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Instructional Designers Use Technology to Design and Deliver Advanced Learning Solutions By: Michelle Ollmann
What is an Instructional Designer?
Instructional Design & Technology
Instructional Designers are professionals who analyze, design, develop, implement, and evaluate learning solutions to maximize knowledge transfer to accomplish predetermined business goals. They generally work in professional settings to create and implement training solutions.
Instructional Designers at USBFS are utilizing many forms of technology while they continue to explore and implement new educational technology. Personal computers are used to create and file interview results used in the analysis phase of their design.
At U.S. Bancorp Fund Services (USBFS), a mutual fund transfer agent, Instructional Designers create custom training solutions for the various departments within the company. In some cases, courses and manuals are created to fulfill mandatory compliance trainings in order to meet state and federal guidelines. However, generally, courses are created from scratch to train employees on processes or technologies the company is using or adopting. Designers have to analyze the learning needs, design layers of instruction to meet those learning goals, and then develop the content and activities to accomplish the goals. Finally, they must evaluate the success of their courses to make necessary adjustments and improvements.
Designersâ€™ jobs are made more convenient and time efficient with the use of dual monitors. This technology allows them to compare Instructor and Trainee manuals side by side to ensure the information is in the same sequence and easily followed. Each personal computer is also connected to a network printer and scanner. These tools aid in the creation of manuals and mock training examples. The network connection between the personal computers and printers, allow designers to make revisions to manuals and print new copies for each class. The scanners are used to scan actual copies of shareholder documentation that is later altered using an application called SnagIt. Designers use SnagIt to mock the identities and social security numbers of real shareholder information; so that realistic checks and professional documentation like death and marriage certificates can be used for job specific training courses.
Web Based Training Designers also maintain a Learning Management System (LMS) where web based training (WBT) courses are made available. WBT courses are those that can be taken right over a personal computer and do not need to be delivered by a live person each and every time. WBT courses take advantage of something called “just-in-time training.” Just in time learning is a practice that aims to give learners the information they need just before they need it, with the hope that the information is more likely to be retained and understood just before it must be applied. Courses are created by the designers, sometimes using voice recording technology and animated screen shots, and then taken by employees at their convenience. USBFS Designers have also recently began exploring technology that allows them to create quick “show me” instructions that can be linked to certain step by step process documentation. Employees can click the “show me” link and watch a documented process be followed in a short clip. Instructors utilize this technology to create reminders employees can watch when a whole training course is not needed to address a
While there will always be a need for Instructor Led Training (ILT) courses to accomplish some professional learning goals; technology is being utilized in several forms to aid in the delivery of those learning solutions. As educational technologies advance, successful Instructional Designers will be on the forefront, learning the best practices and applications to design and deliver content that is easily understood but maximizes the use of people’s time and knowledge retention.
then export that query into a data connecƟon in Excel. Once I am in Excel, I then create a pivot table or regular spreadsheet that displays the results. That As an IT manager there are a variety of job responsi- informaƟon is then used by the department rebiliƟes that I partake in daily. I manage the AcƟve quesƟng it for client relaƟonship management, or Directory on one of our servers, I also manage the 2 data analysis to increase producƟvity and to grow terminal servers, and a server solely dedicated to business results. I also implement soŌware/ our warehouse data. Each one of these servers applicaƟons updates and provide support for the houses data and programs complete life cycle of said accessible to employees. applicaƟons. The employees access these Although these are some remotely through the Reof the funcƟonaliƟes of an mote Desktop ConnecƟon. I IT Manager, no day is ever make sure that that connecthe same. In order to Ɵon is running smoothly, thrive in this field, you will making sure internet protoneed an acute aƩenƟon to col (IP) addresses are detail, you must be a self properly inserted, in regards starter because there will to logins, and printers and be a lot of days were you other devices as well. I also may need to get somereset logins to the domain thing back up and running server, email accounts, and before tech support calls virtual private network you back. You must have (VPN). The server porƟon of some knowledge of algemy job require my aƩenƟon bra and/or algorithms as at a computer terminal, eiwell as SQL/t-SQL language ther in the server room or in order to formulate queat my desk where I am able ries. Another skill that will to remotely make changes assist you in being successvia Services and Services ful in this field is some Manager. working knowledge of Another component business operaƟons. If you have these skills, as well to my job is database administraƟon. I use SQL Serv- as a passion for learning on a daily basis, an IT Maner to access data housed within our EPICOR ager posiƟon may just be for you! (AcƟvant) applicaƟon. For every entry that is made within the applicaƟon such as order processing, request for quote, inventory informaƟon, new items added via pricing service etc. it correlates to a column and table within SQL. I then write queries to retrieve that data. Once I have the data that I need I
Career Colum The Milwaukee Public Museum is now providing an internship for students interested in the Marketing field. This internship is perfect for students who have chosen a program of study in Business and Management, Professional Communications, and Marketing. This internship provides the opportunity to participate in setting up the upcoming exhibit, produce advertisement, and be part of a marketing team. In addition, gaining technology skills that will be useful to complete any project in the future. The position description states that the museum intern needs to be able to make, “marketing media plans for their next exhibit, keeping up with databases for print collateral, media plans, event calendars and email lists.” Some additional skills needed are, “account management/ service, coordination, project management, media planning.” This internship requires the student, “to have basic understanding and an interest in all different media and how you place advertising.” From the description, it is clear that many different forms of technology are used to be able to participate in this internship. The student who will fill this position needs to be well aware of the technology programs used to create these projects. A few of these programs the intern will be using are Power point, InDesign, Photoshop, E-mail programs such as Outlook and Constant Contact, Word, and Excel.
To be a marketing intern you need to be very technology savvy since this job requires a person to use many computer programs. In today’s job market for marketing, you need to use countless programs to create the flyers, brochures, newsletters, advertisements, and media planning. So if you are a tech savvy student who is ready to create amazing advertisement, this may be just the internship for you!
Resources h p://www.milwaukeejobs.com/j/t‐Internship‐‐Marke ng‐and‐adver sing‐intern‐e‐Milwaukee‐Public‐Museum‐l‐ Milwaukee,‐WI‐jobs‐j2806827.html h p://www.milwaukeejobs.com/jobs.asp?pagemode=13&job_code=‐ 1&job_type_id=3&category_id=1603&keywords=communica ons&loca on_id_1=31&loca on_type_1=C&loca on_name _1=Milwaukee% 2c+WI&loca on_radius_1=10&loca on_id_2=&loca on_type_2=&loca on_name_2=&loca on_radius_2=50&loca on_id _3=&loca on_type_3=&loca on_name_3=&loca on_radius_3=50&domain_id=‐ 1&nav=3&page=2&pf=1&date_field=updated&changed=‐ 1&order_by=date+posted&direc on=DESC&pbid=0&wage_class=‐1
Creative Capture With
Snagit By Michelle Ollmann Snagit is an image capture software, created and distributed by TechSmith. The software is easy to use and can be applied to both personal and professional needs. Snagit offers some of the image editing capabilities of other applications like PhotoShop, without the learning curve. Images are captured and then sent directly to the Edit function where they can be modified. Images can be captured in several different ways. The capture function can be set to select particular regions, an entire window, full screen, or even a scrolling capture for Web pages (including any links within the page). Once the selected image is sent to the Edit function, you can easily make basic alterations to the size or text on an image and then make additions such as quote bubbles, arrows, highlights, and even a blur. Blur can be used to either make information anonymous by blurring out a selection, perhaps a person’s identity or other personal information, or you can draw focus to something by blurring out everything around it. Recently, after struggling to use the scroll function on PDF files, I found that Snagit offers a function that allows you to send an entire PDF direct-
ly to the Edit page in a completely editable format. My company is contemplating changing the format of several of our documents, this function allowed us to reformat the document in several variations for review before committing to an expensive overhaul of our forms. Snagit also stores your captured images. You can save images in an editable format and your most recent captures are stored in a quick reference bar at the bottom of your Edit page. Snagit stamps help to liven up your document or presentation. Snagit stamps like check marks, arrows, paperclips, and scissors are standard accessories but additional stamps like DRAFT and countless variations of holiday stamps can be downloaded. I’d make mention of all of the ways a scrap booker could utilize the software but I’m sure their heads are already swimming with
the possibilities. The amount of things that you can do with Snagit, both personally and professionally, are limited more by your imagination than skill level, as the application can be easily self taught. There are some system requirements to be aware of before purchasing the Software. Windows System Requirements Microsoft Windows XP with SP2 (32-bit or 64-bit), Vista (32-bit or 64-bit), or Windows 7 (32-bit or 64-bit) installed and configured on your system. .NET 4.0 or later required for video. 2.4 GHz single core processor (2.4 GHz dual core required for video). 1GB of RAM (2 GB required for video). 125 MB of free hard disk space. Internet Explorer 8.0 or later required. Mac OS X System Requirements 10.6.8 (Snow Leopard), 10.7 (Lion), 10.8 (Mountain Lion), or higher Intel processor (dual core 2.0 GHz or faster) 2GB of RAM or greater 64-bit only The software retails for $49.95 from the TechSmith Website, but there is a notable student discount offering 40% off, reducing the price to $29.95. But savvy consumers can enjoy SnagIt free for 30 days from either the TechSmith Website or www.downlaod.cnet.com. www.techsmith.com
Applica on So ware Google Chrome – A Web Browser for the Internet Lovers. The web browser Google Chrome is an internet browser that has been around publicly since December 2008 and has quickly become one of the top three web browsers used on the internet today. Its speed, clean look, overall ease of use, and constant updates makes it one of the preferred downloadable software on the market today. Some of the main features Google Chrome has to offer are found on Google’s website and are displayed on the tabs on the top of the browser. Such features as Chrome Web Store, translation in the browser, customizable themes, new tab page, Omnibox which lets you type in the web address and search for items in the address box, Incognito mode which is if you don’t want your sites to be logged in your history, and tabs and stability. The main reason a novice should use this software is because it is very easy to use. Google Chrome is easier to use because it is able to remember many things without you telling it. The browser remembers your user names for almost all sites requiring a user name, can even remember your password if you would like, much faster compared to internet explorer and Firefox, and has a much cleaner look which makes your tool bar less cluttered with unnecessary add ons, which makes it easier for new users. For those who don’t know, add ons are designed to make a software program better or more functional. For example on your Internet Explorer tool bar there are buttons located at the top of the page that allow you to go straight to another website such as MSN.com.
Yes I have told you the perks of Google Chrome and why it is so easy to use, but some things I have found useful when using this browser compared to other browsers aren’t found in articles on line. So get an insider’s opinion the subject, here are some unique and fun perks of Google Chrome from me to you. When typing in youtube.com in web browser, after typing youtube.com press the space bar and you can search for videos without going to the actual site. Chrome automatically goes to the video on Youtube. It loads videos faster and is less choppy when loading, which is always a perk in any internet users eyes. It is also much easier to search; you are able to search in the web browser as if you were typing on Google’s home page.
The clu ered home page of Internet Explorer’s
Simplis c layout of Google Chrome’s
Google Chrome remembering your user name on sites you visit most o en.
Resources h p://www.impressivewebs.com/release‐history‐major‐ browsers/ h p://www.google.com/chrome/intl/en/more/features.html
SQL Server 2008 Management Studio Basics
that your computer crashes or some other tragic event, your database informa on will be
SQL Server 2008 Management Studio is so ware used to create and access databases through query. A query means in the most basic context, to ask a calculated ques on. A query can be used to ask one ques on or many ques ons at one me. You may ask why would I want to access databases? The answer to this ques on is simple. It allows your data to be stored away remotely, perhaps on a diﬀerent computer en rely. Perhaps you have been asked to get factual data for your job and you need to get the informa on, and make it viewable in a readable format such as an excel spreadsheet which is the most common way to format your query ques ons so that others less stored elsewhere and you can tech savvy can see what you see. restore it to a new database at Crea ng a database will the point of your last backup. be necessary before you can ask Depending on how important any ques ons. In order to create said informa on is, will determine how o en you do a backa database you have to right up. If it is a work related dataclick on the word database and base, I would suggest backing select New or Copy. If you are crea ng a new database you will your database up every day at be asked the server name that night a er the oﬃce is closed.
essen al to your success in retrieving accurate data. The first func onality is the table that you retrieve the informa on from. This is the most crucial part of using SQL so ware. The second func onality is the column within the table. EX. Table Name = dbo_address Column Name= dbo_address.LastName In this par cular example that I have given you, the table name lets you know that you are accessing address specific informa on from within your database. The column name specifies that you want the database to give you the last name of contacts within your address book. EX. SELECT * dbo_address.LastName
In this example you are wri ng a query (script), asking a ques on of the informa on stored in your database in a way that SQL Server 2008 Management Studio will understand. This is a basic example but SELECT tells SQL to retrieve, * tells SQL you want all of the results, then you have the you want the database to get its The next step in using ColumnName.LastName which informa on from. A couple of SQL Server 2008 Management tells you what table and column other ques ons that you will be Studio is ge ng to know the you want SQL to get, and FROM asked is where you want it to way you will have to query your statements tell SQL what table save your backup informa on. data. In SQL Server 2008, you to access. Backups are essen al in crea ng have 2 func onali es that are a database because in the event
SQL Server 2008 Management Studio Once you have retrieved your data, you will receive your query results in the bo om panel of the same page. In this example you should have 1 column of informa on because you only asked your database 1 ques on. You can then export the files into the format most suitable for your viewers. If you are dealing with numerical data, you may want to export into text delimited Excel file, or in this case since we are viewing only last names of people in our address table we may want to export this into a word document. You can do this by saving the file and choosing to export it a er you save it, or you can right click again somewhere on the results field and select to copy with headers and paste it within Microso Word, or Microso Excel or Microso Access for that ma er.
There are stored funcons within SQL Server 2008 Management Studio as well that you can certainly benefit from when wri ng a query. There are a vast amount of those, so many that I won’t touch on the specific name of them. The best thing that you could do is go in the Management Studio and look around, see which ones are going to benefit the way you query your database and USE THEM!
They are accessible in Program- is something you are interested mability area of your database. in learning, there are links at the bo om of the page that will Another area that you point you in the right direc on of will want to pay close a en on purchasing so ware, a more in to is the Security area of Man- depth look at the SQL Manageagement Studio. You can assign ment Studio capabili es as well specific rights to certain users, as learning how to write queries. you can also create new users. There are 2 administrator Best Price: www.amazon.com usernames that are built into SQL. One is SA, which has the SQL Basics: highest administrator rights as- www.sqlserverbible.com signed. As the SA you can create Query Wri ng Info: database, change databases, query informa on, backup and msdn.microso .com/en-us/ restore, and copy databases as library well. The other administrator username is ADMIN. As admin you will be able to access the query tool, and access data but it does not allow you to change databases or create them. The reason for this is because admin is considered a public login, meaning that if you export files and set them to refresh at a specified interval, everyone that views that spreadsheet or document will have access to that login. The login is necessary to refresh the document and you wouldn’t want anyone altering your query or changing a database that you know provides factual informa on. There is so much that can be achieved by SQL Server 2008 Management Studio and this just touches on some basic informa on in regards to it. If it
The Computer I Want... Comparing The iPhone, Galaxy SIII, and the Lumia 920 By: Michelle Ollmann
Shopping for a computer today can be overwhelming. Computer options range from personal computers for our work and home offices, with numerous options including printers and scanners, to various sizes of laptops, tablets, and smart phones. In the last few years, technological advances have turned our hand held phones into true personal computers. On the forefront of this technology are the Apple iPhone 5, the Samsung Galaxy SIII, and the Nokia Lumia 920 (anticipating release date). At their core, these phones are differentiated by their operating systems. The iPhone uses the iOS, the Galaxy uses the Android operating system and the Lumia uses the familiar Windows operating system. Which phone is best depends on the buyer and their needs. Each phone has notable advantages over the other in my opinion. For instance, their sizes attract customers with different needs. The iPhone 5 is the smallest iPhone yet; the screen size is 4 inches and is the thinnest and lightest at only .3 inches thick. The Galaxy SIII has a 4.8 inch screen and is .34 inches thick, and finally the Lumia 920 with a 4.5 inch screen but the thickest of the three at .42 inches thick. It’s clear by these comparisons the iPhone aimed to be the smallest of its competitors, which obviously will appeal to people looking for the best pocket phone. However, its smaller size compromised the interest of those customers looking for a great phone for watching movies and other videos. In that case, the Galaxy takes the lead with its 4.8
inch screen and is still not as thick as the Lumia. The next most influential comparison, in my opinion, is with regard to the application (apps) and content available on each phone. Once again, depending on the user each has its advantages over the others. The iPhone is limited to iTunes for content but has the most available apps coming it at around 600,000 apps on iTunes. I addition the having the most quantity of apps they are also tested and virus free. The Galaxy is close behind with 500,000 and uses the Google Play Store, but the Windows Phone is a distant third with only 80,000 apps available at this time. However, in my opinion, the Windows phone has the advantage of Microsoft Office applications. Games and music are great but it certainly would be nice to have access to my Microsoft Office documents on the go. I’m sure as the Windows Phone expands its access to applications it will have an advantage with customers who depend on Microsoft Office for work or school. For those customers who want their phone to double as a great camera the Lumina has the advantage. The Lumia has a whopping 8.7 megapixel camera with a technology called PureView. From there the Galaxy takes second place with 1.9 megapixels and the iPhone’s 1.2 megapixels in comparison tell us iPhone was not aiming to compete with this feature. Storage of all of these applications and pictures is also worth considering as well. In this category the Lumia and iPhone tie at
1GB RAM but the Galaxy outshines them with 2GB RAM. Storage is worth considering if you plan to use the phone’s large screen to watch movies; the more movies, the more storage needed in order to avoid buffering. Each is a 4G LTE phone but Verizon has the largest 4G LTE Network and only the Galaxy is offered through Verizon. The Windows phone and iPhone are exclusive to AT&T; which means if you do a lot of traveling and hope to take advantage of your 4G speeds the Galaxy would be your best bet. Without a large 4G network your phone defaults to 3G speeds. They each offer GPS, and Hotspot capabilities, but the iPhone does not offer the wireless charging the Lumia and Galaxy offer. Their battery lives are slightly different as well. Lumia wins the category here coming in at a whopping 10 hours of battery life. In second place is the Galaxy, advertising 9.2 hours and finally the iPhone listing 8 hours of battery time. Public opinion seems to generalize the audience for each of these phones and in most cases, I’d agree. The Lumia would probably best be suited to first-time consumers or students who will use their phone for social networking. The interface is simple yet rigid in its display. It is familiar to those who have used Microsoft Windows before but is not highly customizable the way the iPhone and Galaxy are. However it offers a communication grouping technique that makes it easier to socialize with friends, by combining conversations from social networking sites, texts, and emails together when they are from a single source. For students the Microsoft Office package is a big selling point as well. The main sacrifice with the Lumia seems to be the minimal apps available at this time. However, if common games are available I think the typical novice or student could make due. Personally, I am in this is the category of consumers. I have a laptop at home and spend a lot of time working on computers at work, so when choosing a phone my only real concerns are communicating with friends and family, playing the
occasional game. Shopping for a phone today is less about which phone is the best on the market and more about which phone on the market is best for you. Each feature has an advantage for one user and disadvantage for the next. iPhone offers more apps and the Galaxy is more customizable with a larger screen for movies. If you travel and depend on 4G speeds the Galaxy may be your only option but you’ll have to go through Verizon to capitalize on the technology. If your focus is communication and sharing pictures, the Lumia offers the best communication grouping and mega pixels in its camera. To become an educated consumer you should identify your needs for each device you buy and weigh the cost of features you need against the ones you don’t. It is not always worth paying the most money for the most popular product if you can save money buying the product that serves your needs.
The Computer You Want
Intel Graphics Media Accelerator (GMA).
The Acer Aspire is a great computer, based on my personal experience with the computer the visual capabili es of the graphics The three most common are comparable to more expenreasons to buy a computer are: for sive computers that are on the home use, for gaming and power market. The price will not break use, and digital media use. Based the bank. This computer is de on the three reasons to buy a signed for the home user and The Alienware M14X computer I came up with 3 sug- comes with Windows 7 Opera ng starts out at $999 in its’ barest ges ons. The first sugges on that system. If you need to do your form. However some of the highI have will be the most cost eﬀec- homework, access your social melighted op ons boast about a 3rd ve computer, not breaking the dia, and use your video phone cagenera on Intel Core i7 processor wallet at an average price of $499- pabili es on a college student which allows for high performance $649 is the Acer Aspire 5742budget this computer may be for of all the mul -threaded games 7120. you. that you can imagine playing on The second computer that your PC. This gaming system we checked out for you in regards comes with 6GB memory, 500GB to your new purchase was a com- of hard disk space and a 1GB puter in its own class. If you need GDDR5 NVIDIA GeForce GT 650M to play games on the PC or you with Op mus. The Alienware M14X boasts a 1 or 2 year warran need the visual enhancements and capabili es of a system that ty as well aspre-installed LoJack will be compa ble with you digital service just in case your system is imaging so ware then this one stolen. may be perfect for you. The last computer that we wanted to feature for you was a computer that was manufactured The Acer Aspire, as pictured above by a household name. The next is a notebook, which can be essenfeatured computer is the Macal if your goal is portability. The book. The Macbook boasts a 1 processor is an Intel Core i3 370M, year warranty, a 2.5GHz dual-core which is definitely a mid-range Intel Core i5, with turbo boost high performance mul -core proprocessing up to 3.1 GHz. The cessing unit. The display is approxMacbook has 4GB 1600MHz of imately 15.6 inches, and memory, as well as 500GB 54001366X768 pixels. The weight is rpm hard-drive. It has an Intel HD 2.6kg. The graphics adapter is an Graphics 4000 card to read your By Tacey Lenyard
pictures and movies and a built in for you is by reading what other ba ery that lasts approximately 7 consumers are saying about the product. hours. The computer has all of the bells and whistles, but unfortunately this one is going to cost you the most. This computer starts out at a whopping $1,199. Any addi ons to this system will only cost you more.
3). Cost: I can’t stress this enough. Just because the computer is ex- pensive does not mean it will perform be er for you. If you no ce the Dell Alienware computer has a higher performing Inter Core processor than the Macbook and at a lower cost. 4). Does it have the look?: Another thing that you may want to make
sure you get is something that represents you. In my opinion out of the three computers listed above I would probably choose All of these computers can the Alienware because it’s a midrange machine that has the highbe eﬀec ve for your computer use. Some key things to look for est performing Intel Processor of when you are shopping around for all 3, the most memory out of all 3, as well as a graphics card fir for computers is: someone crea ng a movie. The 1). The Processor: If it is dual or price is not as high as the Macmul -cored it will allow you for book. The warranty is longer on high performance mul tasking the Dell Alienware as well. and using mul ple so wares at a 5). Another thing that you will me. There are not too many computers on the market that do want to check into when purchassell at least a system with a dual ing your computer is what addional so ware does it come with? core processing unit. Does Microso Oﬃce come stand2). Memory: If you know that you ard with the PC? Or do you have use your computer for everything to purchase that at an addi onal you may want to opt for a com- cost? puter with more memory capabili If you take these things es. into considera on you will find 3). Customer Review: Another the system that you are looking thing that can help you determine for and that is right for you. Good what system is going to be best luck! And Happy buying!
Buying a Computer:
What do all those specs mean? What computer type is right for you? Need a few pointers on which computer to buy? This article provides the basic information to guide the new computer user to the right computer for them! Thinking about buying a new computer can be a very overwhelming and daunting experience. However, there are ways to make this experience a little easier. Some questions to ask yourself before looking at buying a computer are what type of computer best fits my needs, what will I be using the computer for, will I need to bring my computer with me for work? All these questions and many more are what one should think about when looking for a new computer. This article breaks down the three popular computer choices in today’s computer generation, the desktop, laptop, and tablet. From there, you are able to check out links provided to determine which type is best for you. To make it easier for the novice computer person, I have broken down each computer type into sections. From there I have listed uses for each computer type so you the reader can find what needs you are looking for in a computer, and see which one fits your individual needs. Desktop: For people who do most work at home Don’t want or need mobility Want a cheaper computer People who play a lot of video games or games on line People who do a lot of editing with videos Laptop: Are used mostly in the field of business Great for people who need to bring their computer with them when they travel Do not do a lot of editing of videos on laptop Mostly work with word, excel, e-mailing, checking the Internet Need wireless connections when they travel
Tablet: Very Portable Very light weight Gives you the option of full control of screen Touch screen Reviewing information before meeting or with a client Getting information to you rather than making it for others
After reviewing each list, it is now time to check online and check out the computers themselves! I have included information on desktops, laptops, and tablets from HP (Hewlett Packard) website along with pricing and detailed descriptions on what each computer offers. Now that you have the basic knowledge it is time to do your research! Figure out what type of computer is right for you after checking out these listed websites and computer brands. Everyone has their own needs so everyone is happy and satisfied with choice of computer!
Desktop - HP ($350)
Laptop – HP ($580)
Tablet – Apple (Starting at $ 500)
Desktop: h p://www.shopping.hp.com/en_US/home‐oﬃce/‐/products/Desktops/HP‐Pavilion/B3F79AV?HP‐Pavilion‐p6‐2220t‐Desktop‐ PC Laptop: h p://www.shopping.hp.com/en_US/home‐oﬃce/‐/products/Laptops/HP‐ENVY/B5T12UA?HP‐ENVY‐Sleekbook‐6‐
1010us Ipad: h p://store.apple.com/us/browse/home/shop_ipad/family/ipad
Web Based Training and Technology Assisted Learning How the Evolution of Technology has Influenced the Evolution of Learning By Michelle Ollmann
The American Society of Training and Development (ASTD) says, E-learning refers to anything delivered, enabled, or mediated by electronic technology for the explicit purpose of learning (Maxwell, 2012). E-learning is also known as Web Based Training (WBT) and Computer Based Training (CBT). E-learning generally comes in two basic forms, synchronous and asynchronous. These two delivery methods are differentiated by whether or not the material is being delivered by a live instructor or by an instructor who has arranged and prerecorded the material for repeated delivery at the learner’s convenience. Each delivery method has its advantages and disadvantages and when used incorrectly the immense amount of time elearning takes to create can out weight the benefits of the technology. Technology continues to advance, making the capabilities of the World Wide Web (WWW) and computers important tools in learning. Companies who aim to keep their employees on the forefront of the ever changing market, are increasing their investments in WBT and CBT technology. Schools and colleges continue to expand their interests in the “just-intime” learning benefits and long distance learning and collaboration the technology offers. While the topic of WBT has been around for some time, it seems recent advances are expanding its possibilities. Advantages such as cost savings, and geographical outreach continue to move the technology forward; however,
age old debates about the importance of live instruction, remind us that regardless of how far technology can help us reach, people will always need human interpretation and communication to solidify some learning experiences. The benefits and draw backs of each mean successful training instructors and educators will need to be well-rounded enough to combine the benefits of live instruction with the possibilities of WBT. Skills like these will solve future global learning needs and will be a vital key in closing the gaps in the developing global community. The intention to use computers and the Internet to share ideas, and aid in education is even older than the Internet itself. The Arpanet, which was the technology that led to the Internet, was developed to connect government and scientific organizations. The name Arpanet comes from “ARPA” Advanced Research Projects Agency and “net” as in network. Information sharing is a human desire, and today’s WBTs are simply the decedents of technologies that have made information sharing faster and easier. In the early 1960s, Stanford University psychology professors Patrick Suppes and Richard C. Atkinson experimented with using computers to teach math and reading to young children in elementary schools in East Palo Alto, California (Julian, 2009). Computer assisted learning continued to progress with the advancement such as e-mail and by the mid
1990’s the first online High School, CompuHigh, was created. The advancement of elearning can be credited to the development of a several technologies. Technological advances such as, bulletin boards, webinars, video conferencing, Internet chat sessions, and company Intranet and websites have expanded the reach and possibilities of technology assisted learning. Today’s e-learning falls under two main categories, synchronous and asynchronous. Synchronous, as in synchronized, allows learners to access a live instructed class from wherever they have Internet access. Synchronous WBT courses offer the ability to collaborate over geographic distances, along with all of the benefits of a live instructor who can facilitate real time discussions and answer questions. However, what synchronous courses offer in live instructor support, they lack in flexibility. Asynchronous courses offer just that, the benefit of anywhere, anytime learning. Instructors develop courses utilizing bulletin boards for discussions with and between learners. In addition to posted assignments, videos, and hyperlinks, learners share their findings and interpretations on the bulletin board for discussions and interpretations from other students and the instructor. In addition to the ways technology has influenced how courses are delivered, technology has also played a large role in how they are organized and offered. Learning Management Systems (LMS) and virtual learning environments (VLE) offer learning solutions for different audiences. Each organizes course material and learner performance and progress, but LMSs are best for strictly delivering and tracking educational goals and accomplishments, in perhaps corporate learning environments, but VLEs offer continuous communication between student and instructor and the ability to give feedback, making VLEs ideal for college or k-12 education. However, industry wide, LMS is an acceptable term to describe both platforms.
LMSs and VLEs utilize object-relational database management systems (ORDBMS) which basically are databases that are developed to store memory and access other software applications. ORDBMS stores information as objects rather than data, making the data less complex to retrieve and manage. Technology like this enables LMSs and VLEs to store multiple forms of information and recall them faster. These ORDBMS are either open-source or closed-source. From 1997 to the present, two LMS’s have emerged as forerunners. Blackboard is a company offering a closed source commercially sold course management product. Moodle is an open source collaborative offering free course management software (Cantrell, Hare & Randle, 2010). Blackboard comes with a licensing agreement and is therefore more expensive. However, Blackboard offers technical support and updates that are not offered on Moodle’s free platform. Moodle is not a company, but rather a collaborative project organization (Cantrell, Hare & Randle, 2010). Moodle is accessed by installing it on a web server that hosts the various web pages that make up the content and organization of the LMS. Moodle does not offer the same technical support or updates as its costly counterpoint does, but the platform and web pages are more flexible and allow the institution more freedom in design. The accumulation and development of these technological advances are being used to share information across distance and time. As mentioned before, WBT and Webinars allow learners to take courses that are both self directed and self paced. WBT and prerecorded webinars give freedom to learners and capitalize on a practice called “jus- in-time” learning. Just–n-time learning is a practice that aims to give learners the information they need just before they need it, with the hope that the information is more likely to be retained and understood just before it must be applied. This technology also reduces travel expenses by connecting the people with the information to those that need it across long distances, while never leaving the comfort of
their own office. In corporate settings these are invaluable freedoms when training employees on new technologies or processes. Often WBT courses are used to satisfy compliance regulations such as annual ethics or tax courses. Courses like this are time and cost effective because annual changes are most likely minimal; therefore, once a course is created it may only require minor updates each year before it is re-released to hundreds, perhaps thousands of employees. Live annual instruction for compliance would prove costly and time consuming, tying up instructors and incurring possible travel expenses as well. Aside from the time saved by instructors, employees (learners) are open to take the course at their convenience. This is helpful with regard to compliance training that everyone must take because not everyone must be out of production at once to take the course. Perhaps it is most beneficial when considering developmental and progressive learning options. Courses in management and advanced processes can be delivered based on the learner’s goals and/ or company’s development plans for them. E-learning also offers the flexibility professionals need to return to school to further their education. Traditional university and e-learning partnerships are rapidly expanding and include Stanford University’s online masters’ program in electrical engineering and Duke University’s online M.B.A. program (Rudestam & Shoenholtz-Read, 2002). Opening educational opportunities up to working professionals is a priceless option in personal development. For the first time in history, a college degree is truly not an option. Young graduates are competing with experienced workers who are also aiming to increase their skills in today’s suffering economy. In this competitive market, continuing your education may be your best asset in finding a career to support your family and ambitions. E—Learning and WBT courses are also resolving education issues for k-12 and young
college students. E-learning is increasingly being utilized by students who may not want to go to traditional brick and mortar schools due to severe allergies or other medical issues, fear of school violence and school bullying and students whose parents would like to homeschool but do not feel qualified (Julian, 2009). The world is changing and advances in technology, are meeting the needs of those changes. In recent years, concerns about allergies, violence, equal opportunities, and the effectiveness of traditional instruction and lecture have become real concerns in education. E-learning offers a solution that allows students to move at their own pace, whether that is faster or slower than average, without the added concerns of peer pressure, socioeconomically status or complications related to allergies or sickness. Teachers and instructors using WBT to deliver content have unique challenges to address. First and foremost successful instructors have to continue to explore and implement new technological advances to add to their repertoire. Developing courses and learning exercises for online learning require more preparation time than traditional deliveries. Not every technology is the right solution for every problem or every student. Designers have to have a good command of technological mediums, learning fundamentals, and the learning styles of their students in order to design comprehensive courses that meet the learning objectives. I am a mother, an Instructional Designer, and also a returning student pursuing a degree in CMT with a minor in Adult Education. WBT and the technological advances influencing the future of education will directly impact my life. While some people question the effectiveness of an online education, many schools are accredited, and their enrollment numbers continue to rise. The demand is undeniable, and history has shown that a demand in technology will produce a market for the solution. Information sharing is as natural as
breathing for people and the Internet is the perfect medium. In conjunction with other technologies, including those we have yet to see, the possibilities are endless. In my profession, I have assisted in the development of some WBT courses. I have seen first-hand how time consuming the process is and can attest to the importance of knowing which tool is right for the job. In business, there is a clear time and place for asynchronous WBT. While WBT courses may be an ideal solution for compliance training, there is still plenty to be said about the importance of live instruction for soft skill courses used for careers like customer service. Also, my company like others, strives for continuous improvement. Continuously improving, means processes are constantly changing and improving, resulting in constant updates to training manuals and exercises. Changes like that take a lot of time in WBT courses, making online delivery expensive and unrealistic for job specific training courses. Trainers do use WBT courses to supplement instructor led training, for topics that do not require regular changes or updates. As a student I have also participated in some online college courses. Some were more comprehensive than others. Successful, challenging courses included requirements for several discussion board posts each week, book reading, online research assignments and papers that were returned with thoughtful complete feedback that challenged my performance week after week. On the contrary, other courses were thin and only required minimal exploration or reading. In some cases links were out of date and the instructor was missing in action for weeks at a time. While I believe self paced education will open doors and raise the bar for students who strive to surpass it, I fear without some form of standardization, some students may fall victim to a bare minimum education that
lacks real expectations or feedback. The challenge that e-learning and traditional education will always have in common is parental involvement. Without parental interest and follow through, at risk children would be just as, if not more, at risk as they are in traditional education environments. While on-line learning has the ability to circumvent the limitations of geography, it cannot overcome the challenges students with absent parents face and it cannot provide the face to face human contact young developing minds need. Globally, Iâ€™d like to see developed nations supply third world countries with access to information that will guide their responsible growth. Developing nations will not be able to rely on an industrial revolution, such as America did, to become a viable addition to the global market. Instead, information and training, may provide the skills and knowledge necessary for citizens of those nations to develop creative solutions to the issues they face including health education, conservation, and skill training. Like all things technological, I suspect e-learning will only get better. The demand for flexible learning solutions and knowledge sharing combined with age old values of education and advancement, ensure that so long as the Internet exists it will be used to share information and it is only human to try and perfect that practice. Perhaps someday, intuitive software applications will provide customized learning solutions for all learners. However, no matter how intuitive the software becomes, people will always be needed to develop learning solutions based on learning fundamentals and learning styles. As our economy and world continue to globalize, international communication and elearning will continue to grow. Collaborating across great distances to develop solutions for the masses and educate nations to grow responsibly is everyoneâ€™s burden. Developing WBT and webinars that can be successfully utilized by many will save money and man power, two important resources to companies and people in a global econ-
omy. Instructional Designers who can successfully manipulate these technologies will be in more demand, but those that can marry the successes of both WBT and live instruction to meet the needs of many will find that technology is merely a relatively new tool in a practice as old as time and those that are acclimated to be educated and to educate will always be in demand.
References Cantrell, R., Hare, J., & Randle, K. (2010). Moode vs. blackboard: A comparitive analysis of learning management systems. Informally published manuscript, New Mexico State University, New Mexico State University, Retrieved from http://web.nmsu.edu/ ~jillhare/portfolio/myportfolio/ Moodle vs Blackboard.pdf Julian, L. (2009). Online education and its enemies. The New A tlantis, A Journal of Technoloy & Society, Retrieved from http://www.thenewatlantis.com/ publications/the-rise-of-cyber-schools Maxwell, A. (2012). Technological advancements in methods of. International Refereed Research Journal - Journal of Arts & Commerce, III(3), Retrieved from http://
issue3/vol3_issue3_2/Paper_12.pdf Rudestam, K. E., & Shoenholtz-Read, J. (2002). Inovations in higher education and corporate learning. Handbook of Online Learning, Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books? hl=en&lr=&id=mFlyarD12g8C&oi=fnd&pg=P A3&dq=professionals returning to school using eleaing&ots=ASJug3PW0I&sig=x4GHLxuAhu E3NzuLXv5N4wkRte8
Pros and Cons of LinkedIn Within the last five years or so social media sites have become increasingly popular. You canâ€™t click on a single businessâ€™s web page without seeing a link for their Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn account listed for you to LinkedIn is a social media site decheck out. Although these sites have signed for professionals in any field. become very popular and used to proWhether you are in the area of Business, mote the business with no cost to the Nursing, Education or you are a business business, one has to wonder how beneowner looking for people to fulfill open ficial are these sites? How much traffic positions you are able to use this site. a day do they attract to the page? And LinkedIn is set up so you are able to uphow are they benefitting the business in load information about yourself, your past a professional manner? Although many work experience, your education, your social networking sites are mainly used resume, your cover letter, and a picture of for friends and catching up, one site has yourself. You can also request to have gone past the finding friends aspect, connections with people from your job, and taken a professional approach to school, and perspective employers to social media, LinkedIn. LinkedIn is the show your interest in the company. You social media site used just for profesare also able to connect with certain comsionals who are searching for jobs or panies to gain more information about the internships and businesses looking for company and to get a connection within just these people. the company if you ever choose to apply. LinkedIn is a social media site designed for professionals in any field. Whether you are in the area of Business, Nursing, Education or you are a business
If you do choose to create a LinkedIn account it is very simple. You go to the companyâ€™s website and follow the step by step instructions the website gives you. However, before you decide to or not to join, here are some pros and cons to think about before you make any decision. Pros: Connections to perspective businesses Getting your professional information out to employers Receiving information about businesses Searching for jobs and internships Being aware of what skills are needed for the current job field Narrowing job/internship hunting to a specific area/field Connect with important people in perspective businesses Cons: An unfinished profile will not attract employers Takes a lot of time to make profile complete As a recent grad, your information may be overlooked due to lack of experience Fake profiles
With this information hopefully you will be able to make a decision on whether to join or not. To get more information go to the website www.linkedin.com. There you will be able to see what the site looks like, try out the page, and get insight on what the current job market looks like. Happy searching!
When traveling to a new place whether it is down the block or states a way, you need to know how to get there one way or another. Some of the options are a road map, Google Map, directions from a friend, or just kind of figure it out on your own. Although these all work in some form, there is a more dependable way to get from point a to point b. The more dependable way is the device known as a G.P.S. also known as a Global Positioning System. A G.P.S. is a great technology that will tell you which way to navigate through cities, countries, and states all with the touch of the screen. Although typing in your designation in the device may seem effortless and simple, there is a lot that goes behind making the device work properly. The number of satellite signals needed to get the proper signal, the location of the device in oneâ€™s car, the technology under the touch screen, and the applications it comes programed with are all working together without you even knowing it. All you care about is how will this benefit me and my needing to get somewhere. However once you know how all these things work together, what makes the device perform properly, and why this machine caters to your requests you will think twice about taking this device for granted. Explanation of the Technology In order for the G.P.S. device to work properly there are many factors that must work together. â€œThe Global Positioning System (GPS) is a U.S.-owned utility that provides users with positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT) services. This system consists of three segments: the space segment, the control segment, and the user segment. The U.S. Air Force develops, maintains, and operates the space and
control segments.” (GPS.gov,2012) So not only does the device have to be working properly as a whole, but the only way the results in the end come out correct are if the satellite, the Air Force operators, and the user are able to read this information correctly. The satellite portion of the G.P.S. has to be the biggest factor in making a device work properly. Without a working satellite, the device will not be able to inform the user where to go. To the new user the thought of the satellite signal is not first on their mind however there is not just one signal being transmitted to the device, in fact there are more than 20. “The satellites in the GPS constellation are arranged into six equally-spaced orbital planes surrounding the Earth, each containing four "slots" occupied by baseline satellites. This 24-slot arrangement ensures there are at least four satellites in view from virtually any point on the planet.” (GPS.gov, 2012) This is something to keep in mind when waiting for the device to gain a valid signal, not only is the device trying to get signal from just one satellite, it is trying to figure out which one is the strongest, most accurate, and closest to connect with. If someone has never used a G.P.S. device before, the first question that may be asked is, well what does it do? A G.P.S. device has many features that make driving in a strange place a lot less stressful. The device has a lot of features that make the device so easy to follow. The device receives map information from the one of 20 plus satellites orbiting the Earth at all times. This ensures that the information is accurate and up to date. This also is important when you are traveling very far distances such as states away or blocks away. In order for the device to calculate the most efficient route it must have all the information typed into the destination box to work the best. The device then plans out your desired route in about a minute or less, depending on how good the signal is, how far you are traveling, and how up to date the device is. Then as you are driving the device displays how many miles your trip is, when you will arrive at your destination, how long your trip is going to be, and what time you are starting your trip. Another feature of the G.P.S. device is the computer’s voice that speaks the directions to you. Not only is this safer because you do not have to look down at a map, but it also allows you the time to
switch lanes and look around for the road signs. In addition to the audio portion, the device also shows you where you are going in regards to your surroundings. This may seem dangerous because you are looking at a screen, but if the off ramp you are taking or destination is approaching fast the screen displays how many miles or feet are left before you need to turn. Or if the lanes on the road you are driving on splits, the devices shows you what side of the road you need to be on. One of the great things about the G.P.S. is the fact that this device can be used by anyone who has used some form technology that has a touch screen. This feature makes using this device extremely simple. The place a G.P.S. is used most often is in the car because this device needs to be mounted on the stand that sticks to the windshield. This way when you are navigating to a strange place, you do not have to hold or look at the device on your lap which is very dangerous. By mounting it to the windshield the device can be seen and heard very clearly when driving. There are many ways a G.P.S. device can be beneficial to an owner. A few reasons are when moving to a new place you need to know how to navigate, verbally states directions so the owner does not have to be constantly looking down at a map, is able to tell how close a point of interest is from your location, and if need be, changing directions to a new location by typing in the new location. Especially when learning a new area and the street names these features are extremely beneficial. Yes a G.P.S. is beneficial but only if you are in the correct place. The main place the device will get the strongest signal is outside and or in a car. If the device is in a building the signal has a very small or zero chance of getting to the device which results in not being able to get directions to your destination. However when you have your device in the proper location, mounted on the windshield of your car, the device will be more likely to have a strong signal and the most accurate signal.â€œThe GPS signal in space will provide a "worst case" pseudorange accuracy of 7.8 meters at a 95% confidence level.â€?(GPS.gov, 2012) With a 95% confidence or accurate rating, the user has the assurance of going to the correct location especially since the satellites are orbiting the Earth 24 hours a day. The user will not have to worry about the signal turning off or not working if travel is necessary at three in the morning.
Technology Issue To every great invention an issue is bound to happen. Whether you are driving under a bridge, in a tunnel or in a parking structure, anywhere where there is a building obstructing the device you may want to stop and take a quick pause. Even though the satellite sending the signal to the device 24/7 there are certain times when the signal will not be picked up by the device at a strong enough level. When the signal is not being picked up or is lost mid journey, the picture on the screen will go grey, your image will be paused, and a message telling you your signal was lost or waiting for a valid signal appears until the signal is picked up again. In order for your signal to come back, going to an area with no or few trees, getting out of a parking structure, or in an open space will improve the chances of the signal returning in a few seconds. Another way to keep the device working properly is to update it. Updating the device means to connect it to a computer and have the maker of the G.P.S. website open and connected. This improves the mapping, road names, road blocks, construction, and dead ends on the device. The more the device is up dated the fewer issues one will have when driving. To properly update a device the user is able to go to the G.P.S. maker’s website and fellow step by step directions to properly update the device. The device is connected to the computer with a USB cord and updates will start automatically. This is a great way to remain up to date with the maps in order not to go in a wrong direction. Ethical reasons I have stated beneficial topics about a G.P.S. device, but there is still a subject that has not been discussed that many people feel strongly about, the topic of is it ethical to be tracked 24/7 by the Military’s satellites. Although it seems that being able to track someone’s exact location would be invasive and unsettling, the government may not be looking for just anyone. Not only is the G.P.S. device used for the general public to get from point a to point b, it is also used in the Military for more positive reasons. More specifically, for search and rescue teams of the Military branch. “GPS provides the fastest and most accurate method for mariners to navigate, measure speed, and determine location. This enables increased levels of safety and efficiency for Marines worldwide.” (GPS.gov, 2012) In this situation the ethical reason to use a G.P.S. is much less unsettling than a driver being tracked when driving across the state. It is used for the sole purpose of rescue rather than tracking.
On the contrary to the G.P.S. device being used for good and rescue, there is also a way that is so automatic you may not have even recognized this feature, the picture location option on Facebook. Recently there has been a new feature added to Facebook that allows the user to tag the location of where the picture was taken. “With the new sharing tool, you and others can create posts and add location. Anyone who can see a post can see a tag of you in that post, including posts with location.” (Facebook.com, 2012) With this sharing tool of adding locations, you are able to tag yourself, friends, and the place you plan to go so your friends on Facebook can see what you are doing. However, if you do not set your privacy settings, as goes for everything on Facebook, anyone may be able to see this. For example, if you tag a friend, Kate, in a location with you, it gets posted to her wall. Then friends of Kate can see this post. Finally, if one Kate’s friends Jenny, who you do not know, likes this post it shows up on Jenny’s wall that she like the post and it just goes on from there. Pretty complicated and revealing if you thinking about it; even if you thought you were just posting a fun comment on someone’s wall anyone could really see it if they searched hard enough. Connection to Personal Values Although I have had a G.P.S. car device for over three years, I had no idea how much technology went into making this device work until after writing this paper. I can honestly say I like this device even more. When I first purchased and started using this device, it was mainly for getting around areas of Milwaukee I had never been to before. This way I was able to see how long it would take to get to my destination, when my next turn was going to be, and assuring myself I would not get lost along the way. Three years later I use it for so much more. I use the device to located the nearest point of interest I need to go to such as a gas station, if a road is blocked the device will take me a different route, and if I plan to meet someone at a location and plans end up changing, I can retype where I am going from where I am currently and I will still make it on time. Overall I would have and still would be one directionally challenged girl in the city of Milwaukee if I did not make that purchase three years ago.
In regards to the ethics of being tracked so easily by the G.P.S., yes it is a little unsettling knowing your location can be tracked at all times and may discourage some people from buying this product, however there are many other devices people use daily that track their location as well such as your cell phone. There are positives and negatives of these types of devices, so it is up to the individual person to decide what they feel comfortable with. Another form of G.P.S. that has become very popular in the past few years is the smart phone. Although this is not like a G.P.S. device like the one you mount in your car, this device is another way many people get their directions to a new place. Unlike a G.P.S. device you mount in your car, the smart phone version of the G.P.S. is built into the smart phone. Smart phones come pre-programed with many navigational applications the user may use. For example on the Samsung Galaxy Blaze, the application â€œNavigationâ€? comes all ready to use. All you have to do is turn on the G.P.S. on the phone and type the destination into the phone. Within seconds the smart phone is talking at you and telling you which way to travel. Note the G.P.S. feature is only available on smart phones with data plans. With the phone G.P.S. version on the smart phone, the applications that are preprogramed are much more limiting compared to the actual car device. With the G.P.S. application on the smart phone your options are to type or type directions, contacts, stared places, and recent destinations you have been to. It also gives a picture of your location on your screen, the road you are on, your next turn, and it speaks to you telling which way to go. However, it does not offer points of interest such as gas stations, automatically fill in the location you are typing, and offer night and day time screen settings like a device does. So if you are looking for just the basic navigation system the phone application on a smart phone will work great. Summation Having a device verbally tell humans directions to a strange and new place may have sounded like a futuristic situation 50 years ago, but in todayâ€™s world is getting to be more and more the norm. People are having G.P.S. devices in their cars, on their phones, and even put into their pets for safe keeping.
Even though the device may not work 100% of the time, humans still use a G.P.S. device is used in some form to get from point a to point b without their knowledge. Whether it be on their phone or in their carâ€™s dashboard. But at what point will we stop being so dependent on this device. Using the device to even locate people by using their phones is starting to become a thing of the future. Will parents want to know where their kids are at all times so much so that the next step for G.P.S. to get a chip implanted in humans?
Bibliography GPS. gov. (2012). What is GPS. http://www.gps.gov/systems/gps/ GPS. gov. (2012). Space Segment. http://www.gps.gov/systems/gps/space/. GPS.gov. (2012). GPS Accuracy. http://www.gps.gov/systems/gps/performance/accuracy/ GPS.gov. (2012). Marine.http://www.gps.gov/applications/marine/ Facebook. (2012). Facebook Help Center. http://www.facebook.com/help/location/privacy.
concern is that storing the data has to be quick and easy because you will probably be doing it often. The second concern is that the storage
SQL Server 2008:
medium has to be reliable because you don’t want to lose any of your data. The third concern
is that data retrieval needs to be easy and quick as well no matter how much data you store. The
final concern is that there needs to be an easy way to separate the exact information that you
Although there are a lot of database manage-
want from the information that you don’t want
ment systems around, SQL Server 2008 was
right now. It is because of these four concerns
created to access information from databases
that a database management system is consid-
that follow the relational model. Computer Sci- ered a self-describing collection of integrated ence: Illuminated, states that relational database records. management systems (DBMS) consist of data which is organized into table and those tables represent a collection of records (Dale & Lewis, 2012). Taylor (2012, p. 11) writes that Dr. E.F. Codd of IBM first formulated the relational model in 1970. Taylor goes on to say that although Codd created it, relational database management software was first released by a small start-up company called Oracle. Taylor (2012) also gives information in regards to what the four concerns are when storing data. The first
Although SQL Server 2008 uses the relational model for database management, with every upgrade it becomes more and more complex and more and more difficult to use. When SQL Server Management Studio first came out in 2005 it had an advantage over Oracle and some of the other database management systems. The advantage that SQL Server Management Studio had was its ease of administration. Because of the increasing complexity of the SQL Server Management Studio people began
turning back toward the database management
According to Microsoftâ€™s website there
systems that had been used previously. Whereas are several specifications that you have to pay SQL Server Management Studio only has 1
close attention to in order to achieve optimal
management interface and one set of specifica- results of SQL Server 2008. SQL Server 2008 tions, Oracle and some others have multiple in- requires .NET 4.0 framework, which installs terfaces that you could use as well as multiple
during the feature installation step. .NET frame-
sets of specifications allowing for more versatil- work is required and provides some of the basis ity of installation. Database management systems consist of two types of data. The first type is your actual data and the second type is called metadata and it is the data that describes your data. Flat files are files that only contain your data and databases contain your data as well as the metadata that is used to describe your data. Databases allow for your data to be more versatile in the sense that SQL Server 2008 can actually access your data and the metadata, and if you alter a record or add to a record, SQL can still allow you to access the record without adding additional software. Since SQL Server 2008 is a very stable database management system it does require some pretty hefty specifications in order
for the user interface of SQL Server 2008. Windows Powershell is also a prerequisite for SQL Server 2008. Windows Powershell does not automatically install during setup and you are not prompted to install. There is network software that is required in order to run SQL Server 2008. Most supported operating systems for SQL Server 2008 have built-in network software. SQL Server 2008 is supported in virtual machine environments running on the Hyper-V role in Server 2008 SP2. Internet Explorer seven or higher is required for SQL Server 2008 as well. SQL Server 2008 will require 6 GB of hard disk space and a DVD drive is required as well for the installation from disc. According to Jayanty (2011) Slipstream
to be able to download it onto your computer or technology is the technology that allows us to server. Â
download the prerequisites and the SQL Server
2008 at the same time. Slipstream technology
interactive features. Those features include a
allows other changes to the database and data-
toolbar, document maps, fixed table headers,
base server, it combines the process of installing and table sorting. These tools are essential for all of the latest patch packages during the initial being able to assist other personnel or people to installation. Slipstream technology also gives us use the data that you have extracted for them. the advantage of time, because of it we do not
Some common ways that reports are expanded
have to stop the installation process to bring the on in SQL Server 2008 are dashboards (for sales system up to specification. SQL Server 2008
reporting), scoreboards (also for sales reporting
has integrated the installation process with the
including competitive sales rep sales), tabular
system upgrade as well.
and list reports, as well as catalogs of infor-
Once the SQL Server 2008 is installed within the selected environment, either on your
mation. Structured query language (SQL) is a
computer or on a server, it is time to use it. Ac- comprehensive database language for managing cording to Turley and Bruckner (2010) a com- relational databases (Dale & Lewis, 2012). SQL mon use for SQL Server 2008 is reporting.
includes statements that specify database sche-
Turley and Bruckner go on to say that some of mas as well as statements that add, modify, and the common reasons for reporting are process
delete database content. SQL statements are not
and operational support, business intelligence
case sensitive, spaces are used as separators in a
and analytical reports, application integration,
statement. Queries are the questions that we ask
of a basic SELECT statement is: SELECT * from Customer
This basic SELECT statement says select all (*) would join the table together. Another form of from the customer table. Queries can ask one
query would be this small query:
question or they can ask multiple questions at the same time. You can also select information from more than one table at a time by joining the tables together. This query asks a question of twitter. It asks for the query to select the sentiment, geocode longitude and latitude from twitter where the text contains the word Obama. This is just a secondary example of where query is used and not in the context of business intelligence or analytics. The picture above explains how you join tables together to retrieve information. There are four kinds of joins. They are the inner join, the left outer join, the full outer join and the right outer join. Depending on where the information is that you need to access will determine how you join the tables together. The tables will be linked based on a unique identified (UID) that is found in both tables such as:
According to Dale and Lewis (2012) programs that translate programs written in a high level programming code are called compilers. Some functionality in high level languages, are the presence of Boolean expressions. Dale and Lewis go on to say that Boolean expressions are a sequence of identifiers, separated by compatible operators, that evaluates true or false. It can be compared to the what if state-
Customer_ID.Customer = Customer_ID.Customer_Dealer_Type In that example the customer ID would be the same in both tables and that would be how you Â
ment in Excel. Here is an example of a Boolean statement:
tionships possible. The one to one relationship, the one to many relationship, and the many to many relationship. These relationship constraints allows the database designer to help you convey the details of the relationship between the data within the database. As you can see you must have some working knowledge of programming in order to In regards to Boolean expressions there are use SQL Server 2008. There are classes that althree operators. The three operators are and, or low you to build your skills in SQL Server dataand not. The and operator returns a true value if base management as well as SQL and T-SQL both expressions are true and false if otherwise. programming language. Those classes can cost The or operator returns a false value if both exupwards of $400 to $2,300 a class or session. pressions are false and true otherwise. The not This is an issue with using the software. Altoperator changes the value of the expressions. hough it does make business intelligence easier, Dale and Lewis state that Boolean expressions it is not like Excel or Word in the sense that you are called simple or atomic data types because can just use it out of the box. SQL Server 2008 each value is distinct and cannot be subdivided. comes with two security logins, one of which is According to Dale and Lewis (2012) a
a public administration login that allows you
popular technique for designing relational data- only to view databases, the other security adbases is called entity-relationship (ER) model- ministration login allows you to make changes ing. Within the ER model lies cardinality con-
to the databases including backing up and re-
straints. Cardinality constraints put restrictions storing your database. It is not “out of the box” on the number of relationships that may exist at software so to speak. It requires training to use one time. There are typically three types of rela
it, which is the only issue that I see with the
people most often retrieve from tables like it.
One example of this is the sales history view
There are websites like msdn.com that do give you information in regards to typical error messages that you may receive while programming your database. It also adds insight to writing statements to retrieve data from your database. However, you would still need to know the rules to programming such as the fact that if you add an aggregate function to your select statement, you have to have a group by clause as well. In SQL Server 2008, those aggregate functions are statements such as count, average, sum of, first and last, and min and max. Another “law” is the piece about joining the tables as we talked about earlier. If you do not
table with one of the databases that we use at work. The sales history view gives us the customer IDs, invoice number, sales representative ID etc. However, all of these pieces of information are also available in their own table, such as the customer table would have the customer ID there, the apinv_table holds all of the approved invoices. You can get item information from the sales history view but it is a known fact that the item data would be more accurate and stable if retrieved from the inventory master table. One of those things, that if you are not aware of how to use the product, it will not be very useful to you.
join the table properly, you will be retrieving
At my place of employment we use SQL
incorrect data. You may not know the data is
server for a lot of different uses. We use it most-
incorrect either until your boss tells you.
ly for reporting purposes. We store our Prophet
Another issue that arises from lack of “know how” with SQL Server 2008 is the fact that you have to know your data. There are different types of areas that you can retrieve data from in SQL Server 2008, tables and views. Views are compiled information based on what
21 transactions within our Commerce Center database and retrieve information in regards to sales history, inventory, and last hard touch (last time an item was maintenance and by whom it was maintenance).We also use a database specifically for our warehouse. The warehouse da-
tabase allows us to update serial numbers within used in that capacity because of its difficulty the Prophet 21 system. It also allows us to re-
level. You must be comfortable with program-
move un-pickable items such as instant rebates ming to some extent, fond of algebraic princiand warranties from the system. Each serialized ples as well as pretty computer savvy in general item is scanned and the scanners often get stuck to be able to work with this software. Advanced if it doesn’t have a serial number to scan. It just training is needed to strength database managestays there and doesn’t move until you com-
ment skills as well as troubleshooting skills.
mand it to. The way that we command it to, is
You will need to have experience working with
through running those queries (scripts) through the software before you can fully understand the the database. Another way that we use SQL Server 2008 is for managing our daily operations. I often run a query (script) called sp_who2 which retrieves information from the database in regards to who is logged into the system. Once I
error messages that are received when maintaining the database. The reason that SQL Server 2008 is not used more often is because of the training necessary to use it. Bibliography Page Dale, Nell., Lewis, John. (2012). Computer Science Illuminated.
know who is logged in and how many times Jayanty, Satya Shyam K. (2011) Microsoft SQL Server 2008 R2
they are logged in, I can run a separate query (script) that will remove duplicate logins or the
Administration Cookbook. Msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/sqlserver/aa336270.aspx
oldest login out of all the duplicates. We also Taylor, Allen G. (2010). SQL For Dummies.
use it to create invoice batches that are sent via EDI (electronic data interchange).
Turley, Paul., Bruckner, Robert M. (2010). Microsoft SQL Server Reporting Services Recipes for Designing Expert Reports,
In conclusion SQL Server 2008 is database management software that enhances business intelligence. Although the software can be used for personal reasons as well it is not often
whatever their opinion is faster than positive experiences. (Juliet, 2012). The third factor In regards to social media sites is the relative anonymity of so- such as Facebook and Twitter, cial media. These social media it makes getting the information Using Social Media accounts act as extensions of out to a vast amount of people personal identities. However, even easier than before. When in Business you can “morph” into whatever using word of mouth to spread persona you want to when information, you’re limited to Social media has beonline using social media telling the people that you’re come a way of life for most people. It is used to keep us in- (Juliet, 2012). The final factor talking then they tell a number terconnected with friends, fami- in creating a “bad” customer is of people and so on and so the lack of accountability when forth. When using social media ly, colleagues and people to tell that same story, you can abroad as well. Since social me- using social media (Juliet, tell hundreds and thousands of dia has become so popular with 2012). Juliet talks about the lack of accountability because people at the same time. If you most of society, it has also been integrated into business prac- of the mob. Some of the young- post something all of your friends see it, and if someone tice, as well as implemented as er generation is using social a strategy for business growth. media for news as well as net- likes it or posts a comment to it, all of their friends see it and so Small businesses are using so- working although the information given there is not alon and so forth. Twitter s even cial media because it is most easier, since the profiles are times, quick and easy as well as ways accurate (Juliet, 2012). usually public and anyone can cost-effective and efficient. Alt- Although there may be less public accountability in social see your posts. hough some issues surrounding social media in business may be media usage, there is still acIn another article entiviewed as unethical, it is a very countability to self and the net- tled Employers, W orkers naviworks you belong to. Most peoeffective business tool. ple have family, friends and co- gate Pitfalls of Social Media, Doug Gross talks about Noah In an article entitled Is workers who share their netSocial Media Bad for Business, work, which in turn makes them Kravitz being sued for flipping followers from his Twitter work the author Barbara Juliet talks accountable to those people. account to his personal account about four factors that empower One example that Juliet when he changed jobs (Gross, bad behavior of customers when using social media to talk uses in the article to help you 2012). The article goes on to about businesses (Juliet, 2012). understand how powerful social say that there is little if any, leThe first factor is no guilt of the networking can be in the area of gal guidance on aspects of socustomer, the customer no long- business and business success cial media (Gross, 2012). Noah or failure is the #McDStories. Kravitz racked up 17,000 Twiter has to feel bad about what ter followers between 2006 and they say about a business be- On Twitter, a popular social 2010. Once he changed jobs he cause the face to face interac- networking site, customers shared negative stories about changed the name of the action has been subtracted (Juliet, count to @noahkravitz (Gross, 2012). The second factor is the McDonald’s while using the mob. The customer has com- hashtag McDStories at the end 2012). Kravitz said, “PhoneDog rades that will and so agree with of each post(Juliet, 2012). Neg- agreed that the Twitter account their opinion of your business, ative experiences tend to spread would be mine, they even sent a
The Good, The Bad and The Ugly:
message out to his followexpressed on this post are mine comments in social media is ers,” (Gross, 2012). Twitter & do not necessarily reflect the you hear what they want and rates accounts based on how views of Cisco,” whenever stat- not what you want them to many followers and the age of ing something about the compa- want,” (Martin, 2012). Aquathe account. Some accounts ny (Gross, 2012). sana used Netbase to find out over time have sold for over a what customers disliked about Although up until this their competitors and used that million dollars. This particular point we have heard controveraccount was worth $42,500 information to create campaigns sial issues in regards to social to steer business to Aquasana (Gross, 2012). According to Gross, this case could pave the media there is a bright side. Ac- (Martin, 2012). The article goes way in creating a precedent in cording to an article written by on to say that GPS maker TomTom turns its social comat least one area of social media Scott Martin for USA Today the high-end sweets company munities into crowd-sources legalities (Gross, 2012). In the Happy Goat wanted to learn lawsuit filed against Noah customer support, the community encourages online users to Kravitz, PhoneDog is suing for where their customer base would be and so they hired Surhelp others with technical prob$2.50 per follower, which haplems (Martin, 2012). This social pens to be, coincidentally the veyMonkey to help them (Martin, 2012). SurveyMonkey community decreases costs resame amount that the account provided surveys and prepared lated to technical support as would have sold for on Twitter. questions to be asked on social well as helps businesses operate Another issue that the media sites such as Facebook more effectively. article talks about is using so- and Twitter (Martin, 2012). AcAccording to the article cial media to embarrass a com- cording to the article surveys pany by your own personal ac- and social media questions are written by Gross, the cracking tions. According to Gross, an the de facto research tools of down on employees in regards today, and they make market to social media and its usage in employee was fired when he posted, “I find it ironic that De- research cheap, quick and “do-it the business world is being controit is known as the motorcity yourself” (Martin, 2012). The tested by the National Labor and yet no one knows how the article goes on to say that Bono- Relations Board (NLRB). The f___ to drive,” (Gross, 2012). bos, a men’s clothing company NLRB is an independent govHe made this post under his surveyed “regular guys” for ernment agency that specializes Twitter work account their feedback. The company in investigating and relieving @ChryslerMotors (Gross, stated that, “Through customer employees of unfair employ2012). According to Gross it is dialogue we can let customers ment pratices (Gross, 2012). The NLRB also provides probecause of these social media in on the design protection legally if someone is issues that companies are now cess,” (Martin, 2012). sharing thoughts and opinions invoking social media policies. According to the article about job conditions and coIBM policy tells employees, Starbuck followed suit by forworkers. The article goes on to “not to pick fights” and that mulating an “idea communisay that the issues surrounding they must “speak in the first ty” (Martin, 2012). The compasocial media won’t go away person,” (Gross, 2012). Gross ny asks its customers questions soon (Martin, 2012). goes on to say that Cisco Systems requests that it’s employ- and then lets the community The article by Juliet vote on the ideas. The author ees add the line, “The views states, “The value of unsolicited states that every post is an op-
portunity to tell a story and to it can be misconstrued use as cial Media. CNN. Retrieved from engage potential customers. Ju- well if there is no policy for its www.cnn.com/2012/02/07/tech/ liet goes on to say, “Risk taking use, or if the policy is unclear social-media/companies-socialis critical for progresabout rules as well. On the oth- media/index.html. sion,” (Juliet, 2012). Juliet de- er end of the spectrum, social Martin, Scott (2012). Small Busiscribes social media as, “A con- media can be a very pivotal and ness Customer Service Tools: Sotent driven engagement that useful resource for businesses cial Media, Surveys. USA Today. promotes brand awareness, especially small businesses Retrieved from http:// posts alone will get you such as the Happy Goat. In or- usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/ press,” (Juliet, 2012). Although der for us to use social media smallbusiness/story/2012-08-26/ efficient-small-business-onlinesocial media can be used for effectively we still have to defamation of a business it can question the motive of the peo- ecommerce/57291490/1. also be a very positive mecha- ple posting, whether they work Wood, Julia. (2011). Personal nism for the growth of a busi- for the company or have had a and Social Media In J. Wood ness as you can see from the bad experience or a good expe- (6th Ed.), Communication Mocontrasting article opinions. The rience. We have to question saics: An Introduction to The text Communication Mosaics whether there are grounds for Field of Communication (pp. talks about social media disthis opinion or that one. In or- 318-337). couraging independent critical der to make sure that we are thinking. Julia Wood, the author using social media effectively of the text states that using so- Julia Wood tells us to, cial media makes it easy to rely “Exercise our choice over how on external authorities (Wood, communication technologies 2011). Wood also goes on to affect us, and know how to say that newer media tempts us have a healthy mix of inforas users to rely on peer authori- mation to make informed decity as opposed to expert authori- sion,” (Wood, 2011). ty. She finishes with the thought that, “Everyone can state an opinion but not everyone is equally qualified and not every opinion is well grounded,” (Wood, 2011). Another thought proposed was that if we are already distrustful of authorBibliography Page ity, we may treat every opinion as equally valuable (Wood, Barbara, Juliet. (2012). Is Social Media Bad for Business? Forbes. 2011). All of these opinions with supporting evidence leads me to believe that social media can be misused depending on the policy set by companies, or
Retrieved from http:// www.forbes.com/sites/ julietbarbara/2012/11/11/is-socialmedia-bad-for-business/. Gross, Doug (2012). Employers, Workers Navigate Pitfalls of So-
Hyperrealities and Anonymity in Social Media Platforms By Michelle Ollmann
In todayâ€™s age of rapidly developing technology, there are ethical issues surrounding how technology is influencing the way we socialize, how we view ourselves, and our perceptions of what is real in the lives of our friends and family and the world around us. Initially socializing via computer technology raised concerns about people becoming shut-ins and losing out on the physical, emotional, and intellectual benefits of faceto-face communication. However, other ethical concerns have surfaced as well. In addition to the decrease in face-to-face communication, questions about the effects of anonymity and hyperreality have brought to light concerns about the ability to have genuine relationships though social media, and the ability to separate ones true self from their cyber identity. However, like most ethical discussions there are two (sometimes more) sides to each debate. The ability to be anonymous or pose with a false identity within social media sights has brought new attention to the age old problem of bullying. The use of social media sights such as FaceBook and Twitter among young people is booming. Tweens and teens are regular users and even though there are age requirements on many social networking sites they are loosely policed. Social media has become a platform for personal expression and among young users who are still learning the ropes of personal expression, sexuality, and individualism, anonymity has fueled some unhealthy expressions from those who do not have to be physically present to face the consequences.
Cliques and gossip have long plagued the lives of young adults who were just outside of the limited boundaries of normal in high school; however, for the first time ever, painful words and lies can live forever and reach beyond the walls of a high school through social media sites. For those who feel compelled to insult and demean their peers in order to define themselves, social media has provided a cloak that often enables them to be more disgusting and direct than they might have the nerve to be in face-to-face communication. Unfortunately the infinity and the memory of the internet mean that some of the most painful words can live forever and be unreachable by those whom they affect. So how does anonymity benefit the technological communicator? Well those that are confined by their environment, socioeconomically status, or appearance have the ability to reach beyond their limitations to the social interactions they desire. Anonymous communication allows us to express our true thoughts and feelings and to seek acceptance from those outside our immediate environment. Students confined to bad neighborhoods can experience friendship and opportunity through the stories and relationships found online. Individuals who are discriminated on because of their appearance can freely express themselves with candid communication and seek acceptance for their thoughts and feelings without having to reveal the physical limitations that they feel negatively impact their faceto-face communications. Perhaps the ability to
express ourselves truly, without the full disclosure of identity, could lead to more honest and fulfilled relationships. Those who participate in online communities often, are becoming subject of another ethical discussion about social media. The topic of hyperreality has been around for some time, philosophers have been discussing the effects of technological communication since its creation but a philosopher named Albert Borgmann began the discussion of the effects on self esteem and a person’s feelings of fulfillment . Generally posts on social media sites like FaceBook are exaggerated or shortened versions of reality. Posts are one sided expressions of both positive and negative aspects of a person’s day and life. To scan the posts of one’s “friends” without context or full disclosure might have you wondering if everyone’s life is glamorous. While some people do vent their frustrations, many others omit the difficult details of their life and limit their posts to pictures of good times and successes, giving a false representation of perfection, that might have others believing the person’s life is flawless. In my opinion less is best on social media sites but I can see how an acquaintance might misinterpret my life, if their only grounds for judgment were the pictures and posts of my seemingly perfect “FaceBook life.” The trouble lies when those misinterpretations of other’s lives begin to affect our satisfaction with our real lives outside of our cyber identities. Online we can represent ourselves and our families however we like, but unplugged reality may fall short of those representations. Spouses disagree, children frustrate, friendships grow distant and those things are all a part of life. Whether you compare yourself to the perfect representations of others and allow it to negatively impact how you view yourself, or you gravitate to your cyber world and identity to escape the realities of your true self you are allowing yourself to fall victim to the false comforts a hyperreality.
Hyperrealities give us the opportunity to exaggerate and brag on behalf of ourselves and families, to exaggerate the desirable and downplay the difficulties of life. Social media gives us an outlet for self expression and for interpersonal connections. Technology expands our reach beyond our community and physical existence, the benefits of social media have the power to supersede the draw backs and lend to a utilitarian view of ethics and humanity. The benefits truly do outweigh the draw backs but as we move increasingly faster into a technological future it is important to draw attention to these ethical issues and raise our children to be aware and critical of all they see online just as we have been raised to understand that not everything we see on T.V. is real.
Steve Jobs, a Revolutionist Ahead of His Time By: Michelle Ollmann Like other revolutionists before him Steve Jobs was eccentric and genius. His work ethic sometimes overshadowed his personal commitments but his successes changed the way consumers use technology. Jobs was born in February 1955 and died in October 2011 of complications from pancreatic cancer. At only 56, there is no denying he died far too young; however, like many influential people before him the impression he made in that short time will never be forgotten. Although he resigned from Apple in August 2011, due to his declining health, his contributions to revitalizing the company, helped to solidify its lead position in the market. The mechanical know how he gained from his adopted father, his natural sales ability, and his intuition about technology drove the company’s advances in the market. Developments such as the iPhone, iTunes, and iPad revolutionized the way consumers communicate, listen to music, and work; leading competitors scrambling to innovate. Jobs seemed to intuitively know what consumers would want next, in fact even long before the birth of these products (in 1998) Steve was quoted in Business Week saying, “It’s really hard to design products by focus groups. A lot of people don’t know what they want until you show it to them.” This is the mindset that would leave him open to making the impossible an everyday occurrence. Before he helped lead Apple back to the forefront of the market, Steve Jobs had already made a name for himself. After his initial departure from Apple in 1985, he started a company called NeXT. The company aimed to create workstations for higher education needs. In his early years his visions were often ahead of their time and too expensive for their target audience, which lead to the eventual reprioritizing of NeXT. The company would later focus on soft-
ware advances and be bought and absorbed by Apple when Jobs returned. NeXT wasn’t his only endeavor though, he also helped launch the company that would later be known as Pixar. After several films Pixar was purchased by Disney in exchange for share ownership, making Jobs the single largest shareholder of Disney stock. According to www.allaboutstevejobs.com this was typical of Steve. His wealth was made up of ownership and he would often forego traditional income. The way he spent his wealth was unconventional as well. His search for perfection often limited his personal belongings. His homes were generally scarcely furnished and his lifestyle fairly simple. He was quoted, “I have a very simple life. I have my family and I have Apple and Pixar. And I don't do much else." He was occasionally criticized for his lack of charitable contributions but a quote of his may shed light on his feelings, “I’m convinced that to give away a dollar effectively is harder than to make a dollar.” Steve said this back in 1985 in a Playboy interview. Like many of Steve’s other philosophies in life this probably stuck with him over all the years of his success. Although, we may never know what advances will be lost or seriously delayed with untimely loss of his brilliant mind, there is no denying how his contributions and work ethic have influenced the lives we live today and the advances that were made possible by his ingenuity and passion.
Time‐Binding through the Legendary
By Tacey Lenyard Alverno College MILWAUKEE –Organiza ons are usually composed of employees and leaders who iden fy strongly with the organiza ons core values. Steve Jobs was one of those leaders that lived and breathed the core values of the company he erected. Steve Jobs was a marke ng genius who led the world in innova ve technologies through a unique blend of personality, drive, and foresight. Through that unique combina on, Steve Jobs resurrected Apple Corpora on. Under Jobs Apple create new markets and consumed the share in those same markets created once compe tors infiltrated. “There’s an old Wayne Gretzky quote that I lobe. I skate to where the puck is going to be, not to where it has been. And we’ve always tried to do that at Apple,” says Steve Jobs when asked about the company that he co-founded. Steve Jobs lived and breathed innova on and commercial success. Taken from the country by cancer at age 56, he will be sorely missed but never forgo en. Steve Jobs has lead the technology world for the last 30 years with his innova ve technology and devices, and for sure has paved the way for newcomers to open their own minds and create something that can change the world as well. Time-binding is the process in which older genera ons communicate with newer genera ons, and Steve Jobs and this wave of technologically savvy genera on is no diﬀerent. Some of Steve Jobs professional achievements include the crea on of the first mass market personal computer, which was created in Jobs garage at 2066 Crist Drive in Los Altos. Under Jobs Apple released the first computer to feature a mouse and graphical user interface as opposed to the command line interface. Under Jobs the iPod, iPhone, and iPad were released as well. Apple wasn’t the first to tap into the smartphone industry but under Jobs Apple was able to release the first enterprise environment integrated into a mobile device as opposed to the server technology that was being used previously with such companies like Blackberry. Steve Jobs is quoted as saying, “You can’t just ask customers what they want and then try to give it to them. By the me you get it built, they’ll want something new.” Steve Jobs was a visionary and married innova on with commercial success by using his foresight and insight into what people needed to change the world and change the way that we use technology today. What we can take away from Steve is not to be afraid to do something diﬀerent, but embrace our diﬀerences and be innova ve. Thanks Steve for all of your hard work!