-level systems need toentrance be designed 4 Double set of automatic doors to prevent ingresscreate of water due to flooding from the pool heat retaining IVS surround or air ground 5 Warm curtainswater. to reduce condensation on

Overhead ducting will be integrated into the middle ceiling structure with fresh air being introduced at the level of the air handling and ventilation plant and stale air removed at the far end.

MVHR is an air to air heat exchanger which uses hot internal air to as a source to heat cooler external air. MVHR negates the need for traditional heating systems when air tightness standards are high. This will be used in the main pool space and spa area.

6 7 8 9

the windows and reduce heat loss at entry points Reduced glazed area to prevent heat loss Indirect natural lighting to prevent glare Hard surface sound pollution diminished through the use of sound insulated pannels placed behind the brick walls with vertical joint ommited Pool cover - floating floor: 300 mm polystyrene expanded

In the cafe, reception and offices, windows can be open at wish to bring immediate comfort to the users and strengthen the connection to the Square.

Air Distribution System


Acoustics can be a huge problem in pool spaces. The hard surfaces (concrete, tiles,etc) that usually frame the space reverberate the sound and echoes can be deafening. For that reason two different acoustic treatments have been implemented in the main pool space and other pool rooms. On the southern edge of the main pool space the walls are covered in sound absorbent panels. On the other edge the brick walls have sound insulation placed on the other side of the bricks with the vertical joints left empty to allow some absorption of sound.



BATH HOUSE DESIGN Healing springs: the ultimate guide to taking the waters: from hidden springs to the world’s greatest spas, Nathaniel Altman, Inner Traditions / Bear & Company, 2000; Ching, Francis D. K. Form, Space & Order. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1979. Print The New Metric Handbook, Davis Alder, London, 1999; Kind-Barkauskas, F et al. 2002. Concrete Construction Manual. Basel: Birkhauser.

URBANISM Smith, Neil. The New Urban Routledge, 1996. Print.



Montgomery, Charles. Happy City. Print. Jan Gehl, 2013, Cities for People, Island Press Whyte, William Hollingsworth. The Social Life Of Small Urban Spaces. Washington, D.C.: Conservation Foundation, 1980. Print. Krier, LĂŠon, 1998, Architecture: Choice or Fate.


Windsor, Berks, England: Andreas Papadakis. Print.

Affordable Community Swimming Pools r003-2012

OTHER Daily Record Article on Parkour

Swimming pools 2013 Appendix 1 Swimming pools 2013 Appendix 2 -Servicing the building

City Council Report on Govan Market Glasgow city council, News Archive, January 2016 aspx?articleid=18886

Swimming pools 2013 Appendix 3 -Construction Spec considenterations swimming pools 2013 Appendix 4 -Improvement and alterations Swimming pools 2013 Appendix 5 -Further Information Swimming Pools Check list 2011



Profile for Taina Lund-Ricard

Year 4, Semester 2 - Bathhouse for Govan  

A design booklet illustrating the processes, development and output from my year4 Studio project: a new bathhouse and covered market space a...

Year 4, Semester 2 - Bathhouse for Govan  

A design booklet illustrating the processes, development and output from my year4 Studio project: a new bathhouse and covered market space a...