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2008 - 2009 Educational Outreach Supporters Since 1849 National Grid and its predecessor companies have been part of the Syracuse community, helping to meet the energy needs of over two million Upstate New York customers. We are proud to contribute to the quality of life through the energy we deliver and through the many ways we give back to the communities we serve.


Timothy Bond Producing Artistic Director Jeffrey Woodward Managing Director



820 E. Genesee Street Syracuse, NY 13210 Artistic Office (315) 443 - 4008 John Quertermous in the Bank of America Childrens Tour (!4HOUSAND#RANES, 2008)

Student Matinee Program

Bank of America Childrens Tour

Playwrights Circle ($5,000 - $7,499)

Founders Circle ($14,000 - $24,999) Bank of America

National Grid Directors Circle ($1,500 - $2,799) Grandma Brown Foundation Price Chopper’s Golub Foundation

Carrier Backstory Program Regents Circle ($7,500 - $13,999) Carrier Corporation Syracuse Campus-Community Entrepreneurship Initiative, funded by the Kauffman Foundation Syracuse University GEAR-UP Playwrights Circle ($5,000 - $7,499) KARE Foundation Directors Circle ($1,500 - $2,799) Time Warner Cable Lockheed Martin Employees Federated Fund

Lockheed Martin Project Blueprint Regents Circle ($7,500 - $13,999) Lockheed Martin MS2

Producers Circle ($2,800 - $4,999) Lockheed Martin Employees Federated Fund Directors Circle ($1,500 - $2,799) Wegmans Benefactors ($1,000 - $1,499) Excellus BlueCross BlueShield

Chase Young Playwrights Festival Founders Circle ($14,000 - $24,999) Chase

Arts Emerging Founders Circle ($14,000 - $24,999) Partnership for Better Education Regents Circle ($7,500 - $13,999) NYS Assembly through the office of William Magnarelli Directors Circle ($1,500 - $2,799) Bristol-Myers Squibb Company

2008 - 2009 Syracuse Stage Season Sponsors

Educational Outreach (315) 443 - 1150 (315) 442 - 7755 Box Office (315) 443 - 3275 Group Sales and Student Matinees (315) 443 - 9844 ___ www.syracusestage.org ___ Syracuse Stage is Central New York’s premiere professional theatre. Founded as a not-for-profit theatre in 1974, Stage has produced more than 220 plays in 35 seasons including numerous world and American premieres. Each season, upwards of 90,000 patrons and 30,000 students enjoy an exciting mix of comedies, dramas and musicals featuring the finest professional theatre artists. Stage attracts leading designers, directors, and performers from New York and across the country. These visiting artists are supported by a full-time and seasonal staff of artisans, technicians, and administrators. Syracuse Stage is a member of The League of Resident Theatres (LORT), Theatre Communications Group (TCG), the Syracuse Chamber of Commerce, the Arts & Cultural Leadership Alliance (ACLA), and the East Genesee Regent Association.

4. Theatre & Education 5. Elements of Art & Design 6. A Message from the Director 7. Rosie the Riveter 13. Harriet Tubman 19. Zora Neale Hurston 25. Hip-Shake 31. Anne Frank 37. Rosalie Randazzo 43. Lockheed Martin Project Blueprint presents George Washington Carver 48. Additional Resources 51. About Educational Outreach © 2008 Syracuse Stage Educational Outreach Edited by Lauren Unbekant and Adam Zurbruegg Design & Layout by Adam Zurbruegg Backstory & Project Blueprint logos by Kiefer Creative

Carrier is proud to continue to support Syracuse Stage and is delighted to sponsor the Backstory program this season. We salute Syracuse Stage for remaining committed to its mission of bringing such exceptional performances and educational programming of live theatre to our community for over 35 years.

Theatre & Education

“Theatre life LIFE.”


Elements of Art & Design


-Zelda Fichandler Founding Artistic Director Arena Stage, D.C.


hen the first cave-dweller got up to tell a story, theatre began. Almost every culture has some sort of live performance tradition to tell stories. Television and film may have diminished the desire for access to theatre, but they have not diminished the importance. Live theatre gives each audience member an opportunity to connect with the peformers in a way he or she never could with Tom Cruise or Lindsay Lohan. The emotions can be more intense because the events are happening right in front of the audience. In the classroom, theatre can be used in a variety of ways. In many respects the teacher is much like an actor on stage: with an audience, a script (lesson plan), props (visual aids), and scenery (the classroom setting). Both theatre and teaching rely on the interplay between performer and audience. From this perspective, all that can be taught can be taught theatrically. Young children can create a pretend bank to learn about money and mathematics. Older students may be asked to act out scenes from a play or novel. Theatre provides both an opportunity to teach and the means to do so. Utilizing this study guide to integrate these performances into your lesson plans fulfills elements of the New York State core requirements. We know that as educators, you are qualified to determine how our plays and study guides blend with your goals and requirements. We hope that we can help you to discover possibilities spanning many disciplines. So, without further ado, welcome to Syracuse Stage’s BACKSTORY Program... and enjoy the show! Educational Outreach

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Syracuse Stage is committed to providing students with rich theatre experiences that connect to and reveal what it is to be human. Research shows that students who participate in or are exposed to the arts show higher academic achievement, stronger self-esteem, and an improved ability to plan and work toward a future goal. Last season more than 35,000 students from 24 counties attended or participated in in-depth integrated arts partnerships with Syracuse Stage. For more information, call (315) 443-1150 or (315) 442-7755. Bank of America CHILDREN’S TOUR brings high-energy, interactive, and culturally diverse performances to elementary school audiences. artsEMERGING takes students on an indepth exploration of a mainstage play using a multi-cultural, multi-arts lens. Chase YOUNG PLAYWRIGHTS FESTIVAL challenges high school students to submit original plays for the opportunity to see their work performed at Syracuse Stage. STUDENT MATINEES allow students to experience the quality mainstage productions of Central New York’s premiere professional theatre.

THEATRE USUALLY ENGAGES MANY FORMS OF ART, INCLUDING: - Writing - Visual/Design • Scenery & Props • Costumes • Sound • Lighting - Casting - Music - Dance/Movement



Elements of Visual Art Any piece of visual art (including scenery, costumes, etc.) contains the following elements of art: Line Shape Form

Space Color Texture

Principles of Design The use of these elements can be examined further through the principles of design: Balance Proportion Rhythm Emphasis Unity

How have the artists utilized these? Why have they done so?


What are they trying to convey visually?

- Character WHO are the characters and what is their relationship to each other?

What would be other options?

- Plot/Story WHAT is the story line? What happened before the play started? What do the characters want? What will they do to get it? What do they stand to gain or lose?

- Setting WHERE does the story take place? How does it affect the characters? How does it affect the plot? How does it affect the design?

- Time WHEN does the story take place? What year is it? Season? Time of day? How does this affect the characters, plot and design of the play?


Creating an open-ended question using an element for exploration (otherwise known as a “line of inquiry”) can help students make discoveries about a piece of theatre and its relevance to their lives. A line of inquiry is also useful for kinesthetic activities (on-your-feet exercises). Examples of Lines of Inquiry: 1. How do actors create characters using their bodies? How would you imply the various elements of drama using your body? 2. How might a director create a sense of realism on stage? Why might you not want to use realism? What are other style options? 3. How do actors use the language of gesture to convey emotion/feeling?

Other Elements to Explore: Conflict/Resolution, Action, Improvisation, Non-verbal communication, Staging, Humor, Realism and other styles, Metaphor, Language, Tone, Pattern and repetition, Emotion, Point of view.

4. How does the use of music convey the mood of a scene?

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A Message from the Director

Dear Educator, It is because of your commitment to bringing quality theatre arts programming to your students that I am very pleased to introduce you to our fourth season of Backstory. We are thrilled that Backstory and our science-geared Project Blueprint have become two of our most popular educational programs at Syracuse Stage. This years’ repertoire of characters promises to be as engaging as last year! This season we are offering two new characters for our Backstory roster: Rosie the Riveter, the icon of working women during World War II, and the scientist George Washington Carver, best known for developing three hundred uses for peanuts and hundreds more for other crops. We will also be bringing back some popular Backstories from years past, including Harriet Tubman, our local heroine of the Underground Railroad, Zora Neale Hurston, the Harlem Renaissance writer, and Anne Frank. Prior to any performance, we encourage you and your students to make use of our study guides, as well as the opportunity to participate in professional development for teachers and teaching artist-led workshops for students. As always, our Backstories are performed by professional actors with the classroom in mind, mixing history with the artistry of theatre. We hope you enjoy!



“We Can Do It !” Rosie the Riveter FEATURING


Timothy Bond

Lauren Port

Lauren Unbekant

Producing Artistic Director

Dana Berger

Jeffrey Woodward Managing Director


Lauren Unbekant Director of Educational Outreach Syracuse Stage ADDITIONAL SUPPORT

Educational Outreach

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Rosie the Riveter

“We Can Do It !”

Rosie the Riveter

“We Can Do It !”



When WWII pulled men from the American workforce, and women were needed to fill open jobs, Rosie the Riveter cried, “We can do it!” Millions of women did, in fact, do it: taking up rivet guns and welding torches. Many other women, though, could have raised their eyebrows at the statement “We can do it” and responded, “We already are!”

Women in organized labor unions (left) fought for fair pay and educational opportunity. They called it “bread and roses,” not to be confused with “Guns n’ Roses” (above).

The history of women in the workforce does not begin with a magazine cover in 1943.


t begins in colonial America, when most homes were essentially small factories that produced food, clothing, candles, and anything else that was needed. The work was often roughly divided by gender: women working indoors, men working outdoors. This structure was flexible, though, to adapt to changing needs. If help was needed in the fields, women plowed or hunted; when needs changed the men came inside to sew or cook. In the early 19th century, at the dawn of industrialization, many women worked within “cottage industries.” A merchant would deliver materials (such as fabric) to your house. You would then work

from home, turning the materials into goods (clothing). The merchant collected the finished goods, paid you for your work, and sold the goods elsewhere. It was a good system: the merchant made a profit and you were able to work from home, earning extra income when crops were not in season. Around the time of the industrial revolution, however, merchants realized they could maximize their profits by keeping all of their workers in one location: a large central factory. To entice workers out of their homes, factory owners offered wages that could top the pay

received through cottage industries. At this point in the late 19th century women were a significant, but not staggering, percentage of the total workforce: between 25-35%. Of these working women, most were European immigrants and African Americans. They worked in offices, schools, and farms, but the growing trend was toward factories. Both male and female factory workers faced wage cuts, unsafe conditions, little or no heating and ventilation, and twelve to fourteen hour work days, seven days a week. Female workers, though, made on average only 60% of the wages earned by men.

Many male workers unionized to combat the abusive practices of factory owners. Within a union, workers agree to stand as one in demands and sometimes, strikes. Unfortunately, the unions became a sort of “boys-only” club. Twenty percent of male workers in 1905 were union members, compared to only three percent of working women. One union that did boast a high female membership was the Knights of Labor. In the 1880’s it was one of the largest unions in the country. The Knights, who were eager to achieve both labor and moral reform, valued the leadership of women. [Continued on next page]

[Continued from previous page]

The organization declined in the 1890’s but paved the way for the International Ladies Garment Worker’s Union (ILGWU). In 1909 over 20,000 New York ILGWU members refused to work, and four years later the union held an even larger strike. Throughout the early years of the 20th century, women were granted more and more leadership roles in the campaign for labor reform known as the Progressive Era. They fought for “bread and roses.” The bread was fair pay. Roses were cultural and educational opportunities for career advancement and personal enrichment. For the first time, women were accepted to schools of law, medicine, and journalism. Working environments began improving across the country for men and women alike. All this was halted by the stock market crash of 1929 and the Great Depression

that followed. Each family was affected differently. Four million working women were laid off. Others who had never worked sought jobs to support their families after their husbands were laid off. These female job seekers faced harsh criticism, both for “stealing” jobs from unemployed men and for “abandoning” their families in a time of need. Companies and labor unions across the country shut their doors to women. Undeterred, many women continued the progressive spirit by organizing groups known as Housewives’ Leagues to demand fairness in rent/food prices, employment opportunities, and government relief programs. Their boycotts and protests achieved great success influencing meat industry prices and unemployment benefits. The African American Housewives’ League of Detroit was credited with creating over 75,000 jobs for African American women.

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Franklin Roosevelt’s 1933 New Deal programs created jobs and increased opportunities for women in organized labor unions. Eight-hundred thousand women were unionized by 1940 — triple the number since 1930. Within a few years the American workforce would include twelve million women: an impressive number, but still only 25% of the total force. Today that number is 46%. To get there, it took a war, a will, and a catchy slogan.

Sources: “A History of Women in Industry” www.nwhm.org/exhibits/Industry/10.htm “US Dept. of Labor Women’s Bureau” www.dol.gov/wb For more on factory working conditions circa 1900, see the “Rosalie Randazzo”

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Rosie the Riveter

WWAR2 orld

It was the most costly war of all time, both in dollars spent and lives lost. Sixty-one countries mobilized one hundred million troops and spent over a trillion dollars. In the end, fifty-five million people died. More than half were civilians. What follows is a brief look at WWII: how it began, how we got in, and why we needed the help of a woman named Rosie.


fter the First World War, three nations were dissatisfied with the peace agreement. Italy and Japan, both on the winning side, claimed they did not gain enough territory to offset the costs of war. Germans felt that the punishments imposed upon them by the Versailles Treaty, including loss of territory and payment of reparations, were too harsh. The German economy and infrastructure were devastated. From the anger and despair within Germany rose a leader who promised to overturn the Versailles Treaty and turn their struggling country around. This was Adolf Hitler, the leader of the German National Socialist (Nazi) Party. In 1933 Hitler was named Chancellor of Germany. Ignoring the Versailles Treaty, Hitler re-armed the German military and established an alliance with the other discontented nations: Italy and Japan. This would become known as the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis.

Hitler’s first military goal was to annex the bordering nation of Austria, which he easily captured in 1938. The world watched to see how the major Allied powers would react. The United States had adopted a policy of isolationism after the First World War, and was hesitant to re-involve itself in European conflict so soon. Britain and France chose not to stop the Austrian annexation. This marked the beginning of a tactic known as appeasement. The idea was to literally “choose one’s battles,” and not launch another war over a relatively “minor” issue. Hitler, of course, saw this as a green light to continue his expansion without the threat of Allied intervention. Over the next year Germany annexed parts of Czechoslovakia and made serious threats against Poland. This is where Britain and France drew the line. When German armies entered Poland in September 1939, the Second World War officially began. [Continued on next page]

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“We Can Do It !”

Rosie the Riveter

“We Can Do It !” [Continued from previous page]


long with the 1940 draft, the United States had prepared for possible warfare by issuing contracts with private companies to produce equipment such as planes, ships, and weapons. These preparations were designed for a war abroad. With the US homeland now under attack, these efforts needed to be sped up to protect against any future attacks.


he United States remained neutral, but began preparing itself for possible entry into the war. In 1940 a military service draft was issued. In 1941 Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act, which authorized loaning several billion dollars to Allied nations. President Franklin D. Roosevelt compared it to “lending a neighbor a garden hose to put out a fire.”

Many of the resources we find in our homes have enormous value to war efforts. Oil and gasoline, metal, paper, rubber, and fabric were desperately needed by the government’s war manufacturers. Families were issued rations. These had to be presented when buying certain goods, thus limiting the amount that any one person could buy. It was presented as a patriotic sacrifice — making do with less so that the soldiers could have more. People were also encouraged to buy war bonds. The purchaser was essentially loaning the government money to spend on the war.

Two years prior, Germany and the USSR had signed the Nazi-Soviet NonAggression Pact. It seems clear that the pact was simply a ploy to take the USSR by surprise. Hitler expressed interest in capturing parts of Russia as early as 1925, in his book Mein Kampf. In June 1941 Hitler invaded the unsuspecting USSR and achieved some early success. Meanwhile, Japan was expanding its military into parts of China and French Indochina. The US and Britain reacted by halting trade with Japan and freezing its assets. The strategy: hurting the Japanese economy would limit their ability to buy oil and steel, making it impossible to wage a full war.

Yet all the rations and war bonds in the world can’t win a war if there is no one to build the equipment. With so many able-bodied men drafted into the war, factories and manufacturing plants were severely short-handed. Women across the country were asked to pack a lunch, punch in, and serve their country.

When Germany invaded the USSR, Japan predicted that the United States would soon enter the war. With US focused on Germany, the timing would be perfect for Japan to seize several islands in Southeast Asia, primarily for oil resources. To ensure that the US would be unable to step in, Japan would first need to disable the American naval fleet stationed at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. On December 7, 1941 Japan attacked Pearl Harbor. President Roosevelt called it “a day that would live in infamy,” and Congress declared war the next day.

Educational Outreach


Sources: MSN Encarta <http://encarta.msn.com/> World War II <www.worldwar-2.net/>


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Rosie the Riveter



hen Pearl Harbor was attacked in 1941, 12 million women were working (25% of the total workforce). Over the next two years, almost 3 million more women were drawn into the work force. The war, however, demanded more planes, more ships, more ammunition. Analysts decided an additional 2 million women were needed. This would be tremendously difficult. The women who resisted working had good reason. Most of the country remained in the Great Depression mindset that women owed it to their children to stay at home. Others worried about soldiers who might return from the war to find their jobs filled by women. How could 2 million women be persuaded to work?

“We Can Do It !”



dreamprints a conversation


Harriet Tubman

In 1942 the US Government established the War Advertising Council to alert the public to the importance of rationing and buying war bonds. They campaigned over the radio and in print ads (like the ones shown on the previous page) to great success. In 1943 the Council took on the challenge of recruiting women into the workforce. A song titled “Rosie the Riveter” hit the airwaves with lyrics such as:


Rosie’s got a boyfriend Charlie, Charlie, he’s a marine. Rosie is protecting Charlie, Working overtime on the riveting machine.

Myxolydia Tyler & Lauren Unbekant DIRECTED BY


The character caught on and on May 29, 1943 the Saturday Evening Post printed Norman Rockwell’s vision of Rosie. The government issued the famous “We Can Do It!” poster just a few months later. As a testament to Rosie’s legacy, Rockwell’s painting (pictured top right) sold at a 2002 auction for nearly five million dollars.

Timothy Bond

Lauren Unbekant Gretchen Darrow-Crotty

Producing Artistic Director

The ad campaign was a success. The Council produced 125 advertisements, and by the war’s end 18 million women were working. Their contributions were integral to the outcome of the war. Though many women returned home after the war, the spirit of Rosie the Riveter and the quality work these women produced altered the course of the 20th century and paved the way for the daughters and grandaughters of the women who won the war.

Veanna Black

Jeffrey Woodward Managing Director


ADDITIONAL SUPPORT Sources: Educational Outreach

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www.adcouncil.org www.nps.gov www.rosietheriveter.org

Harriet Tubman

Harriet Tubman


Harriet Tubman

Harriet Tubman is perhaps the most well-known of all the Underground Railroad’s “conductors.” During a tenyear span she made nineteen trips into the South and escorted over three hundred slaves to freedom. And, as she once proudly pointed out to Frederick Douglass, in all of her journeys she

“never lost a single passenger.”


ubman was born a slave in Maryland’s Dorchester County around 1820. At age five or six, she began to work as a house servant. Seven years later she was sent to work in the fields. While she was still in her early teens, she suffered an injury that would follow her for the rest of her life. Always ready to stand up for someone else, Tubman blocked a doorway to protect another field hand from an angry overseer. The overseer picked up and threw a two-pound weight at the field hand. It fell short, striking Tubman on the head. She never fully recovered from the blow, which subjected her to spells of narcolepsy (suddenly falling into a deep sleep). Around 1844 she married a free black man named John Tubman and took his last name. (She was born Araminta Ross; she later changed her first name to Harriet, after her mother.) In 1849, in fear that she, along with the other slaves on the plantation, was to be sold, Tubman resolved to run away. She set out one night on foot. With some assistance from a friendly white woman, Tubman was on her way.

She followed the North Star by night, making her way to Philadelphia, where she found work and saved money. The following year she returned to Maryland and escorted her sister and her sister’s two children to freedom. She made the dangerous trip back to the South soon after to rescue her brother and two other men. On her third return, she went after her husband, only to find he had taken another wife. Undeterred, she found other slaves seeking freedom and escorted them to the North.

“Every great dream begins with a dreamer. Always remember, you have within you the strength, patience, and the passion to reach for the stars to change the world.” - Harriet Tubman

Tubman returned to the South again and again. She devised clever techniques that helped make her “forays” successful, including: using the master’s horse and buggy for the first leg of the journey; leaving on a Saturday night (since runaway notices couldn’t be placed in

newspapers until Monday morning); turning about and heading south if she encountered possible slave hunters; and carrying a drug to use on a baby if its crying might put the fugitives in danger. Tubman even carried a gun which she used to threaten the fugitives if they became too tired or decided to turn back, telling them,

“You’ll be free or die.”

By 1856, Tubman’s capture would have brought a $40,000 reward from the South. On one occasion she overheard some men reading her wanted poster, which stated that she was illiterate. She promptly pulled out a book and feigned reading it. The ploy was enough to fool the men. Tubman had made the perilous trip to slave country nineteen times by 1860, including one especially challenging journey in which she rescued her 70year-old parents. Of the famed heroine, who became known as “Moses,” Frederick Douglass said, “Excepting John Brown, I know of no one who has willingly encountered more perils and hardships to serve our enslaved people.” And John Brown, who conferred with “General Tubman” about his plans to raid Harper’s Ferry, once said that she was “one of the bravest persons on this continent.” During the Civil War, Harriet Tubman worked for the Union army as a cook, a nurse, and even a spy. After the war she settled in Auburn, New York, where she would spend the rest of her long life. She died in 1913. From www.pbs.org Educational Outreach


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Harriet Tubman

Harriet Tubman

A Brief History of

Slavery In America Slavery Comes to the Americas he practice of slavery may well be as old as humanity itself. There is evidence of slavery in ancient Greek, Roman, Egyptian, Chinese, Incan, and Aztec societies. When slavery came to the gold mines of the Caribbean and Central America, it might have seemed like just the next chapter in the world history of slavery. Yet in this new era of slavery,


the economies of Europe and the Americas became, for the first time, linked. This created what has been called the first “global economy,” and the profits derived from slavery are largely responsible for America and Western European countries becoming the major powers of the world. Far fewer slaves were brought to North America than South America. Many landowners preferred to use white indentured servants whose labor could be bought more cheaply than the price of slaves, and weren’t considered “morally and intellectually inferior” as Africans were. Slavery was profitable in the tobacco and rice industries of Virginia and Maryland, but these crops could not be farmed in the new territories of

PHOTOS: At far left, a newspaper’s visual account of a slave rebellion, from a decidedly white perspective

By the time of the American Civil War, four million slaves toiled on the plantations of the South. Only a small number were African-born. The rest were descendants of the twelve generations of African Americans who, despite brutality and dehumanizing conditions, established strong family structures, deep religious convictions, and a culture that honored their past while yearning for better days ahead. the westward expansion. Around the time of the Constitutional Convention, it was generally assumed that slavery would slowly end over the next few decades.

too did the value of slave labor.

A second reason for the continuation of slavery is that plantation owners began to notice a surprising trend. # of # Free Of course, In most Year Slaves Blacks it did not. other na59,527 1790 697, 681 Perhaps the tions, slave 893,602 108,435 1800 mortality most im186,446 1810 1,191,362 rates were portant rea233,634 1820 1,538,022 son slavery much high319,599 1830 2,009,043 continued er than birth 386,293 was the in- 1840 2,487,355 rates. This 3,204,313 434,495 1850 meant that vention of 3,953,760 488,070 1860 new slaves the cotton 0 4,880,009 needed to gin by Eli 1870 Whitney in be continu1793. This machine made ously brought into the the process of removing country: an expensive and seeds from cotton faster time-consuming process. and more profitable. At the In America, however, the same time, England began slave birth rate was just switching from wool to as high as the free white cotton for most of its tex- birth rate, due in part to tiles, and the demand for extended family structures cotton skyrocketed. As the and (only relatively) tolervalue of cotton rose, so able working conditions.

At near left, a printed notice on the sale of 250 slaves

ARTICLE SOURCE: www.slaveryinamerica.org/ history/hs_es_overview.htm

Plantation owners now saw slaves as not just a source of labor but also a sound investment: the purchase of one female slave could produce a number of slave children. Even when the importation of slaves was banned in 1808, the total number of slaves in America continued to grow for the following fifty years. Life in Slavery hough conditions were somewhat better in North America than in South America, slavery was undeniably a “brutal system based upon physical force, threats, torture, sexual exploitation, and intimidation.” Slaves were considered human property, so laws against assault and rape did not offer any protection – legally a slave owner had as much


right to beat his slave as his horse or his ox. Punishments often included “verbal rebukes, a few ‘cuts’ with a stick or riding whip, kicks to the body, boxing of ears, confinement in tool sheds, branding on the flesh with a hot iron, and mutilation of the body by clipping the ears, breaking legs, severing fingers, and slitting tongues.”

Families were tight-knit, with parents teaching their children “proper work habits, respect for elders, reverence for a spiritual world, and how to deal with whites.” Slaves were generally allowed to attend white churches, so long as they sat apart from the white congregation. Religion became an important way to cope with captivity.

Underlying the physical torture was the constant threat of separation from one’s family. For personal reasons or for profit, slave owners were at liberty to sell their slaves at any time. This almost always meant the parting of mothers from children, husbands from wives, brothers from sisters. Most slaves were allowed to marry whomever they chose.

Over time, Christian hymns melded with African rhythms to create a unique style of music that was often sung during and after work. It would eventually serve as the basis for jazz and blues music, but it initially served the purpose of establishing a sense of community from shared experience and providing moments of simple joy in an other-

wise bleak environment. Many slaves resisted their masters, either secretly or openly. Some performed acts of sabotage such as setting fires, abusing or killing farm animals, or simply working slowly. Others organized rebellions, most of which ended in terrible bloodshed. Others simply ran away. Escaping Slavery unaway slaves were a somewhat common occurance. Some historians estimate that 50,000 slaves escaped each year. Though most were captured or returned on their own, many found freedom in northern states, Canada or Mexico. Over time, a series of well-traveled trails and safe houses emerged known as the Underground Railroad.


[Continued on next page] Educational Outreach

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Harriet Tubman

Underground RAILROAD


he so-called “Father of the Underground Railroad” was a Quaker (a Christian religion) abolitionist from Pennsylvania named Isaac Hopper. He began helping runaway slaves in the 1790s. Quakers, who believe strongly in equality, played an important role in both the Underground Railroad and the Women’s Rights Movement. Harriet Tubman herself said that Quakers were “almost as good as colored. They call themselves friends and you can trust them every time.” The Railroad was not an organized system but more of a concept or a movement. Maps like the one below didn’t exist at the time because if they were

found, thousands of runaways could be caught and returned to slavery or killed. So without a planned structure or any maps to guide the way, how did it work? To successfully escape, fugitive slaves needed: a change of clothes to disguise them, food and water to keep them going, a place to hide during daylight hours, and money to start a new life in Canada or elsewhere. At “safehouses” or “stations,” these necessities were provided. “Passengers” would travel 15-20 miles each night to reach a station by daybreak. Once they arrived, a messenger was sent to the next stop to prepare them for the train’s arrival. But “stationmasters” only knew one or two stops North of their own. This was for

“I would never obey it (the Fugitive Slave Law). I had assisted 30 slaves to escape to Canada during the last month. If the authorities wanted anything of me, my residence was at 39 Onondaga Street. I would admit that and they could take me and lock me up in the penitentiary on the hill; but if they did such a foolish thing as that, I had friends enough in Onondaga County to level it to the ground before the next morning.” Reverend Luther Lee, 1855

Pastor, Wesleyan Methodist Church Syracuse, NY

safety: a stationmaster who was caught could be tortured or imprisoned, but they could never reveal enough information to hurt the cause. The Railroad was so successful (an estimated 100,000 escapes between 1810-1850) that slave owners demanded action from the government. The Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 created penalties for anyone caught assisting a runaway slave and for federal agents who might be tempted to look the other way. “Slave catching” became a big business. Bounty hunters tracked fugitives all the way to Canada, hoping to cash in on a reward or simply sell the slave to another owner. Still, the dangers did not dissuade those who were committed to the cause (see quote).




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Lauren Unbekant


Timothy Bond

Veanna Black

Producing Artistic Director

Julia Bower

Jeffrey Woodward Managing Director


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Zora Neale Hurston

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Source: MSN Encarta


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Zora Neale Hurston

Zora Neale Hurston

Hurston Zora Neale

study of Caribbean voodoo practices, in 1938; and another masterful novel, Moses, Man of the Mountain, in 1939. When her autobiography, Dust Tracks on a Road, was published in 1942, Hurston finally received the well-earned acclaim that had long eluded her. She went on to publish another novel, Seraph on the Suwanee, in 1948.


by Valerie Boyd www.zoranealehurston.com

Zora Neale


knew how to make an entrance. On May 1, 1925, at a literary awards dinner sponsored by Opportunity Magazine, the earthy Harlem newcomer turned heads and raised eyebrows as she claimed four awards. Hurston made a wholly memorable entrance at a party following the awards dinner. She strode into the room — jammed with writers and arts patrons, black and white — and flung a long, richly colored scarf around her neck with dramatic flourish as she bellowed a reminder of the title of her winning play:

“Coloooooor Struuuckkkkk!”

By all accounts, Zora Neale Hurston could walk into a room full of strangers and, a few minutes and a few stories later, leave them so completely charmed that they often found themselves offering to help her in any way they could.

Gamely accepting such offers — and employing her own talent and scrappiness — Hurston became the most successful and most significant black woman writer of the first half of the 20th century. Over a career that spanned more than 30 years, she published four novels, two books of folklore, an autobiography, numerous short stories, and several essays, articles and plays.

cluding her father, formulating the laws that governed Eatonville. She could look to the Sunday schools of the town’s two churches and see black women, including her mother, directing the Christian curricula. She could look to the porch of the village store and see black men and women passing the world through their mouths in the form of colorful, engaging stories.

Born on January 7, 1891 in Notasulga, Alabama, Hurston moved with her family to Eatonville, Florida when she was still a toddler. Established in 1887, the rural community near Orlando was the nation’s first incorporated black township.

Growing up in this culturally affirming setting in an eight-room house on five acres of land, Zora had a relatively happy childhood. Her mother urged young Zora and her seven siblings to “jump at de sun.” Hurston explained, “We might not land on the sun, but at least we would get off the ground.”

In Eatonville, Zora was never indoctrinated in inferiority, and she could see the evidence of black achievement all around her. She could look Hurston’s idyllic childhood came to town hall and see black men, in- to an abrupt end, though, when her

— who’d graduated from Barnard College in 1928 — had published several short stories and articles, as well as a novel and a well-received collection of black Southern folklore. But the late 1930s and early 40s marked the real zenith of her After Lucy Hurston’s death, Zora’s career. She published her masterfather remarried quickly and seemed work, Their Eyes Were Watching to have little time or money for his God, in 1937; Tell My Horse, her children. “Bare and bony of comfort and love,” Zora worked a series of menial jobs over the ensuing years, struggled to finish her schooling, and eventually joined a Gilbert & Sullivan traveling troupe as a maid to the lead singer. Zora had a fiery intellect, an infectious sense of humor, and “the gift,” as one friend put it, “of walking into hearts.” Zora used these talents — and dozens more — to elbow her way into the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s. By 1935 Hurston


Still, Hurston never received the financial rewards she deserved (the largest royalty she ever earned from any of her books was $943). So when she died on January 28, 1960 — at age 69 after suffering a stroke — her neighbors in Fort Pierce, Florida had to take up a collection for her funeral. The collection didn’t yield enough for a headstone, however, so Hurston was buried in a grave that remained unmarked until 1973, when it was dressed with a fitting epitaph: “Zora Neale Hurston:

A Genius of the South.”

[Continued on next page]

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mother died in 1904. Zora was only 13 years old. “That hour began my wanderings,” she later wrote. “Not so much in geography, but in time. Then not so much in time as in spirit.”

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Zora Neale Hurston

What is



f you trace the word back to its Greek origins, “anthro- By collecting her data scientifically, then communicating pology” literally means “to talk about humans.” We it on a more personal level, Hurston was able to bring use it to refer to the scientific study of human cultures. her cultural findings to a wider audience. At Barnard College, Zora Neale Hurston studied anthropology and, though she is This was a technique that Hurston had to generally remembered as a fiction writlearn. In 1927 Boas helped her to secure er, she always examined her characters a fellowship that would fund a research through the “spyglass of anthropology.” trip to her hometown of Eatonville, Florida. Hurston later admitted that the first As a child, Hurston was intrigued by stotrip was a failure, mainly because she ries and tales. After studying anthropoldid not have “the right approach.” She ogy with the “father of modern anthroadjusted her techniques and got much pology,” Franz Boas, she came to the better results on a second trip to Eatonopinion that folklore is “the boiled-down ville, which became the basis for the first juice of human living.” With folklore as half of Mules and Men. By “the right apher subject, Hurston used the scientific proach,” Hurston referred to her method process of acquiring her data first-hand. of collecting data. She is one of many She travelled constantly, talking to peoanthropologists who use ethnography ple and collecting stories that portrayed in their research. Ethnography is a style the values, ideals, and traditions of the of research in which the anthropologist cultures she examined. immerses herself in a community and Hurston playing the Hountar, a Haitian drum interviews subjects first-hand. While When Mules and Men was published in some anthropologists prefer to look at 1935, no black author or anthropologist the individual elements of culture (tradihad ever published a book on black culture tion, folklore, economics, etc.), ethnolofor a mainstream audience. Hurston was a gists observe the total sum of these elepioneer in both the fields of literature and ments as a cohesive environment. anthropology, and the key to her success was the way she skillfully combined the two. While most anthropologists use the To study her own people as a native scientific approach of distancing themanthropologist ran counter to the prevailing selves from the subject in order to gain intellectual winds. Further, her blurring of an objective perspective, Hurston wrote literary conventions with ethnographic data with a more intimate style of narration.

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was a challenge of which she was keenly aware. Hurston’s willingness to go against the grain and to experiment with new ethnographic styles and methods positions her as the foremother of what is today called interpretive anthropology, or the new ethnography. -Irma McClaurin, Anthropologist




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Meggan Kulczynski Jeffrey Woodward Managing Director



Hip Shake


Shakespeare and hip-hop might seem like a strange pairing, but trust us: Shakespeare was a stone cold gangsta. In Hip-Shake, we’ll show you how the Grandmaster Bard and modern hip-hop artists use the English language in very similar ways. To start off, here’s a few fun facts about Billy Shakes that might just boost his street cred.


Shakespeare came from nothing. His parents couldn’t read or write, but he managed to become one of the most prolific writers of all time. Not bad, huh?


Don’t let the frilly clothes fool you — Shakespeare was tough. The year he was born, his town was hit with the Black Plague. Thousands died, but baby Shakes survived. 50 Cent may have been “hit with a few shells (he don’t walk with a limp)” but he never had to deal with the Plague.


His performances probably felt more like a rap concert than a trip to the opera. While the royal and elite audience members sat in private boxes, the “floor seats” (standing room only) were available to the lower-class “groundlings.” We don’t think there was a mosh pit, but it could get pretty raucous down there. Check out page 30 for more on the groundlings.


Rap producer and artist Timbaland raised $800,000 for Hillary Clinton’s presidential campaign. Russell Simmons and Sean Combs are outspoken political activists. But Shakespeare wins again. Queen Elizabeth I was one of his biggest fans. When Hillary goes to see a Timbaland show, we’ll talk.


He didn’t think to add “-izzle” to any of them, but Shakespeare invented an estimated 1,700 words. Here’s a few of our favorites: assassin, bloody, critic, generous, gloomy, gnarled, laughable, lonely, majestic, and puke.

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Hip Shake

Understanding Shakespeare How to read Shakespeare . . . and actually get it!

Many students complain that Shakespeare is hard to understand, that the language is outdated and unclear. But believe it or not, the English language has changed very little since Elizbethan times. Linguists (people who study languages) consider Shakespeare’s writing only one “generation” apart from our own. Grammar and sentence structure are virtually the same today as they were 400 years ago. If Shakespeare confuses you, it is likely that the problem is only the individual words. Here’s how to get past that. Some words from Shakespeare’s time have completely disappeared from the English language. For example, you’d be rightfully confused if someone asked you to bacarre the roisting wassail. Most published versions of Shakespeare’s plays include footnotes to explain these outdated words. Use them — they are there to help you.

Consonants and vowels are a great starting point for deciphering these clues. As a basic rule: the angrier someone is, the more consonants they use; the happier, the more vowels. This is a bit oversimplified, but think of examples in your own life. Say this sentence out loud (like you really mean it) and notice how prominent the consonants feel as you say them.

Hip Shake “I’m here to say what’s in my heart . . .

And you call it a style.”

- DMX, Let Me Fly

A Hip-Hop artist is a poet. Shakespeare was a poet. Both tell stories through words, rhyme and rhythm. The only difference is the style. Shakespeare’s style of choice was rhyming couplets. He didn’t use them all the time, but whenever he wanted to make a point or leave the audience with a lasting impression, he used a couplet.

“I can’t believe you’d do that! You’re so selfish!”

A couplet is simply a pair of lines that rhyme and are the same length. How do we measure the length? In syllables. How many syllables are in each of the lines in the example on the left? Ignore the “u / u /” stuff for now.

Now try this one: “I love how you look at me. I feel so wonderful!” The vowels here are fuller, and they make the whole sentence sound lighter and just plain nicer.

When the same consonant sound is used repeatedly, this is called alliteration. Here’s an example from SonIf you are still hung up on a phrase or a sentence, move net 30: “When to the sessions of sweet silent thought.” on. Don’t frustrate yourself reading the same line over If a vowel sound is repeated, it’s called assonance: “Is and over again. Instead get an idea of how the character crimson in thy lips and in thy cheeks?” (Romeo & Juis feeling, or what s/he wants in the scene, and see if it liet) begins to make more sense as you continue. Rappers and hip-hop artists use alliteration and assoBut how can you understand how a character is feeling nance all the time. They also use rhythm, and Shakeif you don’t understand the words s/he says? Do what speare is no different. There is a beat that drives each actors do. Modern actors are trained to pick out clues line of Shakespearean text (more detail on the next in Shakespeare’s writing. These clues really do exist. In page). Shakespeare’s time, plays were barely rehearsed. Actors quickly memorized their lines and then performed This is just a small example of how the sound of Shakeonly days later. There was no time to sit around asking, speare’s lines contains their meaning. Don’t forget that “What is my motivation?” So Shakespeare, being an he didn’t intend his plays to be studied in classrooms. He actor himself, knew that he needed to write in a style wrote them to be spoken and heard. If you are stumped that would give his actors all the information they need- by the words he uses, say the line out loud. Use the ed right inside the words. sound and feel of the line, plus the context of the play, to get the meaning. Just like listening to a song, you don’t always need to understand every word to get the big picture.

Alright. Time’s up. Did you count ten syllables? That’s Shakespeare’s favorite kind of couplet, and probably the most common kind in the entire English language. It’s called iambic pentameter. Iambic pentameter is a complicated name for a really simple style. In fact, the reason so many writers use iambic pentameter is that it’s very close to the way we speak in normal conversation. Here’s what it means. “Penta-” means “five” (like a pentagon has five sides) and “meter” is just another word for “rhythm” or “beat.” This beat has five sets of iambs, and each iamb is two syllables long, making ten syllables total. Are you still with me? Each iamb has one stressed syllable and one unstressed. The stressed syllables just have a little extra emphasis. Basically, it sounds like “dum-DUM dum-DUM dum-DUM dum-DUM dum-DUM.” In the example above, we marked the stressed syllables with “/” above them and the unstressed syllables with “u.” Try reading it aloud and see if you can get the rhythm.


pentameter is rap. It’s the structure.” - Tupac Shakur

What do you think Tupac means by this? Of course, most rap is not written in iambic pentameter. To mix things up, poets and rap artists use lots of different meters in their songs. Shakespeare mixed things up, too, when he wanted to make certian points, but rap artists use “irregular” meter more frequently. ACTIVITY: Pick a rap or hip-hop song that you like and print the lyrics from the internet (let’s try to keep it clean, okay?) Read it aloud to get a feel for the rhythm. Now look closer. Is there a rhyme scheme? Are there the same amount of syllables in each line or not? Now try marking the stressed and unstressed beats. If you’re feeling creative, try writing your own poem. Pick a style and have fun!

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For more of Shakespeare’s grammatical clues, visit: www.bardweb.net/grammar/02rhetoric.html

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Hip Shake

Inside the Globe Theatre “You will see such heaving and shoving, such itching and shouldering to sit by the women, such care for their garments that they not be trod on... such toying, such smiling, such winking, such manning them home... that it is a right comedy to mark their behavior.” - Stephen Gosson, The School of Abuse (1579)

This quote is a first-hand account of what a trip to the theatre was like in Elizabethan England: pushing to sit next to the prettiest ladies, accidentally stepping on each other’s clothes, rough-housing and laughing. Sounds more like a rap or rock concert than a trip to the theatre. In those days, the theatre experience was not unlike an outdoor concert. Take a look at this picture of the Globe Theatre. First, notice how the audience surrounds the stage on three sides. This is known as a thrust stage. Next, check out the three-tiered covered gallery seats. These were like modern luxury boxes for those who could afford it. The best seats were reserved for royalty like Queen Elizabeth herself. She preferred seats where she could be seen and envied by the poorer audience members and addressed by the actors. Upper-class men and women were not the only ones who enjoyed live theatre. Today there are so many entertainment options (TV, movies, YouTube, concerts, etc.) that it is easy to forget that at one time, theatre was one of the only games in town. Tanners, butchers, shoe-makers, even servants could see any of Shakespeare’s plays for the cost of only one penny. Here among the “groundlings,” we would have found the heaving and shoving that Stephen Gosson spoke of. The groundlings weren’t concerned with manner or etiquette like the royalty was. They didn’t need to be. They came to hoot and holler, cheer and boo, eat and drink. Shakespeare knew this. He knew that his plays needed to appeal to queens and servants alike. So he wrote about royal families and Greek history to please the galleries, but added brutal swordfights, sexual innuendo, silly drunks, and mischevious servants for the groundlings. Where would you rather be: with the groundlings or with the royalty? Look at the picture. Where would you get the best view of the stage? From where would you best hear the actors? What happens to the groundlings when it rains? Where would be the most fun place to watch? If you were a writer, what would you put in your plays to appeal to both classes of audience? Educational Outreach

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Anne Frank


German & World History

Adolph Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany and enacts Anti-Semitic laws. The first concentration camp is built in the town of Dachau.


June 12. Anne Frank is born in Frankfurt, Germany.


The family moves to the Netherlands to escape growing violence against Jews in Germany.

Nov. 9-10. ‘Kristallnacht.’ Jewish businesses and synagogues in Austria and Germany are looted and destroyed.


Nazis implement the T-4 Program, which authorized the killing of mentally & physically handicapped persons, and the institutionalized.


Germany invades the Netherlands.


Dec. 11. Germany declares war on the U.S.




Otto Frank’s business moves to new offices on the Prinsengracht Canal. The family, along with all other Dutch Jews, are forced to wear yellow stars at all times.

July 5. Anne’s sister Margot is summoned to a labor camp. The family goes into hiding the next day. July 13. The Van Pels family joins the Franks. Nov. 16. Fritz Pfeffer joins the group. Aug. 4. The annex is discovered. Occupants are arrested and sent to Westerbork Transit Camp.

June 6. ‘D-Day.’ Allies invade the German stronghold on the beaches of Normandy, France.


Dec. 20. Fritz Pfeffer dies at Neuengame. Jan. 6. Edith Frank dies at Auschwitz.

April 30. Adolph Hitler commits suicide.


May 7. Germany surrenders the war. The Nuremberg War Crimes Trials. Of the 22 defendants, 11 were sentenced to death, 8 were imprisoned, and only 3 were acquitted.

1946 1947

During the era of the Holocaust, the Nazis also targeted other groups because of their perceived “racial inferiority”: gypsies, people with disabilities, and some Slavic people (Polish, Russian, and others). Other groups were persecuted on political and behavioral grounds, among them Communists, Socialists, Jehovah’s Witnesses, and homosexuals. The Nazis came to power in Germany in 1933. According to Nazi leadership, Germans were “racially superior.” The Jews, and others deemed “inferior” were considered “unworthy of life.” They established concentration camps to imprison Jews and other “inferior” people. Einsatzgruppen (mobile killing units) carried out mass murder operations. More than a million Jewish men, women, and children were murdered by these units, usually in mass shootings. Between 1942 and 1944, Nazi Germany deported millions more Jews from occupied territories to extermination camps, where they were murdered in specially developed killing facilities using poison gas. At the largest killing center, Auschwitz-Birkenau, transports of Jews arrived almost daily from across Europe. In the final months of the war, as Allied forces moved across Europe, they began to find and liberate concentration camp prisoners. By war’s end, close to 2 out of every 3 Jews in Europe had been murdered by Nazi Germany and its collaborators in the massive crime we now call the Holocaust. “The United States Holocaust Museum” www.ushmm.org

Sept. 3. The family is relocated to Auschwitz, where the men and women are separated. Hermann van Pels is gassed three days later. Oct. 28. Anne & Margot are sent to Bergen-Belsen.

Jan. 27. Allies liberate Auschwitz. Otto Frank is among the survivors.

“I can remember that as early as 1932, groups of Storm Troopers came marching by singing: ‘When Jewish blood splatters from the knife.’” - Otto Frank

uring World War II, Nazi Germany and its collaborators murdered approximately six million Jews. The Holocaust is the name used to refer to this state-sponsored persecution and murder. Beginning with racially discriminatory laws in Germany, the Nazi campaign expanded to the mass murder of all European Jews.

June 12. Anne receives a diary for her birthday. The ‘Final Solution’ is adopted by Nazi party leaders. Auschwitz, Belzec, and Sobibor become fully operational death camps.

The Holocaust

Frank Family History

March. Anne & Margot die of typhus. June. Otoo Frank returns to Amsterdam, unaware of his daughters’ fates. Oct. 24. Otto learns in a letter of his daughters’ deaths. He is given Anne’s diary. Anne’s diary is published in Amsterdam. It would be published in the USA in 1952.

Photos: At left, cannisters of a poison gas called Zyklon B. At right, a sign at the Bergen-Belsen camp warns of a typhus outbreak. Anne and Margot died of typhus at Bergen-Belsen only weeks before the camp’s liberation. [www.annefrankguide.net] Educational Outreach


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Anne Frank

Anne Frank



Adapted from www.annefrank.org

My father, the most adorable father I’ve ever seen, didn’t marry my mother until he was thirty-six and she was twenty-five. My sister Margot was born in Frankfurt am Main in Germany in 1926. I was born on June 12, 1929. - The Diary of Anne Frank


nne’s father, Otto, works at his family’s bank. Her mother, Edith, takes care of everything at home. It is a carefree period for Margot and Anne. However, their parents are worried. Adolf Hitler and his Nazi party have made Jews the scapegoat for all of Germany’s social and economic problems. Anne’s parents no longer feel safe, and Otto’s bank is also in financial trouble because of the worldwide economic crisis. Otto and Edith decide to leave Germany. Otto goes to the Netherlands to start a company in Amsterdam, where his family would join him a year later. They feel free and safe until the German army invades the Netherlands on May 10, 1940.

Margot and Anne Frank (1933)

Margot, Otto, Anne, and Edith Frank (1940)

Her parents have expected such a call-up: the secret hiding place is almost ready. Not only for their own family, but also for the Van Pels family: Otto’s co-worker Hermann, Discrimination against the Jews be- his wife Auguste, and their son gan there as well: Jews could not Peter. The next day, the Frank own their own businesses, Jew- family immediately takes to hidish children had to go to separate ing. They are helped by four of schools, all Jews had to wear a yel- Otto’s employees: Miep Gies, Jolow star, and countless other restric- hannes Kleiman, Victor Kugler, tions. and Bep Voskuijl. They arrange the food supplies, clothing, books, On her thirteenth birthday in 1942, and all sorts of other necessities. Anne receives a diary as a present. [Continued on next page] It is her favorite gift. She begins writing in it immediately: “I hope I will be able to confide everything to you, and I hope you will be a great source of comfort and support.” Like thousands of other Jews, Margot receives orders to report to a German work camp on July 5, 1942.

Miep Gies (date unknown)

[Continued from previous page]

In November, 1942 an eighth person joins: Fritz Pfeffer, an acquaintance of both families. The people in hiding pass their time by reading and studying. There is a lot of tension, probably due to the oppressive nature of the hiding place and their constant fear of being discovered. They often quarrel among themselves. When the people in hiding have spent almost two years in the Secret Annex, there is fantastic news: a massive landing of the Allies on the beaches of Normandy. Europe could soon be liberated. Anne hopes to return to school in the fall.

The occupants of the Annex spend a month at a transit facility before being taken by train to Auschwitz. At the end of October 1944 Anne and Margot are moved to BergenBelsen. Their mother remains behind, but soon falls ill and dies of exhaustion. Anne and Margot succumb to typhus in March 1945, only a few weeks before the camp is liberated by the British army.

Otto Frank is liberated from Auschwitz in January 1945. He does everything he can to find out the fate of his daughters: placing an ad in the newspaper and talking to survivors, until he meets witnesses of But on August 4, 1944, an SS Of- their deaths. When Miep Gies hears ficer and three Dutch policemen ar- the news, she gives Otto Anne’s dirive and demand to be taken to the ary and notebooks. Otto reads about Secret Annex. The people in hiding the plan Anne had to publish a book have been betrayed. They are arrest- about the time she spent in the Annex ed, as are some of their helpers, but and decides to fulfill his daughter’s Miep and Bep are left behind, where wish. they find and rescue Anne’s diary.

Following the war, Otto devotes himself to human rights, and answers thousands of letters from across the world. He says,

“Young people especially always want to know how these terrible things could ever have happened. I answer them as well as I can. And then at the end, I often finish by saying, ‘I hope Anne’s book will have an effect on the rest of your life so that insofar as it is possible in your own circumstances, you will work for unity and peace.’”

Peter van Pels (date unknown)

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Otto Frank (date unknown)

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Anne Frank

Inside the Annex

The Annex is an ideal place to hide in. It may be damp and lopsided, but there’s probably not a more comfortable hiding place in all of Amsterdam. No, in all of Holland. - The Diary of Anne Frank

Rosalie Randazzo


h e quote above reveals Anne’s spirit of optimism, but their stay was longer than expected: 2 years and 1 month total. What was life like inside the Annex? Otto Frank’s spice company moved into its new Amsterdam offices in 1940. Facing the historic Prinsengracht Canal, the building included an Achterhuis (“back house’) in the rear which was surrounded on all sides by houses. This made it an ideal hiding location, which Otto realized in 1942, when Anti-Semitic violence spread to Amsterdam. When his oldest daughter, Margot, was summoned to report to a Nazi labor camp, he took his family into hiding the very next day.

Child Garment Worker

The Annex measured only 500 square feet. By November, these tight quarters were shared by eight people. The Frank family lived in two rooms on the first floor, the Van Pels family in the other two rooms on the second floor. Through Peter Van Pel’s tiny bedroom was an entrance to the attic. The hiding place was a storage space for the business, and consisted of no more than a few windows, stacks of boxes, and a loft space. There was also, fortunately, a toilet and a sink. The Franks’ first order of business was to make curtains for the windows for security reasons. When this was finished, they made every effort to turn the bare storage space into a home, but just beyond the fake bookcase that hid the secret entrance were functioning offices. During business hours they were forced to maintain an insufferable silence. Informal tours of the Annex began shortly after the diary’s first publication, but by 1955 the building was in danger of being demolished. A public campaign was launched to save the building, and in 1957 Otto Frank founded the Anne Frank Foundation with the primary goal of saving the building. It was graciously donated to the Foundation the following year. In its first year as a historical site and museum it drew 9,000 visitors. In 2006, visitors numbered just under one million. For visiting information, log on to www.annefrank.org. Educational Outreach

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Ariello & Anna Cometa


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Photos (Top to bottom) (1) The exterior of Otto’s Amsterdam offices, with the canal in the foreground

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(2) The room shared by Anne and Fritz Pfeffer (3) A drawing detailing the interior of the hiding space Photos courtesy of www. annefrankguide.net


Rosalie Randazzo

Rosalie Randazzo

Growing Up Factories IN THE


for a moment that you are the child of a family moving to America in 1906. You don’t know much English, you’ve left all your friends behind, and you live in a tiny, dirty, cramped tenement apartment in New York City. Your family came here to find a better life, and you still believe there is hope for happiness, but your family is quickly running out of money. They ask you to help, and you go to work. You go to the nearest textile factory, where clothing is made, and you are hired on the spot. They make you a scavenger and quickly show you what to do. The machines that the older workers use are enormous and noisy, with lots of moving parts. As the machine is used, bits of cotton fall to the floor beneath it or get stuck between the moving parts. “This is wasted money,” your boss explains. “All you need to do is pick up the cotton when it falls, so we can re-use it.” He smiles and tells you it will be easy, and it does sound easy . . . at first. Then you look up at the machine, with its sharp metal parts whirring around so quickly, and you realize how dangerous this job is. Your boss tells you to get to work, so you do. You lay on the floor, making yourself as thin as possible while you carefully crawl underneath the machine. The noise is tremendous. The whirring pieces of metal swoop just inches above your head. One mistake and your hair could get caught and ripped from your head. One mistake and you could lose an arm. Dust is everywhere and it rushes into your nose when you breathe. Already you want to quit, but you think about your family and the few pennies you will earn for them today. “At least I am being paid,” you think as you look at the orphan boys and girls working beside you. Orphans usually were not paid. Instead the factory gave them food, clothing and a place to sleep. That seems fair, you think, but as you look at the tired, hungry orphans in their tattered clothes, you pity them. One orphan is in the corner — a supervisor is beating him with a cane. Another is forced to work with a heavy weight tied around her neck. You quickly learn not to make the supervisors angry. Back to work. Dozens of other machines need to be cleaned, so you hurry along the line. A girl who has worked there for months says sometimes she counts her steps to pass the time. Most days she walks twenty miles back and forth between the machines. Twenty miles? You feel a knot in your stomach thinking about the next fourteen hours. You will work well into the night, with only one short break. You think about your family again. You are doing the right thing, aren’t you? You want to help and you wouldn’t mind working — if only you had more breaks and a safer job. Best not to think about that, though. You have a long day ahead of you.

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Rosalie Randazzo The

Rosalie Randazzo

Fair Labor Standards Act


any attempts were made to stop unfair child labor with laws and regulations, but all of them faced the problem of constitutionality. The Constitution protects the rights of all its citizens, including business owners. The question was: is it fair to tell a business owner how to run his/ her business? Would that violate the owner’s right to negotiate contracts with his/her employees? Of course no employer has the right to abuse their employees, and in 1938 the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) was passed. In 1941 the Supreme Court upheld the law, deciding that it did not violate the employer’s rights. Since then, the law has been amended with the changing times. Here is a look at the FLSA then and now.

Original Minimum Wage (1938) $0.25/hour Current Minimum Wage (2009) $7.15/hour [will be raised to $7.25 in July] Original Maximum Hours per Week (1938) Current Maximum Hours per Week (2009)

44 40

“Overtime” Employees working more than the maximum number of hours per week must be paid 1.5 times their normal wage for hours worked past the maximum. Many jobs are exempt from this regulation, but it does apply for most hourly jobs. Children 16-17 years old may work unlimited hours in any occupation that is not hazardous. Hazardous jobs include those requiring use of heavy machinery, meat slicers, grinders, or choppers. Children 14-15 years old are limited on school days to 3 hrs/day, 18 hrs/week, and no later than 7:00PM. On weekends and summers, may work 8 hrs/day, 40 hrs/week, but no later than 9:00PM.

Lewis Hine Putting a Face on Child Labor


here is a show on cable television that looks inside the dirtiest jobs in America. One hundred years ago, Lewis Hine did the same. As the official photographer for the National Child Labor Committee and a freelance photographer for a social reform magazine, Hine was a pioneer of “documentary photography” — using cameras to capture moments of everyday life that symbolize a period of history. But Hine wasn’t just interested in recording history. He used photographs to change history. Hine was a school teacher in New York City when he began photographing the arrival of immigrants to Ellis Island. He was also interested in issues of poverty, investigating the condition of cheap tenement housing and industrial work environments. By showing the public visual evidence of things they might normally be unaware of, Hine hoped to inspire people to reform and improve our society. Meanwhile, the National Child Labor Committee was lobbying for the government to protect children’s rights in the workforce, but they faced resistance from big business owners who had a lot of political influence.

The NCLC knew that if the public supported labor reform, the government would be forced to consider it a serious issue. Many adults, however, thought that children benefitted from jobs that taught them responsibility, and low-income families often depended on the extra money their children brought home each week. The NCLC needed to prove to the public that child labor was hurting kids, not helping them. They needed proof. They needed Lewis Hine. Hine accepted the job and travelled the country documenting working conditions. Factory owners began to recognize him and would often refuse to let him inside. Others would hide their young workers when Hine arrived. Hine would fool them by posing as a fire inspector or another important figure. After Hine and the NCLC achieved their goal of labor reform, Hine began photographing Red Cross workers during World War I, and was later hired to capture images of the Empire State Building construction and New Deal work programs during the Great Depression. He dedicated his life to improving society but never earned much money for it. He died in poverty in 1940.

Jobs that have different rules than these include farm work, performing, businesses owned by the child’s parents, newspaper delivery, and others.

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If you have a job, or are thinking about getting one, know your rights! Visit www.dol.gov, www.labor.state.ny.us, or check in with your school’s guidance office!

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Rosalie Randazzo

A Century of

Immigration I

lation. The Immigration Act of 1924 established fixed quotas based on nationality and suspended all immigration from the Far East. The establishment of permanent quotas in 1929, coupled with the stock market crash and the Great Depression, caused a dramatic decrease in immigration during the 1930s. Although immigration slowed considerably during World War II, immigration resumed its normal pace when the war ended in 1945. Yet, further immigration legislation in 1952 decreased the average number of immigrants per year. All in all, the period between 1925 and 1964 witnessed a 70 percent drop in immigration.

mmigration is a vital piece of American history. From the period of European colonization to today, every major period in our history is influenced by immigration. However, our history is also marked by periods of fear and prejudice toward immigrant communities. From the forced migration of Africans to North Amer- In 1965 the immigration controls enacted in the previica under the institution of slavery to ous 40 years came to an end and imthe internment of immigrants in the migration resumed at a pace nearly 1940s, immigrants and their treatment equal to the great wave of the early are issues that affect every aspect of 20th century. With the passage of the society. Immigration Act of 1965, the system of overarching quotas was abolished Europeans have immigrated to the and replaced with national quotas. BeAmericas since the 16th century. The tween 1965 and 1989, the US grew by reasons for their arrival are as numernearly 500,000 immigrants per year. ous as the individuals themselves, but However, immigration did not remain certain historical events caused surges at that level for long. in immigration: the Irish potato famine of 1845, the American Gold Rush of The 1990s brought a new face to im1849, and failed revolutions in Germigration. The passage of the North many and France in 1848. Yet it was American Free Trade Agreement not until the 1880s that America saw (NAFTA) in 1992 led to an increase Immigrants at Ellis Island, NY its first great wave of European immiin the availability of cheap labor from gration. An average of 560,000 immigrants arrived Mexico, leading to a major spike in immigration leveach year between 1880 and 1924, amounting to over els. Immigration rates nearly doubled, with an average 25 million immigrants in a 44 year period. This period of 1,000,000 immigrants entering the country annually. also featured the opening of Ellis Island in the New This influx of new labor led to calls for immigration York harbor, which processed more than 22 million im- reform, especially as industries began to move producmigrants before it closed in 1954. tion out of the country in an effort to lower their costs. However, it was the attacks of September 11, 2001 that The high rate of immigration in this short period of time once again put immigration reform in the spotlight. In led to growing frustration over the congestion immigra- Washington, D.C., the debate over immigration reform tion was causing. In 1924 Congress moved to limit im- continues to this day and prove to be a major issue in migration in an attempt to control the growth of the popu- Congressional and Presidential elections. Educational Outreach

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Adapted from http://www.immigrationarchive.com/


CARVER George Washington


Timothy Bond

Cain Bass

Lauren Unbekant

Producing Artistic Director

Jeffrey Woodward Managing Director


TIME US HISTORY 1861 1863 1865



1890 1891 1893


1894 1896 1909 1917


1923 1925 1927 1928

1929 1932

1935 1936




1939 1940

1941 1945 1948



Life of George Washington

George Washington Carver was born in a year of great changes for America and the entire world. A leap year, the 366 days of 1864 contained events that would influence both Carver’s life and American history.

The Civil War


In March of 1864, three years into the American Civil War, President Lincoln appointed Major General Ulysses S. Grant the commander of all Union forces. Grant was a brilliant military tactician who won the key battles of Shiloh in 1862 and Vicksburg, Mississippi in 1863, considered to be the major turning point of the war.

Missouri, where Carver was born, had been a slave state since it was admitted to the Union in 1821. It lacked the topography for huge plantations, though, and slavery was a relatively small institution there. When southern states began to secede, Missouri voted to stay with the Union.

Lincoln, Grant, and his second-in-command Major General William Sherman decided to adopt the strategy of “total war.” They believed the quickest way to end the war and limit future casualties was to destroy the Confederate economy and infrastructure. Farms, railroad tracks and homes were now considered key strategic targets in the South.



George Washington Carver

In the fall of 1864, Sherman captured Atlanta — a huge victory for the North and a major factor in Lincoln’s reelection that year. In keeping with the “total war” concept, Sherman led his troops from Atlanta to Savannah in the now-famous “March to the Sea.” Along the 300mile trek, Sherman’s men inflicted an estimated $100 million of damage. They destroyed railroads, bridges and telegraph lines. They seized thousands of horses, mules and cattle, and confiscated millions of pounds of food. The effects of “total war” practices like this were be felt all across the South for decades, and played a major role in shaping George Washington Carver’s legacy. By the following spring the Confederate forces were depleted and their economy was in ruins. General Robert E. Lee surrendered on April 9, 1865 to end the Civil War.

Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, but this only freed slaves in the Confederate states. In Missouri, one of the few Union states where slavery still existed, slavery would continue to exist until the passage of the 13th Amendment in December 1865. For more on the institution of slavery in America, see pages 16-17



Sherman’s “March to the Sea”

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George Washington Carver

George Washington Carver In the summer of 1864, three years into the American Civil War, a child was born on a farm near Diamond Grove, Missouri: a frail boy who would struggle with sickness for most of his childhood. Almost eighty years later, he would become the first African American given a national monument. A fitting honor for a child who was given such a historic namesake:

GEORGE WASHINGTON CARVER CHILDHOOD & EDUCATION One night, the infant Carver and his mother were kidnapped by slave raiders from the Confederacy. Their owner, Moses Carver, reclaimed the baby shortly thereafter, but his mother was never found. The boy’s father is unknown to history, believed to be a slave from a neighboring farm. Now without mother or father, he and his brother were raised by Moses and Susan Carver as if they were their own children. When slavery was abolished by the 13th Amendment in 1865, George stayed on the Carver farm, where he fell in love with nature. He collected rocks and plants, and was nicknamed “The Plant Doctor.”

Carver continued his studies through high school but once again encountered racial barriers. He struggled to find acceptance into college until 1890, when he was admitted to Simpson College in Indianola, Iowa. He was their first black student. Simpson did not offer science courses, so Carver studied art and music. He was an accomplished pianist and a talented painter – his work was exhibited at the Chicago World’s Fair, where they received honorable mention.

WORK Carver began teaching classes at Iowa while studying for his Master’s. He taught soil conservation and chemurgy (making industrial products from crops), and researched fungal diseases in cherry plants. Two funguses would later be named after him.

In 1897 Carver was awarded his Masters of Science in Bacterial Botany and Agriculture, and was immediately offered the position of Director of Agriculture at the Nonetheless, science was Carver’s Tuskegee Institute. Tuskegee was true passion. He transferred to the founded in 1881 on the grounds of Iowa Agricultural College, now an old plantation as a college for Afknown as Iowa State University, rican Americans. Its President was in 1891. Three years later he was the legendary Booker T. WashingGeorge Washington Carver was granted a Bachelor’s of Science de- ton, who personally courted Carver clearly a bright child, but schools at gree and began working toward his for the Institute. Carver would teach the time were segregated and there Master’s. there until the day he died. were no all-black schools near Diamond Grove. Knowing that George Agriculture was a major concern for “There is no shortcut to could have a bright future, the Carvachievement. Life requires the southern economy, which lay in ers sent him to Newton County, Misruins after the Civil War. Union solthorough preparation. souri to study in a one-room schooldiers destroyed many farms in an house. He lived on a nearby farm, Veneer isn’t worth anything.” effort to undermine the Confederate - George W. Carver economy (see previous page). The working when he wasn’t at school.

How far you go in life depends on your being tender with the young, compassionate with the aged, sympathetic with the striving, and tolerant of the weak and the strong. Because someday in life you will have been all of these. -George Washington Carver [Continued from previous page]

remaining farms were essentially dried up from centuries of growing cotton and tobacco, and no longer produced healthy crops. Unless a solution could be found, the American economy would be crippled. Carver had an answer: crop rotation. Cotton and tobacco are soil-depleting crops that drain the nutrients plants need to grow. To rejuvenate the depleted southern soil, Carver suggested alternating each year between these soil-depleting crops and soil-enriching ones. Peanuts, peas, soybeans, sweet potatoes, and pecans actually pump nutrients back into the soil, keeping it rich. Crop rotation was not a completely new idea – Europeans began rotating their grain fields in the Middle Ages – but it was Carver who realized the system was needed for cotton and tobacco, and actively sought to inform farmers across the country. The system worked. In just a few years farmers noticed improved harvests. They also noticed something else: huge surpluses of the peanuts, sweet potatoes, and other crops they were now growing. These were not profitable crops to sell, and the farmers didn’t know what to do with them.

LEGACY Behind Carver’s work was a passion for nature and a deeply-rooted spirituality. Despite his many discoveries, he never profited directly from them, only applying for three patents in his entire life. He said, “God gave them to me. How can I sell them to someone else?” Carver was issued the NAACP’s Spingarn Medal and the Theodore Roosevelt medal for distinguished research, and the International Federation of Architects, Engineers, Frustrated, the farmers of the Chemists and Technicians named American South turned once more him Man of the Year in 1940. to George Washington Carver. His charge: find uses for these seem- George Washington Carver died on ingly useless crops. We often hear January 5, 1943. That year, Presithat Carver invented peanut but- dent Franklin Roosevelt established ter, but many are unaware of the a national monument in his honor 325 other uses for peanuts that he near his Missouri birth site. He was devised: cooking oil, printer’s ink, the first African American to receive cosmetic cream, soap, shampoo, a national monument. wood stains, rubber, gasoline, and hundreds more. He turned sweet Today, his gravesite is marked with potatoes into rubber and pecans into a fitting epitaph: pavement. Many of these products, “He could have added fortune such as rubber and dyes, became vitally important during World War I, to fame, but caring for and in 1935 Carver was appointed neither, he found happiness collaborator to the US Department and honor in being helpful to of Agriculture. the world.”

[Continued on next page] Educational Outreach

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A History of Women in Industry <www.nwhm.org/exhibits/Industry/10.htm>

Complete Works of Shakespeare <http://shakespeare.mit.edu>

The Ad Council <http://www.adcouncil.org/default.aspx?id=128>

Flocabulary <www.flocabulary.com/shakes/shakeshome.html>

US Dept. of Labor Women’s Bureau <www.dol.gov/wb>

Poetics of Hip-Hop <http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/content/3656>

Women in Transportation <www.fhwa.dot.gov/wit/rosie.htm> World War II <www.worldwar-2.net/>

Shakespeare-HipHop Analogues <www.stylusmagazine.com/articles/staff_top_10/ top-ten-shakespeare-hip-hop-analogues.htm>







HARRIET TUBMAN Aboard the Underground Railroad <www.nps.gov/history/nr/travel/underground/>


Abolition <www.loc.gov/exhibits/african/afam005.html>

Anne Frank Museum <www.AnneFrank.org>

America’s Library <www.americaslibrary.gov/cgi-bin/page.cgi/aa/tubman>

Anne Frank Tree <www.AnneFrankTree.com>

Civil War <www.civilwar.com>

Time Magazine <www.time.com/time/time100/heroes/profile/frank01.html>

Harriet Tubman House (Auburn, NY) <www.harriethouse.org/>

WWII <www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/timeline/ww2time.htm>

PBS <www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p1535.html>


National Freedom Center <www.freedomcenter.org/>


NY History Net <www.nyhistory.com/harriettubman/life.htm>


Anne Frank Center <www.AnneFrank.com>

Slavery in America <www.slaveryinamerica.org/history/hs_es_overview.htm> ROSALIE RANDAZZO


Century of Immigration <www.loc.gov/exhibits/haventohome/haven-century.html>


Industrial Revolution <http://members.aol.com/TeacherNet/Industrial.html#CLA>



Women in History <www.lkwdpl.org/wihohio/hurs-zor.htm>


Links/Articles <www-hsc.usc.edu/~gallaher/hurston/hurston.html> Teacher Resource File <http://falcon.jmu.edu/~ramseyil/hurston.htm>


About: Women’s History <http://womenshistory.about.com/od/hurstonzoraneale/p/hurston_bio.htm>

Biography - About.com <http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa041897.htm>

Harlem Renaissance <http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761566483/harlem_renaissance.html>

Biography - Ideafinder <http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventors/carver.htm>

Library of Congress Materials <www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/harlem/harlem.html>

The Legacy of George Washington Carver <http://www.lib.iastate.edu/spcl/gwc/bio.html>

American Anthropological Association < http://www.aaanet.org/>

Carver National Monument <http://www.nps.gov/archive/gwca/expanded/gwc.htm> Crop Rotation <http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/pubs/plantsci/crops/eb48-1.htm> The Reconstruction Era <http://www.americaslibrary.gov/cgi-bin/page.cgi/jb/recon>

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NOTES ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ Educational Outreach

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yracuse Stage is committed to providing students with rich theatre experiences that connect to and reveal what it is to be human. Research shows that children who participate in or are exposed to the arts show higher academic achievement, stronger self-esteem, and improved ability to plan and work towards a future goal.

Many students in our community have their first taste of live theatre through Syracuse Stage’s outreach programs. Last season more than 35,000 students from across New York State attended or participated in the Bank of America Children’s Tour, Carrier Backstory, Lockheed Martin Project Blueprint, artsEMERGING, the Chase Young Playwrights Festival, and our Student Matinee Program. We gratefully acknowledge the many corporations, foundations, and government agencies whose donations support our commitment to in-depth arts education for our community. The listing below respresents support towards last season’s 2007-2008 programming. Bank of America - Bank of America Children’s Tour Bristol-Myers Squibb Company - artsEMERGING Carrier Corporation - Carrier Backstory Chase - Chase Young Playwrights Festival Excellus BlueCross BlueShield - Bank of America Children’s Tour Grandma Brown Foundation - Student Matinee Program KARE Foundation - Carrier Backstory Lockheed Martin Employees Federated Fund - Carrier Backstory, Bank of America Children’s Tour Lockheed Martin MS2 - Lockheed Martin Project Blueprint National Grid - Student Matinee Program NYS Assembly, through the office of William Magnarelli - artsEMERGING Onondaga County District Attorney’s Office - artsEMERGING Price Chopper’s Golub Foundation - Student Matinee Program Syracuse Police Department - artsEMERGING Syracuse University Division of Student Affairs - Student Matinee Program Syracuse University GEAR-UP - Carrier Backstory Target - Student Matinee Program Time Warner Cable - Carrier Backstory US Department of Justice - artsEMERGING Wegmans - Bank of America Children’s Tour

Actor Rob North signing autographs after a performance of The Mischief Makers.

Teachers from the Syracuse City School District receiving professional development from teaching artist Reenah Golden.

1,500 students from the Syracuse City School District attended matinee performances of The Bomb-itty of Errors.


come dream with uS

August Wilson’s Ma Rainey’s Black Bottom Directed by Timothy Bond September 9 – October 4

The award-winning music-filled play that captured the attention of the theatre world and launched August Wilson’s remarkable career.

Up By Bridget Carpenter Directed by Penny Metropulos February 25 – March 15 East Coast Premiere

A soaring new play about family and following your dreams . . . even if it takes 42 balloons tied to a lawn chair.

The Diary of Anne Frank

Music and Mischief for the Holidays

Godspell The Excellus BlueCross BlueShield Family Holiday Series; A collaboration between Syracuse Stage and SU Drama

Conceived and Directed by Ping Chong October 14 - November 2 World Premiere

By Frances Goodrich and Albert Hackett Newly adapted by Wendy Kesselman Directed by Timothy Bond March 31 – May 3

Conceived and Originally Directed by John-Michael Tebelak Music and New Lyrics by Stephen Schwartz Directed by Rajendra Ramoon Maharaj Choreographed by Anthony Salatino November 25 – December 28

Life stories of real Syracuse residents carry us around the globe and bring us home with a more complete understanding of how we’re all connected.

A 13-year-old girl finds hope in the in face evil and teaches us all an unforgettable lesson in courage. A new adaptation of an American classic.

Filled with popular hit songs and based on the Gospel of St. Matthew, this energetic musical is a celebration of worldwide community.

Putting it Together


A Musical Review Concept by Stephen Sondheim & Julia McKenzie Book, Music & Lyrics by Stephen Sondheim Directed & Choreographed by Rajendra Ramoon Maharaj January 27 - February 15

The Santaland Diaries

By Regina Taylor Adapted from the book by Michael Cunningham and Craig Marberry Directed and choreographed by Patdro Harris May 13 – June 7

By David Sedaris Adapted for the stage by Joe Mantello Directed by Wendy Knox December 2 – January 4

Tales from the Salt City

At a Manhattan cocktail party, a cast of five uses Sondheim’s exquisite songs to examine the ups and downs of two relationships.

A troubled young woman journeys to her ancestral home and finds healing in the warm embrace of family, church, gospel music and tradition

Meet Crumpet, a 33-year-old starving artist turn cranky (but cute) Macy’s elf, in humorist David Sedaris’ witty gem of a lump of coal. For mature elves only. All plays and players subject to change.

SeASon SponSorS:


Box office: 315.443.3275

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Profile for Syracuse Stage

Project Blueprint:The Backstory  

Project Blueprint:The Backstory- Study Guide

Project Blueprint:The Backstory  

Project Blueprint:The Backstory- Study Guide

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