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E-book is created by shanyoma


E-book is created by shanyoma


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E-book is created by shanyoma

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E-book is created by shanyoma

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E-book is created by shanyoma

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E-book is created by shanyoma

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E-book is created by shanyoma

3


E-book is created by shanyoma

OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 4

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E-book is created by shanyoma

5


E-book is created by shanyoma

OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 6

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E-book is created by shanyoma

OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 12

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OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 14


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E-book is created by shanyoma

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OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 16

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E-book is created by shanyoma

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E-book is created by shanyoma

OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 18

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OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 20

E-book is created by shanyoma

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E-book is created by shanyoma

OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 24

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25

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OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 26

E-book is created by shanyoma

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E-book is created by shanyoma

OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 28

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29

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OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 30

E-book is created by shanyoma

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31

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OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 32

E-book is created by shanyoma

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33


E-book is created by shanyoma

OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 34

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35

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E-book is created by shanyoma

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OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 36

E-book is created by shanyoma

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37

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E-book is created by shanyoma

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E-book is created by shanyoma

OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 38

aygufcahJ omfvnf; 'kw, d urÇmppfBuD;tNyD;wGif w&kyjf ynfoo Yl rwEkid if BH uD;ESit hf jcm;jynf ol'Y rD u dk a&pDEidk if rH sm; ay:aygufvmavonf/ urÇmv h Ol ;D a&oef;aygif; 900-enf;yg;onf? qk&d , S v f pfpeH pfwnfaqmufaeMuavonf/ qkAd , D ufEidk if rH mS qk&d , S v f pfacwfxuf wqifh jrifah om uGejf rLepfpeH pfoyYkd if csDwufaeavNyD/ xkadY Mumifh ,ckumv (0g) t&if;&Sipf eH pfusqk;H aeNyD; qk&d , S v f pfpeH pf wk;d wufae onfhumvwGif ay:aygufaom 'Drkdua&pDawmfvSefa&;udk t&if;&SifESifhvlwef;pm;onf acgif;aqmifrI ray;Ekid af y/ acgif;aqmifyguvnf; awmfveS af &;ukd atmifjrifonftxd qifEEJT idk rf nf r[kwaf y/ ypön;f rJv h w l ef;pm;omvQif acgif;aqmif&ayrnf/ 1945-ck? &Sr;f jynfe,fzufqpfawmfveS af &;wGi¤f if;? 1945-1948-e,fcsJUawmfveS af &;wGi¤f if;? ypön;f rJh odkYr[kwf ypönf;rJhoabmw&m;acgif;aqmifrIr&SdcJhí 'Drkdua&pDawmfvSefa&;onf r atmifjrifcahJ y/ ya'o&mZfpeH pfom qufvufwnfNrJcahJ yonf/ ÕÕÕÕÕÕÕÕÕÕÕÕÕÕÕ


39

&Srf;jynfb,fvJ

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E-book is created by shanyoma

tcPf;(8) awmfvSefa&;\tvm;tvm


E-book is created by shanyoma

OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 40

tpnf;t&k;H 0if ocifrsm; &Sr;f jynfov Ykd mvQif csufcsif; e,fEiS yf pfjcif;udv k nf; awGcY MhJ u &onf/ odaYk omf &Sr;f vlxo k nf jrefrmvlxEk iS t hf wl NAdwo d Qe,fcsJUvufatmifrS &k;H xGu&f ef BudK;pm;cJ\ h / zufqpf*syefuv kd nf; jrefrmvlxEk iS t hf wlyif awmfveS cf \ hJ / ppftNyD; vGwf vyfaom tcsKyftcsmtmPmydik f jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if w H nfaxmifEikd &f ef vlrsKd;pktm; vkH; aemifawmfArmESifhpnf;vkH;nDatmif &Srf;trsKd;om;rsm;uyif ur®uxjyKvkyfcJhay onf/ þwGif jynfaxmifpw k nfaqmufa&;\tkwjf rpfjzpfaom yifvn Hk v D mcHü &Sr;f jynf e,fcsJUya'o&mZf tiftm;pk\&-y-v-u xrf;aqmifcahJ omtcef;rSm wefb;kd BuD;rm; vSayonf/ Arm-u&if-ucsif-csif;paom jynfaxmifpo k m;wko Yd nf vGwv f yfaom tcsKyf tcsmtmPmykdif jynfaxmifpkBuD;udk acwfrDaom pufrIvufrIxGef;um;aom'Drkdua&pD jynf0h aom Nidr;f csrf;om,maom <u,f0aom jynfaxmifpjk zpfatmif wnfaqmufaeMu &m &Sr;f jynfjynfov l x l o k nfvnf; &Sr;f jynfEiS yhf wfoufaom ud, k b hf Ydk usoifah omwm0ef udk &Sr;f jynf\tajctaersm;t& &Sr;f jynfvx l t k rsm;qk;H tusKd;&Sad tmif vufnw D uf nD xrf;aqmifomG ;Murnfjzpfayonf/ &Sr;f jynf\tem*wfukd jynfov l x l rk sm;uom ykid o f nf/ &Srf;jynfolvlxktaygif;wkdY? &mZ0ifbD;udk aemufjyefqGJvSnfh&ef BudK;pm;aeMu aom azmufjyefa&;tiftm;pkrsm;aemufov Ykd u dk Mf urnfavm---/ okrdY [kwf xGe;f vif;awmufajymifpmG jrifawGaY e&NyDjzpfaom tem*wf&rS ;f jynfopf odYk vufwcJG sDwufMurnfavm/


41

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OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 42

E-book is created by shanyoma

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E-book is created by shanyoma

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OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 44

E-book is created by shanyoma

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45

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E-book is created by shanyoma

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OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 46

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E-book is created by shanyoma

OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 48

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E-book is created by shanyoma

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OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 52

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OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 56

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59

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OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 60

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OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 76

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OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 82

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E-book is created by shanyoma

OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 98

vrf;nTefjy|mef;csuftqkd ]]awmifwef;om;rsm;ESiu hf &iferD sm;tygt0if jzpfaom jrefrmEkid if aH wmfo-l Ekid if H awmfom;wk\ Yd uk, d pf m;vS,rf sm;onf wkid ;f oljynfom;wk\ Yd tmoDoqE´EiS ahf vsmfnpD mG Ekid if H awmfzpYJG nf;tkycf sKyfyt Hk ajccHOya'udk pDpOfa&;qG&J eftvkiYd gS pkn H pD ak 0;Muvsuf atmufyg jy|mef;csufrsm;udk csrSwMf uaMumif;/ (1) EkdifiHawmfzGJYpnf;tkyfcsKyfykHtajccHOya'onf ]]jrefrmjynfaxmifpkEkdifiHawmf}}[kac: wGiaf paom vGwv f yfonft h csKyftjcmtmPmydik f orwEkid if \ H zGpYJ nf;tkycf sKyfyt Hk ajccH Oya'jzpfap&rnf/ xkjYd yif(2) jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if aH wmfwiG f zGpYJ nf;tkycf sKyfyt Hk ajccHOya'u owfrw S af z:jyonfh woD;yk*v ¾ jynfe,frsm; yg0ifapvsuf? odo Yk wfrw S af z:jyonfw h oD;yk*v ¾ jynfe,frsm;onf zGJYpnf;tkyfcsKyfykHtajccHOya'wGifowfrSwfaz:jyxm;onfESifhtrQ ukd,fydkiftkyfcsKyfa&; tmPm&&Sad p&rnf/ xkjYd yif(3) tcsKyftjcmtmPmydkif vGwfvyfaomorwjrefrmEkdifiHawmfESifhwuG tygt0ifjzpf onfhjynfe,frsm;ESifhtpkd;&tzGJYtpnf;tm;vkH;wkdY\tcGifhtmPm[lorQwkdYonf wkdif;ol jynfom;wkx Yd rH S oufqif;ap&rnf/ xkjYd yif(4) jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if aH wmf\wkid ;f oljynfom;rSeo f rQonf vlraI &;&mü¤if;? pD;yGm; a&;&mü¤if;? Ekid if aH &;&mü¤if;? w&m;rQwrI&adS pvsuf tqift h wef; tcGit hf a&;ESiOhf y a'oufa&mufrIwkdYwGif qlMuKHedrfhjrifhr&Sd yuwdwlnDap&rnfhtjyif w&m;Oya'ESifhaomf ¤if;? trsm;jynfow l Ydk apmifph nf;tyfaom tusifo h u d m© ESiahf omf¤if; rqefu Y siforQ vGwf vyfpmG MuHpnfyikd cf iG ?hf xkwaf z:ajymqkyd ikd cf iG ?hf ,kMH unfyidk cf iG ?hf bmomw&m;ud;k uG,yf ikd cf iG ?hf 0wfjyKykid cf iG ?hf y&da,oe&SmrS;D ydik cf iG ?hf pnf;&k;H ykid cf iG ?hf jyKrlaqmif&u G yf ikd cf iG w hf Ydk &&Sw d nfNrJap &eftwGuf zGpYJ nf;tkycf sKyfyt Hk ajccHOya'wGif tckid t f vko H wfrw S x f m;&Sad p&rnf/ xkjdY yif(5) þzGpYJ nf;tkycf sKyfyHk tajccHOya'wGif vlenf;pkrsm;tbdYk vkaH vmufaom umuG,cf suf rsm; xnfo h iG ;f jy|mef;xm;&Sad p&rnf/ xkjYd yif(6) vGwv f yfaom tcsKyftjcmtmPmykid f orwjrefrf mEkid if \ H e,fajrwkYd waygif;wpnf; wnf; wnfwchH idk Nf rJa&;ud¤k if;? Ekid if aH wmf\Munf;? a&? avwku Yd kd tcsKyftjcmpk;d rk;d tkycf sKyf ydik cf iG u hf ¤kd if;? w&m;"r®EiS w hf uG jynfaxmiftcsif;csif; Oya't& xde;f apmifx h m;&Sad p& rnf/ xkjYd yif(7) &mZ0ifwiG f xif&mS ;cJah om jrefrmEdik if aH wmfonf urÇmwGif rdr\ d *kPMf uufoa&ESiahf vsmf nDpmG &oif&h xku d af om tqift h wef;odYk a&muf&adS p&rnft h jyif vlowå0gwk\ Yd wk;d wufa&; ESiahf umif;usKd;csrf;omjynf0h a&;wku Yd kd wm0eftavsmuf apwemjzifh tpGr;f ukejf znfph u G f


&Srf;jynfb,fvJ

xrf;&Guu f m jynfaxmiftcsif;csif; qkid &f mw&m;"r®EiS u hf sif0h wfou d m© udk tajcjyKí urÇmh Nidrf;csrf;a&; a&SU&Ivsuf EkdifiHwumwkdYESifhrdwf0wfrysuf wGJbuf yl;aygif;aqmif&GufrIukd ckid Nf rJaom t"d|mefjzifh apmifx h ed ;f awmht/hH vuf&SdzGJYpnf;tkyfcsKyfykHtajccHOya'udk xkdrl(7)csufESifhtnDtnTwf a&;qGJxm; aMumif; OD;Eku wkid ;f jynfjyKvTwaf wmfnv D mcHwiG f &Si;f vif;cJNh yD; jzpfonf/ xkaYd Mumifh tajccHOya'rlEiS yhf wfoufí uRefawmfwo Ydk nf tjiif;yGm;aep&m? pdwf wGif pEk;d paemifjh zpfaep&m rvkad wmhay/ vuf&SdtajccHOya'udk uRefawmfwkdYvkdvm;aom jynfaxmifpkpepfokdY jyifqif ajymif;vJ&mü Akv d cf sKyfatmifqef;csay;cJah om tajccH]]rl}}rsm;ESiq hf efu Y sifph &m xdcu dk pf &mr&SEd idk [ f k uRefawmf,q l ygonf/ (Constitution) udk jrefrmbmomjzif(h Eki d if aH wmfzpYJG nf;tkycf sKyfyt Hk ajccHOya')[k ac:a0:xm;&m t"dygÜ ,ftjynft h 0 az:jyxm;NyD;jzpfonf/ Ekid if aH wmftm; b,fvydk pHk jH zifh zGpYJ nf;í b,fv(dk rl) b,fv(dk pnf;rsOf;)jzifh tkycf sKyf rnfponfwu Ydk kd a&;qGx J m;aomtajccHOya'onf (Constitution) yifjzpfonf/ rpöwmatmfpwifu tajccHOya'onf tpkd;&taqmufttkHudk wnfaqmuf ay;onf[k qko d nf/ rpöwm'Dap;url Ekid if \ H tcsKyftjcmtmPmrsm;udk cGaJ 0&mwGi¤f if;? vufawGu Y sifo h ;Hk &mwGi¤f if;? wku d &f u kd f odw Yk nf;r[kwf oG,0f u dk í f oufqidk af paom pnf; urf;Oya'tm;vk;H udk tajccHOya'[kac:aMumif; t"dygÜ ,faz:jyxm;\/ urÇmOh ya'ynm&Sirf sm;\t"dygÜ ,faz:jycsufrmS uRefawmfwv Ydk dk vlNyde;f rsm;tbkYd odem;vnf&ef cufcyJ gonf/ jrefrmtac:ta0:onfom bwfvu dk &f jHk zifh t"dygÜ ,ftvk;H pku H kd ikrH o d mG ;onf/ odem;vnfomG ;aponf[k uRefawmf,q l ygonf/ a&S; acgrynm&Sirf sm;onf zGpYJ nf;tkycf sKyfypHk eH pfukd pd;k rk;d tkycf sKyfol ta&twGuf ay:rlwnfí cGjJ cm;Muonf/ tcsKyftjcmtmPmonf vlwOD;wa,mufxw H iG f xm;&Sv d Qif {u&mZfpepf (Monarchy) [kac:wGiMf uNyD; vlwpkxw H iG f xm;&Sv d Qif t&pöwu kd a&pD (Aristocracy) [kac:wGif Muonf/ vlrsm;pkwiG f tcsKyftjcmtmPmtyfEx HS m;aompHepfudk ay:vDwD odrYk [kwf 'Drdk ua&pD[k ac:wGiMf uonf/ {u&mZfpepfESifht&pöwkdua&pDwkdYonf urÇmajrjyifrS wjznf;jznf;wdrfaumy aysmufcJhNyD;jzpfonf/ rsufarSmufacwf zGpYJ nf;tkycf sKyfypHk eH pfrsm;wGif 'Dru dk a&pDEiS t hf mPm&Sipf eH pf 2rsKd;om awGEY idk af yawmhonf/

E-book is created by shanyoma

99


OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 100

E-book is created by shanyoma

'Dru dk a&pDpeH pfonfvnf; wkid ;f jynfwjynfEiS w hf jynf rwlujJG ym;jcm;em;Muonf/ 'Dru dk a&pDtrsKd;rsKd; trnfemrtrsKd;rsKd;jzifh ac:wGiMf uonf/ (Oyrm - qkAd , D uf'rD u dk a&pD? jynfo'Yl rD u dk a&pD? 'Dru dk a&pDopf? qk&d , S v f pf'rD u dk a&pD? taemufyikd ;f 'Dru dk a&pD)rsm; rMumrDu tif'edk ;D &Sm;orwqku d mEkd u (Guided Democracy) yJu h idk 'f rD u dk a&pD[k xGiv f u dk f jyefonf/ tmPm&Sipf eH pfwiG v f nf; vlwef;pm;ay:wGif tajccHí zufqpftmPm&Sipf eH pf? ypön;f rJt h mPm&Sipf eH pf? jynfo'Yl rD u dk a&pDtmPm&Sipf eH pf[í l uGjJ ym;avonf/ rMumao; rDu tcsKdUEkid if rH sm;wGif ppftmPm&Sipf eH pfonf acwfpm;vmonf/ 'Drkdua&pDqkdwm tcsKyftjcmtmPmonf jynfojl ynfom;rsm;xHwiG f wnf&v dS Qif omreftm;jzifh 'Dru dk a&pD[í l em;vnfMuonf/ od&Yk mwGif t&G,af &mufow l idk ;f rJqE´ay;í tpk;d &tzGYJ tm; a&G;aumufwifajr§mufcGifh&jcif;jzifh 'Drkdua&pDonf jynfh0NyD[k r,lqEkdifao;ay/ a&G;aumufwifajr§mufxm;aom tpk;d &tzGt YJ m; jynfo-l jynfom;rsm;u wenf;enf;jzifh jyefvnfcsKyfuikd x f m;Ekid rf S 'Dru dk a&pDonf jynfph NHk yD;[k qkEd idk af vonf/ 'Dru dk a&pDukd vufawGu Y sifo h ;Hk &mü 'Dru dk a&pDEidk if [ H í l ac:wGiaf omEkid if rH sm;wGif wEkid if EH iS w hf Ekid if H wlnrD rI &SMd uacs/ t*FvefwiG f usifo h ;Hk aom'Dru dk a&pDonf tar&duefwiG u f sifo h ;Hk aom 'Dru dk a& pDEiS jhf cm;em;onf/ xked nf;wlpmG urÇmay:wGif 'Dru dk a&pDtjynft h 0qk;H qko d nfrmS qGZZf m vefEidk if w H iG f usifo h ;kH onf'h rD u dk a&pDrmS t*Fvef? tar&duefww Ydk iG f usifo h ;Hk onf'h rD u dk a& pDEiS t hf wl jcm;em;jyefonf/ wzef t*Fvef? jyifopf? tar&duef? qGpfZmveftp&Sdonfhtaemuf'Drkdua&pD Ekid if rH sm;wGif usifo h ;Hk onf'h rD u dk a&pDonf ta&SU'Dru dk a&pD[ak c:onfq h Adk , D uf,el , D EH iS hf jynfolY'Drkdua&pDEkdifiHrsm;wGif usifhokH;onfh'Drkdua&pDESifhtajccHtm;jzifh jcm;em;jyefyg onf/ 'Dru dk a&pD zGpYJ nf;ykpH eH pf 'Dru dk a&pDay: tajccHí zGpYJ nf;xm;aom tkycf sKyfypHk eH pfrsm;wGif (Federal) ac: jynfaxmifppk eH pfEiS hf (Unitary) ac: wjynfaxmifpeH pf (0g) wrsKd;wpm;wnf;tkycf sKyfonfh pHepf (0g) tpk;d &wzGw YJ nf;[lí 2-rsKd; 2-pm; &SMd uonf/ qkAd , D uf,el , D ?H tar&duefjynfaxmifp?k qGZd mvef? uae'g? ,l*pdk av;AD;,m;?


101 &Srf;jynfb,fvJ

jynfaxmifppk eH pf jynfaxmifppk eH pfqo dk nfrmS tcsKyftjcmtmPmykid f vGwv f yfaomEkid if rH sm;? wef; wl&nfwl qE´tavsmuf yl;aygif;zGpYJ nf;um A[kjd ynfaxmifpEk iS jhf ynfe,frsm;tMum; tm PmESifhtcGifhta&;rsm; twdtus cGJa0ay;xm;aompHepfyifjzpfonf/ yx0D0iftaetxm; jcm;em;rIaMumifh¤if;? EkdifiHa&;pD;yGm;a&;tusKd;rwlnDrI aMumif¤h if;? vlrsKd;a&; uGjJ ym;jcm;em;rIaMumif¤h if;? jynfaxmifppk eH pfukd a&G;cs,fzpYJG nf;Mu onf/ jynfaxmifppk eH pfwiG yf g0ifzpYJG nf;aom jynfe,frsm;\vlO;D a&tenf;trsm; e,f tus,ft0ef; ponfwo Ydk nf wef;wlnrD QrItwGuf twm;tqD; jzpfp&m taMumif;r&Sd acs/ uRefawmfw&Ydk rS ;f jynfwiG f Armonf vlO;D a&rsm;jym;í ArmESiahf ygif;vQif tpOf tNrJ epfemaernf[k ,lqolrsm; &Sb d o d uJo h Ydk jrefrmjynfwiG v f nf; e,fpyfa'ojynfe,f rsm;wGif vlO;D a&tvGeef nf;ojzifh ArmESiw hf ef;wl tcGit hf a&;ray;xku d [ f k ,lqolrsm; &SdMuonf/ tar&duefjynfaxmifpw k iG f eDAm;'g;jynfe,fonf vlO;D a&woef;ydyk o dk m&So d nf/ 0kid , f rdk if;ESi'hf vm;0J,m;wGif ESpo f ed ;f cGpJ o D m &SMd uonf/ e,l;a,mufjynfe,frmS 13-oef; cGJ&Sdonf/ qGdZmvefjynfaxmifpkwGifvnf; (Cahton) ac: jynfe,f 22-e,f&Sdonfhteuf Zl;&pfEiS b hf ef;jynfe,frsm;rSm e,fBuD;rsm;jzpfNyD; aA;av;rSm e,fi,fuav;jzpfonf/ qkAd , D ufjynfaxmifpw k iG v f nf; &k&mS ;jynfe,fpo k rwEkid if o H nf tvGeBf uD;rm;NyD; tufpwkd;eD;,m;orwEkdifiHrSm tvGefao;i,fygonf/ jynfe,ftBuD;ti,f vlO;D a&tenf;trsm;rSm jynfaxmifppk eH pfzpYJG nf;a&;wGif ta&;rBuD;yg/ A[kjd ynfaxmifpt k pk;d &ESijhf ynfe,ftpk;d &tMum; tmPmESit hf cGit hf a&; rsm; rQrQww cGaJ 0rIomvQif ta&;BuD;ygonf/ tmPmcGJa0enf; jynfaxmifppk eH pfwiG f tmPmESit hf cGit hf a&; cGaJ 0ykH cGaJ 0enf;rSm 3-rsKd; 3-pm;

E-book is created by shanyoma

Mopaw;&D;,m;? tp&So d nfEh idk if rH sm;rSm jynfaxmifppk epfjzifh zGpYJ nf;xm;Muonf/ NAdwed ?f jyifopf? b,fv*sD,?H csufuq kd vkad A;uD;,m;? tDwvD? w&kyjf ynfponf wkrYd mS wjynfaxmifpeH pf (0g) tpk;d &wzGpYJ eH pfjzifh zGpYJ nf;xm;Muonf/


E-book is created by shanyoma

OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 102

&Sdonf/ (1) jynfaxmifppk pfppfEidk if rH sm;wGif (Extreme type of federal system) A[kjd ynfaxmifpt k m; trsm;ESiq hf idk af om tmPmESit hf cGit hf a&;rsm;om ay;xm;NyD; useftmPmESit hf cGit hf a&; rsm;tm;vk;H (Residuary Powers) udk jynfe,frsm;wGif tyfEiS ;f xm;onf/ Oyrm - qGZd m vef? tar&duefjynfaxmifp?k Mopaw;vD;,m;/ (2) jynfaxmifprk ppfwppfEidk if rH sm;? wenf;tm;jzifh jynfaxmifpt k aysmhpm;Ekid if rH sm;wGif (Weak type of federal system) jynfe,frsm;tm; toift h wifh tmPmESit hf cGit hf a&;rsm; cGaJ 0ay;NyD; useftmPmESit hf cGit hf a&;tm;vk;H ukd A[kjd ynfaxmifpu k odr;f ydu k x f m;onf/ Oyrm - uae'g? awmiftmz&dujynfaxmifp?k jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if /H (3) A[kdjynfaxmifpktwGuf oD;oefYtmPmrsm;ESifhjynfe,frsm;twGuf oD;oefYtmPm rsm;[lí cGjJ cm;owfrw S x f m;onfomru A[kjd ynfaxmifpak &m jynfe,fygaqmif&u G Ef idk f onft h mPmrsm; (Concurrent powers) [lí owfrw S x f m;onf/ Oyrm - qkAd , D uf,el , D ?H ,l*pdk av;AD;,m;/ ,if;odYk 3-rsKd; 3-pm; tmPmESit hf cGit hf a&;rsm; cGaJ 0Muaomfvnf; rnfonfh trsKd;tpm;jynfaxmifpkbJjzpfjzpf jynfe,frsm;twGuf cGJa0xm;aom tmPmESifhtcGifh ta&;rsm;udk A[kdjynfaxmifpkrS 0ifa&mufpGufzufcGifhr&Sdacs/ wenf;tm;jzifh jynfe,f rsm;\jynfwGif;a&;udpörsm;udk 0ifa&mufcs,fvS,fcGifhr&Sdacs/ wenf;tm;jzifh jynfe,f rsm;onf vk;H 0uk, d yf ikd t f yk cf sKyfa&; &&SMd uonf/ oabm&m;tm;jzifh jynfaxmifppk eH pfwiG f jynfe,frsm;onf ud, k yf ikd t f yk cf sKyfa&; (Complete Autonomy) &&SdMuonfqkdaomfvnf; jynfaxmifpk rppfwppfpHepf (0g) jynf axmifpktaysmhpm;pHepfwGif jynfe,frsm;onf tcGifhtmPmrsm; tvGefenf;yg;NyD; tif tm;enf;vGe;f onft h wGuf jynfe,ftqifrh S yPÖmqufEidk if H (Vassal State) tjzpfo¤Ydk if;? vufatmufceH ,fy,f (Province) tqifo h ¤Ykd if;? usa&mufuek Mf uonf/ Oyrm - uae'g? jrefrm? awmiftmz&du/ jynfaxmifpkpHepfqkdonfhtwkdif; oD;jcm;jynfaxmifrsm; pkaygif;xm;&m jynf axmifpt k pd;k &[lí¤if;? jynfe,ftpk;d &[lí¤if;? jynfaxmifpyk gvDref[í l ¤if;? jynfe,f ygvDref[í l ¤if;? jynfaxmifpw k &m;&k;H [lí¤if;? jynfe,fw&m;&k;H [lí¤if; oD;jcm;pD&MdS u &avonf/ jynfe,frsm;onf ,if;uJo h o Ydk ;D jcm;tpk;d &(tkycf sKyfa&;)? oD;jcm;ygvDref(Oya' jyKa&;)? oD;jcm;w&m;&k;H (w&m;pD&ifa&;)rsm;xm;&SNd yD; vk;H 0ud, k yf ikd t f yk cf sKyfa&;&Sjd cif;onf yif jynfaxmifppk eH pf\t"dutESpo f m&jzpfayonf/


jynfaxmifpkygvDref jynfaxmifpyk gvDrefrsm;wGif vTwaf wmf 2-&yfyg0ifMupNrJjzpfonf/ xdv k w T af wmf 2-&yfukd wkid ;f jynftrsKd;rsKd;wGif trnfemrtrsKd;rsKd;jzifh ac:wGiMf uonf/ vG,u f al p&ef txufvw T af wmfEiS ahf tmufvw T af wmf[í l yif ac:a0:Muygpk/Yd atmufvw T af wmfukd vlO;D a&ay: tajcwnfí a&G;aumufwifajr§mufMuonf/ (Proportional Representation) jynfe,frsm;onf vlOD;a&trsKd;tpm;vkduf trwfOD;a& apvTwfcGifh&Muonf/ txufvTwfawmfonf jynfe,frsm; BuD;onf i,fonfr[l wlnD aom trwfO;D a& apvTwMf uonf/ txufvw T af wmfonf jynfe,fBuD;u jynfe,fi,f om;rsm;tm; BuD;Ekid if ,fnO§ ;f qJrsKd;r&Sad p&ef atmufvw T af wmftm; rJwif;ay;&eftwGuf zGJYpnf;jcif;jzpfonf/ wenf;tm;jzifh jynfe,frsm;tm; umuG,f&ef zGJYpnf;xm;jcif;jzpf onf/ xkaYd Mumifh vTwaf wmf 2-&yfukd oabmw&m;tm;jzifh wef;wl-&nfwt l cGit hf mPm wlxm;Muonf/ od&Yk mwGif vufawGt Y m;jzifh vTwaf wmf 2-&yfonf tcGit hf mPmcsif; rwl Muay/ tar&duefjynfaxmifpw k iG f txufvw T af wmfonf atmufvw T af wmfxuf ykí d tcGit hf mPm&So d nf/ ykí d *kP&f o dS nf/ atmufvw T af wmftrwfrsm;onf waeYwiG f txuf vTwaf wmftrwfjzpf&ef arQmfreS ;f Muonf/ qkAd , D uf,el , D EH iS q hf ZdG mvefwiG f oabmw&m;a&m vufawGw Y iG yf g vTwaf wmf 2 -&yfonf wef;wl&nfwl &dMS uonf/ wlnaD om tcGit hf mPm&SMd uonf/ usef&aSd omjynfaxmifprk sm;(uae'g? Mopaw;vD;,m;? awmiftmz&du? jrefrm Ekid if )H wGif atmufvw T af wmfonf txufvw T af wmfxuf tmPmykí d &So d nf/ tajccHOya' wGif aiGOya'Murf;rsm; atmufvw T af wmfwiG o f m pwifwifoiG ;f &rnf[k jy|mef;xm;onf/ jrefrmEkid if t H ajccHOya'wGif xkx d ufuí J jynfaxmifpt k pk;d &onf atmufvw T af wmfuo dk m wm0efcaH Mumif; jy|mef;xm;onf/ txufvw T af wmfoYkd tar&duefjynfaxmifpw k iG f jynfe,fwe,fvQif trwf 2OD;pD¤if;? uae'gjynfaxmifpw k iG f 24-OD;pD¤if;? qGZd mvefjynfaxmifpw k iG f 2-OD;pD¤if;? Mo paw;vD;,m;jynfaxmifpw k iG f 6-OD;pD¤if;? awmiftmz&dujynfaxmifpw k iG f 8-OD;pD¤if;? toD;oD; apvTwfcGifh&SdMuonf/ jrefrmjynfwiG f (rl)ESit hf csKd;tpm; r&Sad y/

E-book is created by shanyoma

103 &Srf;jynfb,fvJ


E-book is created by shanyoma

OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 104

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E-book is created by shanyoma

105 &Srf;jynfb,fvJ


E-book is created by shanyoma

OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 106

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107 &Srf;jynfb,fvJ

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E-book is created by shanyoma

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E-book is created by shanyoma

OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 108

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109 &Srf;jynfb,fvJ

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E-book is created by shanyoma

OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 110

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E-book is created by shanyoma

OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 112

a&G;cs,forl sm;onf uGe*f &ufvw T af wmfw&yf&yf\trwf odw Yk nf;r[kwf tusKd; tjrwf&mxl;wckcük xrf;&Guaf eolrsm; r[kwaf p&yg/ 'kw, d tqift h aejzifh xkad &G;cs,forl sm;u wzef rdrw d BYdk udKufEpS o f ufaom orw ESi'hf w k , d orwukd rJqE´ay;Mu&onf/ ,cktcg tar&duefueG *f &ufwiG f txufvw T af wmftrwf(100)ESiahf tmufvw T f awmftrwf(437)OD;&Sd&m vGefcJhonfhEkd0ifbmv(7)&ufaeYwGif tar&duefrJqE´&Sif(67) oef;ausmfwo Ydk nf jynfe,ftoD;oD;wGif a&G;cs,foal ygif; 537-OD;ukd vQKdU0Surf aJ y;pepf jzifh a&G;aumufwifajr§mufMuonf/ 'Drkdu&ufwpforwavmif;uae'Donf rdrdudk rJay;rnfha&G;cs,folokH;&mausmf &xm;onft h wGuf orwjzpfrnfo h [ l í l urÇmu todtrSwjf yKxm;Muonf/ tajccHOya't&qkv d Qif orwa&G;cs,f&ef a&G;cs,forl sm;onf vmrnfZh efe0g &Dv 'kw, d weif;vmaeYwiG f oufqidk &f mjynfe,frsm;ü pka0;í rJqE´ay;Mu&ygrnf/ tar&duefjynfaxmifpw k iG f ygwDpepfEiS 'hf rD u dk a&pDusifo h ;Hk rI tvGe&f ifu h sufae íom þpepfonf atmifjrifNyD; ,ckuyif uae'Dtm; orwjzpfrnfo h [ l í l ausnmEkid f jcif;jzpfavonf/ Armjynfvdk ae&mrsKd;rSmomqkv d Qif Ek0d bFmv(7)&ufaeY 'Dbufyidk ;f wGif ta&G;cH &aom a&G;cs,forl sm;tm; wnfNrJ? oef&Y iS ;f uGpJ Ofu trwfrsm;uJo h Ykd wHwidk ;f txyfxyf umxm;NyD; txl;apmifah &Smufxm;&ayvdrrhf nf/ tar&dueforw&mxl;onf ,cktcg urÇmhuHMur®mudk zefwD;EkdifpGrf;&Sdavmuf atmif wefc;dk xufjrufaeayonf/ 4-ESpo f ufwrf;twGi;f tar&duefjynfow l t Ydk ay: tmPm&Siw f rQ wefc;kd MoZmBuD;rm;ayonf/ tar&duef w&m;pD&ifa&; tar&duefjynfaxmifpw k iG f jynfaxmifpw k &m;&k;H rsm; wpifwzGYJ oD;jcm;jynfe,f w&m;&krH sm; wpifwzGYJ oD;jcm;xm;&Sad vonf/ jynfaxmifpv k w T af wmfcsKyfonf tcGit hf mPm 3-&yfom ,lxm;onf/ (1) tajccHOya'w&m;Oya'rsm;ESiphf mcsKyfpmwrf;rsm;rS ay:aygufvmaomudprö sm;/ (2) oHwrHrsm;ESiyhf ifv,fa&aMumif; pD&ifyidk cf iG t hf mPmESio hf ufqidk af omudprö sm;/ (3) jynfaxmifpEk iS jhf ynfe,ftjiif;yGm;rI odrYk [kwf jynfe,ftcsif;csif; tjiif;yGm;rI? odYk r[kwf jynfaxmifpEk iS Ehf idk if jH cm;rsm; tjiif;yGm;rIupd rö sm;/ tajccHOya'tm; xdef;odrf;apmifha&Smufa&;onf tar&duefw&m;vTwfawmf


113 &Srf;jynfb,fvJ

csKyf\t"duwm0efjzpfayonf/ tar&duefjynfe,frsm; tar&duefjynfe,f 50 rSm vk;H 0uk, d yf ikd t f yk cf sKyfa&;&Sad om orwEkid if rH sm;jzpf jynfe,forwrsm;udk ,cifuv kd edk t D pOftvmwkid ;f a*:0gem (Governor) [kac: a0:Muonf/ jynfe,forwrsm;onf trsm;jynfoq l E´rjJ zifh a&G;aumufwifajr§mufc&H NyD; jynf e,ftwGi;f wGif jynfaxmifpo k rwuJo h yYkd if wefc;dk tmPm tvGeBf uD;rm;ayonf/ jynfe,fwidk ;f onf olt Y ajccHOya'ESio hf l twdtus&SMd uonf/ Oya'jyKvTwaf wmf rsm;vnf; txufvw T af wmf atmufvw T af wmf[í l &SMd uonf/ w&m;&k;H rsm;vnf; w&m; vTwaf wmfcsKyfrS atmuf&;Hk txd wpifwzGYJ &SMd uonf/ jynfe,frsm;onf ud, k yf ikd u f muG,f a&;tzGrYJ sm; (Militia) xm;Ekid cf iG &hf o dS nf/ odaYk omf tar&duefjynfe,frsm;onf qkAd , D uf ,le, D rH mS uJo h Ykd Ekid if jH cm;ESiw hf u dk &f u dk f oHwrefqufo, G cf iG Ehf iS chf x JG u G Ef idk af om tcGit hf a&; rsm; cHpm;cGihf r&SMd uacs/ tar&duefjynfaxmifpw k iG f A[kEd iS jhf ynfe,frsm; tmPmcGaJ 0a&;ESiyhf wfoufí rpöwmb&ku d (f p)u jynfe,frsm;onf trsm;qk;H &NyD; A[ko d nf tjrifq h ;Hk udk ,lxm;onf/ þenf;tm;jzifh Xme 3-cktMum; csdecf iG n f m§ udk xde;f odr;f xm;onf[k ajymqkad vonf/ The state gets the most but the nation the hightest so that the balance between the two is preserved.

(5) qGZd mvefjynfaxmifpk qGZd mvefjynfaxmifp\ k tajccHOya'onf urÇmay:wGif 'Dru dk a&pDtjynf0h qk;H jzpfonf[k qkMd uonf/ tb,fah Mumifq h adk omf qGZd mvefjynfwiG f jynfojl ynfom;rsm;onf 'Dru dk a&pDtm Pmudk wku d &f u dk t f ok;H jyKEkid cf iG fh &Sjd cif;aMumifjh zpfonf/ (Direct Democracy.) / 'Dru dk a&pDtmPmukd (3)enf; (3)rsKd;udk wku d &f u dk t f ok;H jyKMuonf/ (1) (Landsgemeide) ac:vlxt k pnf;ta0; usif;yí qk;H jzwfenf;/ (2) (Initiative) rJqE´&iS rf sm; vufrw S af &;xd;k í awmif;qked nf;/ (3) (Referendum) jynfoq Yl E´ay;yGJ usif;yí qk;H jzwfenf;/ eHygwf 1 ESihf 2 rSm urÇmay:wGif qGZd mvefwjynfxnf;üom usifo h ;Hk onf/ jynfoYl

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Muonf/


E-book is created by shanyoma

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qE´ay;yGJrSm tcsKdUEkdifiHrsm;wGif oD;jcm;udpötwGuf usif;yay;avh&Sdonf/ jrefrmjynf axmifpt k ajccHOya'wGif jynfe,fcx JG u G af &; udpu ö kd qk;H jzwfonft h cg jynfoq Yl E´ay; qk;H jzwfap&ef jy|mef;xm;onf/ jynfov l x l u k 'Dru dk a&pDtmPmudk wku d &f u dk t f ok;H jyKEkid jf cif;onf qdZG mvefjynf axmifpk\txl;jcm;qkH;vu©Pmjzpfonf/ jynfe,f 6-e,fwiG f ESppf OfEpS w f idk ;f {NyDvaemufq;Hk ywf we*FaEGaeYwiG f uGi;f jyif ü vlxpk nf;a0;í (Landsgemeide) usif;yavh&MdS uonf/ xkv d x l pk nf;a0;yGw J iG f t f rsm; jynfolESifhoufqkdifaomudpörsm;udk aqG;aEG;avh&SdMuonf/ ta&;BuD;aomqkH;jzwfcsuf rsm;onf csrSwfMuonf/ vkdtyfvQif jynfe,f\tajccHOya'udkyif xkdtpnf;ta0;u jyifqifMuonf/ w&m;Oya'rsm;udk jy|mef;onf/ tcGeftwkwfudk pnf;MuyfcefYcGJonf/ jynfe,ftpk;d &tay: xdxad &mufa&muf BudK;ukid Mf uonf/ xkdvlxkpnf;a0;yGJrsm;udkvnf; pnf;urf;usus £a`E´&& odu©morm"d&Sd&Sdjzifh usif;yMuavonf/ xkaYd Mumifh ygarmu©b&Gwf (Prof. Brooks) u xkpd nf;a0;yGrJ sm;ESiyhf wf oufí ]]'Dru dk a&pD\tvGeo f bm0usaomç tvGet f a&;ygt&ma&mufaomç tvGeEf pS f vkzd , G af umif;aom vu©Pmjzpfygayonf}}[k xkwaf z:ajymMum;avonf/ useftjcm;jynfe,frsm;wGif vlxpk nf;a0;yGJ usif;yrIrsKd;r&Sad omfvnf; vufrw S f a&;xkd;awmif;qkdenf;ESifhjynfolYqE´ay;yGJ usif;yenf;wkdYudk us,fus,fjyefYjyefY tokH;jyK Muavonf/ jynfe,f (11)e,fwiG f w&m;Oya'rsm; twnfjyK&ef jynfoq Yl E´ay;yGJ rvkyrf ae &ay/ jynfe,ftm;vk;H onf w&m;Oya'jyKay;&ef vufrw S af &;xk;d awmif;qkEd idk cf iG &hf MdS u onf/ omrefw&m;Oya'twGuf rJqE´&iS o f ;Hk aomif; vufrw S af &;xk;d awmif;qk&d NyD; t ajccHOya'jyifqifa&;twGuf ig;aomif;u vufrw S af &;xk;d awmif;qd&k avonf/ jynf axmifpt k ajccHOya'jyifqifa&;wGif jynfoq Yl E´ay;yGJ rusif;ybJ twnfrjyKEkid af cs/ qGZd mvefjynfaxmifpo k nf 1848-ckEpS ?f rwkid rf D jynfaxmifprk [kwaf o;yg/ a&S; wkH;uqkdvQif tJvfyfpf (Alps) awmifwef;wavQmufwiG f wnf&adS om jynfaxmifuav; rsm;onf tusKd;wlvkyfief;rsm;twGuf ]]wyfaygif;pk}}oabmzGJYpnf;aexkdifMuonf/ jyifopfb&k if eykv d , D o H nf qGZd mveftm; 0ifa&muford ;f ydu k Nf yD;aemuf &S&d if;jynf axmifrsm;udk zsuford ;f um e,ferd w d t f opf owfrw S af y;NyD;? (18)c&kifd zf pYJG nf;vku d o f nf/ xkaYd emuf wjynfaxmifpeH pf (Unitary) tajccHOya' a&;qGaJ y;vku d o f nf/ qGZd mveftrsKd;om;rsm;u vufrcH jiif;y,fMuonf/ eydv k , D b H &k ifonf xkt d ajc cHOya'ukd jyKjyifNyD; twif;t"r®vufcaH 0jyefygonf/ odaYk omf ratmifjrifacs/


wzef eykv d , D b H &k ifonf jynfaxmifrsm;tm; cGNJ yD; tajccHOya'wckpjD zifh tkyf csKyfjyefonf/ eykv d , D b H &k ifusqk;H onfEiS w hf NydKifwnf; ol\pHepfvnf; ysufoOk ;f oGm;av awmhonf/ eykv d , D \ H pk;d rk;d rIatmufwiG f qGZd mvefjynfaxmiftcsif;csif; vufwaJG qmif&u G f csufrsm;onf aemifjynfaxmifpk zGpYJ nf;&ef rsKd;aphcsay;cJo h nf/ qGZd mvefjynfaxmifrsm;onf wyfaygif;pktzGu YJ kd jyefvnfzpYJG nf;Muonf/ tar &duefjynfaxmifpk tpOD;ykid ;f uJo h Ykd tusKd;wlvjHk cKHa&;? Ekid if jH cm;usL;ausmfapmfum;rIrsm; rS umuG,fa&;? vGwfvyfa&;? xdef;odrf;a&;? jynfwGif;Nidrf0yfydjym;a&;wkdYtwGuf yl;wGJ vkyaf qmifMuonf/ jynfaxmiftoD;oD;um; ud, k yf idk t f yk cf sKyfa&;? uk, d yf ikd t f ajccHOya' jzifh tkycf sKyfMuonf/ (Federal Diet) ac: wyfaygif;pkvw T af wmfoYkd jynfou Yl , dk pf m;vS,rf sm; apvTwjf cif; rjyKbJ jynfaxmifrsm;\oHwrefrsm;qefqef awGq Y MHk uonf/ xku d mvtwGi;f tcsKdUjynfaxmifrsm;onf vk;H 0cGx J u G í f oD;jcm;aevkMd uonf/ tcsKdUu wyfaygif;pkoabmukd zsuford ;f NyD; ydí k pkpnf;aom 'Dru dk a&pDEidk if H xlaxmifvdk Muonf/ 1846-ckESpfwGif? cGJa&;orm;ESifhwGJa&;orm;rsm; jynfwGif;ppfcif;Muonf/ wGJ a&;orm;u Ekid Nf yD; qGZd mvefjynfaxmifpu k kd 1848-ckEpS w f iG f zGpYJ nf;vku d Mf uonf/ tar &duefjynfaxmifp\ k erlemtwkid ;f jynfaxmifpyk gvDrefwiG f txufvw T af wmf (Council of hf tmufvw T af wmf (National Council) [lízGpYJ nf;vku d o f nf/ atmufvw T af wmf States) ESia udk vlO;D a&tvku d f a&G;aumufwifajr§mufNyD; txufvw T af wmfudk tar&dueftxufvw T f awmftwkid ;f (Canton) ac:wjynfaxmifvQif (2)OD;us a&G;aumufMuonf/ 0efBuD;(7) OD;yg0ifaom A[kt d pk;d &tzGjYJ zifh tkycf sKyfMuonf/ 1848-ckESpf? tajccHOya'onf tajccHOya'xuf r[mrdwfpmcsKyfESifhydkíwl onf[k qkMd uonf/ jynfaxmifrsm;onf jynfaxmifp0k ifoabmxuf tcsKyftjcmykid f vGwf vyfaomEkid if t H jzpf aeMuonf/ A[dt k pk;d &onf jynfaxmifpyk gvDrefukd wm0efrcH ygvD refESifhqufoG,fvkdrS qufoG,fonf/ tpdk;&tzGJY0if0efBuD;rsm;onfvnf; trsm;tusKd; xuf uk, d u f ;dk uG,af ombmom? ud, k ahf e&if;a'otusKd;udk ykí d onfy;kd aqmif&u G Mf uonf/ 26-ESpw f idk f cGaJ &; wGaJ &; y#dyu©onf qufvufjyif;xefco hJ nf/ aemufq;Hk wGif jynfaxmifpo k rm;rsm;u atmifjrifNyD; 1874-ckEpS w f iG f vuf&q dS ZdG mvefjynfaxmifpt k ajccHOya'ukd jyifqifa&;qGv J u dk Mf uonf/

E-book is created by shanyoma

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E-book is created by shanyoma

OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 116

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E-book is created by shanyoma

117 &Srf;jynfb,fvJ


OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 118

E-book is created by shanyoma

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vGwv f yfa&;twGuf BudK;yrf;aeMupOfw;Hk u vGwv f yfNyD;onfah emuf rnfonfyh Hk pHrsKd;jzifh wkid ;f jynfukd wnfaxmifMurnfenf;[k awG;awmMuHqMuonft h cg ArmtrsKd; om;acgif;aqmifrsm;onf Armjynfvkd wkdif;jynfi,fav;tzkdY vlrsKd;pkrsm; tcGJcGJtjcrf; jcrf; tkycf sKyfonfrh u l dk rBudKufMuyg/ wpnf;wvk;H wnf; ykpH w H rsKd;wnf;aomtkycf sKyfa&; rsKd;? wenf;tm;jzifh wjynfaxmifpHepftpdk;& wrsKd;wpm;pHepf (Unitary) ukdvkdvm;Mu onf/ AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;u uRefawmfwkdYtm; wpnf;wvkH;xnf;om 5-ESpfpDrHudef; 2-Budraf jrmuf aqmif&u G v f u dk &f vQif tm;vk;H wk;d wufrnf? Armjynfrxuf wqifeh rd u hf s aeaome,fpyfa'o&Sd vlrsKd;pkrsm;onfvnf; ArmESiw hf ef;wl wk;d wufvmrnf[k ,kMH unf aMumif; ajymjybl;ygonf/ uRefawmfwYdk (& y v)acgif;aqmifrsm;onf Akv d cf sKyfatmifqef;\&k;d om;aom apwemudk ,kMH unfMuonf? av;pm;Muonf/ odaYk omf &Sr;f trsKd;om;rsm;taeESihf tajctaeu wrsKd;jzpfaeMuygonf/ &Sr;f vlrsKd;ESiAhf rmvlrsKd;onf vlrsKd;jcif;rwl jcm;em;onf? &Sr;f jynfa'oESiAhf rm jynfa'oonf uke;f jyifjrifEh iS ahf jrjyefjY cm;em;onf/ &mZ0ift& &Sr;f rsm;onf Armrsm;t ay:pd;k &drMf uonf/ ouFmruif;&SMd uonf/ tESp(f 60)ausmfe,fcsJUorm;\aoG;cGrJ aI Mumifh aoG;uGaJ eMuonf/ vGwv f yfa&; BudK;yrf;aeMupOf e,fcsJUjAL&ku d &ufrsm;\aoG;cGrJ -I ajc xk;d rI-tEÅ&m,fuvnf; BuD;rm;aeonf/ uRefawmfwYdk (& y v)acgif;aqmifrsm;tm; Arm olvQKdawG Armudk a&mif;pm;olawG[í l apmfbmG ;tcsKdUu pGypf aJG ecsdev f nf; jzpfonf/ uRefawmfwYdk Akv d cf sKyfatmifqef;\apwemudv k nf;aumif;? jynfaxmifppk eH pfrl udv k nf;aumif;? oHo,r&SMd uyg? Akv d cf sKyfatmifqef; OD;aqmifaom ArmjynfEiS u hf Refawmf wkYd &Sr;f jynftm; wjynfaxmifpeH pft& yl;aygif;apumrl uRefawmfwt Ydk zkYd pk;d &dryf yl efp&m r&S[ d k uRefawmfwYdk ,lqonf/ vlyk*¾Kdvfykdif;tajct& xkdodkYjzpfaomfvnf; wuJhjzpf&yftajctaet&qkdvQif jynfaxmifpkoabmw&m;uvGJí tjcm;rjzpfEkdif[k uRefawmfwkdY (& y v)uqkH;jzwfMu onf/ uRefawmfw(Ydk & y v)u atmufygjynfaxmifpo k abmw&m;udk a[majymyGrJ sm; jzif¤h if;? pm&Gupf mwrf;rsm;jzif¤h if; &Sr;f jynftESt YH jym;odYk csjyvku d o f nf/ jynfaxmifpo k abmw&m; (1) ArmjynfrESijhf ynfaxmifppk eH pft& yl;aygif;rnf/

E-book is created by shanyoma

119 &Srf;jynfb,fvJ


E-book is created by shanyoma

OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 120

(2) ,if;odkYyl;aygif;onfhtcg(u) tcGifhta&;ESifhtqifhtwef;wljzpf&rnf/ (c) &Sr;f jynftm; vk;H 0uk, d yf idk t f yk cf sKyfa&;ay;&rnf/ (*) cGx J u G v f u dk tcsderf a&G; cGx J u G cf iG ahf y;&rnf/ (3) A[kt d pk;d &tm; atmufygXmersm; vTt J yfay;rnf/ (u) Ekid if jH cm;a&;/ (c) umuG,af &;/ (*) pmwku d Ef iS ahf Mu;eef;/ (C) vrf;yef;qufoG,fa&;/ (i) aiGpuúLESiahf iG'*Fg;xkwv f yk af &;/ (p) qdyu f rf;taumufawmfceG /f (& y v)\jynfaxmifpo k abmw&m;onf &Sr;f jynfvx l t k wGi;f euf&idI ;f pGm 0if oGm;onf/ Armqkv d Qif tvGerf ek ;f NyD; ArmjynfEiS rhf aygif;vkad omyk*K¾ v d rf sm;yifvQif þjynf axmifpo k abmw&m;ukd vufcv H mMuonf/ (& y v)\jynfaxmifpo k abmw&m;onf &Sr;f jynfe,ferd w d rf S ausmfveG u f m e,f pyfa'owavQmufvkH;odkY jyefYESHYoGm;cJhonf/ &Srf;-ucsif-csif;-acgif;aqmifrsm;yl;aygif; zGpJY nf;xm;aom awmifwef;om;pnf;vk;H nDnw T af &;OD;pD;tzGcYJ sKyf (Scouhp) uvnf; jynf axmifpo k abmw&m;udk vufcv H mMuonf/ jynfaxmifpo k abmw&m;\tESpo f m&onf emrnfausmfyifvpHk mcsKyfwiG f ygvm &onf/ NAdwo d Qavbmtrwf &dp0f v D sHacgif;aqmifaom e,fpyfa'opkpH rf;a&;aumfr&Sif \tpD&ifcpH mwGiv f nf; jynfaxmifpo k abmw&m;udk a&SUwef;xkwí f az:jyxm;&onf/ AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;tp OD;Ektv,f OD;csefxGef;tqkH; ArmtrsKd;om;acgif; aqmifrsm;uawmh jynfaxmifpo k abmw&m;udk tBudKufMuyg/ OD;baz-a'gufwmAarmf-ocifApdew f v Ydk dk vusfm*kP d ;f om;rsm;uvnf; rBudKuf Muyg/ okadY omf OD;atmifqef;-OD;EkwEYdk iS Ohf ;D baz-OD;barmfw\ Ydk tajccHapwemcsif;rSm jcm;em;Muygonf/ vlrsKd;pkrsm;\jynfaxmifpo k abmw&m;udk y,fzsufí r&Ekid af wmhyg/ wkid ;f jynfjyKvTwaf wmfwiG f Akv d cf sKyfO;D atmifqef;u tajccHOya'vrf;nTejf y|mef; csuf tqkw d ifoiG ;f onft h cg tyk'd (f 2)wGif jynfaxmifpo k abmw&m;udk xnfo h iG ;f xm;& avonf/


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E-book is created by shanyoma

121 &Srf;jynfb,fvJ


OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 122

E-book is created by shanyoma

wykid ;f ig;wykid ;f jzpfro I nf e,fpyfa'ovlrsKd;rsm;wGif ude;f atmif;aeaom oHo,ruif; rIukd rajyaysmufaponft h jyif wk;d íyif BuD;rm;vmapcJyh gonf/ wjcrf;yJh jynfaxmifpk uRefawmfw\ Ydk tajccHOya'onf oabmw&m;tm;jzifh jynfaxmifp[ k k ac:qkd Ekid jf cif;rSm(1) &Srf;-ucsif-u&if-u,m;jynfe,frsm; zGJYpnf;ay;xm;jcif;/ (2) jynfe,frsm;wGif ud, k yf ikd t f yk cf sKyfa&; toift h wifch iG jhf yKxm;jcif;/ (3) jynfe,faumifpaD c: Oya'jyKtzGt YJ pnf;ay;xm;jcif;/ (4) &Sr;f ESiu hf ,m;jynfe,frsm;tm; jynfaxmifp\ k tjrifq h ;Hk tqifjh zpfonfch x JG u G Ef ikd cf iG hf ay;xm;jcif;rsm;aMumifh jzpfonf/ þrQavmufom uGuu f u G u f av;Munfv h Qif urÇmay:&Sd tjcm;jynfaxmifprk sm; ESihf toGit f m;jzifh wloa,mifa,mif jzpfonf/ jynfaxmifpq k o dk nfrmS jynfaxmifac: jynfe,frsm; pkaygif;xm;jcif;jzpfonf/ tjcm;vlrsKd;pkrsm;twGuf oD;jcm;jynfe,frsm; zGJYpnf;xm;aomfvnf; vlrsm;pkjzpfaom Armrsm;tzkYd jynfe,f[í l oD;jcm;r&Sad cs/ oD;jcm;ygvDrefEiS o hf ;D jcm;tpk;d &vnf; r&Sad cs/ &kww f &ufqv dk Qif Armrsm;u tepfemcH&oa,mif oabmaygufayrnf/ eufeuf eJeJ pOf;pm;Munfyh gu Armrsm;onf jynfaxmifpt k pk;d &tmPmudk vk;H axG;,lvu dk Nf yD; vl rsKd;pkrsm;tay: tkypf v D u dk jf cif;omjzpfygonf/ þonfukd axmuf&í I OD;csefxeG ;f u ]]vuf awGw Y iG f wjynfaxmifpeH pfjzpfonf}}[kqv dk u dk jf cif;jzpfonf/ xkaYd Mumifh uRefawmfu jynfe,frsm;onf Armjynf\yPÖmqufEidk if rH sm;tqifo h Ykd usa&mufuek o f nf[k qkv d u dk jf cif;jzpfonf/ yPÖmqufEidk if aH c: (Vassal State) ESiyhf wfoufNyD; uRefawmftaeESihf txl;t"d yÜg,fziG jhf yp&m rvkyd g/ Akv d cf sKyfatmifqef; ruG,v f eG rf D wkid ;f jynfjyKvTwaf wmfwiG f t"dygÜ ,f zGifhjycJhonfu ydkít"dyÜg,fav;eufygonf/ (Vassal State) qkdwmu wynfh-uRefEkdifiHvkdoabmrsKd;bJ? uRefqkdayr,fhvkdY (Colony) ukv d ek v D nf; r[kwb f ;l ? olb Y momol olrY if;ESio hf cl sif;ESio hf t Yl pk;d &ESib hf ?J tjyif brf;tm;jzifah wmh vGwv f yfw,f? odaYk omfvnf; Ekid if BH uD;wEkid if &H UJ MoZmvTr;f rd;k rI csKyfcs,f rIudk txl;wvnf cHae&wJEh idk if jH zpfvYdk (Vassal State) vkaYd c:w,f/ (wkid ;f jynfjyKvTwaf wmf nDvmcHrw S w f rf;pmwG-J 1/ tpnf;ta0;trSwf 4? pmrsufEmS - 77)/ ArmvlrsKd;BuD;0g'ESiyhf PÖmqufEidk if [ H al om pum;rsm;udk uRefawmfu wrifxiG f


vku d o f nf[k uRefawmfrh w d af qGrsm;u qkMd uonf/ trSerf mS þpum;vk;H rsm;udk uRefawmf u xGiv f u dk o f nf r[kwyf g/ jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if aH wmf\ 10-ESpaf usmfb0rS aygufzmG ; vmaom pum;vk;H rsm;om jzpfygonf/ Armrsm;twGuf oD;jcm;jynfe,f-oD;jcm;tpkd;&-oD;jcm;Oya'jyKtzGJY[lí oD; jcm;rxm;jcif;ESifhywfoufí OD;csefxGef;uyifArmacgif;aqmifrsm;\ukd,fpm; wkdif;jynf jyKvTwaf wmfwiG f &Si;f vif;jycJyh gonf/ ]]ArmjynfrBuD;u tifrwefBuD;NyD; yg0ifrnfjh ynfe,fawGu tifrwef tus,f t0ef;rSm i,faewmudk awG&Y ygw,f/ Armjynfrtus,ft0ef;[m &Sr;f jynf ucsifjynf e,f? u&ifejD ynfe,f/ onfjynfe,f ok;H jynfaygif;vQifawmifrS ArmjynfrmS usefwehJ ,f awG&JUtus,ft0ef;eJYqkdvQif okH;ykHwykH av;ykHwykHavmufyJ &Sdw,f/ vlOD;a&tm;jzifhqkd vQif omNyD;uGmjcm;ao;w,f/ vlO;D a&(17)oef; &Sw d t hJ euf Armjynfru (15)oef;&Sw d ,f? &Sr;f jynf? ucsifjynf? u&ifejD ynfe,fu&Sv d Qif (2)oef;avmufbJ &Sw d ,f/ NyD;awmh b@m a&;udpt ö ajctaerSmvnf; ,ckvuf&dS tajctaeudk Munfrh nfqv dk Qif b@ma&;tajc taerSm trsm;BuD;csKdUiJhaeygw,f/ EkdifiHa&;A[kokwudkMunfhjyefawmhvnf; tawmfbJ uGmjcm;aewm&Sw d ,f}}[lí OD;csefxeG ;f u ArmjynfrESijhf ynfe,frsm; uGmjcm;rIudk &Si;f jyNyD;? tu,fí Armjynfrt f wGuf oD;jcm;jynfe,fxm;&vQif Oya'jyKrItwGuf trwfrsm;? tkyf csKyfrItwGuf trIxrf;rsm;? w&m;pD&ifrItwGuf w&m;olBuD;rsm;? trsm;tjym;vkdrnf jzpfonft h wGuf vlrvkaH vmufaMumif;? A[djk ynfaxmifpEk iS Ahf rmjynfrtwGuf xkd 3-Xme cGx J m;&vQif b@ma&;ESpq f ydí k ukeu f srnfjzpfaMumif; qufvuf&iS ;f jyonf/ xkaYd Mumifh ]]usefonfjh ynfe,fawGrmS vkd ArmjynfrtwGuu f kd oD;oefjY ynfe,fwck tjzpf rxm;bJEiS hf A[kt d pk;d &u A[kOd ya'jyKtzGu YJ aeNyD;awmh tkycf sKyfwAhJ [kt d pk;d &ESihf aygif;xm;wJh waygif;wpnf;wnf; EkdifiHjynfrjzpf&rnf}}[k OD;csefxGef;u &Sif;vif;cJhyg onf/ [kpd Ofu uRefawmfvnf; [kwEf ;dk a,mifa,mif vufccH yhJ gonf/ Armrsm; wu,f tepfemcHygwum;[k txifBuD;cJhygonf/ eufeufeJeJ ezl;ay: vufwifpOf;pm;MunfhrS jynfe,frsm; arsmufavmif;jzpfuek o f nfukd awGjY rif&ygonf/ trSerf mS Armrsm;twGuf oD;jcm;jynfe,fzpYJG nf;NyD; Armjynfe,f-&Sr;f jynfe,fusifjynfe,f-u&ifjynfe,f-u,m;jynfe,fponfjh ynfe,frsm; yl;aygif;um jynfaxmifpk zGyYJ grS wu,fjh ynfaxmifp\ k t*FgESin hf n D w T af yrnf/ ,ckru l m; Armjynfe,f[í l ryg&So d nfh twGuf uRefawmfw\ Ydk tajccHOya'onf toGit f m;jzifyh if t*FgrpHk wjcrf;yJh jynfaxmif pkBuD;jzpfaeavonf/

E-book is created by shanyoma

123 &Srf;jynfb,fvJ


OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 124

E-book is created by shanyoma

þum; yxrOD;pGm awG&Y &dS onfh csKdU,Gi;f csufBuD;jzpfygonf/ wkdYygvDref uRefawmfwYdk jynfaxmifpk ygvDrefzpYJG nf;ykrH mS vnf; obm0rusay/ tjcm;jynf axmifpyk gvDrefrsm;wGif vTwaf wmf 2-&yfxm;&Sjd cif;rSm atmufvw T af wmfonf 'Dru dk a&pD oabmt& tcsKyftjcmtmPmonf jynfov l x l x k rH S qif;ouf&rnfqo dk nft h wkid ;f jynf olvx l w k &yfv;Hk tm; ud, k pf m;jyK&efjzpfNyD; txufvw T af wmfrmS jynfaxmifpo k abmw&m; t& jynfe,frsm;tm; ud, k pf m;jyK&ef jzpfayonf/ jynfe,fBuD;u jynfe,fi,frsm;tm; tEkid u f sifrh I r&Sad p&ef txufvw T af wmfoYkd udk,fpm;vS,fOD;a& tnDtrQapvTwfMuonf/ vTwaf wmfw&yf&yfonf tmPmudk tvGet f uJtok;H rjyKEkid &f eftwGuf vTwaf wmf w&yfu tjcm;vTwaf wmfw&yftm; xde;f uGyEf ikd &f ef tcGit hf mPmwl ay;xm;Muonf/ uRefawmfwkdY\txufvTwfawmfodkY jynfe,frsm;onf trwfOD;a&tnDtrQap vTwEf idk cf iG hf r&SMd uyg/ Armjynfe,f[í l oD;jcm;r&Sjd cif;onfyif jynfaxmifpt k xufvw T f awmfzpYJG nf;rIukd BuD;pGm&kyq f if;ysufapavonf/ wjynfe,fvQif trwfO;D a& tb,frQ pD apvTw&f rnf[k tajccHOya'wGif jy|mef;vku d v f Qif Armjynfe,fr&Sí d jynfaxmifpt k xufvw T af wmfwiG f Armuk, d pf m;vS,rf sm; yg0ifEidk af wmhrnf r[kwaf cs/ uRefawmfwkdY\txufvTwfawmfonf atmufvTwfawmftm; xdef;uGyfEkdifaom tmPmvnf; r&S?d jynfe,f jynfe,frsm;tusKd;udk umuG,Ef idk pf rG ;f vnf;r&Sjd zpfaeav&m ,cktwkid ;f omqkv d Qif Ekid if aH wmforwuJo h Ykd wefqmqifxm;,ko H m &Sad eayrnf/ þum; 'kwd,csKdU,Gif;csufwnf;/ tmPmESifhtcGifhta&; jynfaxmifppk pfppfEikd if rH sm;wGif A[kjd ynfaxmifpt k m; trsm;ESiq hf idk af om tcGihf tmPmrsm;om ay;NyD; useftmPmrsm;udk jynfe,frsm;u odr;f ydu k x f m;Muonf/ uae'g jynfaxmifpw k iG o f m A[djk ynfaxmifpt k m;vnf; tmPmuefo Y wfay;NyD; useftmPmrsm; tm;vk;H ukd A[du k odr;f ydu k x f m;onf/ uRefawmfwYdk jynfaxmifpk tajccHOya'wGif jynfaxmifpOk ya'jyKpm&if;? jynf e,fOya'jyKpm&if;[lí cGJjcm;NyD; useftmPmrsm;tm;vkH;udk A[kdjynfaxmifpktpkd;&odkY ay;tyfxm;&mu uae'gjynfaxmifpEk iS t hf mPmcGaJ 0enf;wGif twlwyl ifjzpfonf/ tajc cHOya'rlEiS yhf wfoufí &Si;f jypOf OD;csefxeG ;f u uae'gjynfaxmifpv k rf;pOfukd vku d x f m;


125 &Srf;jynfb,fvJ

uRefawmfwYdk jynfaxmifpt k pk;d & uRefawmfwYdk jynfaxmifpt k pk;d &tzGrYJ sKd;udk tjcm;rnfonfjh ynfaxmifpEk idk if w H iG f rS rawG&Y yg/ jynfaxmifppk pfppfjzpfonft h ar&duef-qGZd mvef-qkAd , D uf,el , D -H Mopaw;vD; ,m;wkw Yd iG ¤f if;? jynfaxmifpt k aysmhpm;jzpfonfu h ae'gwGi¤f if;? jynfaxmifpt k pd;k &tzGYJ wGif uRefawmfwt Ydk pk;d &tzGu YJ o hJ Ykd jynfe,f0efBuD;Xmersm; yg0ifzpYJG nf;xm;jcif; r&SMd uyg/ uRefawmfwjYdk ynfe,fOuú|rsm;onf jynfaxmifpt k pk;d &tzGw YJ iG f jynfe,f0efBuD; rsm;tjzpf yg0ifaeMuonf/ uRefawmfwYdk jynfaxmifpw k iG f Ekid if aH wmforwonf jy&kyrf QomjzpfNyD; tmPmt &Sq d ;Hk yk*K¾ v d rf mS Ekid if aH wmf0efBuD;csKyf jzpfonf/ yk'rf 56(2)t& Ekid if aH wmforwonf 0efBuD;csKyfu trnfwifoiG ;f aomyk*K¾ v d f wku Yd kd jynfaxmifpt k pk;d &tzG0YJ if tjcm;0efBuD;rsm;tjzpf cefx Y m;&rnf/ yk'fr 56(3)t& ]]EkdifiHawmforwonf 0efBuD;csKyf\tMuHay;csuft& jynf axmifpktpkd;&0efBuD;wOD;OD;\&mxl;EIwfxGufpmukd vufcH&rnf/ odkYwnff;r[kwf &mxl; rS &yfpaJ p&rnf/ uRefawmfw\ Ydk t&yfom; pum;qkv d Qif 0efBuD;csKyfu BudKufEpS o f ufí a&G;cs,f olrsm;om 0efBuD;rsm;jzpf&NyD; 0efBuD;csKyfu tvkrd &So d nfw h aeYwiG f 0efBuD;&mxl;rS EIwf xGufay;&rnf/ uRefawmfwYdk jynfe,f0efBuD;rsm;vnf; 0efBuD;csKyfu oabmwlrS 0efBuD;jzpfEidk f onf/ 0efBuD;csKyfu oabmrwlonft h cg 0efBuD;rjzpfEidk af cs/ xkaYd Mumifh jynfe,f0efBuD;rsm;onf 0efBuD;csKyf\oabmqE´twkid ;f aqmif&u G f Mu&onf/ jynfe,ftpk;d &rsm;onf uk, d yf ikd t f yk cf sKyfa&;&Sí d jynfaxmifpt k pd;k &onf jynf e,ftwGif;a&;rsm;wGif 0ifa&mufpGufzufcGifhr&Sd[kqkdaomfvnf; jynfe,ftkyfcsKyfa&;\ tBuD;tuJjzpfol jynfe,fOuú|rsm;rSm 0efBuD;csKyf\qE´EiS q hf efu Y sifaomudprö sm; bmrS

E-book is created by shanyoma

aMumif; 0efccH ahJ vonf/ xkv d rf;pOfukd rvku d í f rjzpfay/ Armjynfe,f[í l oD;jcm;zGpYJ nf;xm;jcif;r&Sd jzpf av&m jynfaxmifppk pfppfrt l wkid ;f A[du k kd tmPmvk;H 0 uefo Y wfay;vku d Nf yD; useftmPm rsm;tm;vk;H udk jynfe,frsm;tm; ay;vdu k v f Qif ArmjynfrtwGuf tkycf sKyfí jzpfEidk af wmh rnf r[kwaf cs/ þum; uRefawmfwYdk tajccHOya'\wwd,csKdU,Gi;f csufyif jzpfayonf/


OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 126

E-book is created by shanyoma

rvkyEf idk jf zpfMu&m jynfe,frsm;\uk, d yf ikd t f yk cf sKyfa&;rSm t"dygÜ ,fuif;rJah eayonf/ wenf;tm;jzifh jynfaxmifp0k efBuD;csKyfonf jynfe,ftwGi;f a&;udprö sm;udk wku d f &ku d 0f ifa&mufpu G zf ufaep&m rvk?d rdrw d t Ydk pk;d &tzGw YJ iG f yg0ifaeaom jynfe,f0efBuD;rsm; rSwqifh MoZmvTr;f rk;d Ekid o f nf/ oG,0f u dk af omenf;jzifh 0ifa&mufpu G zf ufEidk af vonf/ þonfyif wjynfaxmifpeH pfukd xif&mS ;pGm az:jyaeavonf/ xkaYd Mumifh OD;csefxeG ;f u vufawGw Y iG f wjynfaxmifpeH pf (Unitary) jzpfaeygonf [k ygarmu©wifu h mtm; ajymjycJah yonf/ þum; uRefawmfwkdYtajccHOya'\pwkw¬csKdU,Gif;csufjzpfonf/ jynfaxmifpkb@ma&; tmPmESifhtcGifhta&; cGJa0enf;uJhodkYyif b@ma&;cGJa0rIonfvnf; jynfe,f rsm;tm; jynfe,ftcGeaf wmfpm&if;[lí uefo Y wfay;NyD; useftm;vk;H udk A[ku d ,lxm; vkdufavonf/ Armjynfe,f[í l oD;jcm;zGpYJ nf;xm;jcif;r&Sb d J jynfaxmifp[ k í l a&maxG;zGpYJ nf; xm;av&m A[kXd mersm;[lí oefo Y efcY jJG cm;&ef cufcaJ yonf/ xkaYd Mumifh A[kjd ynfaxmifpk ESio hf ufqidk af om tcGeaf wmf0ifaiGrsm;udk b,focYkd aJG 0í A[kjd ynfaxmifpEk iS o hf ufqidk af om Xmersm;twGuf b,fou Ykd scH&rnfukd wdwu d sus owfrw S &f ef rvG,u f al wmhay/ tajccHOya'yk'rf 96 >cif;csufwiG o f m jynfaxmifpt k pk;d &onf ]]axmufy&hH ef vkt d yfonf[k qk;H jzwfowfrw S af omtaxmuftyHah iGrsm;uk}d }jynfe,ftpk;d &rsm;tm; ay; Ekid o f nf[k az:jyxm;onf/ ¤if;jy|mef;csuft& &Sad om taxmuftyHah iGrsm;jzifo h m jynfe,frsm; touf &SLaeMu&onf/ þaxmufyahH iGrsm;udk A[kt d pd;k &u ay;vku d ay;Ekid o f nf/ ray;bJ ae vkduvnf; aeEkdifonf/ þenf;jzifh A[kdtpkd;&onf jynfe,ftpkd;&rsm;\toufaoG; aMumudk xde;f csKyfxm;vku d o f nf/ þonfukd axmuf&í I vnf; OD;csefxeG ;f u vufawGw Y iG f wjynfaxmifpeH pfjzpfonf[k ajym[efwal vonf/ jynfe,frsm; txl;ojzifh uRefawmfw&Ydk rS ;f jynf\rauseyfcsufrsm;onf b@m a&;cGaJ 0rIpeH pfay:wGif jrpfzsm;cHco hJ nf/ tjcm;jynfaxmifpktajccHOya'rsm;wGif b@ma&;cGJa0rIESifhywfoufí twd tus jy|mef;xm;jcif; r&SMd uacs/ jrefrmjynfaxmifpt k ajccHOya'wGio f m twdtusjy |mef;xm;NyD; twdtusvkdufemaeMuonf þum; tajccHOya'\yOörcsKdU,Gi;f csuf jzpfonf/


127 &Srf;jynfb,fvJ

tajccHOya' jyifMupkYd &Sr;f jynfe,f\epfemcsuf rauseyfcsufrsm; ajyvnfap&ef vuf&t dS ajccHOya' udk jyefvnfpDppfí jyifqifMu&ayrnf/ ,if;odkYjyifqifonfhtcg txufwGif uRefawmf avhvmqef;ppfxm;aom csKdU,Gi;f csufBuD; 5-csufukd OD;wnfNyD; jyifqifMu&ayvdrrhf nf/ ,if;csKdU,Gi;f csuf 5-csufwiG f tusKH;0ifaom tcPf;u@rsm;? yk'rf rsm;? Z,m; rsm;tm;vk;H udk jyifqifjcif;? jznfph u G jf cif; EIwyf ,fjcif;rsm; jyK&ygvdrrhf nf/ qGZd mvefjynfaxmifp\ k 1848-ckEpS t f ajccHOya'ukd 1874-ckEpS w f iG f tajct aet& jyefvnfjyifqifouJo h yYkd if jzpfayvdrrhf nf/ ,if;uJo h Ykd jyifqifjznfph u G f EIwyf ,fvu dk v f Qif uRefawmfwv Ydk v dk m;aom jynfaxmif pkBuD;onf tMurf;tm;jzifh atmufygyko H P²meftwkid ;f ay:vGiv f mygvdrrhf nf/

(7) ]]uRefawmfwv Ydk v dk m;aom jynfaxmifp}k } (1) jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if aH wmfwiG -f (1) jrefrmjynfe,f/ (2) &Sr;f jynfe,f/ (3) ucsifjynfe,f/ (4) u&ifjynfe,f/ (5) u,m;jynfe,f/ (6) csif;jynfe,f/ (7) &ckid jf ynfe,f/ (8) rGejf ynfe,frsm; yg0ifMurnf/ (2) þjynfe,frsm;onf wef;wl&nfwjl zpfMuNyD; A[djk ynfaxmifpo k Ykd vTt J yfxm;aomtm Pmrsm;rSty vk;H 0tcsKyftjcmtmPmykid o f rwEkid if rH sm;jzpfMurnf/ (qdZG mvefEiS t hf ar &duefjynfaxmifpkrsm;uJhodkY)

E-book is created by shanyoma

jynfaxmifpb k @ma&;ESiyhf wfoufí¤if;? jynfaxmifpEk iS jhf ynfe,fb@ma&;cGaJ 0 rIESifhywfoufí¤if;? oD;oefYaqmif;yg;a&;ygOD;rnf/


OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 128

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E-book is created by shanyoma

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OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 148

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OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 150

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OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 152

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E-book is created by shanyoma

OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 154

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tem*wfEidk if aH &;vrf;aMumif;udk xde;f aMumif;csDwuf&rJw h m0efuvJ jynfrrSm &mZ0ift& wm0efy&kd w dS ,f/ tJ'v D dk taetxm;rsm;t& zGpYJ nf;tkycf sKyfyt Hk ajccHOya'udk a&;qGw J hJ YJ n D w T af &;pkpnf;csuftjzpf tajccHNyD; tjcm;jynf tcgrSm jynfrudk A[kad cgif;aqmifreI n e,frsm;? a'orsm;udk pkaygif;um zGpYJ nf;cJjh cif;jzpfw,f/ 'gudk usaemfwkdYu &mZ0ift& b0jzpfpOfeJYukdufnDwJhjynfaxmifpkrljzpfw,fvkdY jywfjywfom;om; ,kMH unfvufcw H ,f/ usaemfw&Ydk UJ jynfe,fnt D pfuakd cgif;aqmifBuD;rsm;u jynfr[m jynfaxmifpt k m Pmudk vuf0g;BuD;tkyNf yD; jynfe,frsm;? vlrsKd;pkrsm;udk vTr;f rk;d cs,fv, S w f ,f]yPÖmquf} e,fawGtjzpfeYJ tEkid u f sifw h ,fv, Ydk q l w,f/ 'gaMumifh jynfr? jynfe,fawGtm;vk;H toD; oD;uk, d t hf csKyftjcmtmPmeJu Y , dk w f ef;wl&nfw&l MdS uNyD; A[kjd ynfaxmifpu k kd pkaygif;zGpYJ nf; &rnf? oabmqE´t&om tmPmrsm; cGaJ 0ay;r,f/ 'Dvjdk ynfaxmifppk pfppfrf rl sKd;uko d m tvk&d w dS ,f/ tar&duef? qGZd mvef? qdAk , D uf,el , D u H o hJ aYkd omtajccHoabmrsKd;jzpfap& r,fvYdk &Si;f vif;ajymMum;oGm;ygw,f/ wenf;tm;jzifh uGezf 'D a&;&Si;f qefqefzpYJG nf;&r,f vkYd qkv d ydk gw,f/ tJ'v D dk uGv J aJG ecsuf[m yxrae&mjzpfygw,f/ tar&duef? qGZd mvef? qdAk , D uf,el , D w H Ydk jynfaxmifpzk pYJG nf;vmykH &mZ0ifjzpfpOfb0eJY usaemfwjYdk refrmjynfaxmif pkouf0ifvyI &f mS ;vmyk?H oaE¨wnfvmykjH zpfpOferYJ sm;pGmjcm;em;rI &Sad eygw,f/ ynm&Sd owd jzpfcq J o dk vkd usaemf tenf;i,f ZmwfaMumif;jyefyg&ap/ tar&duefjynfaxmifpt k ajccHOya'[m trsKd;om;vGwaf jrmufa&;ppfyBJG uD;u aygufzmG ;ay;cJyh gw,f/ xkpd pfyBJG uD;rwkid rf D NAdwo d Qe,fcsJUwkaYd tmufrmS NAdwo d Qukv d edk jD ynf e,frsm;tjzpfeYJ ol&Y mZ0ifjzpfpOfeo YJ o l ;D jcm;wnf&cdS yhJ gw,f/ olb Y &k ifceH o YJ l Oya'jyKvTwf awmfeYJ oD;jcm;wnf&cdS yhJ gw,f 1776-ck? Zlvidk v f 4-&ufaeY trsKd;om;vGwaf jrmufa&; ppfyaJG usnmpmwrf;BuD;xkwjf yefwt Jh cgrSmvJ ppfausnmykid cf iG ?hf Nidr;f csrf;a&;pmcsKyfcsKyf qkEd idk cf iG hf rdrBd udKufEpS o f ufovkd r[mrdwzf pYJG nf;ydik cf iG hf pwJt h cGit hf a&;rsm;udk vk;H 0ykid w f hJ tcsKyftjcmtmPmykid jf ynfe,fEidk if rH sm;tjzpfeYJ ausnmNyD; vGwaf jrmufa&; ppfyBJG uD;ETcJ hJ Mujcif;jzpfygw,f/ puwnf;u tcsKyftjcmtmPmydkifEkdifiHrsm;tjzpfeJYoD;jcm;xlaxmifí wkdufyGJ 0ifcjhJ cif;jzpfygw,f/ ¤if;aemuf trsKd;om;vGwaf jrmufa&;ppfBuD;udk ydrk x dk ad &mufpmG ckcH wku d cf u dk Ef idk Mf u&eftwGuf 1777-ck? Ek0d ifbmv 15-&ufaeYrmS (Article of Confederation) vkaYd c:wJjh ynfe,faygif;csKyfpnf;rsOf;Oya'w&yfukd a&;qGjJ y|mef;MuNyD; 13-jynfe,f[m jynfe,ftvku d f oD;jcm;vufct H wnfjyKcJw h ,f/ 1878-ck? rwfv 1-&ufaeYrmS ar&Dvef jynfe,fu aemufqkH;vufcHtwnfjyKw,f/ tJ'DtajccHpnf;rsOf;yxryk'frokH;ckrSmbJ

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155 &Srf;jynfb,fvJ


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OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 156

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OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 160

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E-book is created by shanyoma

161 &Srf;jynfb,fvJ


E-book is created by shanyoma

OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 162

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163 &Srf;jynfb,fvJ

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E-book is created by shanyoma

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E-book is created by shanyoma

OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 164

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165 &Srf;jynfb,fvJ

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E-book is created by shanyoma

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E-book is created by shanyoma

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tcPf;(5) tkyfcsKyfykHpHepfESifhenf;vrf;rsm;/ 18/ tzGrYJ sm;wGif tkycf sKyfprD &H ef t"dutcsufrmS trsm;qE´jzifh a&G;aumufwifajr§muf í A[krd S OD;pD;onfph eH pfjzpfonf/ (1) tm;vk;H aom trIaqmiftzGEYJ iS u hf , kd pf m;vS,rf sm;udk trsm;qE´twkid ;f a&G; aumufwifajr§muf&rnf/ (2) atmuftzGu YJ txuftzG\ YJ trdeu Yf kd vku d ef m&rnf/ txuftzGEYJ iS ahf tmuf tzGYJ oabmuGv J v JG Qif atmuftzGu YJ xkEd pS zf x YJG uf BuD;aomtzGo YJ kYd t,lc0H ifEidk o f nf/ odYk aomf t,lc0H ifpOf atmuftzGo YJ nf txuftzG\ YJ trdeu Yf kd vdu k ef mfaqmif&u G &f rnf/ 19/ XmecGt J vkyt f rIaqmiftzGo YJ nf pnf;&k;H &mü¤if;? tkycf sKyf&mü¤if;? wk;d wufru I kd a&SU &Ií c&kid rf sm;od¤Yk if; NrdKUe,frsm;od¤Yk if;? wm0efcrH sm;udk qkid &f maumfrwDrsm;tm; uln&D ef cefx Y m;apvTwEf idk o f nf/ odaYk omf tqkyd g wm0efcrH sm;onf qkid &f mtrIaqmiftzGrYJ sm;\ trdefYtwkdif; vdkufemaqmif&Guf&rnf/ 20/ XmecGOJ ;D pD;tzGo YJ nf ESppf OfEpS w f idk ;f jynfe,fXmecGpJ pfaq;a&;tzGu YJ dk cefx Y m;&rnf/ ¤if;ppfaq;a&;tzGJYonf tzGJYrsm;\b@ma&;ukd¤if;? tkyfcsKyfa&;udk¤if;? tNrJwrf;ppf aq;NyD;vQif jynfe,fXmecGJ tvkyt f rIaqmiftzGEYJ iS jhf ynfe,fXmecGOJ ;D pD;tzGo YJ Ykd tpD&ifcpH m wifjy&rnf/ tajccHtzGrYJ sm;wGif tcsif;jzpfymG ;aom trItcif;rsm;udk ppfaq;a&;tzGYJ

E-book is created by shanyoma

175 &Srf;jynfb,fvJ


E-book is created by shanyoma

OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 176

u ppfaq;zsefajzay;&rnf/ zsefajzí r&onf&adS omf XmecGt J vkyt f rIaqmiftzGEYJ iS Xhf me cGOJ ;D pD;tzGo YJ Ykd oifah wmfovkd ta&;,l&ef tpD&ifc&H rnf/ 21/ txufyg jynfe,fXmecGJppfaq;a&;tzGJY\tmPmrsm;ESifhwm0efrsm;udk tcgumv tm;avsmfpGm jynfe,fXmecGJtvkyftrIaqmiftzGJYuaomf¤if; jynfe,fXmecGJOD;pD;tzGJYu aomf¤if; owfrw S x f m;&S&d rnf/ 22/ xked nf;wl tzG0YJ if jynfe,ft f csif;csif; jzpfymG ;aom udprö sm;twGuf XmecsKyfO;D pD; tzGu YJ aomf¤if;? XmecsKyftvkyt f rIaqmiftzGu YJ aomf¤if;? ppfaq;a&;tzGw YJ zGu YJ kd apvTwf &rnf? ¤if;aemuf qk;H jzwf&ef XmecsKyftvkyt f rIaqmiftzGo YJ Ykd wifjy&rnf/ rNyD;jywfvQif XmecsKyfO;D pD;tzGo YJ Ykd wifjy&rnf/ 23/ XmecsKyftvkyt f rIaqmiftzGu YJ aomf¤if; XmecsKyfO;D pD;tzGu YJ aomf¤if; oufqidk &f m jynfe,f\udk,fpm;vS,f(okH;ykHESpfykH)rygbJ qkH;jzwfcsufrcsrSwf&/ 24/ qk;H jzwfcsufrf sm; csrSwjf cif; tpnf;ta0;qk;H jzwfcsufrsm; csrSw&f mü tm;vk;H oabmwl tajytvnfaqG; aEG;NyD;ajyvnfapaomenf;udk txl;tav;*&kjyK&rnf/ 25/ tm;vk;H oabmwlaomenf;jzifh rNyD;jywfEidk rf o S mvQif tpnf;ta0;okYd wufa&muf vmaom ud, k pf m;vS,Bf uD; ok;H ykEH pS yf \ Hk oabmwlncD sufjzifh qk;H jzwfap&rnf/

tcPf;(6) jynfe,frsm; nDnTwfa&;tzGJY nDvmcHobifESifhtpnf;ta0;rsm; 26/ omreftm;jzifh wESpv f QifwBudrf jynfe,frsm; nDnw T af &;tzGXYJ mecsKyf\nDvmcHo bifukd usif;y&rnf/ odaYk omf vkaH vmufaom taMumif;rsm;&Su d XmecsKyfO;D pD;tzGu YJ aomf ¤if;? XmecsKyftvkyt f rIaqmiftzGu YJ aomf¤if;? a&TUqkid ;f Ekid o f nf/ þnDvmcHobifonf XmecsKyf\Ekid if aH &;pnf;&k;H a&;udpt ö 00ESiyhf wfoufí tjrifq h ;Hk aomtmPmykid jf zpfonf/ 27/ txl;nDvmcHobifrsm;udk taMumif;tm;avsmfpmG XmecsKyftvkyt f rIaqmiftzGu YJ jzpfap? XmecsKyfO;D pD;tzGu YJ jzpfap ac:Ekid o f nf/ jynfe,f(3)e,fu tpnf;ta0;ac:&ef awmif;qkv d Qif ac:qkad y;&rnf/ 28/ nDvmcHobifwiG f ud, k pf m;vS,t f jzpfEiS {hf nfo h nfawmftjzpfjzifh wufa&mufEidk o f l rsm;rSm(1) ukefqkH;onfhESpftwGuf XmecsKyfOD;pD;tzGJY0ifrsm;/ (2) jynfe,frsm;nDnw T af &;tzGXYJ mecsKyfO;D pD;tzGu YJ aomf¤if;? XmecsKyftvkyt f


rIaqmiftzGJYuaomf¤if;? jynfe,fwe,ftwGuf owfrSwfay;vkdufonfhtzGJY0ifOD;a&/ (3) XmecsKyfO;D pD;tzGu YJ aomf¤if;? XmecsKyftvkyt f rIaqmiftzGu YJ aomf¤if;? owf rSwfonfh{nfhonfrsm;/ 29/ jynfe,frsm;nDnTwfa&;tzGJYXmecsKyfOD;pD;tzGJY\tpnf;ta0;rsm;/ (1) OD;pD;tzGJYtpnf;ta0;udk (6)vvQif (1)Budrfxufrenf; usif;y&rnf/ (2) tvkyt f rIaqmif tzGt YJ rsm;pku ta&;ay:OD;pD;tpnf;ta0; ac:qku d sif; yoifo h nf[k qk;H jzwfvQif tvkyt f rIaqmiftzGOYJ uú|uaomf¤if;? taxGaxGtwGi;f a&; rSL;uaomf¤if;? xkd(2)OD;r&SdvQif 'kwd,Ouú|ESifhwGJbuftwGif;a&;rSL;uaomf¤if; OD;pD; tpnf;ta0;udk zdwfac:usif;yay;&rnf/ (3) jynfe,fwckc\ k XmecsKyfO;D pD;tzG0YJ if(ok;H )ykH (ESp)f yku H ta&;ay:OD;pD;tpnf; ta0;ac:qku d sif;yay;&ef awmif;qkv d mvQif tvkyt f rIaqmiftzGOJY uú|uaomf¤if;? t axGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;uaomf¤if;? ta&;ay:tpnf;ta0;udk &ufowåywf ESpfywft wGif; zdwfac:usif;yay;&rnf/ (4) tvkyftrIaqmiftzGJYwGif rajyvnfEkdifaom udpöjyóem&yfrsm;ESifhtjcm; ta&;BuD;aomjyóem&yfrsm; ay:aygufvmvQif ta&;ay:OD;pD;tpnf;ta0;ukd zdwf ac:usif;yay;&rnf/ 30/ jynfe,frsm; nDnTwfa&;tzGJYXmecsKyftvkyftrIaqmiftzGJY\tpnf;ta0;rsm;/ tvkyt f rIaqmiftzG\ YJ tpnf;ta0;udk omreftm;jzifh ESpv f vQif wpfBudrx f uf renf; usif;y&rnf/ (1) Ouú|u tvkyt f rIaqmiftzGt YJ pnf;ta0;usif;yoifo h nf[k qk;H jzwfwidk ;f Ouú|trnfjzifjh zpfap? taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;trnfjzifjh zpfap? tpnf;ta0;udk zdwf ac:usif;yEkdifap&rnf/ (2) tvkyt f rIaqmifrsm;&mpku ta&;ay:tvkyt f rIaqmif tpnf;ta0;ac: &ef Ouú|ESifhtaxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;xH awmif;qkdjcif;jyKvQif? Ouú|ujzpfap? taxG axGtwGi;f a&;rSL;ujzpfap ta&;ay:tvkyt f rIaqmiftpnf;ta0;udk zdwaf c:usif;y ay;&rnf/ (3) jynfe,fwckcrk S XmecsKyfO;D pD;tzG0YJ iftrsm;pku jyóemt&yf&yftwGuf aqG; aEG;qkH;jzwfay;&eftvkdYiSm tvkyftrIaqmiftzGJYodkY awmif;qkdvmonfhtcgwkdif; txl; tvkyt f rIaqmiftpnf;ta0;udk Ouú|ujzpfap? taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;ujzpfap zdwf ac:usif;yay;&rnf/ 31/ tvkyt f rIaqmifxuf0ufxufrenf; wufa&mufro S m tpnf;ta0;xajrmufonf/

E-book is created by shanyoma

177 &Srf;jynfb,fvJ


E-book is created by shanyoma

OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 178

32/ jynfe,frsm; nDnw T af &;tzGXYJ mecGn J v D mcHobifEiS t hf pnf;ta0;usif;y&ef vku d ef m &rnfhtcsufrsm;vnf; txufaz:jyygtwkdif;jzpfonf/ 33/ jynfe,frsm; nDnw T af &;tzGXYJ mecsKyf\nDvmcHobifow Ykd ufa&muf&ef zdwMf um;vm vQif wufa&muf&ef &Sad om jynfe,frS ud, k pf m;vS,af wmfrsm;uk?d jynfe,frsm;nDnw T af &; tzGJYXmecGJ\OD;pD;uaomf¤if; tvkyftrIaqmifuaomf¤if; owfrSwfa&G;cs,f&rnf/ 34/ XmecsKyftvkyt f rIaqmiftzGu YJ jzpfap? XmecsKyfO;D pD;ujzpfap? nDvmcHobifusif;y &mü enf;vrf;wusjzpfap&ef vkt d yfaompDpOfrrI sm;udk tcgumvtm;avsmfpmG pDpOfn f eT f Mum;&rnf/ 35/ nDvmcHobifr&So d nft h csdef XmecsKyfO;D pD;tzGo YJ nf tmPmydik t f zGjYJ zpfonf? nDvmcH obif qk;H jzwfcsufrsm;ESiyhf wfoufí tajctaetcgumvtm;avsmfpmG jyifqif&ef awGY &Scd ahJ omf XmecsKyfO;D pD;tzGu YJ aomf¤if;? XmecsKyfO;D pD;tzGu YJ vGt J yfojzifh XmecsKyftvkyf trIaqmiftzGu YJ aomf¤if; jyifqifaqmif&u G o f mG ;Ekid o f nf/ od&Yk mwGif NyD;pD;cJah om nDvmcH obifu, kd pf m;vS,t f m; taMumif;Mum;xm;&rnf/ odt Yk aMumif;Mum;onft h cg xku d , dk f pm;vS,rf sm;teufrS (4)ykH (1)yku H awmif;qkcd ahJ omf txl;nDvmcHobifjzpfap? nDvmcH obiftopfjzpfap? usif;yay;&rnf/ odrYk [kwyf grl omreftm;jzifh usif;ytyfaom aemuf nDvmcHobifwiG f twnfjyKcsuf&,l&rnf/ 36/ XmecsKyftvkyftrIaqmiftzGJY\tmPmrsm;udk XmecsKyfOD;pD;tzGYJu owfrSwfay;& rnf/ 37/ omreftm;jzifh usif;yaomnDvmcHobifwiG f tvkyt f rIaqmifopfudk a&G;aumuf &rnfqo dk nft h pDtpOfukd XmecsKyfO;D pD;tzGu YJ jzpfap XmecsKyftrIaqmiftzGu YJ jzpfap? pD pOfay;&rnf/ xkdrSty tjcm;vdktyfaompnf;rsOf;rsm;udkvnf; pDpOfay;&rnf/

tcPf;(7) taxGaxG/ 38/ þzGpYJ nf;ykOH ya'udk omreftm;jzifh jynfe,fv;Hk qkid &f m jynfe,frsm; nDnw T af &;tzGYJ XmecsKyf\nDvmcHobifuomvQif jyifqifEkdifonf/ odkY&mwGif tajctaeESifhrukdufnD onfuakd wGv Y Qif XmecsKyfO;D pD;tzGYJ tpnf;ta0;udk ac:í XmecsKyfO;D pD;tzGu YJ pOf;pm; NyD; jyifqifoifo h nf[x k ifu nDvmcHrac:rD ,m,DjyifqifEidk o f nf/ 39/ þOya'tcsuftvufEiS yhf wfoufí r&Si;f vif;onft h csufrsm;udk XmecsKyfO;D pD;tzGYJ ujzpfap? XmecsKyftrIaqmiftzGu YJ jzpfap? qk;H jzwfay;&rnf/


40/ þzGpYJ nf;ykOH ya't& vkt d yfaom enf;Oya'rsm;udk OD;pD;tzGu YJ jzpfap? XmecsKyft vkyt f rIaqmiftzGu YJ jzpfap? jy|mef;Ekid cf iG &hf o dS nf/ 41/ aiGa&;aMu;a&;udpörsm;ESifhywfoufí pm&if;tif;usepGm xm;&Sd&rnf/ pm&if;pm a&;? aiGa&;aMu;a&;wkEYd iS yhf wfoufonfph nf;rsOf;rsm;udk XmecsKyfO;D pD;tzGu JY jzpfap? Xme csKyftvkyt f rIaqmiftzGu YJ jzpfap? XmecsKyfppfaq;a&;tzGEYJ iS w hf idk yf ifí jyKvky&f rnf/ 42/ þzGpJY nf;ykOH ya'wGif rnfoyYkd if qkad pumrl tcku d t f wefu Y mvtwGi;f Oya'udk t wnfjyK&mü rnfuo hJ Ykd pDpOfomG ;&efvo dk nf[k xifjrif,q l vQif xko d x Ykd ifjrif,q l onft h wkid ;f XmecsKyfO;D pD;tzGu YJ jzpfap? XmecsKyftvkyt f rIaqmiftzGu YJ jzpfap? ¤if;\oufwrf; tawmtwGif; tckduftwefYOya' tcsuftvufrsm; wnfxGifEkdifonf/ 43/ jynfe,frsm; nDnw T af &;tzGt YJ m; ysufp;D &m ysufp;D aMumifukd vkyaf qmifajymqkrd I &Sd aom tzG0YJ iftm; XmecsKyftvkyt f rIaqmiftzGu YJ ta&;,ltjypfay;Ekid o f nf/ odaYk omf ta&;,ltjypfay;jcif;cH&aom tzGu YJ txuftqifq h ifh t,lc0H ifa&mufEidk cf iG &hf o dS nf/

tcPf;(8) enf;Oya'rsm; 44/ c&kid t f zG0YJ ifrsm; vku d ef m&ef enf;Oya'rsm;/ (u) jynfe,frsm; nDnw T af &;tzGXYJ mecsKyf\&nf&, G cf sufrsm;udk axmufc&H ef/ (c) XmecGJu c&kdiftwGif;&Sd EdkifiHa&;tzGJYtoD;oD;wkdYonf &nf&G,fcsufrsm;udk axmufcHap&eftwGuf pkpnf;aoG;pnf;&ef/ (*) XmecsKyfrS vGt J yfaomwm0ef0wå&m;rsm;udk xrf;&Gu&f ef/ (C) XmecsKyf\oabmwlncD suft& tzGrYJ sm;u tcgumvtm;avsmfpmG owf rSwaf om&nf&, G cf sufrsm;ukd atmifjrifpmG aqmif&u G &f ef/ (i) jynfe,frsm;nDnw T af &;tzGo YJ nf (jynfe,ftvku d f vkt d yfvQif)c&kid t f zGrYJ sm; zGJYpnf;aqmif&GufEkdifcGifh&Sdonf/ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

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E-book is created by shanyoma

179 &Srf;jynfb,fvJ


OD;xGef;jrifh(awmifBuD;) 180

E-book is created by shanyoma

jynfe,fwe,f\jynfe,fnDnTwfa&; nDvmcHBuD;

jynfe,fwe,f\ Ekid if aH &;toif;tzGrYJ sm;

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jynfe,fwe,f\ Ekid if aH &;toif;tzGrYJ sm;

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aemufqufwJG

16-9-84

2

E-book is created by shanyoma

181 &Srf;jynfb,fvJ


E-book is created by shanyoma

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193 &Srf;jynfb,fvJ


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