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Cookbook for the Culinary Institute of Knoxville, TN

Programming / Designing 480 Elizabeth Jewell Fall 2009


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Introduction to Food and Health


Framing a Proposal for Healthy Living The Culinary Institute Knoxville

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The expectations for the design of the Culinary Institute are directly related to five topics being addressed in the programming of the building. The proposal for the Culinary Institute of Knoxville will be framed by three main ideas. The proposal must directly respond to the needs of the future of Knoxville. It must engage the citizens of the community and improve the walkability of the downtown area. And above all, it must provide quality education facilities for both students and the public. The Culinary Institute is not just a facility to teach people how to cook. It is a facility that expands the knowledge of the entire community. Downtown Knoxville will continue to grow and possibly become an even more diverse and dense metropolis. The Culinary Institute must take the future needs of Knoxville into consideration. This will be done formally as well as ideologically. It will attempt to adapt to certain standards laid out in the Master Planning of Knoxville and the Marble Alley proposal. The project will also include programs that will be needed after these plans come into effect. The project will attempt to be more than just a Culinary Institute. Future pedestrian circulation, entertainment venues, restaurants and markets are all needed for the adaptation of this project to be successful. The Culinary Institute must uphold certain standards that will improve the conditions of the downtown area and the lives of the people using the facility. These include standards sensitive to urban planning, walk able street design, circulation of people and cars, and environmentally sustainable techniques. Food has always been associated with health and nourishment. Therefore the architecture must also portray these same values through design of healthy clean environments and nourishing spaces for individuals and groups. The architecture must speak to the principles of giving back to the community through particular space planning that encourages public engagement and interaction. Education of the public will be an integral part of the architecture scheme of the Culinary Institute. Many of the programmatic elements will be geared towards a communal sense of learning and knowledge. A wide variety of techniques and technologies will be utilized in


order to provide access of this knowledge to both students and the public. Many of the Institutes programs will be geared to an inclusive approach to knowledge and space planning. What is learned at the Culinary Institute will NOT be bound by the architecture that houses the events. It is critical that the formal argument of the architecture connect the students and the public to a larger understanding of food, preparation, and art. These connections are critical to the success of the project and the development of a place in Knoxville that is both dynamic and informative. Ultimately the Culinary Institute must give back to the community of Knoxville by developing a greater sense of knowledge in its patrons and the public. It must encourage and express sustainable and healthy environments linked with food, the mission of the school, and the idea of all its parts being connected to the fabric of the city. A forward thinking approach to knowledge and planning will be utilized to develop an architecture that can continue to encourage growth of all types.

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Site and Physical Conditions Knoxville, TN is currently known for its college town appeal rather than for the reality that it is a medium-sized metropolis. The site for the Culinary Institute is positioned on Gay Street, the main artery of the downtown area. It is centrally located and within walking distance of major public spaces within the city center. The addition of a culinary institute provides the city with a much needed boost of activity, learning, and variety. Increasing activity will provide residents more options for shopping, eating, and walking. These new programs will enhance the core and identity of the city. Incorporating a smaller learning institute onto Gay Street will help the local restaurants and provide knowledge to locals of food and its role in healthy living. Having a variety of activities and continuing to build momentum with the development of the area will help the city grow and become a more engaging place to live. One emphasis of the project is increasing physical health through activity and walkability. It is important to frame a project that encourages green street design, walkability health standards. The current amount of programs within walking distance to the site will boost image and integration. The master plan for the downtown area includes a proposal for a connection between the down town core and the old city. The site is part of Marble Alley and is supposed to provide a large scale pedestrian friendly path connecting the two parts of town.


Address: The Healthy Living Culinary Institute of Knoxville 328 South Gay Street Knoxville, TN 37902

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Building Typology The building typology of the project is a Learning Facility with an emphasis on the culinary institute. In this case the prime focus of learning will deal with food and its preparation. The program will also serve as a learning institute for many other subjects such as presentation, design, entertaining, growing, and production. It is important to frame the project as a learning institute that encourages knowledge of the students as well as the public. The facility will serve to teach the public about healthy living, food preparation and nutrition. It should engage the occupants as well as those removed from the actual architecture. The thoughts, ideas, and methods learned from this institute should transfer out into the rest of the city, the home, and the upcoming restaurants of the area. Knowledge is not limited to the confines of the architecture’s walls. The facility will always provide a sense of health in producing active minds and thinking. The architecture of the Culinary Institute will be a healthy environment. Cleanliness is a major factor in kitchen facilities, food preparation, and presentation. Natural concepts for lighting, and ventilation will be incorporated as well as sustainable methods that encourage healthy and productive landscape environments.


Learning Facility: Cooking, Dining, Shopping, and Teaching Growth

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Culture and Food The culture of southern cooking has always been dependant on butter, grease, and excess. There is little variety in the nutrients provided by these foods and they are directly linked to obesity, clogged arteries and poor heart health. Knoxville is currently the third most obese city in the entire country. Noticing the similar colors in these common southern dishes portrays the homogenous effect their ingredients have on the body. These cultural attitudes in many ways contradict the intent of the project as a health conscious environment. It is important to provide healthy cooking methods and information to the public so they can take better care of their bodies and change the image of Knoxville and its inhabitants. Colorful and healthful ingredients need to be included into the cooking process in order to produce healthy food. Framing an institute that values nutrition and a variety of cooking methods is important for developing a health-inspired curriculum and community. Healthy alternatives to cooking need to be incorporated into the proposal. It is important to be able to embrace the culture of the area while moving away from its negative aspects. Cooking with local ingredients, using flavorful and rich methods will produce similar savory recipes and dishes.


Changing the Culture of Southern Cooking

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The Food Life-Cycle In order to understand many of the concepts being taught at the Culinary Institute it is important to understand the process of food, its production, and life-cycle consequences. These concepts may also inform the architecture and a healthy building life-cycle. Also raising awareness on life-cycle topics will be important in the curriculum of the Culinary Institute.

Nurture

Recycle

Enjoyment

Waste


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Growth and Development

Harvest

Production

Combination and Presentation

Designing a Healthy Building Life-Cycle


Menu and Recipe Development Awareness is one of the first ingredients of being healthy. Providing information in the menus and recipes will consequently help increase this awareness. A health-conscious project would consequently have healthy menus and recipe development. Students will be encouraged to design healthful recipes using a variety of flavors and foods. The menus being used will also follow certain health guidelines such as appropriate portion control and daily intake recommendations. Many menus and recipes include very little information about the nutrients they provide or the consequences of these ingredients. A certain amount of transparency is being encouraged in the design and in the way information is passed from the institute to the people using it. Awareness should be encouraged for all participants. Nutritional labels are currently rarely found on food served from a kitchen. The incorporation of this information would be a benefit to those consuming the food being served. Also, the citing of special ingredients included in the recipes would encourage exploration and awareness of the art of cooking and health. With the rise of food allergy risk, common allergens will always be noted when used. The curriculum of the program includes classes that teach proper nutrition, herbal remedy techniques, and caloric and vitamin calculations.


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Preparation


Locating the Culinary Institute within the Fabric of the City

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Site: Knoxville,TN Knoxville, TN is located in the eastern side of the state and is surrounded by a more rural landscape The Tennessee river flows next to the city center and provides boat access and transportation into the city. I-40 also brings traffic into and through the city from the East and West. The Smoky Mountain National Park is located to the East of the city. It brings visitors and tourists through the city as Knoxville is the last gateway to the mountains travelling from the West. The backwoods influence from the smoky mountains is very prominent in the surrounding areas. The urban context does not have a metropolis feel. The most iconic projects in the downtown area are the Sunsphere and World’s Fair Park. Many are drawn to Market Square and Gay Street for their local flair and history. With the access to a prominent river, fertile countrysides, and a mountainous region, Knoxville is the perfect place to enjoy a healthy and happy lifestyle. Food can easily be transported to the city and from the city. There are many opportunities for hiking, water sports, biking, and other physical activities.


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Site: Knoxville,TN INFILL - An urban site with two party wall conditions. How do Sun Paths effect the site and the potential for growth and public use? What types of weathering conditions might effect its usages?

PARKS - The need for more parks, green space, and public venues in the downtown area. Current land use and adjacencies.

WALKABILITY - Road usage. Circulation of people and the way the area is experienced on foot.

TRANSIT - Different modes of exploring the city. Transit Lines, buses, trolleys, cars, railways.


Urban Context and its Implications on the Proposal for The Culinary Institute

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INFILL The project sits on an infill site on South Gay Street. It is 120’ wide by 150’ deep. A large parking lot currently resides on the site. Behind the site is another parking lot. The Gay Street buildings are all three to four stories tall and have parti wall conditions. These conditions limit the form of the proposal to similar building types with parti wall conditions. Access to the upper levels of the building to the South is provided by a gangway on street level. This access is to be maintained in the new proposal for the culinary institute. There is a full level change on the site from Gay street to the alley access in the back. This will be considered in the design proposal as well as pedestrian access from the front of the site to the back, linking the downtown area to the Marble Alley proposal.


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Site Plan


Site Sections: Section B is cut directly through the Site There is a continuous slope from the street side of the site to the alley at the back of the site.

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Knoxville, TN Sun Path Diagrams


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Summer and Winter Solstice Studies 9AM-3PM


Climate Graph and Sky Cover Chart for Knoxville, TN


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PARKS Land-Use Diagram of the Downtown Area. Public spaces within the City will increase Activity and Engagement. The addition of a park like space within the context of the site would offer the downtown area more public space. It would also help to link the amount of public space offered in the downtown core with more commercial and office space in the old city. The parks in Knoxville encourage public interaction and activity. Providing a park-like setting within the site will help bring people to the area, increase physical activity, and sharing of knowledge. The diverse mix of land uses provided by the proposal will also help give people more options for entertainment, commercial activity, and civic learning spaces.


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WALKABILITY Automobile Routes and the Connection to the Marble Alley Master Plan Common Routes from Event Spaces in Knoxville to Parking Increasing walkability in the downtown area will limit congestion caused by car traffic. People will be more likely to walk and live in the area when green streets, alternative mixed-use, and sustainable development are incorporated into the master plan of the city. The proposal recognizes the health benefits of walking, as well as some of the negative impacts automobile traffic, parking, and congestion have on an environment. Having walkable streetscapes encourages a diverse metropolis area with live, work, and play facilities. It brings people together as a community. Walkable streets also make cities more beautiful and attractive.


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TRANSIT Map of Downtown Knoxville showing major Transit Lines, Parking, and Zones Currently these Transit Lines are under utilized. The Orange Line and the Purple Line of the KAT bus system run directly in front of the site for the Culinary Institute. Both of these lines also connect back to the campus area of Knoxville where the majority of students are located. The possibility of mass transit to be used to bring students to and from the Learning Institute may help increase ridership. The Purple Line is also critical for connecting the core of the city with the Old City. While walk ability is being encouraged, the trolley also links the two. The Marble Alley Plan will emphasize this link for walkers and bikers.


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Ingredients


Supporting the Culinary Institute with Program and Space

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Program Brief PRESENTATION

Auditorium- 3,000 ft2

Banquet Hall- 3,000 ft2

PUBLIC FACILITIES

Restaurant- 4,000

Bakery- 1,500

Bar and Grill Patio- 1,000

Shops- 2,000

Resources and Information- 2,500

CLASSROOMS

Culinary Kitchens (3)- 4,500

Skills Kitchens (2)- 1,500

Specialty Kitchens (2)- 1,000

Demonstration Classes (2)- 1,500

Regular Classrooms (3)- 1,500

Chocolate and Beverage Lab- 1,000

GARDENS

Vegetable and Herb Garden- 4,000

Terrarium/ Greenhouse- 2,000

Farmer’s Market- 2,000

Total: 6,000 ft2

Total: 11,000 ft2

Total: 11,000 ft2

Total: 8,000 ft2


SCHOOL FACILITIES

Offices- 3,000

Computer Stations- 1,000

Lounge- 500

Locker Rooms/ Restrooms- 1,500

SERVICE SPACES

Food Storage (3)- 3,000

Dishwasher and Storage- 1,500

Loading Docks (2)- 500

INNER WORKINGS

Parking- 8,000

Circulation- 4,500

Mechanical- 5,500

Total: 6,000 ft2

Total: 5,000 ft2

Total: 18,000 ft2

TOTALS

65,000 ft2

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Presentation: 6,000 ft2 The presentation programs for the Culinary Institute are intended to be viewed and experienced by the masses. These two spaces will be both prominent and visually accessible. The feel of the spaces will be more formal and respond to the culture and traditions of the area. These will be both exhibition and gathering spaces. Fine foods are presented in an artistic manner that highlights the recipes best qualities. The best qualities of the functions of these spaces will also be highlighted in the spaces with appropriate lighting. Since the two of these spaces are the single largest in the project other than the garden spaces, they will be scaled appropriately for their qualities.

Auditorium- 3,000 ft2 To be able to seat the entire student population. Provide public presentations when needed. Incorporates a demonstration kitchen as well as instruments for teaching other subjects. Banquet Hall- 3,000 ft2 Intended for both student banquets and celebrations. Graduations, weddings, concerts, or other types of gathering may take place in this formal setting. Should be easily transformed to fit the situation. Flexibility is key.


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Public Facilities: 11,000 ft2 Variety and color. These facilities are meant to energize and excite the users. Public engagement in the project is key. It will encourage the sharing of knowledge and provide the community with much needed information about health. This category is intended to be nutrient and information rich, fun and textured, bright and flavorful.

Restaurant- 4,000 ft2 Ever changing and diverse. Meant to reflect the talents and interests of the current student population. Bakery- 1,500 ft2 To provide interesting and unique designs for breads, desserts, and cakes. Bar and Grill Patio- 1,000 ft2 Evening and entertainment space. Grilling to be showcased as part of the cooking experience. Grill lessons taught regularly at parties. Shops- 2,000 ft2 Cooking utensils, health- and cookbooks, magazines, and other sources for health inspiration. Possible personal trainer and health club. Clothing and natural products. Resources and Information- 2,500 ft2 Showcase for student and teacher work. Library and check out services provided.


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Classrooms: 11,000 ft2 These spaces in the project are the meat of the program. They provide sustenance and fulfillment for learning. The machinery and equipment in the spaces may physically be very dense and heavy but it is important to design these spaces as lean and functional. Proper ventilation is very critical for these spaces as well as ample lighting to ensure safety and cleanliness.

Culinary Kitchens 3 @ 1,500- 4,500 ft2 Lab stations for cooking and implementing learned methods for putting food together. Skills Kitchens 2 @ 750- 1,500 ft2 Lab stations for practice of cutting, mixing, and preparation techniques learned in class. Specialty Kitchens 2 @ 500- 1,000 ft2 Includes bakery stations, special equipment and non traditional kitchen items for experimentation and exploration. Demonstration Classes 2 @ 750- 1,500 ft2 Classroom with kitchen station for demonstration and lectures Regular Classrooms 3 @ 500- 1,500 ft2 Used by students and public for traditional learning. Chocolate and Beverage Lab- 1,000 ft2


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Gardens: 8,000 ft2 The garden spaces of the project will be presented like dessert. They are alluring and outwardly expressed on the architecture. Similar to the decoration of icing on a wedding cake, these spaces catch the eye and draw the participants into the project. They are also delicious as they will provide much of the ingredients for the Culinary Institute. Food will be grown in all seasons and the Farmer’s Market currently located in Market Square will be moved the Culinary Institute’s site as a more appropriate venue. The gardens will express information concerning growth processes, food awareness, and harvest.

Vegetable and Herb Garden- 4000 ft2 The bulk of this garden is purely functional to provide food and herbs for the students to use. Seasonal changes and maintenance will be an important aspect of these public gardens. Much will depend on students help, public interest and volunteers. Terrarium/Greenhouse- 2,000 ft2 These spaces will house off-season and hard-to-grow items. They are more linear and decorative expressions of the architecture. Farmer’s Market- 2,000 ft2 The market space will be used year round with booths that can open and close in all types of seasons or weathers.


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School Facilities: 8,000 ft2 These programs are support spaces for the students at the Culinary Institute. They are intended to provide flavor for the learning process. Interesting and inspiring spaces will create this type of environment. Ultimately these programs should provide a feeling of a home away from home, small and personal in scale. Helping students cool down before and after cooking will increase productivity as well as allow the absorption of information. The school facilities should be calm and help encourage mental relaxation and renew the students and faculty.

Offices- 3,000 ft2 Space for administrative and teaching staff to plan, organize, and work. Computer Stations- 1,000 ft2 This technical room will provide a Euro coffee house setting for learning, mingling with other students, and business discussions. Lounge- 500 ft2 Information about the institute as well as message boards and activities will be expressed in this student and visitor area. Locker Rooms/ Restrooms- 1,500 ft2 Changing rooms and rest areas should provide a relaxing and calming effect for the students and faculty.


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Service Spaces: 5,000 ft2 The intent for these spaces is to act as a type of glue that is used by many of the other spaces. As service spaces for the Culinary Institute their main purpose is housing items rather than people for long periods of time. Function is essential for these spaces. They will be experienced quickly, so efficient and fast movement is critical. They should not become closet-like spaces within the design. Flow and transparency will be important in these smaller service like spaces.

Food Storage 3 @ 1,000- 3,000 ft2 Storage for meat and fish in one, produce and other products in the other, and a freezer for frozen goods. Dishwashing and Storage- 1,500 ft2 This station will be an assembly line space for dishes, cleaning, and storage for pots, pans, and other cooking materials. It will house all of the extras for the Culinary Kitchens Loading Docks 2 @ 250- 500 ft2 These two areas need to be large enough for trucks to easily load and unload products. They should be very efficient.


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Inner Workings: 18,000 ft2 These three large spaces represent all the movement in the design. They are the strength and foundation of the building. The parking will be located on the lowest level below the street, out of sight. The mechanical spaces will be hidden and revealed when appropriate. The circulation in the building should encourage people to go that extra mile. Attention to movement in the circulation spaces will be a visual priority. A continuous winding ramp system may encourage this type of movement.

Parking- 8,000 ft2 Provide parking spaces for 26 cars, efficient spaces and easy access to the project. Light will be an important element for making the parking area come alive. Circulation- 4,500 ft2 Circulation will be a powerful element that encourages more movement within the design. Mechanical- 5,500 ft2 Easy access for maintenance is very important for these spaces as well as expressing them elegantly within the design.


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Recipes


Forming the Project Intentions and Dimensions

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Size and Scale The different ingredients and groupings are made up of program elements that are proportional to the importance of the spaces. The bulk of the project will be spent informing students and the public about health. These groups make up 22,000 ft2, roughly 30% of the entire project. The individual components of each group when added together are specified below. Combinations of these with total areas are given in the bar charts to the right. Knowing the implications that sizes have on the different components separately will be an important factor in bringing the project together into a cohesive whole.

10 spaces = 500 ft2 4 spaces = 750 ft2 2 spaces = 1,000 ft2 6 spaces = 1,500 ft2 3 spaces = 2,000 ft2 4 spaces = 3,000 ft2 2 spaces = 4,000 ft2 1 space = 4,500 ft2 1 space = 5,000 ft2 1 space = 8,000 ft2


11,000 ft2

11,000 ft2

Classrooms

Public Facilities

Gardens: 18,000 ft2

8,000 ft2 Presentation:

School Facilities:

6,000 ft2

6,000 ft2

Inner Workings: Service: 5,000 ft2

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Group Overlaps Many of the elements in the program do not fit perfectly into one category or grouping because the intent for them has a certain degree of inherent overlap. For instance, the Auditorium, a presentation space, is also a classroom setting and a public facility. The gardens and outdoor spaces are also public in nature, but serve the classrooms for cooking materials. The different overlapping that occurs between individual elements of the programs are even more complex. The inner workings of the project obviously encompasses all of the other groups in the project, but for the purpose of this diagram it is kept separate except to emphasize the connection between circulation and the garden spaces. This mixing of program is only one simple solution for the variety of ways these ingredients can be put together in the forming of the design.


School Facilities: 6,000 ft2

Service: 5,000 ft2

Classrooms: 11,000 ft2

Presentation: 6,000 ft2

Gardens: 8,000 ft2

Public Facilities: 11,000 ft2

Inner Workings: 18,000 ft2

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Connections to Breezeway The breezeway is located across from Wall Street, which is perpendicular to the South side of the site. This opening in the project is meant to serve as a pedestrian zone that links up with the Marble Alley Master Plan for the area. Encouraging movement through the site at this point allows pedestrians to walk from Market Square towards the Old City while engaging the many activities of the learning institute. Specific elements of program that might line this area include but are not limited to the following. Farmer’s Market Gardens Access to South Building Housing Vertical Circulation Shops or Resources Possible visual connection to Auditorium The site drops an entire story from the street to the alley way. The form of the breezeway will have to resolve this issue while maintaining pedestrian access to the different programs lining it


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Spatial Adjacencies Sketches and examples of spatial adjacencies within the project that might help to form many of the design intentions. These include visual relationships between cooking and preparation kitchen spaces and the restaurant. They also include efficient use and access to storage and labs from different spaces that need to use these service areas. Clustering of classroom spaces will be ideal in the project to cut down on wasted mechanical equipment and repetitive use of similar kitchen appliances.


Restaurant

Culinary Kitchens

Lab Lab

Food Storage

Skills

Special Kitchens

Classrooms

Skills

Demonstration Classrooms

Dish wash and Storage

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Circulation Adjacencies Many program elements would benefit from being adjacent to the primary circulation spaces in the project. This would include connections to the breezeway and how one would progress through the gardens vertically in the project. These adjacencies may be either direct or indirect, but they should be recognizable by the participants using the circulation spaces.


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Formal Qualities of Space The actual mass of the project will have atleast three stories so that it matches the heights of the surrounding building. The addition of a fourth story would help to define exterior patio access and gathering spaces. The ground floor will be occupied primarily by the parking and loading dock areas. Terraced gardens and exposed terrarium spaces will be expressed on the exterior of the project. Growth on the front and back elevation will need to suit the intentions for the spaces behind them and match the existing elevation conditions. The stepping vegetable and herb gardens may double as circulation zones moving one up and around the project as well as connect to the breezeway.


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Circulation and Gardens The circulation of the project will be an integral part of organizing the different programactic spaces. It will continually engage the gardens of the culinary institute. The two are intertwined in order to provide the most visual access and engagement between the occupants moving through the building Currently the stairs wind up and around the project moving deeper into the form of the building. The entire system is flattened in a plan diagram to the left. The stair is not the standard switchback because the circulation is intended to encourage exercise. The Gardens also wind back through the project to offer differing growing conditions.


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State Street Floor Plan Service Level

1. Auditorium

2. Storage and Dishwashing

3. Mechanical Room

4. Parking

5. Loading

6. Bike Parking

Auditorium Restaurant Connection


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Gay Street Floor Plan Public Breezeway

1. Auditorium

2. Restaurant

3. Resource Library

4. Shops

5. Bakery

6. Farmer’s Market

View from Gay Street


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3.

6.

UP

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4. 1.

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Level Two Floor Plan School Facilities

1. Offices

2. Lounge

3. Computer Stations

4. Chocolate and Beverage Lab

5. Green House

6. Locker Rooms

View of Greenhouse and Chocolate and Beverage Lab


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5.

4.

1.

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UP

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Level Three Floor Plan Kitchens and Classes

1. Skills Kitchens

2. Culinary Kitchens

3. Presentation Space

4. Demonstration Kitchen

Presentation Space


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2.

UP

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4.


Level Four Floor Plan Kitchens and Classes

1. Skills Kitchens

2. Demonstration Kitchen

3. Classrooms

4. Vegetable Gardens

View from Spanish Stair


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Level Five Floor Plan Entertain

1. Banquet Hall

2. Bar and Grill

3. Grill Lessons

Entrance From Breezeway


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Section A-A This section taken through the central space of the building shows the progression of the stairs into the project, as well as demonstrates the spatial overlap of many of the interior spaces. The auditorium connects directly to the public breezeway and has views into the kitchen and restaurant on the public level.


TRANSVE SECTION A-A

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LONGITU SECTION B-B Through Bre Way South Elevat


Gay Street Elevation The West Elevation of Gay street and the east elevation of the building are more solid than the south elevation in order to match the existing fabric of the street. The walls running in these directions within the project are also thicker.


WEST ELEVATION Gay Street

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TRANSVER SECTION A-A


South Elevation This is the Section through the Public Breezeway. The South Elevation of the Project is very transparent to allow the maximum amount of light into the garden spaces on the interior. The breezeway connects market square with the Marble alley proposal Spanish Stairs. The elevator becomes one of the tower like icons along this main path connecting the main part of the city with the old city.

DOWNTOWN SITE PLAN


LONGITUDE SECTION B-B Through Breeze Way South Elevation

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Index


Referencing Inspirations

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Johnson and Wales Culinary Institute This Project is in many ways closely related to the type of Culinary Institute being developed in the proposal. It is also located in a similar region and urban context.

This case study investigates the design and construction of the Culinary Institute and Office Building located at 801 West Trade Street in Charlotte,North Carolina, commissioned by Johnson and Wales University. LS3P Associates Ltd. was chosen as the architect of record for the 156,000 square-foot, Business Occupancy, Type 1B building in September of 2002. The outcome of the design charette established lucid expectations for all constituencies involved. The client desired a building that would fit within the urban fabric, while serving as a symbol of their status as one of the premier culinary institutions in the world. Additionally, the building would lay the foundation for the creation of an academic campus. The leaders of Charlotte hoped that the project would continue to strengthen the revitalization and growth of the city, in that the arrival of the world-class university would correlate to increased revenue . An effect of the restrictive urban site was that the building would obviously have to be vertical; yet the nature of the culinary arts program is horizontal, where there is a desire for an easy connection and progression between event space and kitchen area to make food service manageable. The building unfortunately makes this aspect very difficult, where most food preparation occurs on lower floors and service is above. In addition, the fact the building is vertically split into two wings,with the administration section being substantially smaller, results in the absence of a central entry space. Instead, one enters towards either end of the building with long corridors (up to 176 feet) stretching in between. In spite of these less desirable features arising from the site’s conditions, Peter Lehmuller emphasizes that“the physical impact and statement of the building outweighs the functional desire to be out in a field or a suburban office park”.19


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Ground Level Plan of the Institute showcasing the Prominent Auditorium Space Upper Level Plans providing Insight to Sizing and Adjacencies Due to the nature of a culinary arts institution and the philosophy that one can eat what is cooked, some special considerations had to be taken into account in order to adapt the building for potential weight gain of the students over fours years of school. The seats in the auditorium were designed to be wider that a typical seat as well as toilet stalls being enlarged. Additionally, elevators were moved away from the main circulation paths and replaced by large stairways to invite students to walk more and therefore burn off more calories. The city of Charlotte was also very pleased with the building. The economic impact was a significant measure, with the university initially estimating a 60 million dollar contribution each year from expenditures. In addition, the 35 city stands to gain fame because of the inevitable possibilities of culinary professionals founding a collection of high-end restaurants that attract more business and visitors. The building style that developed was a modern gothic style that utilized light and open structure, contiguous vertical glass,masonry skin, and vertically striated forms. The client wanted the building to take on a monumental scale in order to represent the university and the reputation that it has as a world- renowned culinary arts facility, while also relating to the surrounding Gateway Village along the primary entrance to downtown Charlotte. The building design and construction was done in a way that the building could be built in sections in order to speed up the process. This process required an innovative use of scheduling and execution of design process,the review process,and the construction process.

(Johnson and Wales Culinary Institute: Case Study web document)


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The Living Classroom The Living Classroom at Heron’s Head Park, to be built in 2007 and completed in 2008, will be the first off-grid environmental education center in the City of San Francisco and in any urban center in California. The community center will be located on a reclaimed wetlands park in the Southeast community of Hunterspoint Bayview–a community which has struggled with nemourous environmental problems over the last fifty years which includes two superfund sights, an industrial quarter with hundreds of brownfield locations, as well as two antiquated power plants, and is home to San Francisco’s largest wastewater treatment plant treating over 80% of San Francisco’s raw effluent. The Living Classroom will be able to provide hands on curriculum development to community youth in the field of ecology, environmental stewardship, and environmental sustainability. The Living Classroom will educate community youth and the general public about the latest in renewable energy, wastewater treatment and reclamation, and green building material use. It will include an “off grid” solar energy system, a passive solar design, a “Living Machine” ecological wastewater treatment system, a living roof with rain water catchment system, as well as a community amphitheatre built with hay bail seating. The building will be constructed with Structural Insulated Panel (SIP)s which add increased thermal insulation. The center will feature a variety of curriculum centered around ecology, environmental stewardship, and conservation focusing on energy, wastewater treatment, water conservation, native landscape design, and storm water mitigation, as well as on urban planning, park stewardship, and an array of emerging issues in the field of ecology and environmental science. The overall goal of the project is to educate community members, particularly youth, about providing solutions to critical urban problems around poor urban design in an effort to be more responsible and think more sustainably about the building/development of our communities. Ultimately, the project will teach people that we can reduce pollutants and conserve the life sustaining resources of our planet without sacrificing a building’s comfort or aesthetic appeal.

(Design Share, http://www.designshare.com/index.php/projects/ the-living-classroom )


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Gardens at the Versailles Palace The gardens of Versailles occupy part of what was once the Domaine royale de Versailles, the royal demesne of the château of Versailles. Situated to the west of the palace, the gardens cover some 800 hectares of land, much of which is landscaped in the classic French Garden style perfected here by André Le Nôtre. Beyond the surrounding belt of woodland, the gardens are bordered by the urban areas of Versailles to the east and Le Chesnay to the north-east, by the National Arboretum de Chèvreloup to the north, the Versailles plain (a protected wildlife preserve) to the west, and by the Satory Forest to the south. (Wikepedia,http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Gardens_of_Versailles) The terraced gardens and formal yet organic plan of the palace allow for powerful visitor interaction and inspiration. These qualities are desired in the design.


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Interactive Dining Interactive cooking and dining experiences are important for making this Project successful. Many of the connections between spaces will be inspired by common interactive dining experiences. The top hit show Hell’s Kitchen produced by Fox television has elements of public engagement that have an entertainment factor. The kitchen staff, and competition atmosphere are all viewed by the public restaurant-goers. They get to see first hand how the staff performs and interacts with the food they eat. Similar experiences with large scale appeal are Japanese steak houses. People enjoy watching chefs prepare their food and see how it is put together. Learning about methods used in the kitchen is fun and informative. These types of case studies are important in the development of connections between kitchen spaces and public engagement. They will be incorporated into aspects of the design.


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“Green� Architecture

I actually think the underpass wall design is a great idea for urban areas. So long as cities promise to keep the walls watered, I think it would improve air quality and aesthetic quality.

Grass Tower of Doom: Looming over Green Park, it’s an eight-story antigravity forest composed of 12,000 plants. Patrick Blanc uses a kind of techno-trellis as the underlying structure: A plastic-coated aluminum frame is fastened to the wall and covered with synthetic felt into which plant roots can burrow. A custom irrigation system keeps the felt moist with a fertilizer solution modeled after the rainwater that trickles through forest canopies. But plants for this vertical landscape must be chosen with care. Because the walls are so high, conditions vary widely. The shade at ground level is perfect for rare Asian nettles; on the brighter upper stories, plants that usually cling to windblown cliff faces brave the blustery British breezes. (Wired Magazine)


Inspirations for Garden and Terrarium Designs Actual Health Club Design Located in San Fransisco, California

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Resources Johnson and Wales Culinary Institute, Case Study. Johnson and Wales University. http://www.jwu.edu/college.aspx?id=19510. October, 2009 “Green Architecture”. Wired Magazine. 2008 Design Share, Case Studies. “The Living Classroom”. http://www. designshare.com/index.php/awards/alternative. October, 2009. “Hell’s Kitchen”. Fox Broadcasting Company. 2009 “Course Reader, Arc 480”. University of Tennessee. 2009 Knoxville Tourism and Sports Cooperation. http://www.knoxville. org/visitors/dining/.October, 2009. Stein, Reynolds, Grondzik, Kwok. “Mechanical and Electrical Equipment for Buildings”. Wiley. 2006 Iano, Allen. “The Architect’s Studio Companion”. Wiley. 2007 Karlen, Mark. “Space Planning Basics”. Van Nostrand Reinhold. 1993 “Viking Cooking School”. http://www.vikingcookingschool.com/hccgi-bin/hc?templ=new_vcs/home.html&nocl=1. October, 2009. H, Frumkin. Healthy Places, Exploring the Evidence. “American Journal of Public Health”, 2003 - Am Public Health Assoc.


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Culinary Istitute  

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