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2 0 0 6 - 2 0 0 7 E D U CAT I O NA L O U T R E AC H S P O N S O R S General Operating and Multiple-Program Support Bank of America Children's Tour Regent Circle ($50,000 and above) Syracuse University Playwright’s Circle ($25,000 - $49,999) Central New York Community Foundation The Richard Mather Fund New York State Council on the Arts The Post-Standard Shubert Foundation Time Warner Cable Producer’s Circle ($14,000 - $24,999) Onondaga County Residence Inn by Marriott

Student Matinee Program Stage Sponsor ($5,000 - $7,499) National Grid Stage Manager ($1,500 - $2,499) PriceChopper's Golub Foundation Target Actor ($300 - $749) Critical Link, LLC Angel ($100 - $299) Countryside Community Federal Credit Union Whelan & Curry Construction Services, Inc.

Carrier BACKSTORY! Program Directors’ Circle ($7,500 - $13,999) Carrier Corporation Stage Sponsor ($5,000 - $7,499) K.A.R.E. Foundation Stage Partner ($2,500 - $4,999) InterV Time Warner Cable Stage Manager ($1,500 - $2,499) Lockheed Martin Employees Federated Fund The Celebration of the Arts, St. David's Church Patron ($100 - $299) Dr. Howard Alexander, DDS Partners in OBGYN, PLLC Wood, etc.

Lockheed Martin Project Blueprint Directors’ Circle ($7,500 - $13,999) Lockheed Martin MS2

Producers’ Circle ($14,000 - $24,999) Bank Of America Stage Partner ($2,500 - $4,999) Lockheed Martin Employees Federated Fund Stage Manager ($1,000 - $2,499) Excellus BlueCross BlueShield Actors ($300 - $499) Diamond & Theil Construction Co., Inc Wegmans Zeller Corporation

The JPMorgan Chase Young Playwrights Festival Director’s Circle ($7,500 - $13,999) JPMorgan Chase Foundation

ArtsEmerging: The Layering Project Stage Partner ($2,500 - $4,999) Bristol-Myers Squibb Company Partners for Arts Education

Robert Moss Artistic Director

James A. Clark Producing Director


The Red Sun and the Green Moon Directed By Leslie Noble

Written by Lauren Unbekant

Set/Costume Design Katrin Naumann

The Bank Of America Children’s Tour

Season Sponsors

Syracuse Stage 3

2006-2007Study Guide education office: 443-1150 or syracusestage.org/education.html

Ta b l e o f C o n t e n t s

Table of Contents 5

Theatre and Education


Elements of Theatre


Elements of Art


A Message From the Director


Porquoi Tales curriculum connections


Tackling the Text


Joan Mir贸 - The Artist


In The Classroom



Supporting the arts is a main priority of the Bank of America Charitable Foundation, which is why we are so excited to partner with the Syracuse Stage on this exciting project. Through innovative programs, such as this one, we can effectively encourage the children in our community to embrace the arts at an early age. Bank of America is pleased to support such an important program and hope children throughout the greater Syracuse area will take full advantage of it.

Syracuse Stage 2006-2007 Study Guide education office: 443-1150 or syracusestage.org/education.html


Theatre and Education "Theatre brings life to life." — Zelda Fichandler

world. Then artists come along and discover it the same way all over again." — Eudora Welty

Ultimately, there is a fundamental difference in the psychological responses aroused by electronic media and theatre because the former presents pictures of events whereas the latter performs the actual events in what amounts to the same space as that occupied by the audience. This difference results in one unique characteristic of theatre: its ability to offer intense sensory experience through the simultaneous presence of live actors and audience. "The sole substitute for an experience which we have not ourselves lived through is art and literature." — Aleksandr I. Solzhenitsyn Pedagogically, theatre can be used in a variety of ways. In many respects the teacher in the classroom is much like the actor onstage - with an audience (hopefully attentive), a script (lesson plan), props and set (classroom setting and teaching tools). The environment of the teaching experience can change day to day, and can be impacted by weather, mood, outside events - in other words, each day is a unique, active, sensory occurrence, just like a play. From this perspective all of what can be taught can be taught theatrically, whether it is having young children creating a pretend bank to learn about money, to older students acting out a scene from a play. Theatre provides an opportunity to teach, and any play provides an opportunity to teach more.

Bringing your students to productions by Syracuse Stage and the Drama Department and utilizing this study guide in teaching about the plays, fulfills elements of the New York State core requirements. We know that as educators you are the more qualified to determine how our plays and study guides blend with your lesson plans and teaching requirements. We hope that you find lots of possibilities to cover a variety of disciplines. As you bring your students to the shows, you might want them to examine not merely the thematic elements of the written word, but also how production elements explore these themes. Everything you see on this stage has been created specifically for this production — Our designers meet with our directors months before rehearsals start, and shows are built to their specifications, which are in line with their vision of the work. In our detailed study guides for our school shows, we will try to give you some previews of this process, but you might want to explore discussing all of the design elements with your students as a way of opening the door to the production they will be seeing. You probably know all of the elements that make up a show, but to recap: Sets Props Choreography

Costumes Sound Music

Lights Painting Casting

And of course, the one thing that is vitally necessary for any piece to be theatre: AN AUDIENCE Without this last, most important element, the theatre ceases to be. Welcome to Syracuse Stage's Educational Outreach Programs.

"Children, like animals, use all their senses to discover the

Syracuse Stage 5

2006-2007 Study Guide education office: 443-1150 or syracusestage.org/education.html


When the first cave dweller got up to tell a story, theater began. Almost every culture has some sort of live performance tradition to tell stories. Television and film may have diminished the desire for access to theater, but they have not diminished the importance. Live theater gives each audience member an opportunity to connect with the performers in a way he or she never could with Tom Cruise or Lindsay Lohan. The emotions can be more intense because the events are happening right in front of the audience.

Elements of Theatre Theatre usually engages other art disciplines including writing, visual/design, music and dance or movement.

I n t ro d u c t i o n

Character Who? - Who are the characters in the play and what is their relationship to each other? Plot/Story What? - What is the story line - What happened before the play started? What do the characters want? What happens next? Setting Where? Where does the story take place? This influences design concepts and actors’ actions. Characters move and behave according to their environment. Time When? Time consists of Historical (period in history), Time of Year/Season and Time of day, which influences design concepts and actors’ actions.

This column contains some possible elements for further classroom exploration when investigating a piece of theatre. Character Relationship Conflict/Resolution Action Plot/Story Setting Time Improvisation Non-verbal communication Staging Realism/Naturalism Visual Composition Metaphor Language Tone Pattern Repetition Emotion Point of View Humor

Creating questions for exploration Creating an open ended question using an element for exploration, otherwise known as a “Line of Inquiry” can help students make discoveries about a piece of theater and it’s relevance to their own lives. A Line of Inquiry is also useful for Kinesthetic Activities (On your feet exercises). Examples of Lines Of Inquiry : 1. How does an actor create a character through changing his/her body shape? 2. How does an actor create setting using physical actions? 3. How does an actor use the language of gesture to convey emotion/feelings? 4. How does the use of music convey the mood of a scene?

Syracuse Stage 2006-2007 Study Guide education office: 443-1150 or syracusestage.org/education.html


Elements of Art The Elements of Visual Art -

Questions For Noticing Art - Guided Looking 1. What do you see? - what do you actually see? line, shape, color, etc. 2. What else do you see? - a chance to look deeper.

There are typically six elements of art that can be found in most art works. Artists use these elements as a "visual alphabet" to produce all kinds of art forms. The way in which elements are organized is referred to as the Principles of Design. Line is the most basic element of art; a continuous mark made on a surface can vary in appearance (length, width, texture, direction, curve). Five varieties of lines: vertical, horizontal, diagonal, curved, zigzag.

3. What’s going on? - what do you think is happening in the artwork? 4. What makes you say that? - what is the evidence that you have?

Shape is two - dimensional (circle, square, triangle, rectangle) and encloses space - geometric, or free form. A shape is enclosed by a line. Color is produced when light strikes an object and reflects back in your eyes. This element of art has three properties: Hue -the name of a color (ex. - red, yellow, blue) Intensity -the purity and strength of a color (ex- bright red or dull red) Value -the lightness or darkness of a color Form is three-dimensional; it encloses space and takes up space. It can be geometric or free form. Space is defined and determined by shapes and forms. Positive space is where shapes and forms exist; negative space is the empty space around shapes and forms. Texture refers to the surface quality or "feel" of an object smooth, rough, soft, etc. Textures may be actual (felt with touch - tactile) or implied (suggested by the way an artist has created the work of art -visual). artwork courtesy of NPR’s “When They were Young”

Syracuse Stage 7

2006 - 2007 Study Guide education office: 443-1150 or syracusestage.org/education.html

I n t ro d u c t i o n

In The Red Sun and The Green Moon elements of art are used in the design, which includes costumes, set, and props. There are also references to the horizon, the line that divides the sky from the earth. See what elements you notice are used.

A Message From The Education Director From The Director

Dear Teachers: This year's Children's Tour, The Red Sun and The Green Moon is a visual and physical spectacle based on the Nigerian tale of Why the Sun and Moon Live in the Sky. The visual palette is suggestive of the work of Joan Mir贸, a surrealist artist who had an incredible sense of the imagination of children and paid special attention to the use of line.

I try to apply colors like words that shape poems, like notes that shape music. Joan Mir贸

The story revolves around three siblings hiking through the desert in search of the horizon, (where all the stories of how things came to be exist). They happen to come upon a fossil of a starfish which transforms their world of the desert into a magical seascape, the setting for the story of Why the Sun and Moon Live in the Sky. Being new to the position of Educational Outreach Director at Syracuse Stage I was interested in creating a piece of theatre that addressed new beginnings. A porquoi story seemed a natural fit. Porquoi stories are about making sense of the world, something that kids are engaged in every day. It is my hope that this year's Children's Tour kicks off a year of exploration, and discovery! Sincerely,

In a picture, it should be possible to discover new things every time you see it! Joan Mir贸

Lauren Unbekant Director Of Educational Outreach

Syracuse Stage 2006-2007 Study Guide education office: 443-1150 or syracusestage.org/education.html


Porquoi Tales Curriculum Connections What is a Porquoi Tale?

WHY THE SUN AND THE MOON LIVE IN THE SKY (Southeastern Nigeria) A long time ago, when the world was new, the Sun married the Moon and they lived happy as can be in a little cottage near the Ocean. One day, Sun and Moon invited Ocean over to their house for a visit. Ocean liked it so much he wanted to stay. Sun and Moon liked Ocean, and hoped the cottage would be big enough for all three of them. So Sun and Moon invited Ocean to stay with them. In came Ocean with all his friends: the whales, the fish, the porpoises, and all the creatures that live in the sea. The water rose higher and higher in the cottage. Soon there was no more room for Sun and Moon, so they rose up into the sky where they have lived ever since! (another example of a Porquoi story) WHY MOSQUITOES BUZZ IN PEOPLE'S EARS A long, long time ago, Mosquitoes didn't buzz, they talked. And talked and talked and talked. One day, Mosquito was talking to Iguana, telling him about his vacation, about every minute of his vacation. Mosquito would not let Iguana say one word. Iguana was so annoyed that he walked away, leaving Mosquito still talking. Iguana grumbled and waved her tail. She was still grumbling when she passed her friend Snake, and forgot all about saying hello. Snake's feelings were hurt. He felt so sad that he slithered down a rabbit hole. "Help," yelled Rabbit as she scurried out of the hole, terrified of Snake. "What's wrong?" cawed Crow as he saw Rabbit racing. Danger must be near. "Run for your lives!" cawed Crow. Monkey heard Crow's warning and took off through the treetops, leaping branch to branch. When Monkey landed on Owl's branch, high up in a leafy tree, Owl's nest tipped off the branch and fell to the ground, breaking Owl's eggs. Owl was heartbroken, so much that she didn't hoot for the sun to come up. The whole jungle was in darkness. Everyone was mad at Mosquito. Finally Owl hooted for the sun to come up and when it did, Mosquito lost his voice. All he could do was buzz in everyone's ears: "Zzzzzz! Is everyone still mad at me?" Internet Resources: http://www.readwritethink.org/lessons/lesson_view.asp?id=324 http://www.learner.org/jnorth/tm/loon/Legends.html http://teacher.scholastic.com/products/instructor/pourquoitales.html

Syracuse Stage 9

2006-2007 Study Guide education office: 443-1150 or syracusestage.org/education.html

Porquoi Tales

Porquoi [por-kwa] means "why" in French. Porquoi tales are old legends told to explain why certain events happened. These tales often start in the past, e.g.: “A long, long time ago . . .� and end when the explanation is complete. Porquoi tales are most often concerned with animals and the natural world.

Tackling The Text Tackling The Text

The Red Sun and The Green Moon Liseli and his two younger sisters Luna and Arun are hiking across the desert in search of the horizon. There they believe they will find all the stories of how and why things in nature came to be. The only problem is everytime they think they have arrived at the horizon, they find it’s still in front of them - or behind them! Tired and hungry the three stop to pitch their tents and have a snack and a nap. While pitching their tents Luna finds a fossil of a starfish. Liseli begins to tell the story of how this particular desert was once covered by the sea, and that the Sun and the Moon were living on earth because they hadn’t yet found their home in the sky.

Characters: Liseli - The older wiser brother, likes to play the role of the trickster, can be a big tease, but loves his sisters. He becomes the Sea. Arun - The middle sister, always ready for fun, bright sunny disposition. She becomes the Sun. Luna - The youngest sister. Likes to read and take naps. She becomes the Moon.

The two girls find Liseli’s story hard to believe, and soon become distracted. When the three settle down for the night they receive a visit from a magical visitor - who turns their world upside down. When they awake all three family members have been transformed into the Sun, the Moon and the Sea, and the tale of Why the Sun and The Moon Live in the Sky unfolds!

Joan Miró - AMAM

Syracuse Stage 2006-2007 Study Guide education office: 443-1150 or syracusestage.org/education.html


Joan Miró 1893-1983 Surrealist artist Joan Miró (1893-1983)

Joan Miró

Miró was born the son of a goldsmith and jewelry maker in Barcelona in Northern Spain. He studied art at the Barcelona School of Fine Arts and at the Academia Gali. His parents would rather have seen him taking a job as a serious businessman. He even took business classes in 1907 parallel to his art classes. Miró worked as an accountant for nearly two years until his parents finally accepted their son's choice of a career as an artist without giving him too much support.

In the beginning of his career he dabbled in different painting styles that were fashionable at the turn of the century like Fauvism and Cubism. In 1920 Miró made the first of a series of trips to Paris. In 1921 he settled permanently in the French capital. He met Pablo Picasso and many of the other great painters and artists living in Paris - the center of arts in the late nineteenth and first half of the twentieth century.

Joan Miró - courtesy of e-fine art

From 1924 on, Miró joined the circle of the Surrealist theorist Andre Breton. His painting style took a turn to Surrealism. His comrades were Andre Masson and Max Ernst. But he never integrated himself completely into this group dominated by Andre Breton. He remained an outsider. By 1930 the artist had developed his own style. Miró’s art is hard to describe. It is characterized by brilliant colors combined with simplified forms that are reminiscent of drawings made by children at the age of five. Joan Miró’s art integrates elements of Catalan folk art. He liked to compare his visual arts to poetry.

http://www.e-fineart.com/biography/miro_bio.html Joan Miro-courtesy MOMA

Syracuse Stage 11

2006-2007 Study Guide education office: 443-1150 or syracusestage.org/education.html

In the Classroom questions and activities 1. In The Red Sun and The Green Moon, why are the characters searching for the horizon?

In The Classroom

2. Where does the story take place? How does the story’s setting change? 3. Where did the Sun and the Moon live before they lived in the sky? 4. How are the characters Liseli, Luna and Arun like the Sun, the Sea and the Moon? 5. Who is the Wild Desert Beastie Boy? 6. How do the Sun and the Moon get into the sky? 7. What is the horizon? 8. Create a porquoi story of your own about why The Sun and The Moon Live in the Sky!

Object Transformation Prop Metaphor - Object Transformation

Creating Characters - The Artist and the Piece of Clay

Actors in The Red Sun and The Green Moon will make use of their props in some pretty unusual ways.

How do actors change the shape of their bodies to reflect characters other than themselves?

Have your students experiment with prop transformation through the following activity:

Have the kids brainstorm things they notice about different characters such as an old man, a body builder, a nurse, etc., paying special attention to the shapes formed by their bodies.

1. Gather a basket of everyday objects: coffee filter, pots, egg beater, etc. 2. Give students a chance to observe what's in the basket, paying attention to size, shape and color of objects. 3. Ask students to volunteer to create another definition for an object through an action. For example a coffee filter can be a megaphone used by a politcian, etc. 4. After one round of brainstorming, give the students a setting where certain objects might be found: a doctor’s office, a restaurant, the classroom, etc.

With kids in pairs give one child the role of an artist and the other child the role of a piece of clay. Using animal characters as a jumping off point, have the artists mold their clay into the shape of the character. Making sure they are gentle when moving the clay. They can also give verbal instructions to shape the clay. Now let the artists take a gallery walk noticing the different shapes. The kids can then switch so that every one gets a chance to be an artist or a piece of clay. You can then experiment with other character possibilities.

Syracuse Stage 2006-2007 Study Guide education office: 443-1150 or syracusestage.org/education.html




LIST OF PORQUOI STORIES AND THEIR AUTHORS http://www.picturebookart.org/education/bibliographies/Porquoi.pdf#search=%22porquoi%20stories%22 STUDENT PORQUOI STORIES http://www.greenville.k12.sc.us/plaine/students/0304/stories.asp http://www.helenketteman.com/planners_handouts/arm_plan.pdf http://www.teacherideaspress.com/catalog/author/W/Judy_-_Wolfman.aspx http://www.chariho.k12.ri.us/faculty/dazon/activities.html

ARTS IN EDUCATION RESOURCES: THE WORK OF FAMOUS ARTISTS WHEN THEY WERE YOUNG http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5529588 KENNEDY CENTER ARTS EDGE http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/champions/pdfs/ChampsReport.pdf PARTNERS FOR ARTS EDUCATION http://www.arts4ed.org/ TJE ARTS EDGE http://www.rand.org/pubs/monograph_reports/MR1323/index.html

Syracuse Stage 13

2006 - 2007 Study Guide education office: 443-1150 or syracusestage.org/education.html

Profile for Syracuse Stage

2006-07 The Red Sun and the Green Moon  

2006-07 The Red Sun and the Green Moon- Study Guide

2006-07 The Red Sun and the Green Moon  

2006-07 The Red Sun and the Green Moon- Study Guide

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