magazine of T.D.V. Cicero CLICKBAIT: 5 TIPS & TRICKS TO IMPROVE YOUR DEBATING! (page 4)
THE SECRETS OF MIKE ARE REVEALED (page 12)
OUR EDITOR-IN-CHIEF TELLS ABOUT HER EXPERIENCES. (page 8)
THE SPARKS FLY BETWEEN JOS AND JW, OR IS IT FIREWORKS? (page 10-11)
DEBATING BEYOND THE STARS! WHICH SCI-FI FI DISASTER DO YOU PREFER? (page 6-7)
Preface by Martijn Tervelde Welcome! This part of the magazine is often written by our editor-in-chief. But she is off to Dublin. Therefore, I just want to present to you guys: the second edition of Hear, Hear! We hope that you will enjoy the great articles in this magazine. Enjoy, and hear, hear!
5 TIPS AND TRICKS
YOU TOO, CAN BE A HERO!
UPON GIANT SHOULDERS
ADJUSTING TO THE NETHERLANDS
FIREWORKS: DANGEROUS OR PRECIOUS
BINGO CARD: BOTHERING MIKE
ANNOUNCEMENTS Februari 13 - Bonapartiaans Debattoernooi This is a Dutch debate tournament and is, together with the Cicero tournament, the only tournament with AP debates. We are planning to go to Amsterdam with a lot of enthusiastic members. Already 7 teams and 4 judges are coming with us, so if you want to join, be quick. It promises to be an amazing tournament. Februari 27-28 - Leiden Open The second debate tournament in Februari will be Leiden Open. This is an international tournament, i.e. one attended by many foreign teams, and it will last for two days. Unfortunately, there were a limited amount of team spots available, so joining this tournament will not be possible. However, we hope that the two teams which will represent Cicero during this tournament will do great.
By Laura Verloop In general, tournaments with registration fee provide foods and drinks. Most tournaments have five rounds of debating and will have a semi final or just a final. To participate you can contact one of the board members. It is also possible to register as a judge for a tournament. If you participate as a judge, there are minimal costs for a tournament. During a tournament you gain a certain amount of points and you will be put in a room according to this amount of points. This means that you will debate on your own level most of the time.
March 18-20 - Rotterdam Open This is the second international tournament which we will visit. It is still possible to join, but be sure to be quick! On March 18, a social will take place. On March 19 and 20, the debate rounds and finals will take place. April 2 - Debattoernooi Utrecht This will be the first Dutch tournament in which BP debates will be held this year. So for Dutch members, this is the perfect tournament opportunity, since most people are more familiar with BP debates. Also, this tournament is great if you want to practice for the Dutch championships which take place two weeks later. April 16-17 - NK debatteren This year, the Dutch championships will be held in Leiden and this will be a two-day tournament. This is the event to show off your judging or debating skills. Last year, our association had a shared first place with sending the most teams to this tournament. This year we do not want to share and we want to send a large amount of people to this tournament. So make sure to save the date. New in the Facebook group of TDV Cicero is a summary of tournaments. As soon as we know that Cicero will go to a tournament, we will post it there. This way, you never have an excuse to miss a beautiful tournament. Hear, Hear!
5 TIPS & TRICKS Column by Mike Weltevrede Even though you might consider yourself to be one of the best analytical speakers in Cicero, or perhaps you just think that your skills are quite alright, it may still seem difficult to persuade the judge panel with your words. However, there are some tiny things that may be lacking in your speech that can help you turn the entire debate around. I will provide you with five short tips and tricks to help you. Points of Information It is often told that offering and taking POIs is helpful to your case. However, if these POIs are not offered clearly or if the answer is confusing, the effect is minimal. When posing a POI, try to use the full 10 to 15 seconds to word and impact your POI well. This makes sure that your point comes across to both the speaker and the judges. Plus, it is easier to reference to later. When answering one, it might be handy just to be silent for a few seconds to consider an appropriate answer that ensures that the case at hand is clear to everyone in the debate. Be comparative and work as a team Judges use comparisons to judge the debate. If both sides put forward an argument on democracy, then they need to consider which team has explained it better and more persuasively. This is where your words can help out the panel. Perhaps try to end your argument, if necessary, by stating that “it weighs more heavily in this debate than the argument from the opposing side because of reasons X and Y, which my partner already explained thoroughly”. Meta analysis can also help here. For example, open the debate by stating: “the side that has won this debate today is the side that has shown you why this plan leads to a less efficient and less democratic government”. If you can end your speech by also showing that you fulfilled this burden, then you did a good job.
Structure Judges have to write down a lot, and might miss some points too. Try to start your speech by stating to the panel what you will be talking about. For example: “I will be discussing the effect on the economy and the harms it brings to Dutch inhabitants”. This makes sure that the judges have a checklist they can use to see if you discussed everything you wanted to talk about. Moreover, try to end your speech by stating once again what you discussed in your speech. This gives the judge panel the opportunity to see whether they actually wrote down everything you said in your speech. Concede to harms Your opponents will provide you with some harms that appear under your side of the House, for example that there will be monetary losses involved. It is intuitive to deny that this will happen, as it seems contradictory to your case. However, it is sometimes handy to just accept these harms and move on to show why the benefits proposed by your team outweigh these harms. Mostly, economic points are not as persuasive in a debate on moral values and human lives. Note taking Your notes are one of the most important things you do in a debate. If you don’t know how to effectively write all of your points down, then it is difficult to hold a cohesive speech of seven minutes. Your structure in notes can differ throughout all positions, especially in the Whip speeches. This is because the Whip speech requires you to have a concise but thorough summary of the debate on a piece of paper, whereas in the other cases you would only need a headline of the opponents’ arguments. Lastly, try to use one single sheet of paper per argument. It may seem silly and wasteful, but trust me, it works immensely.
YOU TOO, CAN BE A HERO! Written by Martijn Brouwer De Koning My alarm clock made its awful sound way too early on a Saturday morning. While I repeatedly smashed the snooze button, I recalled why I even set that terrible thing. It was the day of our very own Cicero tournament! One of the most awesome things our organisation has to offer! The day before that Saturday, a small amount of people gathered in the afternoon at the location to set up a couple of things beforehand. Subsequently, those diehards were present on the location that Saturday morning at 8 am! Just to take care of those finishing touches, starting to make some coffee and tea, making a huge amount of sandwiches and getting ready for the first participants to arrive. It seemed that the old Cicero-tournament-curse was back after a year of absence. It is the curse of never finishing in time. Since we were on a tight schedule and we were getting pretty nervous. Several participants were stuck in trains or had to take a huge detour. It is not much of a tournament if a large amount of people do not show up, eh?
However, that does not mean that volunteers do not get to see any of the debates. The semi finals and the final are always watched by a lot of volunteers, and participating in the form of a dummy team or as a judge is always an option and strongly encouraged! Nonetheless, the day was a huge success. It was a hectic and busy day, but mostly very enjoyable. This edition was my third Cicero tournament as a volunteer and I will of course be present next year. I want to thank Juul, our awesome convenor this year, as well as all the others from the tournament committee and everyone that was present that day. As a volunteer at the Cicero tournament, you are a hero. Recently, the artist David Bowie passed away. According to my favourite song by this musical genius: â€œWe can be heroes, just for one day.â€?
More than an hour later as planned in our timetable, the tournament kicked off and with some crisis management, in terms of time and planning, the day went quite smoothly. What does a volunteer exactly do at the tournament you might ask? Well, besides a lot of laughter, listening to music (by our very own DJ Maurits), and card games, there is some labour involved. Someone has to make coffee and tea, make sandwiches to eat, clean up between rounds, running (collecting the results as fast as possible from the chambers), entertain and help out the tabmaster (the person that processes the results of each round and makes the draw for the next), assist with the catering in the evening, and, of course, help to clean up later in the evening.
UPON GIANT SHOULDERS Written by Martijn Tervelde As debaters, we are supposed to be able to explain lots of different concepts. In this article, we are going to have a look at some scientific ideas that might be useful. Besides, they might be interesting without even having any use in debating. Dwarves & Elves Suppose we had a large city filled with dwarves and elves. These groups do not really like each other, so the city is mostly segregated. But is their mutual hatred, or a possible income inequality, the only reason for their segregation? An important result in this discussion is Thomas Schelling’s model of spatial segregation1. Suppose our city is square and only consists of identical houses, with none unoccupied. We may also (foolishly) believe that the dwarves and elves get along a little better. But they still want to live amongst people with a similar culture, so they want to be in the majority among their eight immediate neighbours. For example, a dwarf living amongst five elves is unhappy, but he is happy with four elf neighbours. We can try to solve segregation by randomly assigning a house to every citizen. But this will leave some dwarves and elves unhappy about their situation. After a month, these unhappy citizens come together and decide to randomly swap houses. When these citizens get at their new home, they decide to introduce themselves to their neighbours. From this, several of them learn that they still are not the majority in their neighbourhood. Moreover, some of the happy dwarves and elves got unhappy, since they suddenly became a minority. So, a month later, these unhappy citizens come together. They decide to once again swap houses. This meeting keeps repeating itself every month.
This process will eventually result in a segregated city. To understand why, we will consider three situations. First, suppose that a part of the city is mostly occupied by dwarves. These dwarves are happy about their homes, so they will not move. But any elves that live there form a minority and are unhappy. Thus, they decide to move out. The same holds if a block exists of mostly elves. The last situation is a bit trickier. Suppose a dwarf named Thorin and an elf named Halben live next to each other. There are only a few ways in which both Thorin and Halben are happy. The same holds for the neighbours of Thorin and Halben. So it is very unlikely that they will all end up happy. Besides, if the neighbour of Durin, which is also Thorin’s neighbour, moves out, Durin can get unhappy. This may lead to Thorin becoming unhappy as well. At the start of this article, we had made a lot of assumptions. Some of these were to remove other factors, such as the random assignment of houses. But we might believe that other assumptions, such as the preferences of the dwarves and elves, might make our conclusions invalid. This is not always the case. Segregation can also arise with only the requirement that everyone is surrounded by at least 33 percent of their own race2. The article “Understanding the social context of the Schelling segregation model” also describes how this model holds under several changes. For example, regard different neighbourhood sizes or a wider variety of groups3. This model gives us some several interesting conclusions. The most important one is that we do not require deep-seated racism for segregation, nor that it solves itself4. If you are interested, the website http://www.ncase. me/polygons/ has a great interactive model.
There is also lots of interesting information in the article “Understanding the social context of the Schelling segregation model”. It is also important to note that this kind of reasoning can be used in different contexts. For example, there is a model by Martell, Lane and Emrich which shows that a small gender bias can create large differences in the number of women in top positions5. The lesson we can take from this is simple: small preferences can have large effects. Fiscal policy The city is ruled by two consuls: the dwarf Endrin and the elf Vána. They are responsible for the many decisions necessary to keep the city running. A part of this is that they have to decide upon the expenses and taxes of their government, the so-called fiscal policy. The problem is that they do not always agree on the best policy to take. This is mostly because Endrin has studied Keynesian economics while Vána has studied Classical economics. The city is doing great ever since a new trading route to the south has been opened. Endrin and Vána both know that more government expenses will mean more demand for money. This makes it so that it is easier for banks and lenders to ask higher interest rates, increasing the cost of borrowing money. The higher cost makes people invest in less important or strong projects. This causes the economic growth to slow down. To use the economic term: government expenditure crowds out investment. So, to prevent this, Endrin and Vána decided to reduce government expenses6. Similarly, higher taxes lead to higher costs. Therefore, investment decreases and economic growth slows down. Over the next few years, the prices of southern flowers skyrocket. Their price starts to greatly exceed the potential profit they have. A speculative bubble has been created. Slowly people begin to realise this and the bubble bursts. As the prices start to plummet, investors cannot pay for their loans. In return, the banks have to cut down the amount they invest and might even face bankruptcy. With a
decreasing confidence in the economy and banks becoming more cautious, investments start to decline. The consumers also start to reduce their expenses. The city starts to get into a recession7. Endrin and Vána decide to meet up and discuss their fiscal policy. Endrin, as a Keynesian economist, believes they should increase spending. The money the government spends is then spent by the people who receive this money. This spending once again creates spending, and so on. This will stimulate the economy to spend more than the government expenses6. The debt created by this, he argues, can be paid off when the economy is growing again8. The classical Vána disagrees with him. According to her, the bureaucracy of the government prevents it from spending the money efficiently. Besides, the debt is a burden to the future generations, since the taxes have to be raised to pay for this. Finally, it is difficult to fit economic policy to the current situation. It takes a long time for information to be collected and processed. Eventually, the government spending might do more harm than good. The crisis will resolve itself, even without government intervention.
Schelling’s model of spatial segregation. (2009). The Journal of Artificial
Societies and Social Simulation, vol. 12, no. 1. Retrieved from http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/12/1/6/appendixB/Schelling1969.html 2
Hart, V., & Case, N. (2016). Parable of the polygons [Webpage].
Retrieved from http://ncase.me/polygons/ 3
Clark, W. A. V., & Fosset, M. (2008). Understanding the social context of the
Schelling segregation model. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 105, no. 11, pp. 4109-4114. Retrieved from http://www.pnas.org/content/105/11/4109.full.pdf 4
Talwalker, P. (n.d.). Game theory and racism: the Schelling Segregation Model
[Blogpost]. Retrieved from http://mindyourdecisions.com/blog/2008/10/28/ game-theory-and-racism-the-schelling-segregation-model 5
Martell, R. F., Lane, M. D., & Emrich, C. (1996). Male-Female Differences: A
Computer Simulation. American Psychologist, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 157-158. http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~lane/papers/male_female.pdf 6
Heertje, A. (2014). Economie. Prometheus – Bert Bakker Amsterdam: Amsterdam,
NL. p. 209 7
Mankiw, N. G., & Taylor, M. P. (2014). Macroeconomics. Worth Publishers: New
York, USA. pp. 630–634, 652, 654 8
Hulleman, W., Marijs, A. J. (2012). Algemene economie en bedrijfsomgeving.
Noordhoff Uitgevers: Groningen/Houten, NL. pp. 287 – 288, 312
Written by Panna Kerti
ADJUSTING TO THE NETHERLANDS
Approximately 450,000 Hungarians live abroad as of 2016. When I think about departures and arrivals, it is always Blanche Dubois who comes to mind. Not the streetcar, the Cemeteries or the Elysian Fields, just this woman in general, coming from somewhere, ending up somewhere, and I find it so interesting that people, including me, dream, choose destinations, imagine themselves as leading actors in their ideal play, and then find something completely different than expected. Tilburg is the sixth largest city in the Netherlands, still I find it so small. Sometimes I even find it smaller than my hometown, which is really small in comparison, by the way. I remember packing my clothes in my new room the day I arrived here, when I heard someone speak Hungarian outside my window. It turned out that my neighbour was Hungarian. So when I look back on the past five months, and try to think of the difficulties I encountered, I do not think of the horrible weather, the tricky Dutch health care system or my extremely high caffeine intake because of studying, but I think of missing home and I wonder whether those 450,000 other Hungarians miss home as much as I do. This is not the kind of home sickness that makes you cry all the time or makes you question your decision about moving here. It is this silent ache every day, which is sometimes sweeter, sometimes more sour.It is interesting how you become an outside observer of your life back home, your actions of the past, and how easily you evaluate these objectively, like it was not even you who lived through and experienced them. You find small things to make you the happiest, like hearing ‘Jó napot kívánok!’ when you board your flight in Eindhoven, or seeing your friends with a huge welcome home sign at the airport. 8
Like sleeping in your ‘old room’ at home, and decorating the Christmas tree with your family, just like back then. Still, I love it here. This two-sidedness is the beauty of it. After a while, you start to realise that you have a second home. That you have your people here, and as you all come from so many different places you make up a family. That you have a reason to be here, and with every single day you get closer to your goal, whatever that might be. You find new hobbies too. Like debating, and knitting, and having random ‘creative nights’ when you paint random things in your room to random different colours. So you learn to have fun. You meet all these amazing people in this generally much more open environment and grow together with them. I look at it as an opportunity. What about those other 450,000 Hungarians though? Well, the numbers speak for themselves.
ASK SVEN Column by Sven Ter Heijden 1: Dear Sven, now that I have a full-time job I almost have no time left for gaming. How can I combine my hobby with my job Dear reader, life is all about making choices. Maybe you can combine both? You’ve got the job, you’re getting paid, so you’re able to slack off from time to time. Or maybe you should have thought of this before and applied for a part-time job. There’s always the possibility to quit your job and follow another study if you prefer your game-time.
2. Dear Sven, in the near future an important member meeting will take place. However, I am very nervous and afraid, do you have any tips? Dude, you’re at Cicero! Try coming to evenings more often, it will help you!
3.Dear Sven, since carnaval is approaching I will need a unique outfit. Otherwise I will be the herd animal without any identity. What kind of outfit should I wear this year? Dear carnaval-celebrator, I don’t get the meaning of putting on some kind of shitty costume. But if you drink lots of alcohol, then even I think it’s a great party! If you celebrate in Tilburg, I have two options for you. The first one is you put on a leather jacket, a red hanky and some white curtains. Then you’ve got the most unique outfit possible in Tilburg. The second option is you put on a long coat and go as a flasher. Success guaranteed that you’ve got the most unique costume ever!
4. Dear Sven, recently I started dating a girl who has never seen Star Wars. Now I am doubting if our relationship will last. What should I do? Dear Spock, which of the 700 movies? ;) Plan a date and have a Star Wars Marathon. If you notice her losing interest, this relationship is made to be doomed! On the other hand, every relationship has a normal person and a slightly less normal person. Maybe she’s the normal person in your relationship. You can always ask if she wants to see your Millennium Falcon. If she says yes, I do believe this relationship will be a success! So for now there’s only one thing to say: Live long and prosper!
5. Dear Sven, I received a discount card from my work the other day. Now a lot of people suddenly want to hang out with me. How do I know if they appreciate my company or my discount card? Dear friend, a discount card is like having a hot, younger sister. Every boy wants to be with you, so they can be as close to her as possible. What does it matter if they only want to be with you for your little sister? Fuck it, you’re famous! Hey, you should buy a T-shirt. On the other hand, if it’s discount for shoes, you can ask every girl you want to go shopping. Enjoy this moment as long as it lasts!
Facing your fears Is there anything that kills more or strikes more fear in the hearts of men than the passage of time? In the end, we all die alone.
The human mind is not conditioned to deal with this reality, so it invents mechanisms to deal with this. These mechanisms can be useful. You go to a scary movie with your boyfriend because the fear will trigger a reaction where you will bond together. The most powerful mechanism known to men to deal with the passage of time is the celebration of the passage. We celebrate birthdays, comings-of-age, graduations, etcetera. All individuals act in a way that masks the slow and lonely march towards death that we call life by subverting our response to it. Even more powerful than the individual act is the collective act. The subversion becomes more powerful by it being a shared experience. We are conditioned to submit to collective ideas. The most powerful of these collective acts is the act where we say goodbye to Father Time and welcome a new year. The celebration of the New Year is humanity’s most defiant response to the human condition. We collectively invest millions in fireworks and blow them up in the sky. An expensive act for a mere moment of beauty, a symbol of the brief but meaningful time we all get to spend. As is believed: “the more wasteful this moment the better.” “I must not fear. Fear is the mind-killer. Fear is the little-death that brings total obliteration. I will face my fear. I will permit it to pass over me and through me. And when it has gone past, I will turn the inner eye to see its path. Where the fear has gone, there will be nothing. Only I will remain.” – A quote by Frank Herbert that I repeat to myself when using fireworks.
The danger of fireworks also adds to the meaning. You have those that use fireworks as they live life: responsibly, with little danger of any mishap. They are in little to no danger. Then you have those that take risks - willingly or by not knowing. There are a lot of lessons to be learned by risk taking. Yes, you might blow up your finger. But would you not rather learn that you should not assume so much risk by losing a finger, than by generally being careless with life itself? Suppose you imagine someone being careless with drugs instead of fireworks. Drugs will be enjoyable for years before you see any damage. Years will alter the pathways in your brain, your dependence becomes permanent and you will need a ‘high’ just to feel normal. When you lose a finger, you change your life instantly and avoid bad decisions in the future. You lose yourself to a lot of other risks and you need to spend a lifetime recovering or managing yourself. Instant lessons are stronger than those that take years to build up towards. You condition yourself to believe that whatever situation you are is not that bad, that hope is coming. You hope that you will find a different job, and that the people around you will change. That you can always put down the pipe tomorrow. You cannot condition yourself to the pain of seeing smoke where your finger used to be. Even if you hurt others, they will learn a lesson by this as well: do not trust everyone not to hurt you. I spent a board year with a guy named Jan-Willem. He ended up hurting me in ways I cannot even begin to describe. He always had some kind of excuse, an explanation, and I believed him, even though he assumed maddening risks. If I had a lost a finger by trusting others, maybe I would have known to protect myself. In the end, he revealed his insanity to the world and took a stand against humanity itself by hating on fireworks.
VERSUS JW You people are idiots Throughout history, many things have changed. Nations have risen and fallen, cultures have developed and traditions are born and adapt constantly. Even the president of the United States of America is replaced every four to eight years. But people, people never change. The sheer stupidity of people has been proven over and over again throughout the history of mankind. It all started when we refused to listen to God and ate the forbidden fruit, then we invented gunpowder and last but not least we implemented democracy. Also, fireworks... People are stupid because we assume we are capable of certain things without practicing said things first. We implement a “how-hard-can-itbe” approach because we think something is pretty straightforward but really it is not. It takes a lot of time to become proficient at using, for example, fireworks in a safe way. People are very prone to making mistakes: they may not secure their fireworks well enough, light them incorrectly or they do not take enough distance. When you have practiced this in a secure environment, like professional pyrotechnicians have, you are not only less likely to make mistakes, but also know what to do when something goes awry because you have experience. On top of that, alcohol increases the chance of making mistakes even further. During the New Year’s Eve celebrations, we can assume that a lot of people are somewhat intoxicated.
do not be such a pussy. What is the worst that could happen?” (Genesis 1). They were the first human beings ever and they did not realise that God might actually have a legitimate reason to forbid them from eating. For example, the fruits could have been poisonous but Adam and Eve did not take this possibility into account. Where it involves gunpowder, most people are pretty aware of what it is capable of. Yet, the presence of it makes situations inherently dangerous. The fact that there are more things present that can fire bullets or explode (regardless of how pretty this explosion may be) increases the chance of casualties. The USA is a good example of how the presence of guns is an increasing threat to domestic security. Now, imagine a bunch of drunken people during the New Year’s Eve celebrations. In the status quo, these people have legitimate means to not only hurt themselves, but also the ones around them. Lastly let us talk about democracy. It shows us that people do not take the effort to inform themselves before they act. A person may vote for the Labour Party because they assume that this party will create more jobs, but if you do not inform yourself fully on the party policy, this party may be more of a danger to you than you realise (especially if you know what the Labour Party has done this year). What is there to learn from these seemingly unrelated topics? They show us that people are not always aware of danger, do not want to inform themselves of danger and are a danger to themselves and others because they do not know what they are doing. Because of these reasons we must leave the use of fireworks to the professionals.
On top of this, allow me to elaborate on the stupidity of people by using the examples from the introduction and thus explaining why we should not give them the means to blow themselves up. Firstly, Adam and Eve figured they could eat the fruits because: “Gee Adam, Hear, Hear! 11
RHETORICAL BINGO CHART IN THIS SECTION, WE SHOW SOME OF THE OVERUSED PHRASES OF OUR BOARD MEMBERS. WHEN YOU HEAR THEM SAY THEM, YOU CAN CROSS THEM OFF AND GO TO SAID BOARD MEMBER TO RETRIEVE YOUR PRIZE. By Martijn Brouwer de Koning
Garrick, your bus leaves in ten minutes, and it is a train.
My girlfriend Marleen...
I need to check that with Marleen.
Grammar Nazi stuff.
^ (on Whatsapp)
Yes, Pokémon, indeed...
A well known face at Cicero is our vice chairman Mike. If you do not see him, make sure you keep your ears open and say a couple of grammatically incorrect sentences and you will hear him in a couple of seconds. Mike is very enthousiast and wants to do a lot, but only after he has checked if this is alright with his girlfriend Marleen. One of the things Mike does in his freetime is playing Pokémon, updating his YouTube page and doing nerdy stuff as an econometrician. One of the things you might not know is that Mike can also be a bit lazy, especially on Whatsapp. Instead of typing that he agrees, he will use the ^ sign. But at the end of the day, Mike has his heart in the right place and you will definitely see him around this year (or on YouTube when he decides to upload again...).
Hear, Hear! 13
Published on Feb 1, 2016