Vocational Stream Girls’ Grade 12
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Drawing and Decoration
Preparing for an Exhibition
Machines and Equipment
Using Computers For Designing
Marketing a Product
Folk Costumes and Seasonal Fashion 31
Safety at Work
1 Drawing and Decoration Exercise 1 Vocabulary
A Write the correct word in the blank. 1 Display your (collectibles / collections) in the living room with moderation. 2 I want to (draw / drawing) a picture of these flowers. 3 Buy items that are (class / classical) and (functional / functioning) to decorate your rooms. 4 A well (decorated / decorative) room is a source of comfort. 5 You can choose any wall art, keeping in mind the (existing / existed) colour scheme. B Match the words with their deﬁnitions. 1 colour psychology a a central place of attention 2 paint chip b factors that are distinctive 3 focal point c illumination that is striking or impressive 4 decorative items d gadgets used to add style to a room 5 special features e a sample of a colour shade 6 dramatic lighting f the study of the effect of colour on one’s mental state
Exercise 2 Dialogue Fill in the blanks with the correct terms. doesn’t serve a function to have long-term value just because of its print or texture the best quality furniture the furniture last longer mismatched furniture A Could you please suggest some tips for the purchasing of furniture? B Sure. You should get (1) for the budget you have. A But what if we like a piece of furniture for its colour or fabric? B Oh, this happens often, but we don’t want to have cheap furniture (2) . It’s essential that we learn about the quality of construction and materials that make (3) . A What about the furniture we already have? B Good question. We also don’t want to keep furniture that’s useless or (4) . We can always give away or sell unwanted pieces. With (5) , it may be possible to find common features to create a unified theme. A Could this include the colour of fabric and wood? B Yes. After all, you want to have an attractive decoration at home and at the same time (6) for your money. 3
Exercise 3 Grammar Rewrite the sentences using the word(s) in brackets. Make the necessary changes. 1 Have you forgotten to call the furniture company? (...yesterday?) 2 He doesn’t have to speak to the interior designer because she has already phoned him. (He didn’t...) 3 Is it usual for painters to spend a lot of time on one painting? (In the future...?) 4 She is using stretch fabric with silk chiffon to make upholsteries for the dining room chairs. (In the past...?) 5 The ice already melted before the artist started carving it. (When the artist...)
Exercise 4 Reading Read the following text about home decoration and answer the questions. When you start thinking about decorating your home, first you need to learn about your personal style. Spend some time scanning magazines, visiting showrooms and surfing the net. This will help you identify your likes and dislikes in the world of decoration. You could ask for help if you need to, but don’t let anyone else take the final decision. Then you need to specify the function of every room to be able to buy the appropriate furniture. Remember to have the room dimensions with you when you’re shopping around. It’s essential that you identify a focal point for each room and buy the large pieces of furniture first. For example, if you are having a study area in the bedroom, you need to choose the bed and the closet, leaving room for a desk and shelves. Remember to keep pathways clear in the room. You need to walk freely from the door to the bed and from the bed to the closet, for example. Don’t forget to take into consideration colour and pattern as you purchase the furniture to match with the floor, wall paint, rugs and curtains to achieve a harmonious ambiance. Questions 1 Are the following statements true (T) or false (F)? Correct the false statements. a Take decisions about decorating your home with people close to you. b Painting the walls is the first step. c It’s important to decide on a point of focus in a room. d Don’t place a piece of furniture in a ‘traffic’ area. 2 Identify the six essential factors in decorating a room. Write down the examples that were given. Not all factors are illustrated with examples. a b c d e f
Unit 1 Exercise 5 Speaking Work in pairs. One of you is a customer (A) in an art gallery and the other is the attendant (B). (A) wants to buy a couple of paintings for the new ﬂat and asks about certain styles and colours to match the bedroom and living room furniture. (B) asks some questions and gives advice. Construct your dialogue and act it out in the class. A B A B A B A B
Exercise 6 Situations Work in pairs. What would you say in the following situations? 1 You like an armchair in a furniture shop. You’re interested in antique pieces of furniture. What would you ask the assistant? 2 You are a decorator helping a client choose the furniture for the dining room. You need to know the location of windows, doors and electrical outlets. What would you ask? 3 You know that the colour green is associated with health, freshness and energy. What would you say to your friend who is decorating a new clinic? 4 You own a shop that sells rugs and draperies. You’re trying to convince a customer that expensive material is an investment in long lasting decoration. What would you say?
Exercise 7 Writing Use three factors you identiﬁed in exercise 4 and write a similar paragraph to give suggestions to decorate the living room or dining room.
2 Home Economy Exercise 1 Vocabulary Match the word with its deﬁnition. 1 budget a money spent on something 2 expenses b paying more than the budget 3 overspending c buying items to keep in store 4 stocking up d financial plan
Exercise 2 Dialogue Fill in the dialogue with the suitable phrases from the box. It depends on many factors Oh yes. I often do that like electricity and telephone bills, transportation, food and outings Every week? Every month? good planning and some organisation sometimes there are social events like your friends’ birthdays or ‘new arrivals‘ A Excuse me. Do you examine your spending? . B (1) A How often do you mean? (2) B Sometimes every day. (3) . Sometimes, there are occasions that make you spend a lot of money very frequently. These occasions are family events like weddings and anniversaries, and (4) . A I see. What about the times when there is no special event? B Well, I still have to budget my essential monthly expenses (5) . So I do that at the beginning of every month, but I monitor the payments every week. A Great. I’m sure this needs (6) . B Yes, it certainly does.
Unit 2 Exercise 3 Grammar A Choose the correct words to complete these sentences. 1I the clothes when the washing machine is totally full. a will wash b washes c am washing 2 we fluorescent light bulbs, the electricity bill won’t be reduced. a As soon as, will use b Before, use c Until, use 3 When I go shopping, I items that don’t expire in bulk. a buy b will buy c won’t buy 4 getting a credit card, you should find out what fees the bank to charge you. a After, is going b As soon as, will have c Before, is going 5 As soon as I watching TV, I it off. a will finish, switch b finish, will switch c will finish, switch 6 If I to go shopping, I will do all my errands in one trip to save time and fuel money. a will want b wanted c want B Write six sentences about home economy using the future time clause.
Exercise 4 Reading Read the text and answer the questions. It is annoying not to have spare money to purchase what we need or want. And sometimes we may feel guilty if we acquire items that are not within our limited budget. So, it’s necessary that we look for opportunities to search for a source of income that makes us feel comfortable about buying such attractive products. If you already have a career, see if you can get a promotion or an opportunity to get a higher income or an additional job. If you do not have a post, look for one that you’ll be happy with. In both situations, consider acquiring new skills or developing the ones you already have by attending a course in a college, for example. Questions 1 Decide which sentence is suitable as an introduction to the text and which is suitable for a conclusion. a We always need things or are interested in obtaining items that may not be essential in our lives. b Always look for opportunities to make yourself content. 2 Find three words in the first paragraph that mean get. 3 Find three words in the second paragraph that have a similar meaning to profession.
Exercise 5 Speaking A In pairs discuss how shopping for grocery is different from or similar to clothes shopping (need, budget, etc.).
B Prepare a three-minute talk about what one should do before going to a supermarket (preparing a list, checking what is available at home, etc.).
Exercise 6 Situations What would you say to your friend when you are giving him / her advice to do the following? • plan for the shopping event ahead of time • remember to read the label on a product they are about to purchase • read the cash machine scanner • look for good deals to stock up
Exercise 7 Writing Write a letter to your friend who always complains about the huge bills he / she has every month. Offer advice to help him / her budget for necessary expenses such as food, home bills and other expenses that could be cut down such as clothes shopping and social or fun outings.
3 Preparing for an Exhibition Exercise 1 Vocabulary
Use the words in brackets in their correct form. You need to get the attention of passersby. Your stand needs to be (attract) (1) . In a couple of seconds, the (visit) (2) has to know the purpose of your stand and feel the (need) (3) to stop and look.
Exercise 2 Dialogue Complete the dialogue between a visitor at a stand and the stand organiser. A Hello, Iâ€™m looking for a . Do you happen to have one? B Well, I have an item that you may like. There you are. See, A This is interesting. I never knew B Well. The market tries to A It is good. Iâ€™ll B Ok, let me wrap it for you. A
Exercise 3 Grammar A Combine the sentences using who, which, whose or where. 1 An exhibition is a distinguished way for your name and work to be known. An exhibition is a public display for your artwork. 2 International art exhibitions are held mainly in Italy and France. Guest painters usually come from there. 3 Stand lights will maximise the effect of the displayed paintings. Stand lights are essential components in an exhibition. 4 The photographer has already chosen his exhibition theme. The theme’s aim is to compare and contrast the cycle of the seasons with life’s cycle. 5 Sara Shammas said that feeling painting is like feeling music. Sara Shammas is a Syrian painter, born in Damascus. 6 The gallery can be either a solo exhibition or a display for many artists. The gallery is a place where your artwork will be exhibited. B Write ﬁve sentences about preparing an exhibition using the suitable non-deﬁning relative clauses.
Exercise 4 Taxonomic Skills Put the following sentences in the correct order to make a coherent paragraph about exhibitions. a Choose the site for your exhibition and decide if you want it to be in an enclosed area or in an open space. b Decide on the aim of the exhibition and the budget. c Smile, keep eye contact but don’t be intimidating. d Take down some notes and think of the next step. e Think of ways to make your stand attractive and / or your displayed products appealing.
Exercise 5 Speaking There are three stages in holding an exhibition: preparation, the event itself and the evaluation. Work in pairs and prepare a speech of about three minutes to give advice to your classmates who are preparing for an exhibition at school.
Unit 3 Exercise 6 Writing Write a paragraph about an exhibition you have visited or an exhibition you would like to plan and execute. Write an outline ďŹ rst. Outline Introduction:
Test 1 Part One: Reading comprehension (35 marks)
Part Two: Grammar and structure (60 marks)
I Read the following text then answer the questions. Have you ever thought of combining your artistic talents with your home economy policy? Well, it’s time you considered using your creativity to budget your expenses wisely. One way to do this is to apply your drawing and design skills to make or decorate things at home as well as gifts that you may wish to offer to friends on certain occasions. For example, if you need a tray to serve tea or coffee, you could get a plain one, which is not expensive, and draw or paint decorative designs on it, such as flowers and butterflies. Or, instead of drawing or painting, you could glue ribbons or lace on the edges to make a theme. You could then play with colour to match the theme you have chosen. For example, if you’re making a serving tray to be used on the occasion of the birth of a baby girl, you could add pink or purple ribbons; if it’s a wedding gift, you could use white lace. If, on the other hand, you’d like to offer a garment as a gift, you could get a simple piece of clothing and add some decoration, such as embroidery, beads or sequins. The kind of addition you make will depend on who the gift is for. For example, you will need to consider the age and gender of the recipient, as well as the kind of relationship you have with that person. Try making your own gifts once; you’ll like it and then you’ll always do it!
II Complete the sentence with words from the list.
Questions 1 Does the writer of the text believe one can save money through artistic talents? Explain your answer. 2 How does an occasion help you choose the kind of decoration you add on an item? Illustrate with an example of your own. 3 How does the person who would receive a gift affect your choice of the kind of decoration you add to an item? Illustrate with an example of your own. 4 Use the ideas in the text to suggest ways to decorate each of the following: cushions, dinner plates and vases. 5 Try to guess the meaning of the following words from context. Identify the word or words that helped you to guess the meaning. lace sequins recipient garment 12
artistic mosaics shopping list customer attraction home economy painted ceramics exhibition stand 1 I visited the gallery where they keep one of the biggest and most beautiful collection of . 2 I’ve enjoyed taking the course and have learned a lot. before 3 Prepare a you leave home. 4 Miriam is interested in earthenware; she has a huge collection of in the summer house. 5 Mazen has asked me for advice on the he’s been working on. 6 You have to learn about to get prospective buyers to acknowledge you and appreciate your products. III Choose the correct form of the word to complete the sentences.
Make your (livable, living) (1) room as comfortable as possible. Keep it (spatial, . spacious) (2) Add some (decorative, decoration) items, such as a (3) handmade (pot, pottery) (4) in a corner and an (art, artistic) arrangement of (5) flowers on the table in the (central, centre) . (6) Choose the right colour and (text, texture) for the curtains. (7) Remember, don’t exceed the limit of your . (budgeted, budget) (8)
Test 1 IV Complete the dialogue. A Hello, how did you like your class today? Please remind me, you’re enrolled in the drawing and painting course, right? B Yes, that is true. Well, today we learned about what paint to use on different items. A How interesting! So, do you mean that the kind of paint we use on ceramics, for example, is different from the kind we use on pottery? B Right, and these two types also differ from the kind of paint we use on cloth. You’re taking a , right? course in A B A B A B
Part Three: Writing (25 marks) VII Write a paragraph describing a visit you have made to an exhibition. Describe the setting, the stands, the products and the people you saw.
V Use the verbs in brackets in the correct tense. 1 When I get the tickets, I (phone) you. . 2 I’m very happy with the car I (buy) for a meeting as soon as I 3 I (call) receive the email. them the letter last 4 Eileen (send) week. by the time we 5 The plane (land) arrived. VI Finish the following sentences using nondeﬁning relative clauses. Add a relative pronoun and a phrase from the list. Make necessary changes.
interview me meet for coffee we travel to Europe I admire the author buy last month 1 The TV set
2 I met the director
3 This is the shopping centre
4 They offered me the book
5 Last year was
4 Machines and Equipment Exercise 1 Vocabulary
A Match the following words which are parts of a computer with their deďŹ nitions. 1 Monitor 2 CD / DVD drive 3 Printer 4 Hard drive 5 Flash memory card reader 6 Mouse 7 CD / DVD 8 Keyboard
a reads CDs/DVDs b the principal input device used to type instructions into the computer c a pointing device used to make on-screen selections d an output device that lets you see the work as you go e used to deliver programs and store large multimedia files f located inside the system unit, used to store programs and data g produces copies of computer output h used to read flash memory cards
B Label the pictures below using the terms in task A above.
Unit 4 Exercise 2 Dialogue Work in pairs. Refer to your textbook page 23. Student A plays the role of a salesperson who works for the company. Student B is a businessman who wants to buy some new machinery. A B A B A B
Exercise 3 Grammar A Put these sentences in the passive form. 1 In the past, sewing machines had to make the same design. 2 Later on, many types of sewing machines would add zigzag stitches. 3 A combined washer / dryer must dry both the clothes and the wash chamber. 4 Home sewing machines can perform various kinds and numbers of stitches. 5 In computerised machines, the sewing and embroidery machines can read and sew out embroidery design files. B Complete the sentences in the passive inďŹ nitive by using the structures in brackets. 1 Steaming machines to remove wrinkles (can import from our supplier in China). 2 A new ironing board (must buy immediately). 3 Textile printing for canvas (had to fix or change). 4 Laser cutting machines (are going to put in the new section of the fabric factory). 5 Tough stains (will remove by the steam cycles of the washing machine). 6 In the sewing machine, the mechanism of fabric shifting (may pattern-control).
Exercise 4 Reading Read the paragraph and answer the questions. Home Appliances Modern homes make use of electrical machines for various functions. Most home machines nowadays do not require complex skills. A lot of home machinery is used in the kitchen. Some are heavy machinery such as refrigerators, freezers and dishwashers. Smaller devices are kettles, toasters, food processors, coffee machines and microwave ovens. Another category of home electric machines are used for general purposes. Some are related to laundry and cleaning such as washing machines, clothes dryers, irons and vacuum cleaners. All of these devices are quite easy for the housewife to use once the instructions are read. However, there are electrical machines at home that may require some technical knowledge such as air conditioners and water heaters. Let us not forget an important and handy category of electrical machinery that has become essential in most homes and does not require special skills to operate. This includes TV sets, radios, DVD players, camcorders, telephones and answering machines. Shall we stop and think if we can live without these home appliances nowadays? Questions 1 What is the writerâ€™s purpose in writing this text? 2 What is your response to the question at the end of the text? Give reasons for your answer. 3 Think of some electric appliances that the writer does not mention in the text. To what extent are they essential in your life?
Exercise 5 Speaking You are at an international exhibition of modern home appliances. You are looking for two gadgets. Work in pairs and write a dialogue you are having with an attendant. You have to describe what you are looking for and explain its function. The attendant is asking some questions to clarify your purpose and is offering advice.
Exercise 6 Writing Write a brochure for a knitting device of your choice (sewing machine, embroidery machine, etc.). Specify its function, practicality and affordability to attract buyers.
5 The Internet Exercise 1 Vocabulary Complete the sentences with words from the box. IT website Internet online screen pages click report 1 E-commerce means using the to buy and sell goods and services. 2 TST employed a(n) specialist to produce their new . 3 The website has a number of , which customers can see on their computer . 4 When customers want to order something, they on the product that they want. They can pay too. 5 The IT specialist has written a(n) about this.
Exercise 2 Situations What would you say in the following situations? 1 You havenâ€™t finished your homework because you had a problem. Tell the teacher about it. 2 Your employer wanted you to photocopy some documents. Explain why you have not done it yet. 3 You want to check whether Mr Ali has arrived. 4 You forgot to post a letter.
Exercise 3 Grammar Report the following sentences. 1 Khaled: “How do I enable, disable or delete the Internet cookies?” . Khaled asked me 2 Ruba: “Do you know how to find the Internet speed connection?” Ruba inquired . 3 Teacher: “Who invented the Internet?” The teacher asked the class . 4 Amer: “Can I protect my photos online?” Amer wanted to know . 5 Hani: “Is it legal to watch TV for free on the Internet?” Hani asked me . 6 Hiba: “Why does my download stop and fail sometimes?” Hiba wanted to know . 7 Maher: “Can I get Internet access on my new laptop?” Yesterday Maher asked me . 8 Hind: “Where can we find free online birthday cards?” Hind asked me . 9 Mazen: “Can the pop-up Internet advertisements be stopped?” Mazen wanted to know . 10 Maya: “What are spy waves?” Maya asked me .
Exercise 4 Word search Find 10 words related to the Internet. Look horizontally (left to right), vertically (top to bottom) and diagonally (top left to bottom right) in this word search. The clues will help you. the website every day. 1 We 2 Please your name and address. 3 Just on the button on the screen. 4 The IT specialist designed the . 5 What does the symbol ‘@’ stand for? . 6 It doesn’t cost anything. It’s . 7 Can I pay by card? 8 You can pay for goods . 9 What’s your address? 10 Your computer will for the information that you need.
C B O N L I N E 18
L U P D A T E M
I S S O F A N A
C S I T E R T I
K H N H O T E L
F A C E A M R E
C R E D I T E Y
S E A R C H E R
Exercise 5 Internet usage
How much do you know about the Internet? Read and complete the text, using words from the box. blue
The Internet is a network of computers that are linked together around the world. If your computer is connected to the Internet, it can share information with millions of other computers. , you For example, you can send and receive electronic letters, which are called (1) can read information pages on the World Wide Web (or the (2) , for short), play (3) with people on the other side of the world or (4) to people. You can also (5) goods and have them delivered to your house or your business. The World Wide Web is a part of the (6) . It is billions of information pages written by millions of people around the world. The writers link the pages with other pages so that you can move from one (7) to another. They use hyperlinks for this. A hyperlink is usually a word that is coloured in (8) . If you move your mouse pointer over a hyperlink, it will change to the shape of a (9) . If you (10) on the hyperlink, you will go to a different page.
Exercise 6 Writing Write a paragraph about the beneďŹ ts of the Internet in our daily life.
6 Using Computers Exercise 1 Vocabulary
Fill in the blanks with the correct terms from the list. design
doors and windows
on the market
Computers are widely used in the world of interior design. A new computer-aided interior design application is now (1) . It includes a two-dimensional (2D) plan view as well as a three-dimensional (3D) mode. The first is similar to a blueprint and is used to lay out the and choose the (3) of the room, locate (2) includes a number of 3D images of furniture and furniture. (4) appliances and enables you to feel like you are moving around in a real room.
Exercise 2 Dialogue Read the following answers and match them with the questions in the box. So, do you mean that the main difference between these two kinds of software is that the CADD includes the drafting process? Could you name some areas where we can make good use of computer design? What are the advantages in the use of computer technology for the process of design and design-documentation known as computer-aided design or CAD? Iâ€™ve also heard of CADD. What is it? And how is it similar to or different from CAD? A (1) B Well, the areas are numerous and vary in specialisation. Computer design has been successfully used in fashion, jewellery and shoe design. Itâ€™s also become indispensable in engineering, architecture and interior design. It also proved to be a success in most if not all machinery design, car mechanics, printing and so many other areas. A (2) B Any computer software has characteristics which make it possible for a designer to accomplish the job more easily and faster. It saves time and helps produce better quality work. It also facilitates sending the design to customers. Let us also not forget the lower cost of production. A (3) B CADD refers to computer-aided design and drafting- the process of drafting with a computer. It also provides users with input-tools for streamlining design processes, drafting, documentation and manufacturing processes. A (4) B Yes, thatâ€™s right. 20
Unit 6 Exercise 3 Grammar Report the following sentences using advise, ask, tell, warn, encourage and remind. 1 Unless you give them the necessary illustrations, the web design company won’t finish the website design within the agreed deadlines. 2 Don’t forget to start generating the walls of the room with the new interior design software. 3 Running a computer-assisted design software requires a set of policies and procedures. 4 Why don’t you take some computer courses? You’ll gain additional skills and the freedom of working faster. 5 Never feel pressured to buy from a salesperson. 6 How do I insert the data into the CAD system?
Exercise 4 Reading Read the text about the use of computers in design and answer the questions. Is it true that computers are completely beneficial? Couldn’t we question this? Well, I do! It’s not that I am against the use of computers, but haven’t we been relying too much on their use in our life? We use them to communicate, to conduct research, to read news, to play games and to design homes and clothes. Haven’t the computers stolen part of our humanity? I mean something like our skills, our brains and creativity? I’m talking about both manual and mental skills. I know some people may say that computers have helped us use such skills in a better, faster and maybe more efficient way. However, I still believe they have deprived us of some magic! I still love buying books for the feel of the paper, print and binding. I also like to use paper and pen to write a letter or sketch a design, but my friends think I’m old-fashioned. I want to put some effort into going out and meeting people instead of chatting with them online. None of the things I still enjoy feel natural any more. I really believe that computers have begun to control us in many ways. Computers are there to help us live ‘better’ lives. We created this technological device! We shouldn’t allow it to control every aspect of our life. There is a lot we can do without computers and still feel good about our world and ourselves. Questions 1 Why does the writer use questions? Do these questions require answers? 2 What does the writer mean by ‘manual and mental skills’? 3 Does the writer use a formal or an informal style? 4 What does the word ‘magic’ in paragraph two refer to? 5 Do you agree with the writer that computers have deprived us of some magic? Explain your answer. 6 What does the writer mean by ‘better lives’ in the final paragraph? 7 Name some things that we can do without the computer and still feel good about our world and ourselves.
Exercise 5 Speaking In pairs, list ďŹ ve positive characteristics of the use of computers in designing. Then discuss them and point out any disadvantage each may have. Use the table below to organise your ideas. Positive characteristics
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
Exercise 6 Writing Choose an area in which you would like to build your profession: fashion, jewellery, shoe design or interior design. You are going to buy computer-aided software to use at work to design patterns or plans. Write an email to describe your aim and ask for help in making the right choice.
Test 2 Part One: Reading comprehension (35 marks) Read the following text and answer the questions. You must have heard of Charles Babbage, but in what context? The computer? Yes, he is said to have invented the programmable computing device in the 19th century. Babbage was an English professor of mathematics at Cambridge. While working with mathematical tables in 1812, Babbage thought of a machine that could do calculations automatically. Well, youâ€™ll be surprised to find his name mentioned in the realm of embroidery machines. It is believed that Babbage took the idea of storing machine instructions from Jacquard looms. These looms are named after their French inventor Joseph-Marie Jacquard (1752-1834). The Jacquard loom is a mechanical loom which simplifies the process of manufacturing textiles with complex patterns. It uses perforated cards where each row of punched holes corresponds to one row of the design. Multiple rows of holes are punched on each card and the many cards that compose the design of the textile are strung together in order. The Jacquard loom stores information on paper for any user and it decreases the chance of human error. This leads to an increase in productivity and reduction in the cost of textile production. Babbage borrowed this pioneering concept, the punched card, which became the earliest form of input for his Analytical Engine in the1830s. The Analytical Engine is a mechanical computer which is considered the precursor to the modern computer. It used a punch-card programming system and had a processing unit to do calculations as well as a short-term memory bank to store working data. However, it was never completely built.
In 1980, Wilcom introduced the first computer graphics embroidery design system. Now, the fabric industry depends on computerised machines, software and digital patterns to produce the wealth of textiles we enjoy in the 21st century! Questions 1 Who was the first to use punched cards for storing information: Babbage or Jacquard? Explain your answer. 2 Find in the second paragraph a pair of words that are related to the word hole. 3 What is the significant role that the Jacquard loom played in the weaving industry and in technology? 4 Find in the third paragraph a pair of words that mean first. 5 What was Wilcomâ€™s contribution in the field of embroidery?
Part Two: Grammar and structure (60 marks) II Complete the dialogue by choosing the suitable question for each sentence. a What are hyperlinks? b Does that make sense to you? c Oh, I hate to say this, but could you explain this difference briefly one more time? d What is the difference? Could you explain that, please? e What about the Web? f Are the World Wide Web and the Internet the same thing?
III Put the following sentences in the passive form. 1 You should review the manual carefully. 2 The factory will buy a new sewing machine soon. 3 I’m going to interview the applicants in the entrance hall. 4 Jamil has already sent the packages to Aleppo. 5 The inspector could still see some lights late at night.
IV Write the following in reported speech. 1 Mum: Have the children eaten their sandwiches? Sami (1) 2 Samira: I have been to the factory several Soraya No, they’re not. times. Sami (2) 3 Teacher: Who did the homework? Soraya Well, the Internet is an enormous 4 John: Are you going to move to Lattakia? network that covers the whole world. Millions of computers are connected to it. 5 Salwa: My sister will not go to the office tomorrow. Sami (3) Soraya The World Wide Web is a huge range of documents. It includes not only text, images, audio material as well as video. This material is available to anyone who has access to the Internet and you can surf from one document to another by using a hyperlink. Sami
Soraya Hyperlinks are a way of linking one document with another web page which contains related information. For example, if you click on the hyperlinked word ‘twentieth century paintings’ on one page, it will take you to another page which gives you more information about those paintings. Sami
Soraya Think of it like this. The Internet is the road system, carrying information from place to place. The World Wide Web is some, but not all, of the traffic on the roads. (6) Sami
Yes, thank you. I understand perfectly now!
Part Three: Writing (25 marks) V Write a paragraph describing the importance of computers in our life in the 21st century. Consider the following contexts: home, ofﬁce, factory and airport.
7 Advertising Exercise 1 Vocabulary Match the underlined phrases in column A with their deďŹ nitions in column B. A 1 Stella works for an advertising agency. 2 She started as an Accounts Executive. 3 She is now an Accounts Manager. 4 She regularly speaks to her client. 5 They want to advertise a new product. 6 She is planning an advertising campaign. 7 Stella is familiar with the product. 8 She has a lot of expertise in advertising. 9 She might look for a job in consulting.
B a the company that advertises its goods b knows enough about something c a series of adverts d expert knowledge e an assistant who works on an advertising account f a company that produces adverts g advising companies h something that is produced in a factory i the person in charge of an advertising account
Exercise 2 Dialogue Use the following sentences to make a conversation between two parents discussing the advertisements on TV. Theyâ€™re amusing They give you time to have a snack Children see things on TV and want you to buy them I agree They interrupt the films too often
Exercise 3 Grammar A Combine the given sentences using the second conditional and the proper form of the verbs. 1 You want your business name to be known. You can design a logo or write a slogan on your business cards and materials. 2 It is beneficial and time saving. You talk to the advertising representative of the newspaper. 3 You attract the clients’ attention. You use word graphics and colours attractively. 4 You advertise in a newspaper. You can, in your advertisement, direct viewers to the company’s website. 5 Your company has a fleet of vehicles. The company turn them into an advertising tool by wrapping them with a vinyl graphic of the company’s products. 6 You can donate a product. There is a charity auction. 7 You begin searching what types of advertisements are available and suitable for your target clients. You want to develop an effective advertising campaign. B Complete the sentences using the verbs in brackets. 1 If you used short creative words in your advertisement, they (attract) the viewers’ attention. (advertise) on the web page. 2 It would be profitable and cheaper if you 3 If you (want) an efficient way to promote your product, you (need) to read this book on marketing. 4 If the company (have) a website, it (start) selling its exquisite products.
Exercise 4 Writing Use the notes to write in your own words a magazine advert for a seven-day holiday. Lay it out like an advert in the box below.
Notes Seven-day holiday 2100 SYP (full board); Five Stars Hotel, Maysaloun Str; Syria – Damascus; Western and traditional food; cafe; watersports and horse-riding
Exercise 5 Reading Read the text and answer the questions. Changes in Advertising
Advertising has been considered a one-way form of marketing communication. This is changing. In the near future, technologies will be readily available to enable a television viewer to click a button to request more details on a product seen on TV. In fact, it is expected that advertising will become highly interactive. In addition, advertising has never stimulated immediate demand for the product advertised. In other words, customers cannot quickly purchase a product they see advertised. This is going to change soon. The introduction of Internet advertising has also made do-it-yourself advertising an easy-to-manage process and has empowered small businesses to manage their advertising on their own. They can handle the creation and placement of advertisements that appear on the Internet such as creating advertisements that run on local television. Finally, digital advertising convergence refers to a growing trend for using computer technology to deliver media programming and information. Convergence allows one media outlet to take advantage of features and benefits offered through other media outlets. For instance, the convergence of television and Internet opens many potential opportunities for marketers to target customers in ways not available with traditional television advertising. For example, technology may allow adverts delivered to one household to be different from adverts delivered to a neighbourâ€™s television even though both households are watching the same programme. Questions 1 How many advertising changes does the text describe? Identify them in an outline form. 2 What key words helped you identify the developing ideas? 3 Explain the words in bold in the text. 4 Add an introduction and a conclusion to the text.
8 Marketing a Product Exercise 1 Vocabulary
DeďŹ ne the following terms related to marketing in your own way. 1 After-sales service 2 Volume of sales 3 Volume of profit 4 Existing competition 5 Product evaluation process 6 Launching a product 7 Marketing a product
Exercise 2 Dialogue Complete the following dialogue with the structures from the box. to people who will never buy it that we need to find why they prefer it to competing products Each one serves some products and certain customers What about the role of the name of the brand You need to identify the characteristics of your product A What advice about marketing would you offer to someone who is starting a new business? B First, you have to know what you are selling. (1) to be able to convince your customers to buy it. You also need to know why your customers need to buy the product. A Do you mean (2) ? B Yes, thatâ€™s right. You also need to know who does not buy your product and why. This will save you wasting money advertising your product (3) . You have to consider long-term planning to maintain continuity for your products and business in the market. A (4) ? How important is it? B A catchy name is important. But I believe advertising the product in the proper media is more critical. You need to consider all the available media such as flyers, banners, brochures, magazines, newspapers and road-side advertising posts. (5) . You need to choose the appropriate one for your aims. A This is great. Thank you. Would you like to add a final tip? B Yes, learn to listen to your prospective customers, respect their opinions and do not give up easily! 28
Unit 8 Exercise 3 Grammar Complete the sentences using the correct form of the verbs in brackets. 1 If Samar (invite) her neighbours, she would have sold the kitchenwares to them. 2 She (sell) more and (get) the 10% commission if she had attended the training about marketing and selling products. 3 If Lama had contacted the local gift shops, she (fill) baskets with cosmetics to create unique birthday and wedding gifts. 4 If the company (offer) discounts and gifts, customers would have been eager for the new product. 5 The product manager (customise) the product to fit the customers’ daily requirements if he had anticipated their needs. 6 If Maya had had a website, she (start) selling her exquisite handmade candles.
Exercise 4 Reading Read the text and answer the questions. In the past few decades women have proved themselves to be successful marketers. There are several reasons behind such a success one of which is that they are good listeners, for they give time for customers to express their concerns and inﬂuence them in their decision making. Furthermore, studies report that the nature of women plays a major role in their success in the world of marketing. In general women are described as sensitive and caring rather than pushy or aggressive. Consequently, they tend to use their emotions and sympathy in communicating with others. Finally, women are successful marketers because they tend not to take decisions but to facilitate others’ process of thinking and decision making. This is known as the collaborative approach which leads to success in most cases in marketing. Questions 1 What is the most suitable title for this passage? a Successful Business Women b Women in Marketing c Women in the West 2 What is the writer’s purpose in this passage? 3 Do you agree that the nature of women is different from that of men? Explain your answer. 4 List the qualities that make women successful marketers. 5 Do women in the Arab world have these qualities? Explain your answer.
Exercise 5 Speaking Choose an advertising media where you can present a product orally (radio, TV, open air exhibition, etc.). Prepare a ďŹ ve-minute marketing presentation of a product of your choice (hand crafts, clothes, jewellery, shoes, kitchenware, etc.). Specify its function and discuss the best ways to attract customers to buy it.
Exercise 6 Situations What would you ask in the following situations? 1 You are the manager of the marketing department in a jewellery design company. You ask your staff to present a detailed marketing plan for a new product. 2 You have just graduated from a marketing course. You apply for a job. At the interview, you are given the chance to prove you will be a good asset to the company. 3 You are a retailer meeting with the marketing agent for kitchenware. You inquire about the qualities of the items to be able to take a decision.
Exercise 7 Writing Choose a useful object you have at home. Look at the user manual and take notes on some features of the product. Use these notes to write a promotional leaďŹ‚et to attract others to buy and use it. You should mention the way the product is assembled and show how easy it is to be used.
9 Folk Costumes and Seasonal Fashion Exercise 1 Vocabulary
Fill in the blanks with the correct words from the box. purchased
As the head of a fashion design business, you need to keep up with modern (1) trends. Setting dates to start working on producing the styles and presenting them at (2) is very important. You’ll need to take (3) about the type of fabric and also the (4) you’re going to use. Usually the plan is decided a year before production starts, during which the (5) are made and the fabric is (6) . By the time the fashion show takes place, the styles for the coming (7) will have been researched and sketched.
Exercise 2 Dialogue Complete the dialogue by ﬁlling in the blanks with the correct structures from the box. women’s costume reflecting the women’s identity the costume of a region one can notice them easily the sleeves are straight A We all know that costumes of a country reflect national values. But is it true that costumes also reflect a regional identity? B Yes, of course. You find that (1) is somehow different from that of another region. It’s true that differences may be minor but (2) . A Could you please give us some examples? B As you know, the (3) in Syria is the Thob, which has sleeves in the shape of a triangle. Well, this is different in some cities in Jordan. There, (4) . A Oh, that is interesting. Do the designs also differ between one region and the other? B Certainly. Different motifs and colours are used in regions, (5) . Embroidery in Qalamoun, for example, differs from that in Khan Sheikhun. A I think I’ll notice such differences better now that I know about them. Thank you. 31
Exercise 3 Grammar Complete the sentences below with the right tag question. 1 The other name of Kimono is Gofuku, ? 2 Nowadays, seasonal trends don’t last one season, ? 3 Rana has the shambar and the mandil, ? 4 Ali didn’t know that Kimonos should be aired out seasonally and before and after each use, ? 5 The types of fashion are mainly categorised into three groups: Haute Couture, Ready-to-Wear and Mass Market, ? 6 Elegance and practicality are the characteristics of Syrian costumes, ? 7 You can wear the Syrian Thob and its accessories during the independence festival, 8 Fashion designers haven’t prepared for the inter-seasonal collections, ? 9 Fashion shows of the autumn / winter collection will take place several months in advance, ? 10 Colourful embroidery and patchwork distinguished the Syrian folk costumes, ?
Exercise 4 Speaking You run a fashion business and are now preparing the styles for the coming season. You’re meeting with your staff to give them instructions. 1 Prepare a ﬁve-minute talk to identify the new style (formal / casual) and colours (dark / bright).
2 Prepare a ﬁve-minute talk to suggest solutions to the problem of being unable to predict the weather when designing a new collection for the coming season.
Unit 9 Exercise 5 Situations A What would you say in the following situations? 1 You are a salesperson in Souk Al Hamidiyeh or in any other traditional souk in your city. A group of tourists are approaching. You have to attract their attention to buy the costumes you are selling.
2 You are visiting another country and you want to ask about the characteristics of the traditional costumes of the country.
B Work in pairs. Choose one of the situations from task A and perform a roleplay with your partner.
Exercise 6 Writing One of the problems that fashion production has been facing is the change in the weather worldwide. Write a paragraph describing how the unpredictability of weather patterns (spring / summer, autumn / winter) has caused confusion in the fashion world.
Test 3 Part One: Reading comprehension (35 marks) I Read the following text and answer the questions. Have you ever noticed the amount of adverts you are subjected to every day? Have you considered their effect on how you see things? It’s interesting to know when and how advertising started. Well, the earliest form of advertising could be traced back to Greek and Roman times. Public criers used to shout about the goods of local traders in markets. In the 19th century, new manufacturing techniques of the Industrial Revolution marked a new phase in ‘overproducing’ goods. New policies in various countries had to be adopted to find markets, such as removing taxes on advertising. Producers, on one hand, had better facilities to attract consumers, and consumers began to recognise the possibilities and attractions of mass consumption on the other hand. Some adverts were then considered unrealistic and the issue of their effect on female consumers was raised. While we see new opportunities of work for women in the field of advertising, it was also believed that women became easily attracted by simple displays in shops window and pictures in public places. The introduction of supermarkets aided the independence of shoppers to take decisions without a salesperson to advise them. Now in the 21st century, we have different types of advertising: audio, visual and audio visual. A family sitting at home receives a number of adverts through the radio or TV. Other people get adverts through newspapers and magazines, billboards, leaflets or banners. Let’s stop and ask ourselves: to what extent do we allow adverts of any form to influence our need and decision to buy things? Could they ever blind us to our reality?
Questions 1 Is advertising an old art / activity in history? 2 What factors influenced the development of advertising? 3 What are the positive and negative effects of advertising on women? 4 In your opinion, are women more influenced by advertising than men? Give reasons for your answer. 5 Do you allow adverts to control your decisions in buying things? 6 Suggest a title for the text.
Part II: Grammar and structure (60 marks) II Match the meaning with the vocabulary words. Look for key terms in column B to guide you.
A 1 advertising 2 marketing
3 folk costume
4 seasonal fashion 5 design 6 consultation agency 7 copywriter
B a The traditional clothing of a particular area or country b a business run by a group of specialists that give their opinion and advice on a specific matter c a picture, group of words or a short film, which is intended to persuade people to buy a product or use a service d someone who writes the words for advertisements e the business of advertising things on television, in newspapers, etc. f the art or process of making a drawing of something to show how you will make it or what it will look like g clothes that are meant to be for a certain time of year
Test 3 III Complete the dialogue. A Hello, what’s your major plan for the season? B A How are you going to advertise for the new collection of children’s clothes? B A And what about the women’s collection? B A Would you consider making men’s clothes in the future? B A Would those be inspired by some folk costumes? B
Part Three: Writing (25 marks) Choose a product (clothes, electric appliances, tools, craft items) and write an advertisement. Use adjectives, technical words and imagery to describe it to attract customers to buy it.
IV Complete the sentences using the verbs in brackets in the correct tense. Then write if the condition is realistic or likely to happen (the ﬁrst conditional), impossible or unreal now (the second conditional) or unreal in the past (the third conditional). 1 If you go to Damascus you (see) the old Souk al Hamidieah.
2 The tourists (come) if they had known about the hurricane. 3 If I rented the apartment, you (live) with me. 4 If Rania (buy) the magazine, she would have seen the advertisement. 5 You would learn about our folklore customs if you (take) the course with me. V Complete the sentences by using the correct tag question. 1 The designers suggested a modern sketch, ? 2 You are going to the library, ? 3 My parents are not in town, ? 4 Salma hasn’t been to the National Costumes Museum yet, ? 5 The students should learn about marketing a product, ?
10 Safety at Work Exercise 1 Vocabulary Read the following text then answer the questions. Did you know that many injuries occur on the stairs of business premises? For this reason, itâ€™s very important to keep staircases safe. Whether you are the employer or an employee, you need to take some precautions to avoid accidents. First of all, staircases need to be clear of obstacles at all times and well lit. Make sure all the light bulbs are functioning, and that there are no objects in the corners or on the stairs that may obstruct your path. Second, the horizontal part of the steps (the tread) should be smooth and flat but not slippery, and should not be chipped or damaged in any way. They also need to be wide enough for people with large feet to walk up and down comfortably. The vertical part of the step (the riser) should not be too deep, otherwise some people will have difficulty climbing. Third, the structure of the staircase needs to be sturdy and robust enough to support several people using the staircase at once. There should be a handrail for people to hold on to and a series of vertical balusters to keep the handrail in place. Finally, it is essential that staircases should be regularly maintained, cleaned and checked. Questions 1 Find two words in the first paragraph that have similar meaning in the text. 2 Find a noun and a verb in paragraph two which are related in meaning. 3 Find five adjectives in the third paragraph that are used to describe the steps of a staircase. 4 Find two words in the fourth paragraph that mean strong. 5 Determine in paragraph four the meaning of handrail and baluster from the content. Write your own definition of each.
Unit 10 Exercise 2 Dialogue Your friend has slipped on his / her back. Use the following quotation as part of a conversation in which you give him / her advice. I’ve also been advised to kneel keeping my back straight and not bend it. Use the dialogue below as a model. A Good morning. What’s wrong? I see you are in pain. B Yes, I’ve hurt my back and neck. You see, as spring was approaching, I was working in my garden, and I must have overdone it! A Oh, you should have been more careful. There are some warm-up exercises that help you prepare your muscles and tissues to tolerate such physical activity. B Like what? What do you suggest? A First, you need to build up a basic level of fitness before the gardening season. Then, when the season starts, you need to do some stretching exercises before you start the activity. These help you avoid strain in your ligaments and joints. B Oh, I didn’t know I could do things to avoid hurting myself every spring when I practise my hobby. Are there any more hints you could offer me? A Well, you need to start gardening gradually. For example, the first time you should spend ten minutes in the garden, then you could go up to twenty minutes, then thirty minutes and so on. B That’s good advice. A One last piece of advice: stop working immediately whenever you feel any pain, and when you feel well, don’t overdo it! B Sure, thanks.
Exercise 3 Grammar A Complete the text using the indeﬁnite pronouns in the box. both another one somewhere anything
all everybody any everyone
employers have obligations towards (2) working on their premises. (1) employers and employees should respect the work rules and regulations for the most (3) productive and safest working atmosphere. (4) of the most important safety strategies is the use of safety signs in order to avoid (5) dangerous situation. These signs should be put (6) visible where they can be seen by (7) . (8) that impedes and /or affects the ability to work effectively should be immediately reported to the employer, so he can take the necessary action, for example moving an employee with a speciﬁc medical problem to (9) job which is more appropriate for his / her health condition. B Write six sentences about safety at work using indeﬁnite pronouns.
Exercise 4 Reading Read the text and answer the questions. When you’re at work, accidents of different types may happen. You should learn some first aid techniques to help out in case of emergency. The ill or injured person usually needs initial care, which can be provided by a non-expert, and may require little or no equipment. This serves to comfort and stabilise the patient until professional medical treatment becomes available. A common and serious emergency case that may happen at work is a heart attack. Though a heart attack may have no symptoms at all, it usually causes chest pain. This happens when an artery which supplies the heart with blood and oxygen is blocked. Besides chest pain, it may also cause shortness of breath, dizziness, fainting, sweating or nausea. If a person at work shows one or more of these symptoms, the first thing you should do is to call the ambulance. Then if this person is unconscious, you start helping them by using CPR- cardiopulmonary resuscitation. If you haven’t received any training in CPR, you could perform chest compressions. If the person is conscious, ask them if it is safe for them to take nitroglycerin and if their doctor has ever prescribed it for them. Another option is to offer the person aspirin if they are not allergic to it. Having basic training in life-saving techniques can help you save somebody’s life, so why not give it a try? Questions 1 Suggest a title for the text. 2 Does a heart attack have symptoms? Explain your answer. 3 Try to guess the meaning of the following words from the context. Then check your answers in the dictionary. a artery b unconscious c compressions d allergic 4 Have you had any training in life-saving techniques? If so, describe what you have learned. If not, would you consider it now? Explain your answer.
Exercise 5 Speaking Workers have a right to work in places where risks to their health and safety are minimal. Imagine you are a workers’ representative. Prepare a ﬁve-minute talk in which you address your employer and co-workers about the health and safety obligations of the employer in the work place.
Exercise 6 Writing Use the following notes to write a detailed pamphlet to help people at work avoid ofﬁce injury. You may need to do some research. Causes: sitting in an unnatural posture for a long time, irregular breathing, repetitive movements, exerting too much pressure on one’s muscles by using tools or machinery Solutions: sit upright, use an appropriate posture when typing, hold the mouse properly, take regular breaks, report any problems 38
11 General Symbols Exercise 1 Vocabulary Read the text then answer the questions. Thousands of years ago, people began to draw pictures on the walls of caves. Then, about 5000 years ago, some people began to develop picture writing, called pictograms. In this system, each picture represented a particular object. For example, a picture of the sun meant sun. The next stage was when a picture began to represent an abstract idea. Some languages continue to use pictures today. In modern Chinese, for example, a picture of the sun and the moon together means bright or intelligent. Pictures that represent ideas are called ideograms.
Most modern languages are written in an alphabet. All modern alphabets, including the Arabic alphabet and the Roman alphabet - in which English and French are written - derive from the same origin. The first step towards alphabetic writing was for a pictogram or ideogram to be used to stand for a sound instead of its original meaning. In English, the word sun begins with the sound s. So, the pictogram for sun could be used to represent the sound s to spell a different word. Eventually, someone had the brilliant idea of choosing a limited range of pictograms or ideograms and using them to represent all the sounds of their language. So, for example, the letter M was originally a pictogram for water. The ancient Egyptian word for water began with the sound m. So does the word in Arabic! This is how a pictogram became a phonetic symbol, finally detached from the original pictographic meaning.
1 Find the three terms used in the text to identify three stages in the development of writing. Define these terms in your own words. 2 What are the two words in the first paragraph that provide an example of an ideogram. 3 What is the word in the second paragraph that provides an example of a phonetic symbol. 4 Use contextual clues to work out the meaning of the words in bold in the text. Then think of a synonym for each. Finally, check your answers in a dictionary. 39
Exercise 2 Grammar Choose the correct preposition from the box. by (3)
1 The symbol ironing is an image an iron. 2 An X the iron symbol means that the item shouldn’t be ironed. 3 In tumble drying, the temperature is indicated the number of dots. 4 An image a hand plunged water signifies washing hand. 5 The process of washing is represented a bucket. The dots the bucket refer the warmth water required. 6 putting the laundry the washing machine, you should look at the laundry symbol found .
Exercise 3 Reading Read the text and answer the questions. Have you ever thought about the importance of symbols in our lives? Let’s try to see where and when we rely on them for information. Whenever you leave your home, you see road signs. When you’re at school or work, you use mathematical signs. When you use the toilet, you see signs representing a man and a woman. What about the daily activity of reading and writing? In this case, aren’t we using the letters as symbols of sounds? Symbols of any kind or shape are signs that represent something. Human beings perceive symbols as marks of concepts that have meaning to us. Road signs can tell us where to go and when to stop, and also warn us of danger. Numerical signs tell us how much we have to pay and what change we should receive. Other signs serve a social function. It’s worth asking whether we all understand symbols in the same way. While we would probably all agree that a heart represents love and a flying bird represents freedom, we may disagree about the meaning of other symbols. Colours, for example, may be interpreted in different ways in different cultures. White represents purity in many cultures, but not everywhere; blue generally represents the sky and green is associated with the land. Look around your environment and think about how you interpret the signs and symbols you see. Questions 1 The text refers to road signs, mathematical signs and toilet signs. Draw two examples of each. road signs: mathematical signs: toilet signs: 2 Suggest situations that are not mentioned in the text in which we rely on symbols for information (for example, medicines, manuals, restaurants, hospitals, food packaging). Draw the symbol and explain what it means. 3 The text mentions colour symbolism. What else, besides purity, do you think the colour white could represent? 4 Identify the colours of the Syrian flag and say what each colour represents.
Exercise 4 Situations
Imagine that you are walking along the street with a friend. Your friend asks you to explain what each sign means. What do you say?
Exercise 5 Speaking 1 The following are some road signs. Try to guess what they mean. Discuss your ideas with your partner.
2 What does the colour red mean to you? Note that it can stand for different ideas. Share your opinions with the other members of the group.
Exercise 6 Writing 1 Invent a sign of your own and draw it on a sheet of paper. On a different sheet of paper, write a paragraph describing the sign itself, as well as how and when it should be used.
2 Swap the drawing of your sign with your partner. Write a description of your partnerâ€™s sign.
3 Compare your descriptions of the two signs with your partnerâ€™s.
12 Latest Discoveries Exercise 1 Vocabulary
Write the words in brackets in the correct form. Dragging your luggage around with you is a (pain) (1) task, especially on the way back from a holiday. This new (invent) (2) allows you to stop pulling around your luggage or wheeling it back home. This luggage bag is a mini scooter, allowing you to scoot around with your luggage (safe) (3) tucked away. When everyone else is carrying around their luggage, you will be jumping on your scooter, shortening your trip back home and making the ride more fun. The scooter also folds up, allowing you to use it as a normal luggage carrier. It’s a simple idea but an (extreme) (4) effective product, which we think will become very popular. This gadget allows you to recharge four devices (simultaneous) (5) . It is compatible with over 1,000 products. It is a (practice) (6) and (afford) (7) charging station and it is offered in white or black. It is an extraordinarily good looking product, designed for the office and every room in the house. Its advantage is that you can (charge) (8) most of your electronic devices simultaneously.
Exercise 2 Dialogue Imagine you are a salesperson standing on the road trying to convince customers passing by you to buy the following item. Prepare what you are going to say to the customers to sell this product. Arrange your answer in a dialogue form. This new LED umbrella comes equipped with a built-in light which illuminates in the dark. At the touch of a button, the light shines offering a safe and secure passage to your destination. The light is embedded inside the handle to lighten the area under the umbrella’s hood. For those of you who can’t handle a long walk home in the dark, this LED umbrella’s is sure to make that walk a little bit brighter.
Unit 12 Exercise 3 Grammar A a b c d e f g h i j B
Decide if the following sentences are fragments or run-ons. While many people have digital cameras these days. Though advancements in microelectronics made the vision of a computer a realistic one. All televisions make use of an image which is scanned to produce a real time representation, it is then reversed and decoded by the human eye. Itâ€™s hard to decide which inventions are the most important, there are so many. The transistor, possibly the most important of the famous inventions of the 20th century. Received a patent that was needed to bring about the industrial age. The engineer whose high-frequency alternator gave America its start in the field of radio communication. The Internet something which many of us now take for granted. Through various experimentations with electricity, he invented a basic electric battery, it was followed by electric light once he realised that carbon glowed, producing light when connected to the battery. These great men and their ideas have changed the world, the way we live our lives. Correct the fragments and run-ons from task A.
Exercise 4 Taxonomic skills Unscramble the following sentences to make two advertisements about two new inventions. a The blues and greens indicate a mellow mood, compared to pinks, reds and oranges which indicate a stressed-out individual. b The stress watch is aimed at busy people with hectic lives, as it monitors stress levels throughout the day and indicates your levels via a black bar graph on the screen. c There is no better alarm system than a vicious dog barking ferociously at the intruderâ€™s awaiting entry point. d Once the stress levels hit a peak, you can take a rest and watch as your levels begin to drop. e The alarm noise is sounded whenever the door knob is touched or the door is pushed, so the alarm is designed to be set off under the slightest of pressures. f This invention is called an Alarm Security Bar which adds instant protection to any home without the need for expensive installation and monitoring. g Thankfully, the watch also tells the time, so you will never miss an appointment or meeting. h This watch not only looks fantastic but also serves a great purpose. i The alarm can either be set to a powerful siren or the alternative barking alarm sound.
Exercise 5 Reading Read the text and answer the questions.
Can you believe that going solar is cheaper than burning coal? Nanosolar is a new solar power invention without a panel but just a coating of paint, thin as a layer, that takes light and converts it to electricity. It sucks power from the air; it is ubiquitous because it’s cheap. The company produces its power sheet solar cells with printing-press-style machines that set down a layer of solar-absorbing nano-ink onto metal sheets as thin as aluminium foil, so the panels can be made for about a tenth of what current panels cost and at a rate of several hundred feet per minute. Cost has always been one of solar power’s biggest problems. Traditional solar cells require silicon, and silicon is an expensive commodity. It also has to be put on glass, so it’s heavy, dangerous and expensive to ship and install. Nanosolar’s cells use no silicon. Right now, the biggest question for Nanosolar is not if its products can work, but rather if it can make enough of them. California, for instance, recently launched the Million Solar Roofs initiative, which encourages the installation of 100,000 solar roofs per year, every year, for 10 consecutive years. Questions 1 Give the text a suitable title. 2 Match the words with their meanings. a ubiquitous 1 existing b current 2 project c launch 3 uninterrupted d initiative 4 everywhere e consecutive 5 begin 3 List two advantages of this new invention. 4 What are the disadvantages of the old solar systems? 5 Do you think this new invention is going to be implemented in many countries in the world? Explain?
Exercise 6 Writing Can you imagine an electronic glove that allows you to write in thin air? It looks very similar to a ﬁngerless bike glove, but it has a built-in sensory computer program. It can recognise when you trace letters of the alphabet. What are the advantages and disadvantages of such an invention? Write a well-organised paragraph.
Test 4 Part One: Reading comprehension (35 marks) I Read the following and answer the questions. Here are stories of two interesting inventions. The first is that of the English inventor and businessman Percy Shaw (1890–1976). Shaw lived in London where the streets were very dirty and the air was polluted with smog (a mixture of smoke and fog) which made it difficult for people to see the roads. Shaw wanted to find a way to light the roads. One evening, while he was driving, he noticed that his car lights reflected the eyes of the cats on the streets. This is how he invented the ‘Catseyes’ we see now in the middle of the road to guide people to keep in lane. The second invention is that of the American actress Mary Anderson (1859–1940). During a trip to New York in 1903, she noticed that drivers put their hands out of the vehicle they were driving to clear the windscreen. Anderson wanted to find a way to help drivers clean rain, snow or dirt from the windscreen and not get wet. The following year, she applied for a patent for a device that consisted of a lever that a driver could operate from inside the car. The lever caused a spring-loaded arm with a rubber blade to swing across the windshield and then back again to their original position. Anderson got the patent for windscreen wipers in 1905.
1 Find a word in the text that means: a one of a line of small flat objects fixed in the middle of the road that shine when lit by car lights and guide traffic in the dark b the legal right to be the only producer or seller of an invention c the large window at the front of a vehicle (a car, bus, etc.)
4 The word ‘smog’ is derived from two words: smoke and fog. This is called the process of blending. Write down the two words used in each of the following: a sitcom b brunch c camcorder
Part Two: Grammar and structure (60 marks) II Fill in the blanks with the correct word from the box.
; it can lead to 1 Beware of poor muscular problems. 2 She got into a state of when she couldn’t find her purse. kit at the 3 It’s lucky we had the scene of the accident; we helped save his life. she has come 4 I’ve seen the dress up with; it’s great. 5 The of the computer has revolutionised the business world. 6 People were worried that there would not be for all the children who enough needed it. on the carton guarantees that 7 The the food has been produced under hygienic conditions. 8 The company has finally taken measures to improve the of employees.
2 Did Shaw and Anderson intend to be inventors, or did they become inventors by chance? Explain your answer. 3 Do you think anyone can invent a useful device? Could you?
III Complete the dialogue. Use the appropriate phrases.
you are consuming Can you guess what it is I’ll tell you I wonder what new inventions we’ll have soon How often do you check what it’s recording Where do you keep it A I’ve just bought this device from the shop. (1) B Well, it seems like an electronic device to measure something. A Yes, that is close. (2) It’s a digital machine that keeps record of your heartbeat and beeps when your heartbeat is irregular. B Oh, how interesting! It reminds me of another medical device that measures how many calories (3) A (4) B It has a strap that you can fasten around your wrist or ankle. A (5) B You have to check it every twelve hours. A (6) IV Choose the correct word in brackets. 1 I met (somebody / anybody) on the bus whom I knew at school. 2 They didn’t buy (something / anything) at the handicraft exhibition. 3 Samia found (nothing / nowhere) that she wanted to decorate her new dress. 4 John couldn’t find his suitcase (anywhere / somewhere) . 5 I assured them they would find the product they’re looking for (nowhere / somewhere) . V Fill in the blanks with the correct preposition. There are more prepositions than you need.
under at through up between over along
the bed 1 Mum put the blanket when it became cold. 2 Mona found her notes her books. 3 The child hid his new toy the chair. 4 He came us to the movies. 5 The chef put the two trays the oven. the exhibition was 6 The guard attentive. 46
VI Correct the following sentences. 1 The advertisement one of the best I’ve ever seen.
2 They produced the new kitchenware put it in the market they did not advertise it. 3 When I read the newspaper. 4 If they buy the car. 5 Since I saw Mona last.
Part Three: Writing (25 marks) VII Choose a profession and an appropriate place of work. Write a brochure that gives a list of safety instructions for people at work. Suggest a catchy title and attractive artwork to illustrate the brochure and encourage staff to read it.
Glossary A absorb verb to take in or soak up energy, a liquid or other substance by chemical or physical action, typically gradually: Buildings can be designed to absorb and retain heat. abstract adjective existing in thought or as an idea but not having a physical or concrete existence: Dreams are abstract concepts. accessory noun something such as a piece of equipment or a decoration that is not necessary but that makes a machine, car, room, etc. more useful or more attractive: He sells bathroom accessories such as mirrors. accommodate verb to get used to a new situation or to make yourself do this: A good hotel can accommodate all your needs. accomplish verb to achieve or complete successfully: He accomplished the mission quite successfully. accounts executive noun advertising firm’s representative who manages services for a particular client (called an account): What does an advertising agency account executive do? acquire verb 1 to buy or obtain an object or asset for oneself: Don’t acquire items you might regret buying. 2 to learn or develop a skill, habit or quality: It is impressive how fast you acquire new skills. acrylic adjective relating to or denoting paints based on acrylic resin as a medium: He gave her an acrylic painting for her birthday. adapt verb to change something to make it suitable for a different purpose: The car has been adapted to take unleaded gas.
address verb to speak to a person or an assembly, typically in a formal way: He addressed his manager about the company’s issues.
advertising agency noun marketing services firm that assists companies in planning advertisements: They own the largest advertising agency in the city.
address noun the place where someone lives or an organisation is situated: They exchanged addresses and agreed to keep in touch.
affordability noun the extent to which something is reasonably priced: Unfortunately, solving the affordability problem is difficult.
adhesive noun a substance such as glue that you use to stick two things together: Adhesives may come from either natural or synthetic sources.
agent noun a person who acts on behalf of another: We will be meeting the marketing agent and make some decisions.
adjacent adjective next to or adjoining something else: Mary and her sister slept in adjacent rooms. adjust verb to alter or move something slightly in order to achieve the desired fit, appearance or result: The interest rate should be adjusted for inflation. adjustment noun a small change made to a machine or system; They had to make some adjustments to their strategy. advantage noun a condition or circumstance that puts one in a favourable or superior position: Companies with a computerised database are at an advantage. advertise verb to tell the public about a product or service in order to persuade them to buy it: Many companies will only advertise in the Sunday paper. advertiser noun a person or company that advertises something: This new technology allows advertisers to tailor adverts. advertising noun the activity or business of advertising things on television, in newspapers, etc: Both candidates are spending millions on television advertising.
alternator noun a generator that produces an alternating current: Most alternators use a rotating magnetic field. alternative adjective different from a plan or idea you have and can be used instead: Have you any alternative suggestions? ambiance noun atmosphere of a place: The music added to the calm ambiance of the place. amendment noun the act of changing something: Then the committee takes a vote and the amendment is adopted. ancient adjective having been in existence for a very long time: There are ancient items at the national museum. animated cartoon noun a film made by photographing a series of cartoon drawings to give the illusion of movement when projected in rapid sequence: Click on “graphic” to view the animated cartoon. annual adjective occurring once every year: I always attend the union’s annual conference. antique adjective having a high value because of considerable age: He had no idea that the furniture he sold was antique.
appealing adjective attractive or interesting: Polishing glassware makes it more appealing.
artistic adjective having or revealing natural creative skill: He has various artistic abilities.
appliance noun a device or piece of equipment designed to perform a specific task, typically a domestic one: He sells imported home appliances.
aspiration noun a hope or ambition of achieving something: She has always had the aspiration of becoming a writer.
application noun a programme or piece of software designed and written to fulfil a particular purpose: The database application is now available. appreciate verb to understand how serious or important a situation or problem is or what someone’s feelings are: He did not fully appreciate the significance of signing the contract. approach verb to come near or nearer to someone or something in distance: After waiting for an hour, I saw the train approaching. approach noun a way of dealing with something: We need a whole new approach to the job. appliance noun a device or piece of equipment designed to perform a specific task, typically a domestic one: He owns the biggest shop of imported home appliances. appliqué noun ornamental needlework in which pieces of fabric are sewn or stuck onto a large piece of fabric to form pictures or patterns: The items displayed in the window shop were 19th-century appliquéd silks. appropriate adjective suitable or proper in the circumstance: These pieces of furniture are not appropriate to our living room. artery noun any of the muscularwalled tubes forming part of the circulation system by which blood is conveyed from the heart to all parts of the body: A blocked artery can cause a heart attack. artefact noun an object that was made in the past and is historically important: Hundreds of unidentified artefacts are stored in the museum.
assault verb to make a physical attack on: He pleaded guilty to assaulting a police officer. assemble verb to bring people or things together for a common purpose: Make sure to explain how the products will be assembled at the exhibition. asset noun a useful or valuable thing, person or quality: Qualified employees are assets to every company. assignment noun a task or piece of work assigned to someone as part of a job or course of study: They didn’t have any assignments for the weekend. assist verb to help: They are apparently so incompetent that the city hired a consultant to assist them.
audience noun the people giving or likely to give attention to something: There will always be an audience for tragic literature. avoid verb to keep away from or to stop oneself from doing something: Avoid excessive exposure to the sun. awareness noun knowledge or understanding of a particular subject or situation: Health officials have tried to raise awareness about many serious diseases. awful adjective used to emphasise the extent of something, esp. something unpleasant or negative: That fridge smells awful. B backwards adverb in reverse of the usual direction or order: His baseball cap is turned backwards. baluster noun a short pillar or column, typically decorative in design, in a series supporting a rail: Many of the balusters were broken and needed to be repaired.
assistant noun a person who helps in a particular work: My mother works as a laboratory assistant.
bandage verb to bind a wound or a part of the body with a protective strip of material: The doctors bandaged up his wounds.
association noun a group of people organised for a joint purpose: What is the view of your national association about these programmes?
banner noun a long strip of cloth bearing a slogan or design: A banner in the front window announced “Grand Reopening”.
attain verb to succeed in achieving something that one desires and has worked for: Clarify your objectives and ways of attaining them. attend verb to be present at an event or meeting: All students must attend regularly. attendant noun a person employed to provide a service to the public in a particular place: Customers were complaining about the lack of attendants to help them.
basic adjective at the simplest or least developed level: Their knowledge is very basic. basics noun the essential facts or principles of a subject or skill: It is important to learn the basics of the business. basis noun the system or principles according to which an activity or process is carried on: She needed coaching on a regular basis. benefit noun an advantage or profit gained from something: The company reaped benefits from the hard work of the employees.
benefit verb to receive an advantage, profit or gain: The deal benefited both companies. beneficial adjective advantageous: The meeting resulted in beneficial agreements. bent adjective a bent object or part of the body is no longer flat or straight: Stand with your knees slightly bent. beware verb to be cautious of: Beware of the latest viruses. bill noun a printed or written statement of charges: His telephone bill was shocking. binding noun a strong covering holding the pages of a book together: The binding was so old that the pages of the book were loose. bleach noun a chemical agent used to remove the colour: Bleach can sometimes ruin your clothes. blueprint noun a design, plan or other technical drawing: I probably will not understand a thing from the demonstrated blueprints.
brochure noun a small book or magazine containing pictures and information about a product or service: The brochure can tell you everything you need to know.
campaign noun an organised course of action to achieve a particular goal: I’m interested in participating in the international advertising campaign.
broken adjective separated into pieces as a result of a blow or shock, etc.: Wrap it well so it doesn’t get broken in the post.
caption noun a heading or title, as of an article, illustrations or cartoon posters: Each painting is accompanied by a caption.
browse verb to search for information on a computer or on the Internet: Browse your desktop and find the document you are looking for.
capture verb to record or express accurately in words or pictures: Her paintings capture the theme of the exhibition.
bruise noun an injury appearing as an area of discoloured skin on the body caused by a blow or impact: Luckily, he survived the accident with only few bruises. bucket noun a roughly cylindrical open container with a handle used to hold and carry liquids or other material: You can put out this fire with a bucket of water. budget noun an estimate of income and expenditure for a set period of time: Every person should keep a budget of his / her monthly expenditure.
bonkers adjective mad; crazy: He surprised me when he went bonkers.
built-in adjective forming an integral part of a structure or device: My phone has a built-in camera.
book verb to reserve a place or buy a ticket in advance : I have already booked my flight.
burn noun an injury caused by fire, heat, sunlight or acid: His body was covered in cigarette burns.
brand noun type of product manufactured by a particular company under a particular name: I didn’t like this new brand of detergent.
buttonhole noun a hole for a button to be put through to fasten a shirt, coat, etc.: Buttonholes often have a bar of stitches at either side.
brief noun a set of instructions given to a person about a job or task: His brief about the project was quite confusing.
burner noun a device, as in a furnace, stove or gas lamp, that is lit to produce a flame: Could you put the pan on the burner, please?
brilliant adjective exceptionally clever or talented: That’s a brilliant idea!
broaden verb to increase something such as your knowledge, experience or range of activities: The course helps high school students broaden their general knowledge.
camcorder noun a portable combined video camera and video recorder: I wish I could buy a camcorder.
cardiopulmonary adjective related to the heart and the lungs: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation can be life saving. care label noun woven or printed label with fabric content and care information: Read the care label on your clothes before you wash them. career noun an occupation undertaken for a significant period of a person’s life and with opportunities for progress: Choose your career based on something you like to do. cargo noun goods carried on a ship, aircraft or motor vehicle: A ship carrying a cargo of oil has sunk. casual adjective style of clothes suitable for everyday wear rather than formal occasions: You cannot come to a business meeting in casual clothes. catalogue noun a publication containing details and often photographs of items for sale, esp. one produced by a mail-order company: I find catalogues very helpful. catchy adjective instantly appealing and memorable: Think of a catchy title for the article. catwalk noun a narrow platform or stage: Models walk on a catwalk to display the new designs. catch verb to get entangled or trapped in something: She hurt her finger because it was caught in the door.
cautious adjective attentive to potential problems or dangers prudent: You should be cautious when using needles. charge verb to ask someone for a particular amount of money for merchandise or services: The hotel charges $125 a night. check verb to examine something in order to find out whether something really is correct, true or in good condition: Check the tiles carefully before you buy them. cheerful adjective happy or behaving in a way that shows you are happy: She is more cheerful than any other day. chipped adjective cut or broken at the edge or surface: I think the edge of the stairs is chipped. chisel noun a long-bladed hand tool with a cutting edge and a plain handle that is used to cut or shape wood, stone, metal or other hard materials: You need to use a chisel to shape hard material. circuit noun a system of electrical conductors and components forming a roughly circular path that starts and finishes at the same place: This switch controls the circuit. circular weaving machine noun electrically-controlled weaving machine that has two or more shuttles moving simultaneously in a circle: Factories that manufacture fabric use circular weaving machines. classical adjective regarded as representing an exemplary standard: Hamlet is a classical tragedy. cleaning up noun a process by which you get rid of dirt or waste from a place: The cleaning up of the oil spill will take more time than what we expected. client noun 1 a person or organisation using the services of another person or business: We currently have three clients. 2 a desktop computer or workstation that is capable of obtaining information and
applications from a server: The client application we are using for our company is really efficient. climatologist noun scientist who conducts studies on the climate: Climatologists expect tomorrowâ€™s weather to be sunny. clinic noun a place or hospital department where outpatients are given medical treatment or advice: You cannot find the doctor at his clinic during these hours. clue noun a fact or idea that serves as a guide or aid in a task or problem: Follow the clues to solve the riddle. coat verb to cover something with a thin layer of something else: A layer of snow coated the trees. coating noun a covering of paint or similar material laid on a surface at one time: A coating of paint will make the room much brighter. coherent adjective logical and consistent: A well-written essay is always coherent. collaborative adjective produced or conducted by two or more parties working together: Collaborative work often gives better results. colleague noun a person with whom one works, esp. in a profession or business: My colleagues are having a meeting after lunch. collectible noun typically a manufactured item designed for people to collect: He has many types of collectibles. collection noun 1 a set of similar things that are kept or brought together: I am often asked for advice by people who want to sell their stamp collection. 2 the clothes designed by a fashion company for a particular season: The spring-summer collection shows an unexpected style created from traditional hand-knitting and crochet techniques.
commercial adjective 1 related to business and the buying and selling of goods and services: Our top priorities must be profit and commercial growth. 2 a product that is produced and sold in large quantities: We own a commercial textile factory in Aleppo. communicate verb to share or exchange information, news or ideas: We can easily communicate through the Internet. compatible adjective the ability to be used with a specified piece of equipment or software without special adaptation or modification: Make sure your new printer is compatible with the software you are using. compete verb 1 to get people to buy your goods or services rather than those available from another company or country: They found themselves competing with foreign companies for a share of the market. 2 to try to gain something and stop someone else from having it or having as much of it: I had to compete against 19 other people for the job. 3 to take part in a competition or sports event: How many runners will be competing in the marathon? competition noun the person or people with whom one is competing, esp. in a commercial arena: Competition between those companies has become fiercer than before. complex adjective not easy to analyse or understand: I always find mathematical problems quite complex for me to solve. complicated adjective difficult to understand or deal with because many parts or details are involved: You are expected to solve complicated situations in this company. compression noun the action of compressing or being compressed: Chest compressions are performed during CPR. computer graphics noun visual images produced by computer processing: Early computer graphic effects in early movies were not very realistic.
Computer-Aided Design (CAD) noun is the use of computer technology for the process of design and design-documentation: Computer-Aided Design can make work much easier.
conversion noun something that is changed from one use, function or purpose to another: I am reading about the conversion of electricity to heat.
conference noun a formal meeting for discussion: We are all expected to attend the conference.
convert verb to change in form, character or function: Solar energy can be converted to electric power to run certain devices.
concept noun a general abstract notion: Theoretical concepts can be hard to understand. concern noun a matter of interest or importance to someone: He always has health concerns.
convince verb to persuade someone to do something: He is so stubborn that no one could ever convince him not to go out in the rain.
conduct verb to carry out: Students will be conducting an assigned research.
copywriter noun a person who writes the text of advertisements or publicity material: A successful copywriter focuses on writing effectively rather than correctly.
confusion noun lack of understanding; uncertainty: I’m glad the confusion finally got cleared-up.
cosmetics adjective a product applied to the body, esp. the face, to improve its appearance: There is a cosmetics sales on isle 7.
construction noun the style or method used in the building of something: The construction of a building may take years.
cost noun an amount that has to be paid to buy or obtain something: We are able to cover the cost of the event.
consulting noun the business of giving specialist advice to other professionals, typically in financial and business matters: Financial consulting is indispensable in businesses nowadays.
cost verb to have a particular price: A full day’s activities will cost you 45 SYP.
CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) noun emergency medical procedures for restoring normal heartbeat and breathing to victims of heart failure, drowning, etc: He needed immediate CPR because he was not breathing. critical adjective having a decisive or crucial importance in the success or failure of something: Competition is a critical factor in the production of an item. crochet noun a handcraft in which yarn is made up into a patterned fabric by looping yarn with a hooked needle: My grandmother is very good in crochet. current noun happening or existing now: In its current state, the car is worth £ 1,000. cushion cover noun a protective overlay placed or spread over or upon a pad or pillow: Flowery cushion covers would freshen up your living room. customise verb to change something to make it more suitable for you, or to make it especial or different from things of a similar type: Try to find a good mechanic to customise your car for you.
costly adjective very expensive: I cannot afford such costly items.
consumer noun a person who purchases goods and services for personal use: Consumers who argue about prices can give you a hard time.
couch noun a comfortable piece of furniture big enough for two or three people to sit on: Amer spent the night sleeping on the couch.
damage noun physical harm that is done to something or to part of someone’s body so that it is broken or injured: The other ship sustained only minor damage.
container noun an object that can be used to hold or transport something: We will unload the big containers first.
coupon noun a voucher entitling the holder to a discount for a particular product: Your coupon is still valid for a free gift of your choice.
damaged adjective objects that are physically harmed: Damaged cars are usually kept in scrap yards.
contextual adjective relating to or determined by context: Contextual information can help you solve the problem.
co-worker noun someone who works with you and has a similar position; colleague: I have very pleasant co-workers at my new job.
corner shop adjective a small store or shop in a built up area that stocks a range of everyday items: I’m glad there is a new corner shop in town.
cover verb to include or deal with a particular subject or group of things: We need more time to cover so much ground
dazzling adjective extremely beautiful: The painting was dazzling. deadline noun a date or time by which you have to do or complete something: I don’t think I can finish my research paper before the deadline. deal noun an agreement or arrangement, esp. in business or politics, that helps both sides involved: We made a surprisingly good deal.
declare verb to say something in a solemn and emphatic manner: The manager declared that the proposal was rejected.
deprive verb to deny a person or place the possession or use of something: Some rural areas are deprived of electricity.
decompose verb to break down into component elements or simpler constituents: Many chemicals decompose rapidly under high temperature.
derive verb to obtain something from a specified source: You will derive great comfort from this armchair.
decorative adjective pretty or attractive, but not always necessary or useful: There is a decorative panel above the door.
detached adjective not reacting to or becoming involved in something in an emotional way: Try to take a more detached view.
documentary noun a movie or a television or radio programme that provides a factual record or report: The documentary on the latest archaeological discoveries was too complicated for me to understand. documentation noun the written specification and instructions accompanying a computer program or hardware: I think the documentation of this computer belongs to a different one.
deliver verb to take goods, letters, packages, etc. to a particular place or person: The morning post has just been delivered.
digitising adjective the process of converting a photo, movie,etc. into a digital form that can be processed by a computer: Digitising books is a new concept to many.
demand noun 1 the desire of purchasers, consumers, clients, employers, etc., for a particular commodity, service or other item: There is a recent slump in demand. 2 pressing requirements: Heâ€™s got enough demands on his schedule.
double-pointed needles noun knitting needles that have points at both ends, rather than having a pointed end and an end with a stopper that keeps the stitches on the needle: Double-pointed needles are used in weaving when a certain pattern is desired.
dimension noun a measurable extent of some kind, such as length, breadth, depth or height: Engineers must take precise measurements of the dimension of their projects.
drafting noun a piece of writing or a plan that is not yet in its finished form: The drafting is quite good but needs some slight changes.
dine out phrasal verb to eat dinner in a restaurant or the house of friends: They dine out at least once a week.
drapery noun cloth coverings hanging in loose folds: I cannot understand how she liked this ugly drapery.
discuss verb to talk about something with another person or group of people: I discussed the problem with a friend.
demonstrate verb to give a practical exhibition and explanation of how a machine, skill or craft works or is performed: The company will demonstrate the use of its new machine. derive verb to originate or come from a specified source: Cheese and milk are derived from milk. destination noun the place someone or something is going or being sent to: This is a popular destination for golfers.
display noun a collection of objects arranged for public viewing: There is a display of books on sale at the local library.
detach verb to disengage something or part of something and remove it: Can you detach this page from the book?
display verb to show something to people or put it in a place where people can see it easily: Unique items are displayed in public auctions.
device noun a mechanical or electronic tool that is made or adapted to a particular purpose: This is a small device in which you can save data.
distinct adjective clearly different or belonging to a different type: Though similar, these are two distinct species of animals.
department noun a division of a large organisation such as a government, university, business or shop dealing with a specific subject, commodity or area of activity: The Language Arts department is on the first floor.
distinctive adjective characteristic of one person or thing which serves to distinguish it from others: Tell me more about the distinctive features of this new invention.
earn verb to obtain money in return for labour or services: He earns more money than anyone else. effective adjective successful, and working in the way that was intended: We need an effective solution before it is too late. efficient adjective if someone or something is efficient, they work well without wasting time, money or energy: One efficient method to prepare for exams is to study on a daily basis. elegance noun a refined quality of gracefulness and good taste: The style of this designer is known for its elegance. e-marketing noun marketing of products or services over the Internet: Did the new e-marketing campaign succeed?
embroider verb to decorate cloth by sewing patterns on it with thread: I asked her to embroider a design on one of my plain dresses. embroidery noun a pattern sewn onto cloth: Despite its cultural value, people are growing less interested in embroidery. emerge verb to move out of or away from something and come into view: He emerged from the fog like a shadow. enable verb to make possible: This software program enables you to design on your computer. enclosed adjective surrounded or closed off on all sides: The exhibition will be in an enclosed area. enjoy verb to take delight or pleasure in an activity or occasion: I enjoy reading books. ensure verb to make certain that something shall occur or be the case: Employees should do their best to ensure customer satisfaction. episode noun each of the separate instalments into which a serialised story or radio or television programme is divided: Today I will be watching the last episode of my favourite programme. essential adjective absolutely necessary; extremely important: It is essential that you concentrate when preparing your income statements. establish verb to set up an organisation, system or set of rules: This organisation was established in 1986. evaluation noun formation of an idea about the amount, number and value of something: The employee is anxious about his manager’s evaluation of his work. exceptional adjective unusual; not typical: The manager allowed the employee to leave early because he was an exceptional case.
exchange verb give something and receive something in return: We exchanged phone numbers. exciting adjective causing great enthusiasm and eagerness: What an exciting event! execute verb carry out or put into effect a plan, order or course of action: The corporation failed to execute the plan. exert verb to apply force: Don’t exert too much pressure on fragile objects. exhibition noun a public display of works of art or other items of interest, held in an art gallery or museum or at a trade fair: What kind of exhibitions are you interested in? expense noun the money spent on something: He needs to cut down his expenses or else he will be in debt. expertise noun special skills or knowledge in a particular subject, that you learn by experience or training: What he’s bringing to the company is financial expertise. expiry date noun the date on which food, drink, medicine and other perishable items are considered unsuitable for sale or consumption: Check the expiry date before you buy any canned food. expose verb to put someone in a situation where they are not protected from something dangerous or unpleasant: The report revealed that workers had been exposed to high levels of radiation. extent noun the degree to which something has spread; the size or scale of something: Electric appliances have become important to people to a great extent. extract verb to remove or take out, esp. by effort or force: Coal is extracted from mines.
Extraction-Assist Robot noun a humanoid robot designed as a method for transporting wounded soldiers from the battlefield to safety: The shape and size of a battlefield Extraction-Assist Robot is similar to that of an adult male human being. F fabric noun cloth, typically produced by weaving or knitting textile fibres: She didn’t get wet because her coat was made of waterproof fabric. facilitate verb to make an action or a process easy: Buses facilitate transportation. familiar with phrasal verb to have a good knowledge of: Make sure that you are familiar with the heating controls. fashion show noun an event at which new styles of clothes are shown to the public: In a typical fashion show, models display the clothing created by the designer. feature noun a distinctive attribute or aspect of something: This car has features which you will not find in other cars. feedback noun information about reactions to a product, a person’s performance of a task, etc. used as a basis for improvement: Teachers must always pay attention to the feedback they get during presentations. felting machine noun a piece of equipment used to fuse fibres from one fabric into another base cloth: Many prefer felting by hand than using a felting machine. field noun a subject that people study or an area of activity that they are involved in as part of their work: You are most happy at work when you work in a field of your interest. financial plan noun a plan for spending and saving future income: A business should have clear financial plans.
fire extinguisher noun a portable device that discharges a jet of water, foam, gas or other material to extinguish a fire: Drivers should make sure to carry fire extinguishers in their cars. first aid noun help given to a sick or injured person until full medical treatment is available: Everyone must have some knowledge about first aid so they don’t panic in an emergency. fit adjective of a suitable quality or standard to meet the required purpose: He is not fit for the position he was offered. flammable adjective easily set on fire: Flammable materials should be kept away from fire. focal adjective relating to the main point of interest: The focal point differs from one picture to another. flyer noun a small leaflet which advertises an event or product: fliers were spread everywhere, yet few people attended the event. focus noun centre of interest or activity: She was the focus of the event. folk adjective relating to the traditional art or culture of a community or nation: I often listen to folk music. forecast noun a prediction or estimate of future events, esp. related to weather or a financial trend: I was listening to today’s weather forecast and they said it will be a sunny day. fountain pen noun a pen with a reservoir or cartridge from which ink flows continuously to the nib: His fountain pen broke while he was writing. freehand adjective drawn by hand without using any special tools: She draws wonderful freehand sketches. freight noun goods that are carried by ship, train or aircraft and the system of moving these goods: We’ll send your personal belongings by air freight.
frequent adjective done or occurring often: She should consult a doctor regarding her frequent headaches.
handle verb to control or manage commercially: This problem is difficult to handle.
fresh adjective relating to bright colours: This painting has fresh colours.
handrail noun a rail fixed to posts or a wall for people to hold onto for support: My nephew likes to slide down the handrail.
fringe noun an ornamental border of threads left loose or formed into tassels or twists, used to edge clothing or material: Almost all her clothes have fringes on them. function noun an activity or purpose, natural to or intended for a person or thing: Literature has many social functions. functional adjective designed to be useful rather than beautiful or attractive: This device has many functional uses. G gadget noun a small, useful and cleverly-designed machine or tool: I would like to have that gadget you used for sharpening knives.
handy adjective useful: Answering machines are quite handy when no one is at home. harmonious adjective forming a pleasing or consistent whole: The colours of their new living room are very harmonious. havoc noun great confusion or disorder: The havoc of the demonstrators is beyond what I expected. head noun the flattened or knobbed end of a nail, pin or screw: When you want to hammer a nail, make sure you hold its head firmly to the wall.
garment noun an item for clothing: I like pastel-coloured garments.
headband noun a band of fabric worn around the head as a decoration or to keep the hair or perspiration off the face: Some girls wear a headband when they have a facial mask.
generate verb to produce: There are many ways to generate electricity.
heavy adjective thick or solidly made: I bought a heavy new winter coat.
grocery noun food and other goods that are sold by a grocer or a supermarket: The property is within walking distance of the village grocery and post office.
hemline noun the level of the lower edge of a garment such as a skirt, dress or coat: The groom was wearing a long jacket with a lowered hemline at the back.
grout noun paste for filling the gaps between wall or floor tiles: We need to renew our bathroom tile grout.
high time idiom it should have happened long ago: It is high time you found a job.
H Hair-Washing Machine noun a machine designed for washing a person’s hair or means to assist in the washing of the hair: Many salons are using automatic HairWashing Machines. handcraft noun a particular skill of making decorative objects by hand: She is skilful in making traditional handcrafts.
hire verb 1 to pay money to borrow something for a short period of time: The best way to explore the island is to hire a car. 2 to employ someone for a short time to do a particular job: Employers hire skilled people on fixed-term contracts. host noun a computer connected to the Internet: The number of Internet hosts is increasing.
I identify verb to associate closely with: I identified myself with the hero of the movie. ideogram noun a graphic symbol that represents an idea or concept: Examples of ideograms include signs, such as in airports and other environments where many people may not be familiar with the language of the place they are in. illumination noun light or lighting: There was not enough illumination as there was supposed to be. image pad noun drawing board: The drawings that he made on the image pad are fascinating. impact noun the effect or influence of one person, thing or action on another: His speech left a serious impact on the audience. implement verb to put a decision, plan, agreement, etc. into action: We all agreed on the plan, but could implement nothing. import verb to transfer data into a file or document: Have you imported the data from your computer to mine? impulse noun a sudden strong urge or desire to act: He had an impulse to hit him, but he managed to refrain from doing so. in bulk expression if you buy goods in bulk, you buy large amounts each time you buy them: Sometimes buying in bulk is wasteful. income noun money received, esp. on a regular basis, for work or through investments: His income does not allow him to afford such an expensive car. indifference noun lack of interest, concern or sympathy: Her indifference is rather surprising.
indispensable adjective unable to do without: Computers have become indispensable in our lives. inexpensive adjective not high in price; cheap: I donâ€™t understand how such an item can be so inexpensive. influence noun the capacity to have an effect on the character, development or behaviour of someone or something: He has great influence on his children. ingredient noun one of the foods that you use to make a particular food or dish: Combine all the ingredients in a large bowl. initial adjective existing or occurring at the beginning: First aid provides initial care until the patient is carried to a hospital.
interior adjective situated inside or within: The interior lighting system is nothing like the one I imagined. intimidating adjective making you feel worried and not confident: Some people find interviews very intimidating. J joint noun a structure in the human or animal body at which two parts of the skeleton are fitted together: Older people have a higher possibility of suffering from pains in the joints. K keep away phrasal verb to prevent from coming close: Medicine must be kept away from children.
injury noun the instance of being injured; harm or damage: Is his injury as serious as it is thought to be?
keep up with phrasal verb to learn about or be aware of current events or developments: You should keep up with recent events.
inquire verb to ask for information from someone or something: You can surf the Internet to inquire about anything you would like to know.
kettle noun pot used to heat water: The water in the kettle is boiling.
install verb to place or fix equipment, software or machinery in position ready for use: I need to install my new software so I can work on my computer. instruction noun a direction or order: Read the instructions before you use any electrical appliance. insufficient adjective not sufficient; lacking in what is necessary or required: The employeeâ€™s hard work was seen as insufficient. integration noun the action of combining one thing with another so that they become a whole: The integration of plans gave better results. interaction noun reciprocal action or influence: The interaction of cultures brings people closer together.
kneel verb to be in or to assume a position in which the body is supported by a knee or both knees: He knelt by the fire. L label noun a piece of fabric sewn inside a garment and bearing the brand name, size or instructions for care: If you are allergic to wool, read the label before you buy clothes. launch verb to introduce a new product or publication to the public for the first time: She will launch her seasonal collection. laundry label noun a pictogram which represents a method of washing, for example drying, dry cleaning and ironing clothes: Laundry labels tell you the wash temperature. layout noun the way in which writing and pictures are arranged on a page: Business letters have a different layout than ordinary ones.
leaflet noun a printed sheet of paper containing information or an advert and usually distributed for free: You can get a discount on certain items if you show them the leaflet at the entrance of the store. leftovers noun food that has not been eaten at the end of a meal: Put the leftovers in the fridge. liable adjective likely to do or say something or to behave in a particular way, esp. because of a fault or natural tendency: This city is liable to flooding. ligament noun a short band of tough, flexible, fibrous connective tissue that connects two bones or cartilage or holds together a joint: There are many ways to help you avoid pain in your ligaments. light bulb noun a glass bulb inserted into a socket in a ceiling, that provides light by passing an electric current through a pocket of inert gas: The broken light bulb needs to be replaced with a new one. limited adjective restricted in size, amount or extent: Our offer is on limited items only. line up phrasal verb to put together: Lay the pieces of fabric on a flat surface and line up the ends of the seam and the edges of the fabric. linen noun garments or other household articles such as sheets made of linen: I asked her to change the plain linen collars. lit adjective having a considerable amount of natural light: The streets are well lit at night. location noun a particular place or position: Could you give me the building’s location? log off phrasal verb to terminate a connection to a computer or network: Please log off the computers before leaving. long-term adjective occurring over or relating to a long period of time: Your long-term memory allows you to remember something for a long time.
M machinery noun machines collectively: He has always been good at repairing machinery. mail-order adjective selling of goods to customers by post, generally involving selection from a special catalogue: I rarely buy items through mail-order sales. mailing list noun a collection of names and addresses used by an individual or an organisation to send material to multiple recipients: Business mailing lists contain company names and addresses for businesses nationwide. maintain verb to preserve or retain: I’m glad he maintained his manners during the meeting. manufacture verb to make something on a large scale using machinery: The firm’s aim was to manufacture high-quality goods. mark noun a visible trace or impression, such as a line or spot: I hope the cut does not leave a mark. market segment noun a group of people or organisations with one or more characteristics that cause them to demand similar products and / or services based on the qualities of those products such as price or function: Identifying and targeting unique market segments is essential in today’s competitive marketplace. manual adjective done with the hands: I prefer manual sewing than sewing on a machine. manual noun a book of instructions, esp. for operating a machine or learning a subject: Use the manual instead of trying to guess how the machine works. media noun the main means of mass communication, esp. television, radio, newspapers and the Internet regarded collectively: The media has a great effect on viewers. mental adjective relating to the mind: He is really good at mental maths.
messy adjective dirty and disorderly: My mum cannot tolerate my messy room any more. microsafe adjective anything that is safe to put in the microwave: Make sure this bowl is microsafe before you put it in the microwave. minimal adjective of a minimum amount, quantity or degree: A product would be more competitive when its production cost is minimal. minor adjective lesser in importance, seriousness or significance: Do not worry about the minor details. model number noun a series of numbers and letters stamped onto an equipment, identifying its style, dimensions, and other specifications: Model numbers make it easier for a salesperson to identify the item a customer is looking for. monitor verb to check and observe: If you monitor your monthly expenditure, you will not be short of money at the end of the month. monitor noun a television or part of a computer with a screen, on which you can see pictures or information: She was staring at her computer monitor. mosaic noun a picture or pattern produced by arranging together small coloured pieces of hard material, such as stone, tiles or glass: These mosaics are very beautiful. motif noun a decorative design or pattern: The motif on those costumes differs from one place to another. mow verb to cut down an area of grass with a machine: I have to mow the lawn before the guests arrive. multiple adjective numerous and often varied: You have multiple options.
N narrow fabric machine noun weaving machine which uses an electronically-controlled thread carrier or eye point needle instead of a shuttle: This company is famous for narrow fabric machines. nausea noun a feeling of sickness with an inclination to vomit: Nausea is a common symptom to many medical conditions. neutral adjective having no strongly marked or positive characteristics or features: I expected him to get angry, but he had a neutral attitude. nitroglycerin noun yellow liquid used in medicine to decrease blood pressure: Nitroglycerin must be used only by trained doctors. novelty adjective something unusual, small and cheap that is often given as a present: He is looking for a selection of novelty items. O obligation noun a duty or commitment: Reporting crimes is everyone’s obligation. objective noun something that you are trying hard to achieve, esp. in business or politics: Managers should set specific performance objectives for their teams. obstacle noun a thing that blocks one’s way or prevents or hinders progress: There were many obstacles on his way out. obstruct verb to be or to get in the way of: There was a huge rock in the middle of the road that obstructed the path of the cars. occasion noun a particular time or instance of an event: I have met him on a previous occasion. open up phrasal verb to make available: Travelling can open up new opportunities for many people.
opportunity noun a set of circumstances that makes it possible to do something: This job will open up new opportunities for you.
package noun an object or group of objects wrapped in paper or plastic, or packed in a box: She bought a package of cosmetic products.
option noun the freedom, power or right to choose something: Our company offers many options for costumers.
palette noun the range or spectrum of colours or shapes available to the user: You have chosen a palette of suitable colours.
orally adverb by word of mouth: I had to answer the questions orally. organic art noun an art form that emphasises an object alive in its own right: I didn’t expect you to enjoy an exhibition of organic art. origin noun the place or situation in which something begins to exist: The word is French in origin. original noun something serving as a model or basis for imitations or copies: Some texts are studied in the original. ornament verb to adorn; to beautify: She ornamented the dull walls with beautiful paintings. outing noun a trip taken for pleasure, esp. one lasting a day or less: Would you be interested in an outing this weekend? outlet noun a point in an electrical circuit from which current may be drawn: Children must be kept away from electrical outlets. overdo verb to exaggerate: He was trying to act naturally, but he was overdoing his part. overload verb to overcharge an electrical system: Don’t overload the power sockets. overspend verb to spend more money than you can afford: Yesterday, Ali overspent and he was left with very little money. P pack verb to put something into a box or other container so that it can be moved, sold, or stored: My flight is in two hours and I have not packed yet.
Paper-Based Lithium-Ion Batteries noun ultra-thin batteries that could be used to power electronic newspapers: PaperBased Lithium-Ion Batteries are being used in many publishing houses. participant noun a person who takes part in something: The participants were quite excited. patchwork adjective needlework in which small pieces of cloth in different designs, colours or textures are sewed together: Her patchwork project was better than she had expected. pathway noun a way that constitutes or serves as a path: The pathway needs to be kept clear at all times. pattern noun a model or design used as a guide in needlework and other crafts: The designer had to change all his patterns since another designer released a collection very similar to them. perceive verb to understand or think of something or someone in a particular way: People perceive the red light as a sign to stop. perception noun the way you think about something and your idea of what it is like: We had very different perceptions on the same subject. percentage noun an amount expressed as if it is part of a total which is 100: The percentage of school leavers that go to university is about five per cent. permanent adjective continuing to exist for a long time or for all the time in the future : This situation must have a permanent solution.
Perpetual Motion Device noun any device or system that perpetually produces more energy than it consumes, resulting in a net output of energy for indefinite time: Perpetual Motion Devices defy the common perception of physics. persuade verb to cause someone to do something through reasoning or argument: She persuaded me to go with her to the movies. pesticide noun a substance used for destroying insects or other organisms harmful to cultivated plants or to animals: Excess use of pesticides causes soil and water pollution. place an order expression to submit an order for a product: My secretary placed an order for a new computer. phonetic adjective relating to speech sounds: The alphabet represents phonetic sounds. pictogram noun a picture that represents a word or phrase: The early scripts of the Mediterranean civilisations used pictograms and hieroglyphs. plug noun a device for making an electrical connection, esp. between an appliance and a power supply: We simply needed to change a fuse in the plug. plump up phrasal verb to shake or pat a cushion or pillow to adjust its stuffing and make it rounded and soft: She plumps up her pillows before going to bed. polish verb to make something smooth, bright and shiny by rubbing it: Someone told her to polish her silverware with lemon. portfolio noun a large, thin flat case for loose sheets of paper such as drawings or maps: He lost his portfolio of clients. post noun a job: I hope you are enjoying your new post.
posture noun a position of a person’s body when standing or sitting: Improper posture can give you pains in the back and the waist.
prestige adjective a prestige project, product etc. is one of high quality that people respect you for having or being involved in: He drives a prestige car.
poultry noun birds such as chickens, turkeys, ducks or geese that are kept on farms in order to produce eggs and meat: He is seriously thinking about rearing poultry.
prestige advertising noun advertising designed to enhance the prestige of a company or a company’s products or services: This article is about prestige advertising.
power socket noun an electrical device receiving a plug or light bulb to make a connection: The new mobile can be used anywhere with a power socket to share 3G Internet access.
prevent verb to keep something from happening or arising: You can prevent accidents by taking precautions.
practicality noun the quality or state of being practical; to be mostly effective: An item’s practicality is an advantage that advertisements usually focus on. prearranged escape plan noun a plan arranged or agreed upon beforehand or in advance when an accident happens: Students practised the prearranged escape plan in case of emergency. precaution noun a measure taken in advance to prevent something dangerous, unpleasant or inconvenient from happening: Precaution is a must when it comes to dangerous jobs. predict verb to say or estimate that a specific thing will happen in the future or will be a consequence of something: He hadn’t prepared for the exam, so he predicted that he might fail the course. premises noun a house or a building: The staircase of our premises is always safe. prescribe verb to advise and authorise the use of a medicine or treatment for someone, esp. in writing: Only doctors are authorised to prescribe medicine for people. preset adjective set in advance: You don’t have to worry because we have a preset plan of action if something goes wrong.
preview noun anything that gives an advance idea or impression: A page preview shows you the page before being printed. principal adjective main; most important: His principal reason for making the journey was to visit his family. process noun a systematic series of mechanised operations that are performed in order to produce or manufacture something: You need to wait for the design processes to be finished before we continue working. profession noun a paid occupation, esp. one that involves prolonged training and a formal qualification: Not all people can be successful in the profession of teaching. profit noun money that you gain by selling things or doing business after your costs have been paid: The company has made so much profit as a result of their new strategies. promote verb to help sell a new product, film, etc. by offering it at a reduced price or by advertising it: She’s in London to promote her new book. promotion noun 1 the activity intended to help sell a product, through adverts using the media: Many are waiting for the winter sales promotion. 2 the action of raising someone to a higher position or rank: He truly deserves the promotion he received. prospect noun a person regarded
as a potential customer or subscriber to something; The opinion of prospects is very important to our company. prove verb to demonstrate one’s abilities: She proved herself worthy of the post.
realistic adjective judging and dealing with situations in a practical way according to what is actually possible rather than what you would like to happen: We need to have a realistic plan to achieve our objectives.
reputation noun the opinion that people have about someone or something because of what has happened in the past: Gossips were not believed because he has such a good reputation. require verb to need something for a particular purpose: A valid passport is required for travelling anywhere.
publicity noun the notice or attention given to someone or something by the media: The publicity around this movie is just tremendous.
recognise verb to know who someone is or what something is, because you have seen, heard, experienced or learned about it in the past: No one could recognise her after the surgery.
purchase verb to buy something: You have a couple of days to replace the item you purchased.
recurring adjective repeated: Recurring pains should not be neglected.
respirator noun an apparatus worn over the mouth and nose or the entire face to prevent the inhalation of dust, smoke or other noxious substances: All ambulances are equipped with respirators.
pushy adjective excessively or unpleasantly self-assertive or ambitious: It is a mistake to hire pushy assistants in stores.
reflect verb to embody or represent something in an appropriate way: The company’s reputation reflects much about it.
resuscitation noun reviving someone from unconsciousness: It was the first time that I have ever seen a resuscitation.
put up phrasal verb to display a notice, sign or poster: When was the poster put up?
register verb to put someone’s or something’s name on an official list: I want to know where I can register for this course.
retailer noun a person who sells goods to the public in relatively small quantities for use or consumption rather than for resale: In the play, I took the role of a retailer.
R radio waves noun a form of electric energy that can move through air or space: Radio waves are being used in the treatment of cancer. range noun a set of different things of the same general type: You have a wide range of options to choose from. raw adjective uncooked: I don’t eat raw meat. Raytheon’s XOS 2 Exoskeleton noun a robotic suit that allows the user to lift 200 pounds hundreds of time without exhaustion: Raytheon’s XOS 2 Exoskeleton has been nominated to win an award. readership noun the readers of a newspaper, magazine or book regarded collectively: Readership differs from one country to another. realisation noun when you understand something that you had not understood before: The realisation of the economic crisis is inevitable.
relaxed adjective feeling calm, comfortable and not worried or annoyed: She looks very relaxed despite all the work she has. release verb to make available for general viewing or purchase: Designers are getting ready to release their new collection. relieve verb to lessen the cause of pain, distress or difficulty: The medication can relieve pain almost instantly. rely verb to depend on: You can rely on this machine for desired results. renovation noun restoring something old, esp. a building, to a good state of repair: Our house is under renovation at the moment. report verb to give a spoken or written account of something that one has observed, heard, done, or investigated: The witness reported the incident in all its details. representative noun someone who has been chosen to speak, vote or make decisions for someone else: The representative of the company will be late for the meeting.
revolutionary adjective completely new and different, esp. in a way that leads to great improvements: The new cancer drug is a revolutionary breakthrough. right noun a moral or legal entitlement to have or obtain something or to act in a certain way: You should be aware of your rights and duties. rob verb to take property unlawfully from a person or place by force: Surveillance cameras caught who robbed the bank. robust adjective strong in construction: Our safe is quite robust and well-hidden. rollover noun the overturning of a vehicle: The rollover on the highway caused an awful traffic. routine noun a sequence of actions regularly followed: He has not changed his routine for the past ten years. rug noun a floor covering of woven material, typically not extending over the entire floor: This rug has been in my family for generations.
run verb to be in charge of: What kind of a business do you run? S sample noun a small part or quantity intended to show what the whole is like: Samples of blood are tested while preparing medical reports. satisfy verb to fulfil a desire or need: Some clients are not easy to satisfy. save verb to use less money, time, energy, etc. in order not to waste any: How can anyone save money if his expenditure exceeds his income. savings noun an amount of money that you have not spent or used: I deposited my savings in a bank. scanned adjective an image obtained by scanning: I asked her for the scanned document. scheme noun an official plan that is intended to help people in some way, for example by providing education or training: We need a new scheme for environmental development. sculpture noun an object made out of stone, wood, clay, etc. by an artist: Rome is full of sculptures. seal verb to fasten or close securely: He sealed the envelope and sent it by post. seam line noun the straight or curved line on which the stitches should be formed: If your seam lines are uneven, your garment won’t hang properly. segment noun each of the parts into which something is or may be divided: Lines can be divided into segments. server noun the main computer on a network, which controls all the others: The server’s down again.
showroom noun a room used to display goods for sale, such as appliances, cars or furniture: They could extinguish the fire before it burnt more furniture on display in the showroom. shrink verb to become smaller as a result of being immersed in water: My T-shirt shrank after i washed it with hot water. shuttle weaving machine noun electrically-controlled weaving machine that weaves tight warps and wefts: The employees will be trained on how to use a shuttle weaving machine. sign up phrasal verb to commit oneself to a period of employment or education or to some other undertaking: I didn’t have time to sign up for the training sessions. signage noun signs collectively, esp. public display signs: Pay attention to the signage on your way home. signal noun a gesture, action, or sound that is used to convey information or instructions, typically by prearrangement between the parties concerned: Wait for the policeman’s signal before you drive. significant adjective sufficiently great or important to be worthy of attention; noteworthy: She had won a significant amount of money. site noun a place where a particular event or activity is occurring or has occurred: I can show you a wonderful camping site. skepticism noun a doubting or questioning attitude or state of mind: A reasonable amount of cynicism and skepticism is a healthy thing. sketch noun a rough or unfinished drawing or painting, often made to assist in making a more finished picture: Show me the primary sketch of the drawing. sketch verb to make a rough drawing of: He is sketching designs on his drawing pad.
sleeve noun the part of a garment that wholly or partly covers a person’s arm: He rolled up his sleeves and started working. slightly adverb to a small degree; inconsiderably: Move slightly to the right. slip verb to slide unintentionally for a short distance, typically losing one’s balance or footing: He slipped while he was stepping onto a bus. slippery adjective (of a surface or object) difficult to hold firmly or stand on because it is smooth or wet: You will probably fall if you walk on slippery ice. slit noun a long, narrow cut or opening: The students were asked to make a slit in the stem while studying plants. slogan noun a short and striking or memorable phrase used in advertising: We should think of a creative slogan for the campaign. software noun the program and other operating information used by a computer: I couldn’t use this software on my computer. sound verb to convey a specified impression: The book sounds interesting. spare adjective additional to what is required for use in special situations or circumstances: My sister has a spare key which she can lend me. specific adjective precise and clear in making statements or issuing instructions: Support your answer with specific details from the book. sprain verb to damage a joint in your body by suddenly twisting it: She is always careful when wearing heels so she does not sprain her ankles. spray verb to force liquid out of a container so that it comes out in a stream of very small drops and covers an area: He sprayed the plants with some water to keep them fresh.
stabilise verb to make or become stable: The company will stabilise its shaky situation with adequate measures.
stitch count noun number of stitches per inch: Stitch count is essential in completing embroidery design.
symbolism noun the use of symbols to represent ideas or qualities: The symbolism of colours differs from one country to another.
stability noun the condition of being steady and not changing: All countries aim at achieving economic stability.
stock up phrasal verb to build up a supply of something: You better stock up firewood before the first snowstorm.
sympathy noun understanding and feeling what other people are feeling: Women often show their sympathy towards others.
staff noun all the people employed by a particular organisation: We have enough staff to finish the project on time.
store verb to retain or enter information for future electronic retrieval: You should store all your data on a disk.
symptom noun something wrong with your body or mind which shows that you have a particular illness: Frequent sneezing is one of the symptoms of flu.
staircase noun a set of stairs and its surrounding walls or structure: There is a grand staircase leading to the first floor.
strain noun an injury to a muscle or part of your body that is caused by using it too much: Strains can be quite painful.
stand for phrasal verb to represent: SYP stands for Syrian Pound.
sturdy adjective strongly and solidly built: The car was so sturdy that it was barely damaged.
stand hire noun arrangement in which you pay a sum of money to borrow stands for a short time: What does stand hire cost?
suggestion noun something that implies or indicates a certain fact or situation: None of his suggestions were logical.
stand walls noun wall sections which are normally made of wooden frames where you can attach posters, paintings, etc: There were less stand walls at the exhibition than what I expected to find.
suit noun a set of clothes to be worn on a particular occasion or for a particular activity: He wore a very elegant suit for his sister’s wedding.
starter noun a small amount of food eaten at the start of a meal before the main part: We had soup as a starter. steam engine noun an engine that uses the expansion or rapid condensation of steam to generate power: The steam engine left many people unemployed when it was first invented. steam iron noun an electric iron that emits steam from holes in its flat surface: Don’t use a steam iron without filling it with water.
supplies noun the provisions and equipment necessary for people engaged in a particular project: We don’t have enough supplies to finish this project. supplying noun the activity of supplying or providing something: How would he benefit from supplying the company with such an amount of money? surf verb to move from site to site on the Internet: I spent hours surfing the Internet trying to find some interesting information for my research.
tablet noun a small flat pellet of medication to be taken orally: Aspirin tablets can work wonders! tack noun a small nail with a sharp point and a flat top: Remove that tack before you step on it and hurt yourself. tailoring noun the work of making men’s clothes or the style in which they are made: Tailoring nowadays is not as common as it used to be. target verb to make something have an effect on a particular limited group or area: Advertisements target a specific audience who may be interested in the given item. tariff noun a tax or duty to be paid on a particular class of imports or exports: The tariff on certain items will be reduced to encourage trade between countries. tassel noun a tuft of loosely hanging threads, cords or other material knotted at one end and attached for decoration to home furnishings, clothing or other items: She didn’t like the tassels hanging from her clothes.
steep adjective rising or falling sharply: She almost fell down a steep cliff.
susceptible adjective likely to be influenced or harmed by a particular thing: Wearing light clothes makes you susceptible to catching a cold.
tend verb if something tends to happen, it happens often and is likely to happen again: Students tend to be nervous during exams.
sterilise verb to make something free from bacteria or other living micro-organisms: Tools that are used during surgical operations are always sterilised.
swap verb to give something to someone and get something in return: Do you want to swap umbrellas?
tessera noun a small block of stone, tile, glass or other material used in the construction of a mosaic: Everyone agreed we should use sandstone for the coloured tesserae.
textile noun type of clothing or woven fabric: You have a fascinating range of textiles you can choose from. texture noun the character or appearance of a textile fabric as determined by the arrangement and thickness of its threads: Curtains are usually made from textiles of thick texture. theme noun a setting or ambiance given to an activity: They chose an Eastern theme for the event. thread noun a long, thin strand of cotton, nylon or other fibres used in sewing or weaving: You can use colourful threads in embroidery. three-dimensional adjective having or appearing to have length, breadth and depth: Some designers work on threedimensional software programs while designing their new collection. tight adjective limited or restricted: He can’t pay his bills because he claims that his money is tight. tip noun a small but useful piece of practical advice: I read about useful tips that I can use in my job. trans-seasonal noun over or beyond seasons: Trans-seasonal clothing has become a must due to climate change. transform verb to make a thorough or dramatic change in the form, appearance or character of: A coat of paint can transform an entire room. transport verb to take goods from one place to another in a vehicle: We need to transport the goods as soon as possible. Tread-Walk noun kinematic walking new vehicle with active velocity control of treadmill: The Tread-Walk shares common advantages with a treadmill. trend noun a fashion: She is always up-to-date with the world’s fashion trends.
tumble dry verb to dry wash clothes by spinning them in hot air inside a dryer: Do not tumble dry certain clothes or they may shrink. U unconscious adjective lacking awareness and the capacity for sensory perception as if asleep or dead: The stranger hit him and knocked him unconscious. unique adjective being the only one of its kind; unlike anything else: She has a unique way of designing her clothes. unpredictable adjective not able to be predicted or known: The weather has become so unpredictable lately that I always carry an umbrella with me. upright adverb in a vertical position: Sitting upright is one of the ways to avoid pains in the back.
V vaccine noun a substance which contains a weak form of the bacteria or virus that causes a disease and is used to protect people from that disease: I was reading about a new vaccine that prevents many types of dangerous diseases. various adjective different from one another; of different kinds or sorts: Dresses come in various shapes and sizes. vary verb to differ in size, amount, degree or nature from something else of the same general class: The price of this item varies from one store to another. veil noun a piece of fine material worn by women to protect or conceal the face: She was wearing a white bridal veil. via preposition by means of: Send me this file via e-mail.
up-to-date adjective including all the latest information and following the latest trends: Her designs are always up-to-date.
video editing noun the process of manipulating and rearranging video shots: I know someone who can help you with your video editing.
update verb to add the most recent information to something: Don’t forget to update your website regarding your recent designs.
visual adjective related to seeing or sight: She has a magnificent visual memory.
upholstery noun the art or practice of fitting soft, padded textile covering that is fixed to furniture such as armchairs and sofas: I know someone very good at upholstery; I think he can do a great job with your armchairs.
Visually Impaired Assistant (VIA) noun a device aiming to help people who can’t see find a simpler way to get around: The device called Visually Impaired Assistant (VIA) is a revolutionary invention.
USB port (Universal Serial Bus) noun any socket on a personal computer or peripheral device into which a USB cable is plugged: A single USB port can be used to connect up to 127 peripheral devices, such as mice, modems and keyboards.
utensil noun an implement, container or other article, esp. for household use: You need to throw away all your old kitchen utensils and buy new ones.
wealthy adjective having a great deal of money, resources or assets; rich: You can tell if someone is wealthy by the car he drives. weaving machine noun a machine that makes cloth, carpets, baskets, etc. by crossing threads or thin pieces under and over each other by hand or on a loom: You cannot expect me to learn how to use a weaving machine as easily as that.
welcoming adjective someone who is welcoming is friendly when you arrive in a place: She has a welcoming smile. well-priced adjective something with a suitable price: I did not buy anything because nothing was well-priced. wholesaler noun someone who buys large quantities of goods and resells to merchants rather than to the ultimate customers: The wholesaler is asking for unreasonable prices. wick noun a long piece of material in an oil lamp, that sucks up oil so that the lamp can burn: Maybe you need to change the wick so the lamp would give proper light. word-of-mouth expression the passing of information from person to person: Word-ofmouth marketing is sometimes more efficient than other forms of marketing. wound noun an injury, esp. one in which the skin or another external surface is torn, pierced, cut or otherwise broken: I hope his wounds are not serious ones. wrap verb to cover or enclose someone or something in paper or soft material: She wrapped the baby with a warm blanket before going out. Y yarn noun spun thread used for knitting, weaving or sewing: The pattern of the yarn is oldfashioned.
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English for Starters, Vocational Stream – Girls’ English for Starters, Vocational Stream – Girls’, is an English language course that was specially written for vocational / girls’ secondary schools in Syria. The course progresses from an intermediate level of English in Grade 10 to an advanced level of English in Grade 12. The book introduces students to concepts in practical girls’ skills; it assumes no prior knowledge of these skills on the part of students and teachers. The course aims to review and consolidate the language and skills learnt at previous levels and equip students for their future foreign language needs in the following areas: language skills (reading, listening, speaking and writing), grammar, vocabulary and practical girls’ skills. It enables students to perform routine tasks at work and to take part in social interaction.
Components: Students’ Book Activity Book including a glossary Teacher’s Book Audio CD