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Kristรกlycsillรกr Kristรกlycsillรกr Bohemia Corporation

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welcome

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About us

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History

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production

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gustav klimt

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project products

Maria theresa projects products

bonaparte napoleon project products

caravaggio project products

vivaldi project products

anna pavlova products

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Dear Friends,

Thank you

for your interest in our

newest edition of

this

present,

brief overview of our oper ation.

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Please note that our new Qatar Head Office is backed by: 17 full time designers from Italy and Bohemia 500+ full time employees, craftsman and office staff Centuries old craftsmanship and know how Modern, state of the art technologies You are being offered the World’s biggest selection of crystal chandeliers, over 4.640 standard catalog items to choose from as well as any and all kinds of new designs to fit your special needs.

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ABOUT US

“Bohemia Corporation� is jointly owned by and/or closely affiliated with some of the most important European manufacturers in Italy, Germany and the historic Bohemia region combining centuries old know-how and modern, state of the art capabilities, resulting in the widest possible selection of World Class quality chandeliers and countless Worldwide references, a select few of which are highlighted herein. Our Qatar head office is serviced and backed by our multinational operation, ensuring: Immediate and professional service World class quality Individual designs on top of our 4.640 standard catalog items Italian designs through our Italian design offices Fair pricing Fast delivery Onsite installation

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HISTORY

As early as 500 years ago in the woods of the Bohemia Kingdom, little glass furnaces started to be built. By the 17th century, Bohemian glass makers were able to produce high quality glass mass that looked like natural crystal. The Bohemian region by that time has become the source of the most widely sought after crystal, known for its high optical purity. In 1724 with Royal consent, a brisk trade of chandeliers was developed with chandeliers made from this fine material. Soon after this, jewel-like goods were delivered to the palaces of Louis XV, King of France, Maria Theresa, Empress of Austria and Elisabeth, Tsarina of Russia. Shortly after this, the European nobility started to favor this trend that stood the test of time. Nowadays the hand blown and sparkling crystal chandeliers from the Bohemia region are delivered to every segment of the World.

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PRODUCTION

Our manufacturing process expands from the drawing board to the finishing touches such as 24 Ka gold plating, hand painting and the likes. We combine centuries old know how with modern, state of the art technologies such as laser cutting, machine polishing of crystal to end up with jewel like artifacts.

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GOLD. From time immemorial, gold carries beauty, substance, wealth, even Divinity. And so GOLD and gold colored or even color or even gold plated crystal chandeliers naturally go hand in hand. Gold is what this genius, called Gustav Klimt is all about. Son of a gold engraver from Bohemia.

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Gustav Klimt was born in Baumgarten, near Vienna in Austria-Hungary, the second of seven children – three boys and four girls. His father, Ernst Klimt the Elder, formerly from Bohemia, was a gold engraver. He lived in poverty while attending the Vienna School of Arts and Crafts (Kunstgewerbeschule), where he studied architectural painting until 1883. Klimt began his professional career painting interior murals and ceilings in large public buildings on the Ringstraße including a successful series of “Allegories and Emblems”. In 1888, Klimt received the Golden order of Merit from Emperor Franz Josef I of Austria for his contributions to murals painted in the Burgtheater in Vienna. In 1892 both Klimt’s father and brother Ernst died, and he had to assume financial responsibility for his father’s and brother’s families. The tragedies affected his artistic vision as well, and soon he would veer toward a new personal style. Klimt’s ‘Golden Phase’ was marked by positive critical reaction and success. Many of his paintings from this period used gold leaf; the prominent use of gold can first be traced back to Pallas Athene (1898) and Judith I (1901),

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although the works most popularly associated with this period are the Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I (1907) and The Kiss (1907–08). His simple life was somewhat cloistered, devoted to his art and family and little else except the Secessionist Movement, and he avoided café society and other artists socially. His painting method was very deliberate and painstaking at times and he required lengthy sittings by his subjects. In a rare writing called “Commentary on a non-existent self-portrait”, he states “I have never painted a self-portrait. I am less interested in myself as a subject for a painting than I am in other people, above all women... There is nothing special about me. I am a painter who paints day after day from morning to night... Who ever wants to know something about me... ought to look carefully at my pictures.”

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projects

Sรกndor Palace Hungary

The Sรกndor Palace (Hungarian: Sรกndor-palota) is located in Budapest, Originally it was home to the Sandor family. In 1867 Earl Andrรกssy Gyula, prime minister of the time rented it for the purpose of using it as government residence. In 1881 the State has eventually purchased it. Between 1867-1945 it served as the official residence of the Prime Ministers at the time. Sรกndor Palace is the 37th biggest palace in present-day Hungary. During the Second World War it was nearly totally destroyed, in later times it was used as a storage for museum artifacts. The outside of the building was fixed only in 1989/1990. The total renovation took place between the years 2000-2002. The furnishing dates back to between the two World Wars.

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The classicist styled building was designed by Mihaly Pollack and Johann Aman, sometime between 1803-1806. Even though the original plans perished, a detailed description from 1822 remained, which served as a basis for the eventual renovation that took place between 2000-2002

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Since January 22, 2003 it is the official residence of the President of the Republic of Hungary and the seat of the Office of the President of the Republic, both.

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The classicist styled building was designed by Mihaly Pollack and Johann Aman, sometime between 1803-1806. Even though the original plans perished, but a detailed description from 1822 remained, which served as a basis for the eventual renovation that took place between 2000-2002. Since January 22, 2003 it is the official residence of the President of the Republic of Hungary and the seat of the Office of the President of the Republic, both.

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safisa Palace moscow

Moscow is named after the river Moskva, literally “the city by the Moskva River”. The first reference to Moscow dates from 1147 when Yuri Dolgorukiy called upon the prince of the Novgorod-Severski to “come to me, brother, to Moscow”. Between 1237–1238, the Mongols burned the city to the ground and killed its inhabitants. Moscow recovered and became the capital of the independent Vladimir-Suzdal principality in 1327. In 1380, prince Dmitry Donskoy of Moscow led a united Russian army to an important victory over the Tatars in the Battle of Kulikovo. Ivan III, in 1480, finally broke the Russians free from Tatar control, allowing Moscow to become the center of power in Russia.

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In 1571, the Crimean Tatars attacked and sacked Moscow, burning everything but the Kremlin. In 1547, two fires destroyed much of the town. The limits of the city as marked by the ramparts built in 1592, are now marked by the Garden Ring.

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The population of Moscow at first decreased but after 1750, the population grew more than tenfold over the remaining duration of the Russian Empire, reaching 1.8 million by 1915. In 1991 When the USSR was dissolved, Moscow became a capital of the Russian Federation. Since then, the emergency of a market economy in Moscow has produced an explosion of Western-style retailing, services, architecture, and lifestyles.

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Today Moscow is booming. And like any frontier town, it has an easy come, easy go attitude. There are freshly minted multi-millionaires and scores of others who have benefited from Russia’s new found wealth. Most of the wealth is concentrated in Moscow. So you will find many cafés and bars that will rival anything found in London or New York, and many places that you won’t find anywhere else. Such is the “Safisa Palace”.

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products

gustav klimt

A manufacturing process that stood the test of time is the casting and molding of metal chandelier parts that later get for example a 24 Ka Gold plating surface treatment. This process requires vast expertise that our craftsmen develop over years of diligent learning and practice. In metalworking, casting involves pouring liquid metal into a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and then allowing it to cool and solidify. The solidified part is also known as a casting, which is ejected or broken out of the mold to complete the process. Casting is most often used for making complex shapes that would be difficult or uneconomical to make by other methods. Casting processes have been known for thousands of years, and widely used for sculpture, especially in bronze, jewellery in precious metals, and weapons and tools.

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ID GK 0010 | 48x56 cm


ID GK 0012 | 11x30 cm Expendable mold casting is a generic classification that includes sand, plastic, shell, plaster, and investment (lost-wax technique) moldings. This method of mold casting involves the use of temporary, non-reusable molds.

ID GK 0011 | 11x36 cm

Traditional techniques include lostwax casting, plaster mold casting and sand casting. The modern casting process is subdivided into two main categories: expendable and non-expendable casting. It is further broken down by the mold material, such as sand or metal, and pouring method, such as gravity, vacuum, or low pressure.

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ID GK 0013 | 26x35 cm

Sand casting is one of the most popular and simplest types of casting that has been used for centuries. Sand casting allows for smaller batches to be made compared to permanent mold casting and at a very reasonable cost. Not only does this method allow manufacturers to create products at a low cost, but there are other benefits to sand casting, such as very small size operations. From castings that fit in the palm of your hand to train beds (one casting can create the entire bed for one rail car), it can all be done with sand casting. Sand casting also allows most metals to be cast depending on the type of sand used for the molds.

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ID GK 0016 | 15x40 cm

ID GK 0014 | 18x24 cm

ID GK 0015


ID GK 0017 | 30x60 cm

Sand casting requires a lead time of days for production at high output rates (1–20 pieces/hr-mold) and is unsurpassed for large-part production. Green (moist) sand has almost no part weight limit, whereas dry sand has a practical part mass limit of 2,300–2,700 kg (5,100–6,000 lb). Minimum part weight ranges from 0.075–0.1 kg (0.17–0.22 lb).

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ID GK 0018 | 32x65 cm The sand is bonded together using clays, chemical binders, or polymerized oils (such as motor oil). Sand can be recycled many times in most operations and requires little maintenance. Plaster casting is similar to sand casting except that plaster of paris is substituted for sand as a mold material. Generally, the form takes less than a week to prepare, after

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“If your deeds and art

can not satisfy everyone, then appeal to the few! The admiration of the crowds

is not worth much.�

- gustav klimt -

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ID GK 0020 | 56x152 cm

ID GK 0019 | 50x150 cm


ID GK 0021 | 30x15 cm which a production rate of 1–10 units/hr·mold is achieved, with items as massive as 45 kg (99 lb) and as small as 30 g (1 oz) with very good surface finish and close tolerances. Plaster casting is an inexpensive alternative to other molding processes for complex parts due to the low cost of the plaster and its ability to produce near net shape castings. The biggest disadvantage is that it can only be used with low melting point non-ferrous materials, such as aluminium, copper, magnesium, and zinc. Shell molding is similar to sand casting, but the molding cavity is formed by a hardened “shell” of sand instead of a flask filled with sand. The sand used is finer than sand casting sand and is mixed with a resin so that it can be heated by the pattern and hardened into a shell around the pattern. Because of the resin and finer sand, it gives a much finer surface finish. The process is easily automated and more precise than sand casting. Common metals that are cast include cast iron, aluminium, magnesium, and copper alloys. This process is ideal for complex items that are small to medium sized.

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ID GK 0022 | 63x69 cm


ID GK 0024 | 58x52 cm ID GK 0023 | 67x48 cm

Investment casting (known as lost-wax casting in art) is a process that has been practised for thousands of years, with the lost-wax process being one of the oldest known metal forming techniques. From 5000 years ago, when beeswax formed the pattern, to today’s high technology waxes, refractory materials and specialist alloys,

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ID GK 0025 | 120x135 cm


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ID GK 0026 | 78x67 cm


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“Those who want to know

me better, let them observe my paintings with care.�

- gustav klimt -

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ID GK 0027 | 61x64 cm


Investment casting derives its name from the fact that the pattern is invested, or surrounded, with a refractory material. The wax patterns require extreme care for they are not strong enough to withstand forces encountered during the mold making. One advantage of investment casting is that the wax can be reused. The process is suitable for repeatable production of net shape components from a variety of different metals and high performance alloys. Although generally used for small castings, this process has been used to produce complete aircraft door frames, with steel castings of up to 300 kg and aluminium castings of up to 30 kg. Compared to other casting processes such as die casting or sand casting, it can be an expensive process, however the components that can be produced using investment casting can incorporate intricate contours, and in most cases the components are cast near net shape, so require little or no rework once cast.

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ID GK 0029 |18x42 cm

ID GK 0028 | 19x38 cm the castings ensure high-quality components are produced with the key benefits of accuracy, repeatability, versatility and integrity.


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Maria Theresa was a legend of her time. Her radiant personality, one of style, elegance and humanity, left an imprint throughout her domains. Her legacy filtered through the centuries and her name became a legendary “trademark�. Legend has it that Maria Theresa fell in love twice in her life. First time she fell in love with a young man, who later became known as Emperor Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, whom she later married. The second time she fell in love, it was with the Bohemian chandeliers.

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In 1746 a crystal chandelier was delivered from Bohemia to the Royal Court. The elaborate, dense design and the elegance of the harp shaped arms so enchanted her Majesty that she favored this type ever since. This line of chandeliers are known as “Maria Theresa chandeliers�. But who was Maria Theresa? Born in 1717, was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg. She was the sovereign of Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia, Mantua, Milan, Lodomeria and Galicia, the Austrian Netherlands and Parma. By marriage, she was Duchess of Lorraine, Grand Duchess of Tuscany and Holy Roman Empress. Maria Theresa understood the importance of her public persona and was able to simultaneously evoke both esteem and affection from her subjects. Maria Theresa promulgated financial and educational reforms.

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She promoted commerce and the development of agriculture, and reorganized Austria’s ramshackle military, all of which strengthened Austria’s international standing. As a young monarch who fought two dynastic wars, she believed that her cause should be the cause of her subjects, but in her later years she would believe that their cause must be hers! The empress fell ill on 24 November 1780, ostensibly of a chill and the next day, at about nine o’clock in the evening, she died. With her, the House of Habsburg died out and was replaced by the House of Habsburg-Lorraine. Maria Theresa left a revitalized empire that influenced the rest of Europe throughout the 19th century.

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projects

miskolc palace Hungary

Palace Andrassy is Located in the Palace district of Budapest. The great flood of 1838 destroyed most of the district’s then-buildings. A major impetus for the area’s subsequent development was the construction at its western end of the magnificent neo-classical Hungarian National Museum between 1837 and 1847. The district’s palaces were mostly constructed in the streets immediately surrounding the Museum. Thereabouts was built the Andrassy Palace, also known as The Festetics Palace (1862). To this day, throughout the building Maria Theresa crystal chandeliers are the predominant form of lighting. Today it houses the Andrássy Gyula Budapest German-language University.

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It was founded in 2001 by Hungary, Germany, Austria, Bavaria, and BadenW端rttemberg. The partner countries are Hungary, Republic of Austria, Federal Republic of Germany, Free State of Bavaria, Baden-W端rttemberg and TrentinoAlto Adige/S端dtirol. The AUB is the only fully German-speaking university outside the Germanspeaking countries and a private, non-governmental, and non-profit university. The 1:7 relation of professors to students allows targeted and efficient studies in small groups. Students from more than 25 nations provide intercultural exchange.

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The students have the possibility to cover the tuition fees through official scholarships. In addition to encouraging the use of German as an academic language, the AUB aims to support and consolidate the cooperation of the states around the Danube, the education of European experts as well as multidisciplinary and multicultural teaching and research. Palace Andrassy is Located in the Palace district of Budapest.

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Gyula Andrássy (portrait by Gyula Benczúr, 1884) He was born in the Kingdom of Hungary. The son of a liberal father who belonged to the political opposition. He was elected as one of the Radical candidates to the Diet of 1848 and entered military service. After the catastrophe of Világos, where the Hungarians were defeated, Andrássy emigrated to London and then to Paris. On 21 September 1851, he was hanged in effigy by the Austrian government for his share in the Hungarian revolt. In exile for ten years, he studied politics in what was then the centre of European diplomacy. On 17 February 1867 the king appointed him as the first constitutional Hungarian premier. After his retirement, Andrássy continued to take an active part in public affairs both in the Delegations and in the Upper House His motto was: “It is hard to promise, but it is easy to perform.” Andrássy certainly was the master-builder of the modern Hungarian state.

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projects

andrássy Palace Hungary

Palace Andrassy is Located in the Palace district of Budapest. The great flood of 1838 destroyed most of the district’s then-buildings. A major impetus for the area’s subsequent development was the construction at its western end of the magnificent neo-classical Hungarian National Museum between 1837 and 1847. The district’s palaces were mostly constructed in the streets immediately surrounding the Museum. Thereabouts was built the Andrassy Palace, also known as The Festetics Palace (1862). To this day, throughout the building Maria Theresa crystal chandeliers are the predominant form of lighting. Today it houses the Andrássy Gyula Budapest German-language University.

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It was founded in 2001 by Hungary, Germany, Austria, Bavaria, and Baden-W端rttemberg. The partner countries are Hungary, Republic of Austria, Federal Republic of Germany, Free State of Bavaria, Baden-W端rttemberg and Trentino-Alto Adige/S端dtirol. The AUB is the only fully German-speaking university outside the German-speaking countries and a private, non-governmental, and non-profit university. The 1:7 relation of professors to students allows targeted and efficient studies in small groups. Students from more than 25 nations provide intercultural exchange.

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The students have the possibility to cover the tuition fees through official scholarships. In addition to encouraging the use of German as an academic language, the AUB aims to support and consolidate the cooperation of the states around the Danube, the education of European experts as well as multidisciplinary and multicultural teaching and research. Palace Andrassy is Located in the Palace district of Budapest.

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Gyula Andrássy (portrait by Gyula Benczúr, 1884) He was born in the Kingdom of Hungary. The son of a liberal father who belonged to the political opposition. He was elected as one of the Radical candidates to the Diet of 1848 and entered military service. After the catastrophe of Világos, where the Hungarians were defeated, Andrássy emigrated to London and then to Paris. On 21 September 1851, he was hanged in effigy by the Austrian government for his share in the Hungarian revolt. In exile for ten years, he studied politics in what was then the centre of European diplomacy. On 17 February 1867 the king appointed him as the first constitutional Hungarian premier. After his retirement, Andrássy continued to take an active part in public affairs both in the Delegations and in the Upper House His motto was: “It is hard to promise, but it is easy to perform.” Andrássy certainly was the master-builder of the modern Hungarian state.

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Grassalkovich CASTLE Hungary

The palace is one of the most important, largest monuments of Hungarian palace architecture. Its builder, Count Antal Grassalkovich I (1694–1771) was a typical figure of the regrouping Hungarian aristocracy of the 18th century. He was a Royal Septemvir, president of the Hungarian Chamber, and confidant of Empress Maria Theresa. The construction began around 1733, under the direction of András Mayerhoffer (1690–1771) a Salzburg builder. The palace has a double U shape, and is surrounded by an enormous park. The building underwent several enlargements and modifications during the 18th century, its present shape was established in the time of the third generation of the Grassalkovich family. By then the building had 8 wings, and – besides the residential part – it contained a church, a theatre, a riding-hall, a hothouse, a greenhouse for flowers and an orangery.

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After the male side of the Grassalkovich family died out in 1841, the palace had several owners, and in 1867 it was bought for the crown. The decision of parliament designated it the resting residence of the Hungarian monarch. This state lasted until 1918, thus Francis Joseph (1867–1916) and later Charles IV and the royal family spent several months in Gödöllő every year. During this period the palace became the symbol of independent Hungarian statehood, and, as a residential centre it had a political significance of it own. It was Queen Elisabeth (1837–1898) who specially loved staying in Gödöllő.

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The period of the royal decades also brought their enlargements and modifications. The suites were made more comfortable, a marble stable and cart-house were built. The riding hall was re-edified. Between the two world wars the palace served as the residence for Regent Mikl贸s Horthy. No significant building took place during this period, apart from an airraid shelter in the southern front garden. After 1945 the palace, like many other buildings in Hungary, fell into decay.

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Soviet and Hungarian troops used the building, some of the beautifully decorated rooms were used for an old people’s home, and the park was divided into smaller plots of land. The protection of the palace as a historical monument started in 1981, when the National Board for Monuments launched its palace project. The most important tasks of preservation began in 1986 and were completed in the end of 1991. During this time the palace was partly emptied. By 1990 the Soviet troops left. During this time the roof of the riding-hall and the stable-wing was reconstructed, the façade of the building was renovated, as well as the trussing of the central wings and the double cupola. Research was carried out in the archives and in the building, and thus the different building periods of the monument were defined. Painted walls and rooms were uncovered which revealed the splendour of the 1819th centuries. The most remarkable samples of it can be seen in the theatre, where a large Maria Theresa chandelier was manufactured based on the original design. Today the Palace serves as a convention facility both for overnment uses as well as for private events. Riding competitions are held in the park annually.

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products

MARIA THERESA

Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina (German: Maria Theresia; 13 May 1717 – 29  November 1780) was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg. She was the sovereign of Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia, Mantua, Milan, Lodomeria and Galicia, the Austrian Netherlands and Parma. By marriage, she was Duchess of Lorraine, Grand Duchess of Tuscany and Holy Roman Empress. She started her 40-year reign when her father, Emperor Charles VI, died in October 1740.

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ID MT 0010 | 33x44 cm


ID MT 0011 | 45x50 cm

Charles  VI paved the way for her accession with the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 and spent his entire reign securing it. Upon the death of her father, Saxony, Prussia, Bavaria and France repudiated the sanction they had recognised during his lifetime. Prussia proceeded to invade the affluent Habsburg province of Silesia, sparking a nine-year conflict known as the War of the Austrian Succession. Maria Theresa would later unsuccessfully try to reconquer Silesia during the Seven Years’ War.

ID MT 0012 | 33x35 cm

Maria Theresa and her husband, Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, had sixteen children, including Queen Marie Antoinette of France, Queen Maria Carolina of Naples, Duchess Maria Amalia of Parma and two Holy Roman Emperors, Joseph II and Leopold II.

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ID MT 0014 | 160x180 cm


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ID MT 0015 | 55x46 cm


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ID MT 0016 | 80x90 cm


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ID MT 0017 | 100x110 cm


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“Without true faith

there is no good morals, without good morals there is neither happiness, not piece of mind whatever is

man’s standing in society”

- MARIA THERESE lányai -

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ID MT 0018 | 68x168 cm


ID MT 0019 | 58x38 cm

Though she was expected to cede power to Francis and Joseph, both of whom were officially her co-rulers in Austria and Bohemia, Maria Theresa was the absolute sovereign who ruled by the counsel of her advisers. She criticised and disapproved of many of Joseph’s actions. Although she is considered to have been intellectually inferior to both Joseph and Leopold, Maria Theresa understood the importance of her public persona and was able to simultaneously evoke both esteem and affection from her subjects.

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ID MT 0020 | 65x64 cm


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ID MT 0021 | 59x45 cm


ID MT 0022 | 115x73 cm

Maria Theresa promulgated financial and educational reforms, with the assistance of Count Friedrich Wilhelm von Haugwitz and Gerard van Swieten, promoted commerce and the development of agriculture, and reorganised Austria’s ramshackle military, all of which strengthened Austria’s international standing.

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ID MT 0023 | 112x66 cm

However, she refused to allow religious toleration and contemporary travellers thought her regime was bigoted and superstitious. As a young monarch who fought two dynastic wars, she believed that her cause should be the cause of her subjects, but in her later years she would believe that their cause must be hers.

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Bonaparte Napoleon and Diamonds. Napoleon was famously generous to his close friends and his wife. One of the most famous diamonds he intended as his engagement gift. This Bonaparte Napoleon chandelier collection was inspired by the utter beauty of this gift.

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Napoleon Bonaparte Born on 15 August 1769 was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the latter stages of the French Revolution and its associated wars in Europe. As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1815. His legal reform, the Napoleonic Code, has been a major influence on many civil law jurisdictions worldwide, but he is best remembered for his role in the wars led against France by a series of coalitions, the socalled Napoleonic Wars. The official introduction of the metric system in September 1799 was unpopular in large sections of French society, and Napoleon’s rule greatly aided adoption of the new standard across not only France but the French sphere of influence. The Napoleonic code was adopted throughout much of Europe, though only in the lands he conquered, and remained in force after Napoleon’s defeat.

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Napoleon said: “My true glory is not to have won 40 battles...Waterloo will erase the memory of so many victories.  ... But...what will live forever, is my Civil Code”. The Code still has importance today in a quarter of the world’s jurisdictions including in Europe, the Americas and Africa. Napoleon was imprisoned and then exiled to the island of Saint Helena in the Atlantic Ocean, 1,870 km from the west coast of Africa. In February 1821, Napoleon’s health began to fail rapidly, and on 3 May two British physicians, who had recently arrived, attended on him. He died two days later.

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PROJEcT

Spirit wellness hotel hungary

Sárvár is an idyllic small town along the river Rába in Western Hungary, Europe. Once founded as the Roman settlement of Bassiana, it functioned as a castle against German attacks during the settlement of the Magyars in Hungary. Sárvár Castle has an eventful past: until 1280 it was in the possession of the King, afterwards it was owned by the Kőszegi family and then by King Charles I. During the leadership of Ferenc Nádasdy, the people of Sárvár repelled the Turkish attack in 1532. After this, the town fell into the ownership of this famous Hungarian noble family, which enriched the cultural life of Sárvár.

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At Tamás Nádasdy’s court, famous scientists, artists, humorists, physicians and architects were welcomed as guests. In 1541, the first book in the Hungarian language was printed in Sárvár. After Ferenc Nádasdy’s death, Sárvár fell into the ownership of the Draskovich family. The new owner of the castle, Ludwig III. – Prince and King of Bavaria developed an exemplary economy out of the manor. He died in Sárvár.

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In 1961, whilst drilling for oil, a special treasure was found: the hot mineral springs. On this hot spring was built Spirit Wellness Spa and 5***** Hotel, which awarded the “Spa&Relax Guide in Hungary 2011� a major prize awarded to the best Hungarian spa and wellness hotel.

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Subsequently it won the “European Spa & Health Award” and the “Best Destination Spa 2010” Grand Prix and their team for the spa and wellness expertise was also awarded the “Blue Diamond” award in Paris.

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products

Bonaparte Napoleon

Cutting diamonds (and crystals) is the practice of changing a rough stone into a faceted gem. Cutting crystals like cutting diamonds, requires specialized knowledge, tools, equipment, and techniques because of its extreme difficulty. The first guild of diamond cutters and polishers (diamantaire) was formed in 1375 in Nuremberg, Germany, and led to the development of various types of “cut�. This has two meanings in relation to diamonds. The first is the shape: square, oval, and so on. The second relates to the specific quality of cut within the shape, and the quality and price will vary greatly based on the cut quality. Since diamonds are very hard to cut, special diamond-bladed edges are used to cut them.

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ID BN 0010 | 25x25x27 cm


ID BN 0012 | 25x25x20 cm ID BN 0011 | 48x48x30 cm The first major development in diamond cutting came with the “Point Cut� during the later half of the 14th century: the Point Cut follows the natural shape of an octahedral raw diamond crystal, eliminating some waste in the cutting process. The process of maximizing the value of finished diamonds, from a rough diamond into a polished gemstone, is both an art and a science.

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The choice of cut is influenced by many factors. Market factors include the exponential increase in value of diamonds as weight increases, referred to as weight retention, and the popularity of certain shapes amongst consumers. Physical factors include the original shape of the rough stone, and location of the inclusions and flaws to be eliminated.

ID BN 0013 | 45x19 cm

The round brilliant cut and square brilliant cuts are preferred when the crystal is an octahedron, as often two stones may be cut from one such crystal.

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ID BN 0014 | 50x34 cm

ID BN 0015 | 35x23 cm


Oddly shaped crystals, such as macles are more likely to be cut in a fancy cut − that is, a cut other than the round brilliant − which the particular crystal shape lends itself to. In colored diamonds, cutting can influence the color grade of the diamond, thereby raising its value.

ID BN 0016 | 30x42 cm

ID BN 0017 | 250x750 cm

Certain cut shapes are used to intensify the color of the diamond. The radiant cut is an example of this type of cut.

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ID BN 0018 | 49x49x28 cm

ID BN 0019 | 50x50x300 cm


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“In politics it is forbidden

to retrieve anything, to retreat or admit that we made a mistake. - bonaparte napoleon -

�

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ID BN 0020 | 500x1800 cm

ID BN 0022 | 400x700 cm


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ID BN 0024 | 550x1500 cm

ID BN 0023 | 50x13 cm


Natural green color diamonds most often have merely a surface coloration caused by natural irradiation, which does not extend through the stone. For this reason green diamonds are cut with significant portions of the original rough diamond’s surface (naturals) left on the finished gem. It is these naturals that provide the color to the diamond.

ID BN 0025 | 31x50 cm

ID BN 0026 | 34x26 cm

Cleaving is the separation of a piece of diamond rough into separate pieces, to be finished as separate gems.

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ID BN 0028 | 61x17 cm ID BN 0027 | 36x13 cm Sawing is the use of a diamond saw or laser to cut the diamond rough into separate pieces. Bruting is the process whereby two diamonds are set onto spinning axles turning in opposite directions, which are then set to grind against each other to shape each diamond into a round shape. This can also be known as girdling. Polishing is the name given to process whereby the facets are cut onto the diamond and final polishing is performed.

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ID BN 0030 | 55x25 cm

ID BN 0029 | 115x35 cm

The process takes the steps blocking, faceting, also called “brillianteering�, and polishing. The final stage involves thoroughly cleaning the diamond in acids, and examining the diamond to see whether it meets the quality standards of the manufacturer. It is possible only because the hardness of diamond varies widely according to the direction in which one is trying to cut or grind.

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ID BN 0032 | 80x43 cm

ID BN 0031 | 80x63 cm

A simplified round brilliant cut process includes the following stages: • Sawing the rough stone. • Table setting where one facet is created. The table facet is then used to attach the stone into a dop (a lapidary tool holding gemstones for cutting or polishing).

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“There is a kind of robber that

is not punished by law, and which robs us all of our most precious commodity: time. - bonaparte napoleon -

�

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ID BN 0034 | 1000x500cm

• Bruting the girdle. Blocking four main pavilion facets. • Transferring to another dop in order to rotate the stone. • Blocking four main crown facets. • Cutting and polishing all pavilion facets.

ID BN 0033 | 80x30 cm

• Transferring to another dop.

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ID BN 0035 | 45x15 cm

ID BN 0036 | 63x35 cm


ID BN 0037 | 72x80 cm

Cutting and polishing all crown facets. This is just one, although a fairly common way of creating a round brilliant cut. The actual process also includes many more stages depending on the size and quality of the rough stone. For example, bigger stones are first scanned to get the three-dimensional shape, which is then used to find the optimal usage.

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ID BN 0038 | 37x34x108 cm

ID BN 0039 | 45x18x47 cm


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The essence of Caravaggio’s mastery can be summed up by saying that he was able to capture the perfect balance of fight and shadow. He is all about light and shadow. And colors, colors, colors. Much like our Caravaggio Selection of crystal chandeliers. Ligt, shadow, sparkling, purity, colors, fire.

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Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio Born on September 28, 1571, was an Italian artist active in Rome, Naples, Malta, and Sicily between 1593 and 1610. His paintings, which combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting, had a formative influence on the Baroque school of painting. Caravaggio trained as a painter in Milan under Simone Peterzano who had himself trained under Titian. In his early twenties Caravaggio moved to Rome where, during the late 16th and early 17th centuries, many huge new churches and palazzi were being built and paintings were needed to fill them. Caravaggio’s novelty was a radical naturalism that combined close physical observation with a dramatic, even theatrical, use of chiaroscuro. This came to be known as Tenebrism, the shift from light to dark with little intermediate value. He burst upon the Rome art scene in 1600 with the success of his first public commissions, the Martyrdom of Saint Matthew and Calling of Saint Matthew. Thereafter he never lacked commissions or patrons, yet he handled his success poorly.

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Famous while he lived, Caravaggio was forgotten almost immediately after his death, and it was only in the 20th century that his importance to the development of Western art was rediscovered. Despite this, his influence on the new Baroque style that eventually emerged from the ruins of Mannerism was profound. It can be seen directly or indirectly in the work of Rubens, Jusepe de Ribera, Bernini, and Rembrandt, and artists in the following generation heavily under his influence were called the “Caravaggisti” or “Caravagesques”, as well as Tenebrists or “Tenebrosi” (“shadowists”). Art historian Andre Berne-Joffroy said of him: “What begins in the work of Caravaggio is, quite simply, modern painting.”

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Project

Qolsh채rif MoSQuE tatarstan

Originally, the mosque was built in the Kazan Kremlin in the 16th century. It was named after Qolsh채rif, who served there. Qolsh채rif died with his numerous students while defending Kazan from Russian forces in 1552. It is believed that the building featured minarets, both in the form of cupolas and tents. Its design was traditional for Volga Bulgaria, although elements of early Renaissance and Ottoman architecture could have been used as well. In 1552, during the storming of Kazan it was destroyed by Ivan The Terrible.

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Tatar scholars speculate as to whether some elements of Qolshärif Mosque can be seen in Saint Basil’s Cathedral in Moscow (8 minarets, a central cupola, not typical for Russian architecture). Since 1996 the mosque has been rebuilt in Kazan Kremlin, although its look is decisively modern. Its inauguration on July 24, 2005 marked the beginning of celebrations dedicated to the Millennium of Kazan. It can accommodate 6,000 worshipers.

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Several countries contributed to the fund that was set up to build Qolsh채rif Mosque, namely Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. Qolsh채rif is considered to be one of the most important symbols of Tatar aspirations.

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Nowadays the mosque predominantly serves as a museum of Islam. At the same time during the major Muslim celebrations thousands of people gather there to pray. The Qolshärif complex was envisioned to be an important cornerstone of Kazan’s architectural landscape. Besides the main mosque building it includes a library, publishing house and Imam’s office.

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caravaggio

Glassblowing is a glass forming technique which was invented by the Phoenicians around 50 BC somewhere along the Syro-Palestinian coast. The earliest evidence of glassblowing comes from a collection of waste from a glass shop, including fragments of glass tubes, glass rods and tiny blown bottle dated from 37 to 4 BC Some of the glass tubes recovered are fire-closed at one end and are partially inflated by blowing through the open end while still hot to form a small bottle; thus they are considered as a rudimentary form of blowpipe. Hence, tube blowing not only represents the initial attempts of experimentation by glassworkers at blowing glass, it is also a revolutionary step that induced a change in conception and a deep understanding of glass. Such inventions swiftly eclipsed all other traditional methods, such as casting and core-forming, in working glass.

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ID C 0010 | 720x670 cm

The invention of glassblowing coincided with the establishment of the Roman Empire in the 1st century BC which served to provide motivation to its spread and dominance. Glassblowing was greatly supported by the Roman Government, although Roman citizens could not be “in trade�, in particular under the reign of Augustus, therefore glass was being blown in many areas of the Roman world.

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ID C 0011 | 720x670 cm ID C 0012 | 800x800 cm On the eastern borders of the Empire, the first glass workshops were set up by the Phoenicians in the birthplace of glassblowing in contemporary Lebanon and Israel as well as in the neighbouring province of Cyprus. Ennion for example, was among one of the most prominent glassworkers from Lebanon of the time. He was renowned for producing the multi-paneled mould-blown glass vessels that were

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ID C 0014 | 800x800 cm

ID C 0013 | 800x800 cm

complex in their shapes, arrangement and decorative motifs. The complexity of designs of these mould-blown glass vessels illustrated that the sophistication of the glassworkers in the eastern regions of the Roman Empire. Mould-blown glass vessels manufactured by the workshops of Ennion and other contemporary glassworkers such as Jason, Nikon, Aristeas and Meges, constitutes some of the earliest evidence of

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ID C 0015 | 800x800 cm

glassblowing found in the eastern territories. Meanwhile, the glassblowing technique reached Egypt and was described in a fragmentary poem printed on the papyrus which was dated to 3rd century AD. Besides, the Roman hegemony over the Mediterranean areas resulted in the substitution of Hellenistic casting, core-forming and mosaic fusion techniques by blowing.

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ID C 0016 | 120x720 cm


The earliest evidence of blowing in Hellenistic consists of small blown bottles for perfume and oil retrieved from the glass workshops on the Greek island of Samothrace and at Corinth in mainland Greece which were dated to 1st century AD. On the other hand, the Phoenician glassworkers exploited their glassblowing techniques and set up their workshops in the western territories of the Roman Empire first in Italy by the middle of the 1st century AD Rome, the heartland of the Empire, soon became a major glassblowing centre and more glassblowing workshops were subsequently established in other provinces of Italy, for example Campania, Morgantina and Aquileia.

ID C 0017 | 820x820 cm

A great variety of blown glass objects, ranging from unguentaria (toiletry container for perfume) to cameo, from tableware to window glass, were produced. From there, escaping craftsmen forbidden to travel otherwise advanced to the rest of Europe by building their glassblowing workshops in the north of the Alps which is now Switzerland and then at sites in northern Europe in presentday France and Belgium. Surviving evidence, such as blowpipes and moulds which are indicative of the presence of blowing, was fragmentary and limited. Fragments of clay blowpipes were retrieved from the late 1st century AD glass workshop at Avenches in Switzerland.

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“If man does not face

the present, then he is rocked by the waves hope, fear or desperation. Goes from waive to wave, experiencing the bottoms endlessly.

That is the game time is playing on us.�

- Caravaggio -

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ID C 0018 | 860x770 cm


147 ID C 0019 | 620x530 cm


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ID C 0020


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Antonio Vivaldi’s most famous piece is the Four Seasons. The musical theme is so well translated into impressions that if one closes one’s eyes, the particular seasons and landscape just pups into view. Part of the winter scenery are the icicles. Hence the inspiration for our “Vivaldi Collection” of crystal compositions in chandeliers.

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Antonio Lucio Vivaldi was born on March 4, 1678. Nicknamed il Prete Rosso (“The Red Priest”) because of his red hair, was an Italian Baroque composer and virtuoso violinist, born in Venice. Recognized as one of the greatest Baroque composers, his influence during his lifetime was widespread over Europe. Vivaldi is known mainly for composing instrumental concertos, especially for the violin, as well as sacred choral works and over forty operas. His best known work is a series of violin concertos known as The Four Seasons. Many of his compositions were written for the female music ensemble of the Ospedale della Pietà, a home for abandoned children where Vivaldi had been employed from 1703 to 1715 and from 1723 to 1740. Vivaldi also had some success with stagings of his operas in Venice, Mantua and Vienna. After meeting the Emperor Charles VI, Vivaldi moved to Vienna, hoping for preferment. Though Vivaldi’s music was well received during his lifetime, it later declined in popularity until its vigorous revival in the first half of

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the 20th century. Today, Vivaldi ranks among the most popular and widely recorded of Baroque composers. In 1717 or 1718, Vivaldi was offered a new prestigious position as Maestro di Cappella of the court of prince Philip of Hesse-Darmstadt, governor of Mantua. He moved there for three years and produced several operas, among which was Tito Manlio. In 1721, he was in Milan, where he presented the pastoral drama La Silvia. Vivaldi’s music was innovative. He brightened the formal and rhythmic structure of the concerto, in which he looked for harmonic contrasts and innovative melodies and themes; many of his compositions are flamboyantly, almost playfully, exuberant.

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PROJEct

Design by D.H. Aldit

Our Star Designers are taking the traditional materials and centuries old know how to previously unthinkable plateaus. Crystal is a very moldable, sparkling and noble material that needs to be caressed into perfection. The possibilities are limitless, and the only limit placed on this material is the creative imagination of the designer as well as the abilities of the craftsmen who are able to transform a new design into actual reality using hand blown, traditional manufacturing methods that take years of education and as many years of practice.

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We build upon our past achievements, experience, knowhow and worldwide successes. It took literally centuries of trials and errors in experimenting with crystals. All this work that transcends generations makes it possible to actually produce what the imagination created.

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Today’s challenge to meet is to continue using this noble material in such ways that will enchant the observer of the modern age.

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Listen to Vivaldi’d masterpiece of the Four Seasons and when you are at the “winter” part, think of our creations that follow on the next few pages.

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vivaldi

Clay blowpipes, also known as mouthblowers, were made by the ancient glassworkers due to the accessibility and availability of the resources before the introduction of the metal blowpipes. Hollow iron rods, together with blown vessel fragments and glass waste dating to approximately 4th century AD, were recovered from the glass workshop in MĂŠrida of Spain, as well as in Salona in Croatia. Meanwhile, one of the most prolific glassblowing centres of the Roman period was established in Cologne on the river Rhine in Germany by late 1st century BC. Stone base mould and terracotta base mould were discovered from these Rhineland workshops suggesting the adoption and the application of mould-blowing technique by the glassworkers.

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Besides, blown flagons and blown jars decorated with ribbing, as well as blown perfume bottles with letters CCAA or CCA which stand for Colonia Claudia Agrippiniensis, were produced from the Rhineland workshops.

ID V 0010

Remains of blown blue-green glass vessels, for example bottles with a handle, collared bowls and indented beakers, were found in abundance from the local glass workshops at Poetovio and Celeia in Slovenia.

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ID V 0012

In the Middle Ages The glass blowing tradition was carried on in Europe from the medieval period through the Middle Ages to the Renaissance in the demise of the Roman Empire in the 5th century AD. During the early medieval period, the Franks manipulated the technique of glassblowing by creating the simple corrugated moulds and developing the claws decoration techniques.

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ID V 0013 Blown glass objects, such as the drinking vessels that imitated the shape of the animal horn were produced in the Rhine and Meuse valleys, as well as in Belgium. The Byzantine glassworkers made mould-blown glass between late 6th century and the middle of the 7th century AD. Mould-blown vessels with facets, relief and linear-cut decoration were discovered at Samarra in the Islamic Lands.

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ID V 0011


Renaissance Europe witnessed the revitalization of glass industry in Italy. Glassblowing, in particular the mouldblowing technique, was employed by the Venetian glassworkers from Murano to produce the fine glassware which is also known as cristallo. The technique of glassblowing, coupled with the cylinder and crown methods, was used to manufacture sheet or flat glass for window panes in the late 17th century. The applicability of glassblowing was so widespread that glass was being blown in many parts of the world, for example, in China, Japan and the Islamic Lands.

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“I heard him brag that he will

compose a concert faster than it would take a copy writer to put it down on paper.�

- Charles de Brosse -

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Glass forming techniques were created in the middle of the last century BC. Glassblowing exploited a working property of glass which was previously unknown to the glassworkers: inflation. Inflation refers to the expansion of a molten blob of glass by introducing a small amount of air to it.

ID V 0014

This property is based on the liquid structure of glass where the atoms are held together by strong chemical bonds in a disordered and random network, therefore molten glass is viscous enough to be blown and gradually hardens as it loses heat. In order to increase the stiffness of the molten glass, which in turn facilitates the process of blowing, there is a subtle change in the composition of glass. With reference to their studies of the ancient glass assemblages from Fischer and McCray postulated that the concentration of natron, which acts as flux in glass, is slightly lower in blown vessels than those manufactured by casting.

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According to Anna Pavlova, dance is life itself. Inspiring this “Anna Pavlova Collection� was not only the artist herself, but the light elegance of her artistry that made even the most demanding choreographies seem ethereal. Such is the dancing of light on the surface of the finest quality crystals found in the chandeliers of this collection.

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Anna Pavlova was born on February 12, 1881. She was a Russian Empire ballerina of the late 19th and the early 20th century. She is widely regarded as one of the finest classical ballet dancers in history. The identity of her father has been open to debate. Pavlova’s passion for the art of ballet was ignited when her mother took her to a performance of Marius Petipa’s original production of The Sleeping Beauty at the Imperial Maryinsky Theater. She appeared for the first time on stage in Marius Petipa’s Un conte de fées (A Fairy Tale), which the ballet master staged for the students of the school. The young Pavlova’s years of training were difficult, as classical ballet did not come easily to her. Her severely arched feet, thin ankles, and long limbs clashed with the small and compact body in favor for the ballerina at the time. She graduated in 1899 at age 18, being allowed to enter the Imperial Ballet a rank ahead of corps de ballet as a coryphée.

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Pavlova rose through the ranks quickly, becoming a favorite of the old maestro Petipa. Petipa revised many grand pas for her, as well as many supplemental variations. She was much celebrated by the fanatical balletomanes of Tsarist Saint Petersburg, her legions of fans calling themselves the Pavlovatzi. Pavlova is perhaps most renowned for creating the role of The Dying Swan, a solo choreographed for her by Michel Fokine. The ballet, created in 1905, is danced to Le cygne from The Carnival of the Animals by Camille Saint-SaĂŤns.

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Anna pavlova

Lower concentration of natron would have allowed the glass to be stiffer for blowing. During blowing, thinner layers of glass cool faster than thicker ones and become more viscous than the thicker layers. This allows production of blown glass with uniform thickness, instead of facilitating blow-through of the thinned layers. A full range of glassblowing techniques was developed within decades of its invention and the two major methods of glassblowing are as follows: Free blowing method held a pre-eminent position in glassforming ever since its introduction in the middle of the 1st century BC until the late 19th century and is still widely used nowadays as a glassforming technique.

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ID AP 0010 | 700x800 cm


ID AP 0011 | 86x76 cm

ID AP 0012 | 153x456 cm The process of free-blowing involves the blowing of short puffs of air into a molten portion of glass called a gather which has been spooled at one end of the blowpipe. This has the effect of forming an elastic skin on the interior of the glass blob that matches the exterior caused by the removal of heat from the furnace. The glassworker can then quickly inflate the molten glass to a coherent blob and work it into a desired shape. The Toledo Museum of Art attempted to reconstruct the ancient free-blowing technique by using clay blowpipes.

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ID AP 0013 | 620x600 cm

The result proved that short clay blowpipes of about 30–60 cm facilitate free-blowing because they are simple to handle, easy to manipulate and can be re-used several times. Skilled workers are capable of shaping almost any vessel forms by rotating the pipe, swinging it and controlling the temperature of the piece while they blow. They can produce a great variety of glass objects, ranging from drinking cups to window glass.

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ID AP 0014 | 620x600 cm

An outstanding example of the free-blowing technique is the Portland Vase which is a cameo manufactured during the Roman period. An experiment was carried out by Gudenrath and Whitehouse with the aim of re-creating the Portland Vase. A full amount of blue glass required for the body of the vase was gathered on the end of the blowpipe and was subsequently dipped into a pot of hot white glass.

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ID AP 0015 | 620x570 cm

ID AP 0016 | 900x550 cm


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ID AP 0017 | 620x570 cm

ID AP 0018 | 860x840 cm


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“Success very much depends

on personal initiatives, tiring practice and can only be achieved through hard work. - anna pavlova -

�

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ID AP 0019 | 800x810 cm

Inflation occurred when the glassworker blew the molten glass into a sphere which was then stretched or elongated into a vase with a layer of white glass overlying the blue body. Mold-blowing was an alternate glassblowing method that came after the invention of free-blowing during the first part of the second quarter of the 1st century AD.

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ID AP 0020 | 880x750 cm

A glob of molten glass is placed on the end of the blowpipe which is then inflated into a wooden or metal carved mold. In this way, the shape and the texture of the bubble of glass is determined by the design on the interior of the mold rather than the skill of the glassworker. Two types of molds, namely single-piece mold and multi-piece mold, are frequently used to produce mold-blown vessels. The former allows the finished glass object to

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ID AP 0021 | 880x910 cm


ID AP 0022 | 1600x1660 cm

be removed in one movement by pulling it upwards from the single-piece mold and is largely employed to produce tableware and utilitarian vessels for storage and transportation.

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ID AP 0023 | 860x980 cm

Whereas the latter is made in multi-paneled mold that join together, thus permitting the development of more sophisticated surface modeling, texture and design. The Roman leaf beaker which is now on display in the J. Paul Getty Museum was blown in a three-part mold decorated with the foliage relief frieze of four vertical plants.

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Meanwhile, Taylor and Hill tried to reproduce mold-blown vessels by using threepart molds made of different materials. The result suggested that metal, in particular bronze, molds are more effective in producing high-relief design on glass than plaster molds and wooden molds. In view of this, the development of the mold-blowing technique has enabled the speedy production of glass objects in large quantity, thus encouraging the mass production and widespread distribution of glass objects.

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While touring in The Hague, Pavlova was told that she had pneumonia and required an operation. She was also told that she would never be able to dance again if she went ahead with it. She refused to have the surgery, saying “If I can’t dance then I’d rather be dead.” She died of pleurisy, three weeks short of her 50th birthday. She was holding her costume from The Dying Swan when she spoke her last words,

“Play the last measure very softly.” 197


Euro Traders – Bohemiacorporation.eu Table of “key account” references • Kuwait Parliament - Al Bayan Palace • Qatar’s Embassy in Hungary, Europe • Four Seasons Hotel - Gresham Palace, Hungary • Quolsharif mosque, Tatarstan • Moscow, Russia - Safisa Palace • Al Saleh Mosque - Sana’a, Yemen • Royal Palace, Gödöllő • Cyprus, Palace • Australia, Sidney project • Prince de Ligne, Hotel • Egypt - Embassy • Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur - Palace • Goa, India - Pai Kane Group • Bangalore, India - Restaurant • Presidential Palace, Hungary • Prime Minister’s residence, Hungary • German University Andrassy • Ybl Palace, Hungary • Liberia - Embassy • Spirit***** Wellness Hotel, Blue Diamond • Italy, Turin project • Taiwan, Maga Head Office • Canada, Toronto - Penthouse • Austria, Wien - Villa Schneider Institutions • Exxon Mobile • McDonald’s • CIB Bank • MKB Bank • K&H Bank • Budapest Bank • Glaxo Smith Kleine • National Lottery

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bohemiacorporation.eu


Bohemia Corporation Crystal Chandeliers Album