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Collins Cambridge Lower Secondary English as a Second Language STAGE 7: TEACHER’S GUIDE

Cambridge Lower Secondary English as a Second Language STAGE 7 Collins Cambridge Lower Secondary English as a Second Language Teacher’s Guide follows the topic-based structure of the Student’s Book and Workbook, providing clear and detailed support for teachers to enable them to use the resources easily and flexibly in the classroom. Each unit includes clear learning outcomes, detailed notes and suggestions, and guidance on how to teach in a multiability classroom. Additional worksheets are provided at the end of the book, and answer keys for the Student’s Book and Workbook exercises are included in every unit. Author: Nick Coates

This resource is endorsed by Cambridge Assessment International Education

✓ Provides teacher support as part of a set of

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English as a Second Language 7 Lower Second Teachers Guide.indd 1

Cambridge Lower Secondary

English as a Second Language Nick Coates

ISBN 978-0-00-821543-9

9 780008 215439

STAGE 7: TEACHER’S GUIDE 28/9/17 1:14 am

Cambridge Lower Secondary

English as a Second Language Nick Coates

STAGE 7: TEACHER’S GUIDE ESL 7 Lower Second 15439_P001.indd 1 Teachers guide Title page.indd 1

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William Collins’ dream of knowledge for all began with the publication of his first book in 1819. A self-educated mill worker, he not only enriched millions of lives, but also founded a flourishing publishing house. Today, staying true to this spirit, Collins books are packed with inspiration, innovation and practical expertise. They place you at the centre of a world of possibility and give you exactly what you need to explore it. Collins. Freedom to teach. Published by Collins An imprint of HarperCollinsPublishers The News Building 1 London Bridge Street London SE1 9GF Browse the complete Collins catalogue at

© HarperCollinsPublishers Limited 2017 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN 978-0-00-821543-9 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the Publisher or a licence permitting restricted copying in the United Kingdom issues by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd., Barnard’s Inn, 86 Fetter Lane, London, EC4A 1EN. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data. A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library. Author/Series Editor: Nick Coates Development editor: Helen King Commissioning editor: Lucy Cooper In-house editor: Caroline Green/Lara McMurray Project manager: Anna Stevenson Copyeditor: Donatella Montrone Answer checker: Sonya Newland Proofreader: Karen Williams Illustrator: Jouve India Private Ltd Cover designer: Kevin Robbins Cover photo © Maria Herbert-Liew Typesetter: Jouve India Private Ltd Production controller: Rachel Weaver Printed and bound by: CPI Acknowledgements The publishers gratefully acknowledge the permission granted to reproduce the copyright material in this book. Every effort has been made to trace copyright holders and to obtain their permission for the use of copyright material. The publishers will gladly receive any information enabling them to rectify any error or omission at the first opportunity. p191 Morphart Creation/Shutterstock, p194 Bobby Bradley/Shutterstock, p202 akowacz/Shutterstock, p206 Nerthuz/Shutterstock

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Contents Student’s Book contents map Introduction for teachers

4 007

Teaching Notes Unit 1


Unit 2


Review 1


Unit 3


Unit 4


Review 2


Unit 5


Unit 6


Review 3


Unit 7


Unit 8


Mid-year review


Unit 9


Unit 10


Review 4


Unit 11


Unit 12


Review 5


Unit 13


Unit 14


Review 6


Unit 15


Unit 16


End-of-year review



Contents map Unit / Topic





Use of English

1 Language and communication

• World languages (informational text)

• Communicating without words

• Greetings

• Dialogue: language learning

• Indefinite pronouns

• Punctuation of direct speech

• Quantifiers

• Using reference resources

• Discussion: language learning

• Present perfect tense (for recent events)

Project: sign language Focus on ICT: social media 2 Shops and shopping

• Where do you shop? (short descriptive texts)

• Shopping conversations

• Role play: shopping

• Dialogue: shopping

• Comparing (not as + adjective + as) • Modals: have to

Project: shopping experiences Focus on the World: three of the best markets Review 1 3 Catching the criminals

• Newspaper reports of crimes

• A police report

• Discussion: ranking crimes • Reporting a crime

• A police report • Spelling and punctuation

• Passive forms (past simple) • Reported speech

Project: a blurb for a crime story Focus on Science: forensic science 4 Dragons

• Komodo dragons (a web page)

• A story

• Discussion: dragons • Presenting animal facts

• A webpage • Present perfect about an animal tense (for unfinished events) • Modals: can

• Retelling a story

• Reported speech (said and told)

• Describing • Discussions: a painting statements about (making a art and making response art from rubbish and giving an opinion)

• Relative clauses (non-defining)

• Describing an adventure sport

• Compound nouns and adjectives

Project: a festival Focus on Literature: a folk tale Review 2 5 Art

• A description of a • Newspaper painting article on modern art

• Abstract nouns • Similes with like and as

Project: a work of art Focus on Art: art of ancient Africa 6 Adventure sports

• Three adventure sports (informational text)

• Interview with the manager of an activities company

• A description of an adventure sport

• Conjunctions of time • Prepositions + ing


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Unit / Topic





Use of English

• Brainstorming and categorising forms of transport

• An infographic on Maglev trains

• Conjunctions as and since

• Planning and starting a story

• Reported speech (questions)

Project: a timetable (for an adventure weekend) Focus on the World: national sports Review 3 7 The future of transport

• Green cars (infographic)

• A news report

• Discussion: the future of transport

• Future forms (will and (be) going to)

Project: the future of transport Focus on Geography: urbanisation and traffic management 8 Stories

• What makes a good story? (informational text)

• A folk tale

• Summarising a story • Telling a story

• Participles used as adjectives

Project: The map (planning and writing a story) Focus on Literature: three poems Mid-year review 9 Wildlife under threat

• Good news for one endangered cat (magazine article)

• A talk by a scientist about endangered animals

• Role play: a meeting

• A report of a meeting

• Modals • Noun phrases • Conjunctions so … that and such … that • why clauses

Project: endangered animals Focus on Biology: classification 10 Climate change

• So what if Earth gets a tiny bit warmer? (informational text)

• A woman talks about the impact of climate change on her life

• Discussion: ways • A magazine to save energy article

• Intensifying adverbs • Unlikely (second) conditional • Multi-word verbs

Project: reducing climate change Focus on the World: winds of the world Review 4 11 Healthy living

• Attitudes to diet and exercise • Top tips … for healthy living (blog post)

• A lecture by a health specialist on dieting

• Discussion: experiences of diets

• Attitude to diet and exercise • A lifestyle diary

• Present perfect tense (for experience) • Sentence adverbs • Gerund as subject and object

Project: a healthy lifestyles questionnaire Focus on Health Science: nutrient food groups


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Unit / Topic





Use of English

12 Game shows

• The world’s favourite game show (webpage)

• A quiz

• Discussion: wishes

• Questions for a quiz

• Prepositional phrases

• Play a quiz game

• wish clauses • Question forms

Project: Who Wants to be a Millionaire? Focus on Literature: Q&A Review 5 13 Rivers and bridges

• Account of a river • Three people describing bridges journey (three blog posts)

• Discussion: plans

• A blog post (about a journey)

• Past continuous tense

• Introducing a hobby

• Relative clauses (defining)

• Past perfect tense

Project: a river adventure (planning a journey) Focus on History: Ancient Egypt 14 Hobbies

• Three of the strangest hobbies (web page)

• Instructions to make • Discussion: something hobbies

• Gerund and infinitive forms after verbs

• Give a talk about a hobby

Project: a new hobby Focus on the World: hobbies around the world Review 6 15 Space travel

• The International Space Station (informational text)

• A talk about the history of space travel

• A balloon debate: jobs

• A formal report giving reasons and explanations

• Position of adverbs in sentences • Adjective + dependent preposition • Multi-word verbs • Passive forms (present simple)

Project: life on the ISS Focus on Maths: calculating our weight on other planets 16 Science fiction

• Science fiction predictions that became fact (informational text)

• A science fiction story

• Discussion: what is science fiction? • Making predictions

• Planning a story

• Pre-determiners (quantifying) • Causative forms • Future forms (present simple and continuous)

Project: a science fiction story Focus on Literature: Eager End-of year review


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Introduction for teachers The Collins Checkpoint English as a Second Language course consists of a Student’s Book, Workbook and a Teacher’s Guide for each of Stages 7, 8 and 9. The Student’s Books and Workbooks are closely integrated and should be used in conjunction for comprehensive language development. The accompanying audio tracks are available online, on the free resource tab, at

Differentiation, flexibility and variety All countries and cultures are different, and within them all schools have a range of situations and circumstances. Most importantly, each individual student is unique. So one size doesn’t fit all for any set of learning materials. In light of this, a key element in the design of this course has been variety and flexibility so that you, the teacher, will be able to select activities that are appropriate to the interests and abilities of your students. •

In this Teacher’s Guide, before the teaching notes for each of the main activities, you will find a Differentiated learning outcomes box. This suggests appropriate learning outcomes for students at three different levels, to assist you to set realistic and achievable objectives for your students.

Also in this Teacher’s Guide, many of the teaching notes for the activities in the Student’s Book and Workbook are followed by Support or Extension sections. These provide guidelines on how to adapt the activity for students who need more support, or on how to extend and challenge those students who find the activities easy or finish quickly.

The Workbook contains some activities designed either for support or for extension work. For example, to accompany the Student’s Book reading activities, the Workbook includes a Reading: comprehension activity and a Reading: thinking about the text activity. The Workbook comprehension activity is at a lower level, so can be used for extra support or even to replace the Student’s Book comprehension activity if you find it too demanding for your students. The Workbook thinking about the text activity focuses on higher-level thinking skills such as implied meaning, critical analysis and application, so can be used to challenge more able students.

At the back of this Teacher’s Guide are 32 supplementary worksheets – two worksheets to accompany each unit. The notes at the end of each unit outline the purpose of each worksheet: remedial grammar, general support, additional practice or extension (usually reading or writing).

Each unit ends with a Project, which builds on the work in the unit. Projects are very valuable in increasing motivation and collaboration between students. They also integrate various skills and allow for more independent learning. Projects are suitable for students of every level, as those with different abilities and interests can do different tasks as part of the whole project. However, projects can take up a lot of class time, so you may have to be selective in which ones you use.

Each unit also includes a Focus section. These widen the range of topics and associated vocabulary covered within the units. There are three types of Focus section: o

Focus on … [a curriculum subject] These sections typically have texts suitable for teaching other (non-language) curriculum subjects, with activities that focus on the vocabulary and features of those texts, to enable both content and language integrated learning.


Focus on Literature. These sections introduce students to some elements of literature in the same way as might be experienced by students of English as a First Language. They also give some extensive reading practice of fiction.


Focus on the World. These sections use longer texts to explore interesting aspects of world culture. The aim is to broaden the horizons of students and to encourage a love of reading and learning about the world.


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Course aims The course has been written for students following the Cambridge Secondary 1 English as a Second Language curriculum. •

All the learning objectives specified in the curriculum are covered. The teaching notes for each activity specify the learning objective reference number.

The full three-year course is designed to take students to or beyond the required level for the Cambridge Secondary 1 English as a Second Language Examination. At the end of each level of the course, they will also be ready to take the Cambridge Secondary 1 Progression test for that stage. Some practice in the activity types used in the Cambridge test and examination is provided as part of the course material.

The course aims to prepare students, by the end of the three years, to be ready to move on to the Cambridge IGCSE English as a Second Language course.

As a second language course, the focus is on language for communication – for study and for life outside of the classroom. Many of the topics covered have relevance to other school curriculum topics and introduce vocabulary relevant to those subjects (this is supported by the work on the Focus on … [a curriculum subject] – see above).

Methodology •

Each unit explores one topic through a range of communicative, skills-based activities.

The skills of critical-thinking and reflection are encouraged through the varied activities and questions. Students are challenged to think not only about what they have learned but also about how they have learned it. Questions are asked to encourage them to think about how to improve their writing and to help them learn lessons about project work for application in the next project. At the end of each unit, there is a checklist of Can do … statements and questions in the Workbook for students to reflect on their progress. Reflection also plays a key part in the work of the Review sections (see below). The overall intention is to help students not only learn more language but also to become better language learners.

English grammar is taught using an inductive approach, often called Discovery Grammar. Rather than presenting grammar rules for students to learn and then practise, this approach presents examples of the grammar in use, and asks students questions to guide them to work out the rules for themselves. Having made this ‘discovery’, students are more likely to remember the grammar and be able to apply it. More traditional grammar practice is also provided in the Workbook (and also in some of the supplementary Worksheets) for follow-up work. There is also a Focus on Grammar reference section at the back of the Workbook, which summarises the main grammar points covered at each level.

The teaching notes encourage you to use formative assessment. You are reminded to observe and assess groups and individuals as they work, so that you can give them regular feedback. Feedback should indicate what is good about a piece of work, as well as how it can be improved. This assessment should help to inform what you teach next, and what individual students need to focus on.

Regular reviewing and recycling of material is essential to help students retain knowledge and to apply it effectively and confidently. In all levels of this course there are short Review sections after every two units, and two longer Mid-year and End-year reviews (with support in the Workbook).


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This unit begins with a discussion about mythical dragons and then focuses on real ‘dragon’ animals through reading, speaking and writing activities. It provides a first opportunity for students to experience extended fiction in the listening and Focus on Literature sections. The project relates to festivals.

• • • • •

Student’s Book: pp. 39–50 Workbook: pp. 20–24 Audio track: 4 [Audio track 3 for Review 2] Worksheets: 4A & 4B Reference material (print or digital): dictionaries, world maps / atlases

Unit outcomes By the end of this unit, students will be able to: • • • • • • • • • • • •

use a range of adjectives to describe dragons identify the source and the purpose of a text extract key information from a text use dictionary entries efficiently use the present perfect simple tense for the unfinished past express possibility, using can and other modals write a webpage follow an extended oral story retell a story report speech, using said and told correctly show understanding of a work of extended fiction (a folk tale) work with peers to produce a festival profile, in a project.

Looking forward Student’s Book pp. 39–40 Introduce the title of the unit. Use the pictures on pp. 39 and 40 to make sure that students understand what a dragon is. Then look through the Looking forward page with the students to prepare them for what they are going to study.

Dragons: fact or fiction? Speaking: what do you know about dragons?


Student’s Book p. 40

This is an introductory activity to introduce the unit topic. a) Ask the first questions, and elicit what students know about dragons from stories and films. b) Students work in groups to discuss the rest of the questions. Most of the adjectives should be familiar to students from previous levels, but make dictionaries available or explain any adjectives students don’t know. c) Elicit some answers in a class discussion. Point out that dragons exist in all cultures but that they can differ in meaning in different parts of the world. In Western culture, dragons are usually shown as being cruel and frightening, but in China they are shown as representing strength and, often, shown looking after people. d) If possible, show students the video Were dragons real? a TV programme about dragons that has impressive special effects and is available online (or you can ask students to watch it at home). 42

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Support: Separate students into mixed-ability groups to do this activity. Students can get support from more able students as they discuss.

Differentiated learning outcomes: reading activity Lower: All students must be able to identify the main information in the text. Mid: Most students should also be able to identify the source and the purpose of the text. High: Some students could show greater understanding of the meaning contained in the text, and may write sentences to reflect on it (see Workbook p. 20 Reading: thinking about the text).

Reading: setting the scene

Student’s Book p. 40

Elicit any answers that students are able to give to the questions. They may not know much about Komodo dragons, but speculating will help prepare them for reading.

Reading: exploring the text

[7Rm1, 7RUt1]

Student’s Book pp. 40–41

In this section, students read for gist and they think about what sort of text they are reading. Encouraging students to engage with the structure and the format of a text is an important part of overall comprehension. 1. a) Students read to find answers to the questions in Reading: setting the scene. Elicit answers. b) Ask students to find Indonesia on a world map or in an atlas. c) Ask: What type of animal is a Komodo dragon? Elicit that it is type of lizard and give (or show) examples of common lizards which students may know. Ask students to look at the Fun facts section, and elicit that a lizard is a type of reptile. You can use this as an opportunity for some crosscurricular teaching on the classification of living things. Explain that animals are divided into different groups, and reptiles is one group. Elicit other groups – students may know fish, birds and insects. You can also mention mammals and amphibians. d) Focus students on the Word help section, and ask them to read the definitions of bacteria and reptile. You may need to give a further explanation of bacteria. 2. Students identify the source of the text. 3. a) Students identify the purpose of the text. b) Ask students to justify their answers. Encourage them to refer not only to the layout and the links to other webpages, but also to consider the informal, chatty style and the use of questions. Explain that this writing style would not be appropriate for a newspaper or a textbook, and that it is trying to make the facts as interesting as possible to the reader.

Support: Point to the features of the text that are found only on websites (e.g. the links and layout) and ask Do you find this in a newspaper or do you find it in a textbook? Guide students to think critically about texts step-by-step. Answers

1 three metres long, 140 kilograms; they eat meat; they live on five islands in Indonesia 2b 3c Reading: understanding the text


Student’s Book p. 41

a) Students copy the table and then read the text on p. 41 again, focusing on the specific details. Tell them to write notes in the table, not sentences. b) Students work in pairs to compare and check their answers. Elicit and discuss.

Support: Give these students plenty of time to do the activity (stronger students can progress to work on the Workbook activities). Students can work in pairs or in threes to help one another. Monitor and provide support as they work.


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Answers Name Type Where found Size Food Interesting facts

Komodo dragon lizard (reptile) Indonesia 3 m long, 140 kg meat [any of the following] bacteria in mouth; eats 80% of body weight in one meal; lays 30 eggs at a time; has 60 short, sharp teeth; eats meat

Reading: comprehension

[7Rd1, 7Rd3]

Workbook p. 20

Students work independently. Elicit and discuss answers. Some of the questions require students to read carefully or to deduce answers, as not all answers are stated explicitly. Answers 1 true 2 false 3 false 4 true 5 false 6 true

Reading: thinking about the text


Workbook p. 20

These questions require a bit more thought and need extended answers. Students may find question 4 challenging because the text does not provide the answer. Encourage them to use reference sources (print or digital) to find out. Answers 1 Because they know the animals will die within 24 hours (because of the bacteria). 2 80% of their body weight 3 They only live on five islands in Indonesia (where not many people go). 4 The text tells us that they are the biggest lizards and that lizards are reptiles, but it doesn’t tell us if they are the biggest reptiles. (In fact, they aren’t, as saltwater crocodiles are the biggest reptiles.)

Vocabulary: words in context

[7Rd3, 7Rd4]

Student’s Book p. 42

Apart from focusing on new vocabulary, this activity develops work done so far about using dictionaries. 1. a) Introduce the dictionary entries and the parts of each entry: the headword, the part of speech (irregular forms if appropriate), the definition and the example sentence. In this case, the example sentences are based on the text to help students identify the words in context. b) Students find the six words. Check answers before continuing. 2. Introduce the entry which shows how a dictionary deals with an item that has two different forms. Elicit the answers. 3. This develops the previous activity to show the usage of different parts of speech. Elicit the answers and the part of speech for each of the missing words. Answers

1 2 3

1 bite 2 creature 3 escape 4 live 5 scary 6 sharp 1 weigh 2 weight 1 heavy (adjective) 2 weigh (verb) 3 weight (noun)

Vocabulary: words in context


Workbook pp. 20–21

The first activity consolidates the vocabulary work in the Student’s Book. The second and third activities provide further extension.

Support: These students can focus on the first activity only. Extension: These students can also do the second and third activities.


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1 1 live 2 creatures 3 lay 4 escaped 5 scary 6 sharp 2 high / height long / length wide / width deep / depth 3 1 length 2 width 3 depth 4 height 5 weight

7 bacteria 8 bit

Remember to give feedback both to the whole class as well as to individual students about their progress with the reading and vocabulary work.

Use of English: the present perfect simple


Student’s Book p. 43

Follow the usual technique: encourage students to discover the rules for themselves. If your students need to revise present perfect simple form, refer them back to the Student’s Book p. 13 and Focus on Grammar in the Workbook p. 89. 1. Students read the sentence and answer the questions. 2. Students complete the grammar rules. Many students can find it difficult to distinguish between the use of the past simple and the present perfect. For further practice, use Worksheet 4A on p. 183. 3. Discuss with students the Language tip and the examples. Elicit more examples from students.

Support: Students can do Worksheet 4A for remedial work on the use of the past simple and the present perfect, as well as the following Workbook activities. Extension: When doing the third activity, students can write more sentences about themselves using for and since. Answers

1 1 yes 2 yes 3 present perfect simple 2 are 3 have been 2 1 were Use of English: the present perfect with for and since


Workbook p. 21

These activities consolidate the work done in the Student’s Book. Answers

1 1 for 2 since 3 for 4 since 5 since 6 for 2 2 I have had this laptop since my birthday. 3 I have known Salma for three years. 4 We have been friends since we were born. 5 They have not eaten for 24 hours.

Use of English: modal can


Student’s Book p. 43

a) Write on the board the example sentence and ask the questions. b) Elicit and discuss answers. Elicit the rule that words (modals) such as can, may and might are followed by a verb in the infinitive (or base, or simple) form. c) Students read the Did you know …? box and then think of more examples. Extension: If students find this activity not challenging enough, you could extend this work on modals to consider the other main use of the modal can – for permission. Ask: Do you know any other meaning for can? Write an example on the board (e.g. Can I go out, please?). Ask students to write more examples of their own. Answers 1 possible 45

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2 it can eat 80% of its body weight … / bacteria – very small living things, some of them can make people ill: both are talking about the ability of the Komodo or bacteria but they don’t always do it, so it’s also a possibility. (It shows the distinction isn’t a clear one.) 3 can (and other modals) is followed by a verb in the infinitive (without to).

Use of English: can and could


Workbook p. 22

This activity extends the work on the modal can to practise both negative and past forms. Answers 1 can 2 couldn’t 3 can’t 4 could 5 can / can’t 6 could / couldn’t

Little dragons Differentiated learning outcomes: writing activity Lower: All students must be able to write a few sentences, using the information in the fact file. Mid: Most students should be able to express the fact file information in sentences which have moderate grammatical accuracy, using the layout of a webpage. High: Some students could imitate the informal style of the model webpage. They can also do their own research in order to complete a webpage about an animal of their choice (see Worksheet 4B).

Speaking: animal facts


Student’s Book p. 44

This speaking activity prepares the way for the writing task which follows. a) Introduce the animal fact files. Ask some questions to help students navigate the information (e.g. Look at the names of the animals. What do you think they have in common? Look at the pictures. Do they all look like dragons? Which one lives in Australia? Where do dragonflies live?) Answer any questions students may have about vocabulary (e.g. students may not know the vocabulary male and female). b) Divide the class into groups of three and tell students to choose one fact file each. Give them a few minutes to read the detail of their fact file. c) Students take turns in their groups to speak about their animal for a few minutes.

Writing: an animal webpage

[7Wa3, 7Wa4, 7Wo1]

Student’s Book p. 44

1. Students look at the text on p. 41 once more and consider the questions. Elicit students’ responses. Discuss the style and tone of the text, and elicit that it is quite informal and chatty. Explain that we know the text is not serious because it includes jokes (e.g. the joke about eating children and the example about 150 burgers). Point out that the aim of the text is to provide facts and information in a fun and interesting way. The Fun facts section helps with this, and the Word help section supports understanding when difficult ‘scientific’ words have to be used. 2. Students choose one of the animals to write about. They should use the text on p. 41 as a model. As students write, monitor and support them.

Support: For students who find this activity too challenging, start with a shared writing activity. You will do the actual writing on the board but will elicit from students what they want to say. Guide them to think about the content of their sentences, grammatical accuracy and a layout appropriate for a webpage. When you have finished, depending on students’ ability, they can either: • copy the finished text on the board, or • reproduce the text on the board after you have deleted everything except for the outline, or • write a similar text about one of the other animals.

Extension: Students who require more challenge can do further research about their chosen animal and write more detail in their text. They can also do Worksheet 4B on p. 184. 46

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Remember to give feedback both to the whole class and to individual students about their progress with the writing work.

Vocabulary: living things


Workbook p. 22

This activity develops cross-curricular language relating to living things. 1. Students complete the gaps. Elicit and discuss the different categories. 2. Students add any further examples they know. Answers

1 1 fish

2 Komodo dragon 3 reptiles 4 rabbit 5 birds 6 dragonfly

A monster called Nian Differentiated learning outcomes: listening activity Lower: All students must be able to grasp the gist of the story with some support. Mid: Most students should be able to follow the story and make predictions about narrative development. High: Some students could make deductions about how the story will conclude based on what they have understood.

Listening: setting the scene

Student’s Book p. 45

Prediction is an important tool for comprehension, particularly during listening comprehension. This first activity introduces some key vocabulary and asks students to reflect on how the items might be used in the story. a) Discuss the title: A monster called Nian. Elicit the meaning of the word monster. Discuss any stories or films students know which contain monsters. b) Elicit or introduce the names of the three objects in the photos: red paper, candle and fireworks. c) Discuss students’ ideas of what the story might be about.

Listening: a story

[7Ld3, 7Lg2]

Student’s Book p. 45

This may be the first time the students have listened to an extended narrative, so it has been divided into parts to encourage prediction. 1. Read the questions and then play the first part of audio track 4. Elicit the answers. Play this part again, if necessary. 2.

a) Ask the questions to encourage students to predict how the story might develop. Elicit ideas, but don’t confirm or reject any at this stage. b) Play the second part of audio track 4. Ask a few general comprehension questions to check students’ understanding (e.g. What did Nian do when he arrived in the village? Did he kill the old man? Why not? What did Nian do? Why?). Play this part again, if necessary.


a) Ask the questions to encourage comprehension and deduction. If students have understood the story, they should be able to work out what the villagers could do. b) Play the final part of audio track 4. Ask a few final oral comprehension questions (e.g. What did the villagers do the next year? Did Nian hurt them?). c) Then play the whole of the audio track once more to develop the students’ enjoyment of the story.


1 a dragon called Nian; China 47

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Audio track 4 PART 1 There are many stories in China about Nian – this is one of the best. Many years ago, there lived a horrible monster called Nian. Some say he was a lion, some say he was a bear, others say he was a dragon. Perhaps he was all three – but he wasn’t very nice. The people in one small village in the mountains were very afraid of Nian. Every year, right at the beginning of the new year, Nian went to the village to steal what he could. If there were any children, he stole them too. So, every year, at New Year, the people ran away to the mountains. One year, as they were going to the mountains, an old man arrived in the village. He was tired and hungry. An old granny gave him some bread and told him to run to the mountains. But the old man said no, that he would stay. And he did stay, in the granny’s house. PART 2 When Nian arrived, he ran through the village breaking everything he could see. Then he hurried to the granny’s house because he could smell the old man. But when he arrived, he saw there was red paper around the door of the house. Nian stopped, What was happening? Then the door opened and the old man came out holding a candle. Now Nian was afraid. The old man threw some fireworks that made a loud noise. Now Nian was really scared, so scared that he ran away. The next day the people found the old man alive and unhurt by Nian. They were surprised. The old man told them that Nian didn’t like the colour red, or light or loud noise. PART 3 So the next year, when New Year came, the people didn’t run away to the mountains. They stayed at home. But they wore red clothes and put red on their houses. They lit lots of candles and they threw lots of noisy fireworks. And Nian stayed away. So that’s why, even today, at New Year the Chinese people like to put red things in their homes, light candles and enjoy themselves with fireworks.

Additional activity Speaking: retelling the story Retelling a story using one’s own words is useful fluency practice. Students should not be expected to learn or recite the original words from the story (although they will probably remember some phrases). a) Write the story outline on the board: Many, many years ago, there lived … Every year Nian … One year, an old man … When Nian arrived in the village, he … The next day, the people were surprised because … The next year, when New Year came, the people … That’s why today, at New Year, Chinese people … b) Students work in pairs to remember and retell the story, following the outline on the board. As they work, monitor and provide support. c) When students are ready, ask one pair to retell the first part of the story, another pair to retell the second part, and a third pair to conclude the story.

Support: Organise mixed-ability pairs so that these students can get support and learn from more fluent students.

Extension: Students follow the outline on the board to write the story of A monster called Nian.

Writing: personal experience


This activity helps to consolidate students’ understanding of the new vocabulary. 48

Workbook p. 23

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Use of English: reported speech (said and told)


Student’s Book p. 45

This section builds on the work done on reported speech in Unit 3. It follows the usual discovery approach. 1. Elicit the reported speech. Elicit a few more example sentences. (There is further practice in the Workbook on p. 23.) Point out that the use of that is not necessary in most reported speech. Explain that it could be left out in all of these examples, so don’t insist if students omit it. Answers

1 1a

2 We use told when we say who someone is talking to. We use said when we are reporting who someone talked to.

2 said 2 1 told 3 1 Nian said that he didn’t like loud noise. 2 Our teacher told us that we were going to listen to a story.

Use of English: reported speech with said and told


Workbook p. 23

1. [SUPPORT] This activity focuses purely on the use of said and told, so is suitable for students who have not yet understood the difference between these. 2. This activity requires sentence completion, so is a bit more challenging. Answers

1 1 said 2 told 3 said 4 told 5 told 6 said 2 1 The children said (that) they enjoyed the story.

2 The teacher told us (that) we could leave. 3 Julio said (that) he was afraid of monsters. 4 She told them (that) she wanted them to go.

Focus on Literature The Focus on Literature sections introduce students to literature. Their aim is to broaden students’ horizons and to encourage a love of reading and literature. Texts given may be prose, poetry or drama, and their aim is to elicit a response from students as well as to provide extended reading practice.

Differentiated learning outcomes: focus on Literature activity Lower: All students must be able to understand the gist of the story with some support. Mid: Most students should be able to follow the plot and to identify the sequence of events in the story. High: Some students could show some appreciation of key elements of stories (i.e. character, setting, plot, imagery).

Folk tales

[7Rm1, 7Rg3]

Student’s Book pp. 46–47

1. a) Read the information about folk tales with the students. If they show a clear understanding about what a folk tale is, and if you think they know some folk tales, tell them to work in groups to discuss the questions. Otherwise, this can be done as a class discussion, allowing you to provide accessible examples of common folk tales in students’ own culture. b) Discuss the key story elements of character, setting and plot. With reference to stories that students already know, elicit that in folk tales the elements of character and setting are usually not very important. Explain that we usually don’t learn much detail about characters in folk tales and that the setting is often just long ago or once upon a time. Point out that the important thing in folk tales is what happens – the plot. 2. Students read the first paragraph of the story to find out the general idea about the characters and the setting. Elicit that the characters are Nie Lang (a young boy), his mother and Zhou (a cruel landowner). Explain the meaning of cruel and landowner. Elicit that the setting is long ago in a very poor part of China. 3. Students look at the pictures. Elicit or present the names of the items. Explain that each of them is mentioned in the story. 49

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4. a) Students read the story and put the items in the same sequence they appear in the story. Allow students to read at their own pace. Point out that they should follow the plot rather than try to understand every word. b) When students have finished reading, elicit the correct sequence of the seven items. c) Ask a few oral comprehension questions to check students have understood the gist (e.g. What happened to Nie Lang? What happened to Zhou? What did the dragon do to help the people?). 5. Students first find all the colour words. Ask them to think about what these colours mean in the story (e.g. brown and dirty yellow describe things that are dead and dying). Elicit that green is the colour used for good, living things; white is the colour used for beautiful, strange and magic things; and the strong colours of blue, red, purple and silver show the power and excitement of the dragon. Write on the board the sentence from the end of the story, ‌ the rain brought colour back to the dry land. Point out that this final sentence helps to emphasise the importance of colour in the story.

Extension: Students work on their own to find another folk tale they enjoy. They can look in books or search online. Tell them to make notes and to prepare to tell the story. When they are ready, they can work in a group to take turns to tell their folk tale. Answers

3 1 a stone 2 grass 3 rain (a storm) 4 a rabbit 5 dry / dead grass 6 (a jar of) rice 7 a spade 4 grass - dead / dying grass - a rabbit - spade - stone - (jar of) rice - rain (a storm) 5 brown, dirty yellow = dead, dying green = life white = beauty, magic, strange blue, red, purple, silver = power, excitement Remember to give feedback both to the whole class and to individual students about their work.

Project Differentiated learning outcomes: project Lower: All students must be able to participate in the project in some way. Mid: Most students should be able to do some research and contribute to the final project. High: Some students could show leadership qualities in organising the work and supporting others in project work.

Project: a festival

[7Rd1, 7Wa1, 7Wa2, 7S6]

Student’s Book p. 48

As a starting point, ask students what they learned about Chinese New Year at the end of the story A monster called Nian. Find out if any students have experience of Chinese New Year (or Spring Festival as it is often called). Elicit what they know about the festival. You can also use the photo on p. 48 as a prompt for discussion. 1. Students read the text. Answer any questions students may have about vocabulary (or make dictionaries available). Celebration, decorate, festival, scare and stick may be new vocabulary for students. Encourage them to work out the meaning where possible (e.g. the meaning of scare from scary, which they learned previously in the unit). 2. Ask the questions and elicit answers to check comprehension. 3. Ask the question and discuss how pictures not only add interest but also help us to understand a text. 4. a) Introduce the project task. Organise the class into groups and encourage them to work together to make the decisions and decide how to divide up the work. b) As the groups work, monitor how the work is progressing and how well the tasks are being divided up. 5. When the groups have finished, encourage them to share their finished projects with the other groups. If possible, make time for some projects to be presented to the class or display them around the classroom.


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Support: Students who find language learning challenging may well be good at practical or visual tasks.

They may excel in researching the photographs and in designing the final project. Encourage this and praise the groups that use all their members in the best way. Ask the question in the My learning box. Encourage students to think not only about the content of their project but also about how well they worked with their group and what problems they faced. By doing this, students are likely to work more effectively on later projects.

Vocabulary: celebrations

Workbook p. 24

This crossword recycles the vocabulary from the text on p. 48 of the Student’s Book. Answers Across: 3 prepare 4 stick 6 envelope 7 celebration 8 scare Down: 1 festival 2 present 5 decorate

Check your progress

Workbook p. 24

Follow the usual procedure for these sections (see p. 18).

Worksheet 4 Dragons 4A: The past simple or the present perfect?


This remedial worksheet will help students practise the use of the past simple and the present perfect tense. Answers

1 1 visited 2 has visited 3 woke 4 haven’t spoken 5 went / stayed / has just returned 2 1 was 2 has stopped 3 has lost 4 ran 5 has lived 6 jumped 3 3 9 4 – I have known Fatima for three years. 5 9 6 – Peter started to play the drums at the age of five.

4B: Animal news

[7Rd4, 7Wa3, 7Wa4, 7Wo1]

This supplementary activity is suitable for more able students who can be further challenged through independent research and writing.

Review 2 Speaking: looking back

Student’s Book p. 49

As a starting point for the review, students look back through the units to select a photo and an activity they found interesting. They should discuss these in pairs or small groups.

Listening: what’s missing?


Student’s Book p. 49

Students read and predict the missing words. Elicit a few ideas and discuss. Play audio track 3 and elicit the answers. Play the audio track again for students to check their answers. Discuss the use of the active and the passive form of the verbs. Answers

1 / 2 1 was received

2 drove away 3 was seen 4 chased 5 were found 6 was stolen


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Reading: another crime

[7Rm1, 7Ut1]

Student’s Book p. 49

Students work individually to read and answer. They can compare and check their answers in pairs. Elicit the answers and discuss students’ best suggestions for a headline. Answers 1 newspapers 2 theft 3 ‘A 25-year-old bank worker is helping us at the police station’.

Writing: a police report


Student’s Book p. 50

Students use the police report in Listening: what’s missing? as a model. Encourage them to develop their report by adding extra details of their own.

Vocabulary: catching a thief

Student’s Book p. 50

Answers 1 male 2 arrest 3 solve 4 evidence 5 cruel 6 prison

Use of English: reported speech


Student’s Book p. 50

Elicit the answer to the first sentence before students write. They can use either said or told for question 4 and question 5, but they need to use the appropriate structure. They can omit that in all the sentences. Answers 1 The old man said (that) he wanted to stay in the village. 2 Granny told the old man (that) he was in danger there. 3 The old man told her (that) he wasn’t afraid of Nian.


Lower Secondary English Second Language TG  
Lower Secondary English Second Language TG