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10810 BA VVIEW (Bayview Pltl28)

RICHMOND HILL. ONTARIO, CANADA L4C 3N8 (416) 684· 4165

C64-LINK

The SIIlart 64

RTC

aerial CartriCgt Eh1)41nllon llot

AUdiO

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110

RF VldiO Port

0111ett1 Port

U11r1

Port

IEE: 6 Oloke

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more

8•41

(2031) (A0-60) (60150) (8260) (9000)

Tope

IEEE Prlnlere

1!1<41 Drive And 162CI F> rln tor

(A022) (8023) (8300)

v 1.16

(future) Ca r tridge

-

to P ara1111 P rln ttr

or 15 16 Prlntor

IEEEto Pirlllll In t•rl• oe

IEEE to Serial

or VU Cab le to St andard

parallel

In to r la oe True Serial

OeYIOtl

OIVIOtl

Modom

Give These Expanded Capab ilities To Your 64

.

-

o r VL3 Ceb le

OIQ ,

M other Boerd

-

V I C M o dem

* The Par•

ability to tran1fer data lrom any type ol devloe to another (II:!DQ, Serial, II• II

POWER CW> 1\nd

PAL

* IJA81C 4,0 WhiCh aiiOWI YOU 10 run mort Pfil HAIIC programe anQ OIYII YOU tMiendld dlak and t 10 oommandt * The abilitY to have aoveral !14t on line together • ahartno common tee

devleM tuch " dltkl or prlnttrt wll h lpoottno Oapab ttlty

* Built-In machlno language monllor * catebultt-ln termlntl or modem proortm which allow• lht tytttm to communi through modtm to many bulltlln board t)'lttma and other computer A

Spooling

to P rlnter

Other

Cartrldgu

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malnlram11

*

Ct,ytleht• - Tr~o

Compatibility with CP I M

Cont.aot your local Commodore dealer or RTC.

C64 II I QIPYIIOnt or CofnmcK)Jfl llutl,_ Mlll:nll'lee hit 0114 liNK 11 a 0o Pltlghl Qr R~t;n.. te let• tommll"'kotoona GPI M 11 • regtll«ed tr*'-•1< ol

PIQitll Aaat~rch POWLA II a tradamark or ,.,.cto 1-IO<Itt "'""'"' PAL I a 'opyriQIII ol lrltd r ~m pttt""


tor a the a commodore c 84

chellengo the eaterold lleld, moneuv•r th• oove• of lo•, th• thrill, pi•J lt~~aor atrllk•·

••.-.rt•no•

Lllaar etrlke, wrltton In full machine longuogo for the Commodore 84. Commodore 84 Ia • reglatered trademerk of Commodore Bualnell Meohlnoalno. VleaiMC/CheoltlMoney Ordor •coopted

,.

In U.l.

In U.K. C•aaette C t .OO VAT h•olutled Dlek 1:1 t .8S VAT Included I ala Hethor U.K. Andrew hrrow Rowden, Perka lane Proetwood, Qt. Mlaaenden Buoka, lnt1•11d HP1 e O.ID

CIIMtte 124.85 Dllk 128.15 Ilia Hathor Digit• I Production• 1114 Verdure Ave. O.leta, CA 13117 IIOI)H4·e338 A...2.00 polllJit• •nd ttanclllnu Cll"omla Nlldenta add et¥. ••••• tex

'*

Atk aout Leaer etrlke poatera Cell r,u,,,. 1 eoo see ..ol

02408·322~

I'IS IIATtiOR

blGI'TAL

PRODVC TIO~ S

You will be billed tor poatege end hendllng


•• P.O. Box 156, 21255 Hwy. 62, Shady Cove, OR 97539

1-800-525-2529

Software for the VIC 20 and Commodore 64 TM

TM


The.

Editorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 News BRK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 The MANAGER Column ................................................ 10 Compu_Kltlks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Advertising Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Advertising Index 88 •

0

0

0

0

0

Reference Section BASIC Commands and Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Arithmetic Operators ...... . ..................................... . ... 18 SJ)ecial Syml>c>Js . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reserved Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hie rarchy of Ope rations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BASIC 4 .0 Di1k Commandt~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additional B Series Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . String Fundions .................................... . . ............. . Arithmetic Functions ................................................... . MatbematlcaJ Functions ... .. ... .. ................................... . Status Varioblca - ST, OS & DS$ ....... . .... . .......................... . Secondary Address Table .......... . ............... .... .... ....... ...... . Prlnte r Control Characte rs ........................................... . 8032 Screen Control Characters ••••••••• ••••••• ••••••••••••••• • • •• • ••• Error Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . ... . .. . .

. .

18 18 18 19 19 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 22

Screen Visual Sprite Desig·n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Programmable Character Design . • . . . . • . . . • • . . . • . • . • • • • . • . • • . • • . • . . • • . . PET I CBM 40 Column Screen Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIC 20 S creen and Colour Table Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commodore 64 Screen a nd Colour Table Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIC 20 Screen Me mory Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIC 20 Charac ter Base Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commodore 64 Screen Memory Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commodore 64 VIC II Chip Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commodore 64 Character Base Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Character ROM Partitioning . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CBM (80 32, 8096, SuperPE1) Screen Map .............. . ... . ............. B Series 80 Column Screen Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIC 20 Screen and Borde r Colours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6845 VIdeo Chip Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIC 20/ Commodore 64 SuperChart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24 25 25

26 28 29 29 29 29 29 29 • 30 31 32 32 34

BASIC 2.0 / 4 .0 SuperCitart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

2 ••

Vol11me 4 1 lss11e 05


Volume 4, Issue 05 The Reference Issue Sound

Commodore 64 SID Note Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Commodore 64 ADSR Envelope Values ... . ..... . .... . ................... 33 VIC 20 Note Values

.................................................. 33

Memory Maps BASIC 2.0/ 4.0 zero Page Contents at Power-Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIC 20/Comrnodore Zero Page Contents at Power-Up ...... . .... .. ......... BASIC 2.0/ 4.0 RAM, ROM, and 1/0 ..................................... VIC 20 RAM, ROM, and 1/ 0 ...... . ...... .... ....... . ................... Commodore 64 RAM, ROM, and 1/0 .. . .... . ....... . ............... , .... 8 Series RAM, ROM, and 1/ 0 .......................................... VIC 20 Super Expander Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38 40 42 44 46 48 50

65XX Machine Language Hexadecimal Conversion Table and Bit Values .......... ...... ............ Wallet Size Op-Codes Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lnstructlon Set Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jnatructlon Set - Alphabetical Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Addressing Mod.es . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BASIC 2.0/ 4.0 Ke rnal Routines .. . .... . .........................•...... VIC 20/ Commodore 64 Kernal Routines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32 32 52 54 54 55 55

Use-r Calla.ble ROM Routines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

Keyword Tokens and Entry Points ........... ............ ....... ........ 57

Input/ Output Ports

VIC 20/ Commodore 64 RS-232 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 IEEE-488 Bus Signal Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 IEE.E-488 Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

PET I CBM User Port . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . ...... . .. . . .. .... . ........... .. Cassette Port . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIC 20 Expansion Port ........................ VIC 20 Uaer Port .. VIC 20 Audio/ Video Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIC 20/ Commodore 64 Serial Port .......................... .. ... .. ..... VIC 20/ Commodore 64 Joystick Ports ........................•... . ...... Commodore 64 Expanaion Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I

••

••••

••

••

•••

I

••

I

59 59 60

60 60 60 61 61 Commodore 6·4 User Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 I

Disk Drives

Disk Specs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 UtlUty Command Se.t . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 User Command Jump "fable

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

Block Alloc.ation J\lap Formats ................ . .... . ...... 63 Directory Header Formats ...................... . .... . ........ ........ 63 Directory Bloc.k formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 I

••

•••••••••

Commodore Related Book Ust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Glossary of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 The Tran10ctor

3

Volume 4, hsue OS

I


rm Managlnt Editor Karl J. H. Hildon Editor Richard E\ers AdvertlaJnt Mana,er Kelly M. George 416826 1662

Program Usttngs In The Transactor All programs listed in The Transactor will appear as they would on your screen in Upper/Lower CASe mode. To darily two potential character mix-ups, zeroes will appear as '0' and the letter "o" will of course be in lower case. Secondly, the lower case L(T) has a flat top as opposed to the number I which has an angled top

,

Many proarams will contain reverse \'ideo characters that represtnt rursor- movements colours. or function keys These will also be 'hown enctly as the) would ~!)pen on your ~<:rcc:n, but they're listed here for re!erencc. OcCASionally progr8tnS will contain lines that !how coruec:uthe ~s Often the number of ~paces you Insert will not be cntlcalto correct operation of the program. When 11 Is, the reqUired number of spaces will be shown. For example:

~Director

John Mostacti Contrlbutint Wrtten Q-eg Beaumont Don Bell

Dave Berezowskl Jim Butterfield Cord Campbell Chuan Chee Mike Donegan Alex Cau l Oonn3 Green Fred Hambrecht Pilul Higginbottom Dave Hook F.ike Kaiser Peter Lear Bill Macleiln Darren Spruyt John Stovelcen Brad Templeton Don White

print"

flush right •

print" (spaceiO)Ouah right"

_ _ __:: C..::. uriOr Characters For PET I CBM I VIC I 64 Oowo

-

Up

n •

tns~rt

-.

o.,•··· -_a~

ttl&hl

- •

Oear Scrn

~ft

-tin] - I

t~mP

Rvs

sror•

-

- II

RVSOff - . Colour Characters f o r VIC I 64

BlKk \Vhil~

Re4

:I -a

Cyan - (Cynl l'urpl.,- (I'IH'(

c~·

-· -U

8hw YeUuw - (Y"I

Production Attic Type3etting Lid Prtatlna Pri nled in Canada by MacLean Hunter Printing

The Transactor IS pui>IIShtd quarterly by Tlansac:tor Publishing Inc. II is in no way connected v.ith Commodore Business Machines Ud. or Com~ dore Incorporated Commodore ilnd Commodort' product names (PFT, CB'i VIC. 64) 111e registE"red trademarks of Commodore Inc. Volume 4 Subscnpttons: Canada SIS Cdn Second Oa.ss Mail U.S.A. $1 5 US. Permit Pending All other SIS US. Back issues aJe still available for Volume 3: $15 Cdn .. U.S.A S17 US , all other $19 US. Canadian Distnbutor US. O.stributor Access Computer Services Prairie News 6206 ~1agoetlc Drl\e 2404 West Htrsdl DowllSVIew, Ontano ~~, IL M3J 2C4 (416) 736 4402 (31213114 5~50 or: Compulit PO Box 352 Pon Coquitlam, D.C. V5C 4K6 604 464 3396

0111n1~

Bro""' 1.1. Rl'd c;~y l

- 11 -D

= I -a

Grt'y2 Lt. (;reen Lt . Blue Grt'y 3 - [Grl l

I

D

-D

tundioo Keys Fo r VIC I 64 Fl -

II

n- O n- ~

1·4 -

the TraiUCictor

-would be shown as-

FS -

~1'71'8 -

II Ill

I

Send aU subscriptions to: The TransactOt, Subscnpbons ~rtment , 500 Steeles Avenue, Milton, Ont.vio. Cmada, I...9T 3P7 416 &76 47~1 From Toronto call826 1662 Wanl to advenise a produc:t or sel\ire? Call or write for more informatloo. l:dltorlal contributions are always welcome and will appear In lhe Issue lrnrnedlately following receipt Remuneralion is $20 per printed page. Preferred media is 203 1, 4040, 8050, or 8250 diskettes wilh WordPro. Wor~raft, Superscript. or SEQ text files. Program listin~ over 25 lines should be provided on disk or tapt' Manuscripts should bl' rypewritten, double spaced witb special characters or formats dearly marked. Photos of authors or equipment. ilnd Illustrations will be included with arbdes dcpcnd.ng on quality. Diskettes, tapes and/or photos wtll be returned on request All mal trial aa:;!pted becomes Ihe property of The Tra.nsa<:lor. All material is copyright by Transactor Publicalions Inc. Rcprodu<:lion In any form without permission is in viololion of applicable lows. Please re-wnfirm any permissions ranted prior to this notice. Solicited material I~ accepted on an ell rights l>asr5 only. Write to the subscriptions address above for a writers package. The opinions expressed in contributed articles are not necessarily those of The Transactor. Although acxuracy is a major objective, The TtdnsactOr tar1not 4:>Wme liabilky (Ot trrors In arucles or progrilms.

Volume 4 , ho11a 05


lnlolution That's right. lnfolution - the evolution of information. Or is that revolution of information. In 1977 (herE' I go again) when Commodore rirst released the PET, there was vinually no information available. Then as more questions were asked, more material was generated. Soon there was eno~,o~gh to get by, and after three years plenty for most purposes. But it was scattered and I found myself carrying 20 pounds of stuff around to have maybe 20 pages of it with me. So in 1980, 1l1e Transactor released the nrst Reference Issue, Volume 2, Issue 7.

are a bit small in places, but I find the inconvenience of flipping pages is worth the tradeoff. Once again I salute Jim Butterfield, the mau re5ponsible for all those memory maps and other stuff. The hours of trouble he has saved us all could easily be measured in lifetimes. By the way, we still have copies leftover of Issue 02 featuring a centerfold of the man himself... and in fine form, I might add. Last, I should point out that this issue was designed to consolidate the most frequently used information. lt is by no means a total guide. For more details on the material presented here, you should consider the 'VIC 20 Programmers Reference Guide'. the 'Commodore 64 Programmers Reference Guide' {both from Commodore), or 'Programming The PET/CBM' by Raeto West (published by Compute). AJI4 would make a truly complete anthology.

History repeats itselr. When I noticed my briefcase was splitting at the seams, I figured it was time. It would have to be complete, accurate. tidy, and most of all, handy. But in the past6 years, a lot has been covered, and re-uniting it all into a compact unit would prove to be some task. Somewhere in the neighbourhood of 2000 hours was spent on this orb. Usually an issue takes about I 1/z of the typesetters' 8" disks This time 6 of them were completely filled. But this one makes the last one typeset by yours truly. Hopefully this will shave some time off our cycle.

And in closing... this issue marks our debut on the newsstand 10 Canada- we printed 16,000 to meet orders. more than in all of 1979 and '80. And now that typesettlns detail is being farmed out, Richard Evers, new full-time Editor, and mysell can concentrate on cranking out files instead of film . More writers, articles, circulation, and faster production is now on top of the priorities list. We're paying more now too, call us.

You will notice a certain amount of duplicated material as you flip through for the first time. Quite intentional... and the reasons will become more apparent as you use it more. For example, you'll find machine language op-code values presented in at least three spots. Each has its own purpose in life. Butterfield's SuperCharts show the relationship between values as they're interpreted by ASCII, BASIC, the screen, and the microprocessor. I find this chart is most useful when trying to decipher someone elses work (and also anything of my own that's over three months old).

No longer Editor, no longer typesetter, I remain,

When I'm writing new code, I usually have the 6502 Summary at hand. Alphabetical order makes the instruction I need easier to find, plus the applicable addressing modes and affected status register bits are the kind of information one must ha"e under such circumstances.

~路

The op-code hex values appear again in a rather handy wallet-size chart drafted some years ago by Jim Butterfield. However, if you look between the lines on this one, you'll see a pattern. It was this cha.rt that first introduced me to the structure of the 6502's internal architecture. Notice how 90% of the instructions have been given very deliberate values, not just arbitrary. Further on the above, the Reference Issue has been assembled with a "same page" philosophy. I admit the characters 111e Tranaoctor

Managing Editor, The Transactor 5

Volume 4, haue OS


NewsBRK

The Transactor Adds New Employees And New Featurea

NoMore04's

Unfortunately, we have run out of Volume 4, Issue 04. Yes, for the first time, we plain ran out! If there is enough demand, we'll print more, but those ordering new subscriptions should consider Issue 05 as their first copy.

Richard Evers is now full-time Editor of The Transactor and Karl Hildon moves to the Managing Editors' spot. Both Richard and Karl will continue working on article production. Adding to the traditionally advanced technical content of The Transactor will be more material at the beginner and intermediate levels. This does not mean that advanced level material will be red uced. simply that beginner and intermediate will be increased. This will help broaden the reader base of The Transactor and ultimately lead to increases at ALL levels.

Prices In US. Dollars

Lately we've run a couple of ads that show prices with no indication of their currency, ie. Canadian or US. dollars. If the ad has been placed by a firm with a US. address, it should be assumed that the prices are in US. dollars. In future we'll attempt to darify any ads that don't specify.

Renewal Time

For many subscribers, this will be the last issue posted against their subscription since The Transactor became independent in November 1982. This notice applies mostly to those that sent less than $15 towards a subscription.lf you are one of them. your mailing label will show an asterisk (•) at the top right corner.

COMAL For The 64 Now PubUc Domain As of September 30/1983, COMAL for the Commodore 64

has been free public domain software. COMAL was originally written for the PET/CBM. This new rendition has several improvements including commands for controlling colour, sound, and turtle graphics. Best of all, it's free. Contact your club librarian about obtaining copies.

If you subscribed starting with Issue 0 I and sent the right amount, your last issue will be the next one, Issue 06. However, the postage-free subscription card will NOT be run next issue, so take advantage now. Please indicate 'Renewal' on the card.

The rranaador

6

Volume 4 , Issue 05


SOLARCON annoUDces 'Paasolar', Design Analysis for Pusive Solar Systems

'Home Accountant' and 'Tax Advantage' for C64

Continental Software of Los Angeles, California, in conjunction with their recently appointed marketing firm, South Western Publishmg Co.. has announced the release of two of their current best selling programs, 'The I lome Accountant' and 'The Tax Ad\'antage', for the educational environment. Rewntten spectfically for the tumor high schools. high 5thools, universities and adult education classes, the packages aH come complete with diskettes, users manuals, teachers manual and test forms. For more information contact:

Based on the 'Passive Solar Design Handbook', Volume Three from the Los Alamos ~attonal Laboratory, Passolar has been hailed as an easy to learn, easy to operate Architects, Consultants and Contractors tool. With input data provided or generated by the dtent. your desired results are easily attained with the use of this program. Instructions are shown on the screen while the program is in operation, and a very comprehensive users manual is also provided. Available for the Commodore series of business computers, the prices are as follows. $355.00 US with North American Weather Data. and S525.00 US with World Wide Weather Data. For more information please contact.

Hank Scheinberg/ Denny Mosier Conunental Software 11223 South llindry Avenue Los Angeles, California 90045 (213) 410-3977

Norlene H. Martin SOLARCON, Inc. 607 Church Ann Arbor. Michtgan 48104 (313) 769-6588

Lu Vegu Style Gambling On The C64

Advanced Microware has announced the release of their latest effort for the C64, CASINO PAC. It includes four games -Blackjack. Poker. Keno and Slot Machine. and each is said to be accurate simulations of the video game machines currently in use in Las Vega, Reno and Atlantic Ctty. Available on tape or disk for $39.00 US.

Spilte-Splkera.., Voltate Suppressors & Nol.ee Filters Kalglo Electronics Co.. lnc. has announced their release of a line of eleven different models of transient voltage suppressors and conducted power line noise filtering devices. Designed to protect. control and organ11.e sensillve high-tech equipment, these units are available at prices ranging from $34.95 to S94.95 US. For further information please con tad:

Also available is 64TOUR, a demonstration program of the capabilities of the C64. These mdude High Resolution Graphics, Music and Sound Effects. Priced at S12.00 US. For more information please contact: Advanced Microware P.O. Box 6143 Santa Ana. CA. 92786 (714) 554-6470

Kalglo Electronics Co., Inc. Dept. ss 6584 Ruch Road.. - E. Allen Twp. Bethlehem, PA 18017

C.Itoh flO Printer Cut Sheet Feeder Available For Under $900.00

Save The World From Total Destruction With Your VIc 20

Canadian General Electric has announced the arrival of its fully mechanical cut-sheet feeder for its C.ltoh FlO Daisywheel Printer. The Model A-100 requires no tools for installatton. no power to operate and has no switches or controls at ali. Weighing in at ten pounds, this completely metal unit wiU stack in correct sequence each piece of paper fed to it from its 200 sheet storage bm. Subscnpts and superscnpts are supported, with a price in total being $850.00 Cdn. For more information:

THORN EMI has announced the release of their newest and most challenging game yet. 'Computer War', based on the movie 'War Games'. Though difficult to master. it has been made easier to learn through all stages. Control is accessed either through the keyboard, or with a joystick. For more information please contact: Nina Budman or Pat McNamara Budman Math Inc. 505 EsJinton Avenue West, Suite 303 Toronto, Ontario M5N IBI (416)484-7773

Mr. ArtS. Best Canadian General Electnc- Data Systems (416)675-7500 â&#x20AC;˘ 7

Velu..,e4, ...... os

I


The Grade Manager

'The Grade Manager', for the Vic-20 and the Commodore 64 computers. will alphabetically sort student lists, keep track of assignments, weights, grades, and calculate averages for an entire term. It will report, to TV or printer, assignment summaries, student grades and averages, and incomplete assignments. Available on both casseue and diskette, the disk version is menu driven. For use with the Vic-20, 8K me~nory expansion is required Prices are $29.95 US for tape and $34.95 US for disk. For more info, contact Smokey Mountain Software 54 West Main Street Brevard, NC 28712 (704) 883-2595

Two New Sports Strategy Games For The VIC 20

Parr Programming, of Gary, lndtana, has produced the first two in a series of Sports Adversary Games for the Vic 20. The first is the Baseball Adversary. Wtth you in the managerial position against your computer, this game allows for additional players on the bench for pinch hitting and relief pitching and is written to not allow your adversary, the computer, any unfair advantage. Control of the game is through the keyboard. Available on cassette and requiring no memory expansion, the price is $10.95 US.

more information contact: Kobetek Systems Limited 1113 Commercial Street New Minas, Nova Scotia B4N 3E6 (902) 678-9800

SWL R1TY / MORSE - Attention Hams and Short¡ wave Usteners

Let your Commodore 64 or VlC-20 help you 'listen in' on the world of Radioteletype and Morse Code. Converts your VIC20 and C-64 computer into a low-mst Rm and morse decoding and display terminal. Allows you to receive 45 to 100 baud BAUDOT RTTY and 5 to 30 wpm morse code. Requires TTL compatible terminal unit such as the MFJ1224/5 or the HRA Electronics TU-11. Package includes software on cassette, special user port connector, and complete Instructions. Price $19.95 US for cassette or $22.95 US for disk plus $2.00 for shipping and handling. RAK Electronics P.O. Box I 585 Orange Park, Florida 32067-1585 (904) 264-6777 Modem ProtectJon From Kleen Line

The Football Adversary is the final in this series of two. You are put in the role of head coach, with features being a selection of 31 plays and a display of halftime/ game statistics. Available on cassette, and also using keyboard control, the price is S14.95 US.

Suppress damaging telephone and power line spikes caused by lightning, spherics or phone office switch gear with the Kleen Line Model PDS-11/SUP. Available for 4 pin telephone modular connectors (RJ-11) and the wider 8 pin connectors (Rl-45), the PDS-11/SUP is priced at $81.95 US. For more information please contact:

Parr Programming 2664 Tyler Street Gary, Indiana 46407 (2 19) 885-0611

Frank Stifter Electronic Specialists Inc. 171 South Main Street P. 0. Box 389 Natick, Massachusetts 01760 (617) 655-1532

Kobetek Systems Umited announees new STATS software package.

Designed by Mr. Patrick Royston of London, England, Mr. Royston currenUy holds a masters degree in both statistics and information science. Written for the 4000, 8000/9000 and C64 series of computers, this menu driven program gives the user a completely advanced statistical program for use in any STATS application. With a price of $350.00 to $500.00 Cdn .. further"in terest may be warranted for those who require accurate results in a shorter period of time. For

â&#x20AC;˘

Voh1Me 4, luue OS


Accounts Receivable Program For The C64

'Power 64' Available For The Commodore 64

Written by Microspec Inc. of Plano, Texas, this program will support up to ISO customers per diskette on a balance forward system that will accommodate 18 transactions per customer for each posting period. Complete aged reports are generated and automatically posted to Microspecs General Ledger program. The price for this program is $99.95 US. with more information available from :

In the past we have all come to know and love the featu res of Power for our Commodore computers. But with the advent or the Commodore 64' a loss has been felt. After being spoiled by Power, BASIC programming has suddenly become a chore. No longer must this be, for Brad Templeton has re-written his utility for the C64. • In case you have never heard of Power, the following are some of the features it has to offer.

Laura Robinson Communications Plus 30 I S. Sherman Suite 117 Richardson, Texas 75081 (214) 783-8543

automatic line numbering and re-numbering • complete tracing functions ·single stepping through programs · definition of keys as BASIC keywords ·de-bugging ease with a \\thycommand ·addition of auto repeat function to cursor keys · ability to merge BASIC programs ·listing and scrolling up and down of BASIC programs in memory · hexadecimal and decimal conversions ·and much. much more •

Allow Your Vic or C64 To Balance Your Chequebook

Microspec of Plano Texas, in its never ending quest for further C64 and Vic 20 programs, has released the 'Checkbook Manager". Available for both the C64 and Vtc 20. each appear to offer a solution to the problem of keeping your chequebook in order. Able to track all outstanding cheques, reconsile monthly financial statement, and track expenses on a quarterly and year-to-data basis, the limit only appears to be the capacity of the version purchased. The Vic 20 version offers ten less categories than that of the C64. The price is $69.95 US for the C64 version, and $49.95 US for the Vic 20 For further information please contact Communications Plus (above).

The documentation included, written by Jim Butterfield, is very helpfull in all aspects and leaves nothing to the imagination. For a total price of $99.95 Cdn., the benefits shown will be worth the cost involved. For more contact: Pro-Line Software Lld. 755 The Queensway East, Unit 8 Mississauga, Ontario lAY 4C5 (416)273-6350

• The Tronaactor

9

Volume 4, 1••- 05


r

The

r:lfU~.9[j~R

Column

Don Bell & Alex Gaul Milton, Ontario

In thiS issue, the Manager column is devoted to the first part of a"hands-on application for tile '64 MANAGER- a Christmas card and gift lisl. The second part of this article will appear m the next ISSue. Subsequent issues will provide more easy to follow hands-on applications for home and business as well as tips for advanced users including "Re-Fteld' by Enc Annson, a routine you add to Create/Revise that re-orders field entry. - Ed.

A '64 MANAGER Gill List

HUMBUG! It's that time of year again I staggered up the stairs from the basement dragging the box of old Christmas junk accumulated over years of neglect. Then alter a stiff dnnk. I screwed up enough courage to open it. YUK! Krinkled tinsel, tangled Christmas tree lights, broken decorations, horrible-looking holly, musty mistletoe (smelling of old kisses). petrified candy canes and at the bottom, boxes of last year's Christmas cards. Cheer up, the worst is yet to come! Then, like a memory of a NEW Yedr's Day hangover, it suddenly hit me! How am I going to cope with the Christmas cards. gilts. and party again this year? There's a number of people I'd like to 'edit' from my list but I can never remember whether they sent me a card or a gift last year. O'd prefer not to expose myseU as an incompetent who can't even master a Christmas card list.) Usually what happens is I send them a card one year, they send me one the next... and so on.lt's as though each of us wants to send the last missile... ! mean card. Then what to do about gifts - especially those useless token gifts to appease distant relatives. I've got enough socks & ties to dress a herd or caribou and enough after-shave lotion to bathe in. I'd trade it all for one good Darth Vader video game. It gets down to a matter of how much to spend- an equation- whatever they spend I have to spend. Boring! Then who to invite to the party? How to avoid inviting people who mix like sharks and jellyfish. How will I get through it all again without losing my mind?.

brouhaha, whatever It was that made old Scrooge want to click his heels on Christmas Day. Taking my cue from a business associate of mine who is ecstatic over his new comp.uer system, I decided to try my hand at solving my problem using THE '64 MANAGER. Very slowly and carefully I will show you the steps I took creating my Christmas List file. You will be able to easily keep track of cards, gifts, parties, money spent, and other Christmas Information. You will be able to generate numerous useful reports that would be difficult or impossible to create without it. All of this is directed towards helping you better organize yourself, so that you will have more lime to experience the real joys of Christmas. LOADing The Program Turn on your 64, monitor and disk drive. Insert your Manager disk in the drive Type: load • 64.manager •. 8 press 'return'. When the cursor reappears, type in 'run' and press 'return'. After a few minutes, a menu comes up on the screen and you are ready to start. Foi'DUlttlug A Diskette

The first thing you must do is "format" a blank diskette, ie. prepare it so it can receive data. Press ·r to format a disk. The computer will load the format program from the disk. When the computer has finished loading, remove THE MANAGER diskette and insert your blank data diskette into the drive. Follow the screen instructions and you will have a formated disk.

HARK! This year I decided there had to be a better way. I want to get rid of the worry. the planning. the strain on my old memory bank and get back some real Christmas cheer,

1'11o Trallaactor

10

Vo lume 4&, lawe 05

I


For each prompt select a colourr by pressing 'CTRL' and a number key with a colour name on its side. OR. 'Commodore KEY' and a number key with a colour name on its side

GettiniJ Started In The CREATE/REVISE Option When the main menu appears, press 'c' for create/revise. This option lets you draw a form on the screen and revise it later if you choose. The first screen prompt is "filename?". I called my file 'xmas list'. Enter any filename you want (preferably one that reminds you of the file) and press 'return'. The next screen prompt is ·create using an existing screen (y/n)?'. Enter 'n' as you do not have an existing screen.,.

Note that if you chose a black background with black border and black cursor nothing would appear on the screen. This can be remedied by choosing a light cursor colour ie. white or yellow. Refer to the instruction manual that came with your 64 for further details.

Oeatgolng A Fonn For Your Christmas Ust Data

Selec:tiniJ Screen Colours After choosing your screen colours and pressing 'return', your screen will be cleared except for the bottom line where it will say screen ' I of I ' and 'LI Cl'. This means that you are on screen l and your cursor is on line I column l . You can now create a screen for your Christmas list.

Since this is a Christmas List and not an accounting application, you can choose any wild, cheerful colours you wish for your screen. The system will now prompt:

Picture a file folder filled with blank pieces of paper. The file folder is really our empty data diskette and the blank pieces of paper are blank screens with nothing on them. You are now going to create 'forms' out of the blank pieces of paper.

ENTER BORDER COLOUR? ENTER BACKGROUND COLOUR? ENTER CURSOR COLOUR?

1 64

JIIANUAL FILig; SYSTEM

"'

Filin~

Data Diskette

"'-..cab in~t ""-

/

JllANAGER PILJg; SYSTF.Jl

ile

11

0

V.lu,.e 4 , luue OS


Picture a 'form' with titles and boxes to fill in. The top of a JOb application. similar to the one below. may help you visualize a form. JOB APPUCATION FOR\A NAME ADDRESS Not!fe that a form has titles or prompts followed by specific areas in which to enter information. We are going to use a form for entering information in our Christmas List. Using the screen as a blank piece of paper, you will now design a form that accomodates all the information you need to know about a person on your Christmas List. When you are finished it may resemble the screen below. Each 't' indicates the beginning and end of a box or field of informa· lion. The 'n' represents a field that will only need 1 character of information.

t

In a similar manner to the above, fill in the rest of the form repeating the 3 steps below for each piece of informatiOn. I. Decide on a specific piece of information you want included on the form. (Information such as name, ad· dress, phone, whether you want to send them a card or gift, etc.)

M/Fn

cient room on the right side of the prompt to enter the required information.

n

t 1

3. Specify the maximum number of letters or characters that

t t

can be input into the field following the title or prompt This is done by holding the control key down and pressing 'r, entering a number for the field length, then pressing 'return '. (A single character field will show a 'n' sign. fields greater than I character are represented by t's at the precise beginning and end of the field.)

t

LAST YEAR RECD: CARD n GIFT t

PARTY rr

GAVE: CARD 1t GIFT t

PARTY rr t

t

NOTESt

s

VISIT/CALL n t t VISIT/CALL 1t

$ t

t t

THIS YEAR CARD n PARTY INVIT. rr t GIFT t NOTESt

VISIT/CALL n $ t t t

I will start you off with title of the page and the 'NAME' entry and you can design the rest of the form yourself. Cursor over to column 14 line 1, type 'CHRISTMAS LIST '83, then press 'return'. You will now be on line 2 column I. Press return again to get to row 3. Now cursor over to column 4 (3 spaces) and type in 'NAME' This is the first title (or screen prompt) for the first field in your form. Now you are going to indicate

n.o '"""•actor

,

2. At a suitable spot on the screen, enter a title or prompt for that piece of information to be input, eg. • NAME • prompts the user to input a name. There must be suffi.

CHRISTMAS LIST '83 NAME 1 ADDRESS t CITY t STATE t ZIP t PHONE t t t / 1 t / tt BIRTHDAY LAST CONTACT tt/ tt/ tt NOTES t

the field size. While holding the CONTROL key down, press T. After releasing the keys the prompt 'LENGTH?' will appear on the bottom line. The program will accept num· bcrs between I and 30 for the length of the field. In our case, we have chosen 20 characters as the length of the 'name' field. Enter '20' and press 'return'. You v.ill notice that this command will leave two t's to indicate where the field is. The length of the field on the screen includes the two t 's (The f's may also be keyed In directly, but you will have to count the field length yourself. Be sure to include the t 's in your field count.)

Repeat the three steps above again and again until you have all U1e information you want on the form. After you have entered all the prompts and fields in the form, you may want to pause toconsidertheovt>rall design of the form Only you can decide on what is a pleasing layout. It should be dear and easy to read. Revisions may be made now or later using the 'CREATE/REVISE' option. Once you have started entering data in the 'ENTER/EDIT' option, you may NOT change the size of the fields. Our sample will give you an idea of what kinds of information you may want to store and how to lay it out. The numbers stand for the maximum number of letters or characters that may be entered in a field or information box.

Saving The Screen Alter you have finished designing the form on the screen and you are sure it is correct, press the 'left arrow' key. The screen will then prompt you with 'ARE YOU SUREr. Enter

12

Volume 4, t..uo 05

..

I

• I


'y' and press 'return'. The program will check to see if all fields are dosed (fields longer than I character must have a pair of t's. If there is an error, you will be prompted to change the field entry. Next the screen will prompt 'Another Screen?'. In our case we will enter 'n' and press 'return'. Then the screen will prompt 'Do you wish to alter field types?' this is to change between an alpha field ie. letters of the alphabet and numeric ...fields ie. numbers. As we do not really have any purely numeric fields, we will leave all the rields the same by entering 'n' and 'return'.

Deciding On The Nwnber Of RecoMb For Your File Now place the data disk you previously formatted into the disk drive after removing the manager disk. The screen will prompt you with 'Rec Len XXXX, Max No of Rec XXXX' at the bottom of the screen and asks 'OK?'. Enter 'y' and 'return'. Then the screen will prompt 'Rec Len." of records' at which point you can accept the number of records displayed by pressing 'return' or enter your own number of records (up to about 300) and press 'return'. The computer will then go to the disk and create a file large enough to handle all the records you asked for. As this process will take some time, you may want to go to the kitchen for a snack.

Entering lndlvidual Recorda In Your File Now you may enter the individual records for people on your Christmas List using the form you have just designed on the screen. Choose 'Enter/Edit' on the main menu. In this opllon you may enter, change, delete and search for records of individual people in your Christmas List. (More advanced rommands will be discussed in futurÂŁ> articles.) for each person on your Christmas List, complete a screen form with the following steps:

1. Press 'e' to enter a record; 2. Fill in the blank fields, pressing 'return ' after each entry; 3. Press - to save the record. When you have entered a record for every person on your Christmas list, press Fl to return to the main menu. The screen will prompt 'Are you sure (y/n)?', enter 'y', 'return'. More To Come In the next article. we will discuss how to do sorts, index searches and generate many useful lists such as a Christmas card list, a gift ltst. a party list. and a birthday reminder list.

â&#x20AC;˘ 11te 'l'ronaactor

13

Volume41 haueOS


-

flerrn <!r4ristmas

from Mike Panning & Howy Parkins

l

--

• \-4)\...f•

WHAT EVER HAPPENED TO OLD FASHIONED TOYS? OU

IIIIICIIC .UtO

oa

'" •• ••*"~•

-.

~~ ~

....._..,

_.;:,:__...-"'-

.. :r,..• L~. ...~

........-+-""' . ..

- "li"TJITllr • - ;~Ji'-~e~ .._

..

...

TO START WITH : a computer, dual disks, printer·:· eu

It ... IIUID

~ .'¥~ t~

' C'U

Ill UlfS tlllf•tl


CompuKinks.

,//

~

-

I w•

see the Unoon is

Don t WOlry Mrs Smrtl, hs facial muscles eventually relax. But really, he sho\Jdn't be playng vrdeO games for such lorg perioos of tome

The fl'aftHctor

la~'ng oil more robots

15

V•lu,.• 4, luu• 05


l

BASIC -

Beginners All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code .

Commands, Statements, and Symbols Command/

EIUimpje

P\xpole

10CLOSEn

Ooses logocallile 'n

Q.R

C cR

Sets v;;roables to zero 01 n<AI

CMO

CIAOO

Keep oeee deuee ·o· open to mot>~tor bus

CONT

CONT

Comnue PfOQra'Tl exectOOn alter a SlOP 00'1\mano No p<ogra'Tl Cllanges are pernlted

DATA

10DATA 1.2.3.4 20 DATA TOM. SUE 30 DATA • DOE TOM .

Spealoes data to be relld lei! to riQht Alphebetcs do not need to be enciOMd n quotK of ~tmgs contain cpa~. commu, ootona, 01 gmpluo cl'lorec\01$, the strong must be onciOGOd In quotoe.

OEF

to orr rN R(X)

Defines functlon A

DIM

10 DIM A(n) 20 DIM A(n m,o,p) 30 DIM A(n).B(m) 40 DIM A(N) 50 DIM AS(n)

Specifies maxmll"ll number ol olelrenlaln an array or matnx. Specifies maxmll"ll number ol dmenslons '"an array. Number ol arrays lm~ed by memory May be dlmereloned d~namtcally Strings to be dimenaooned

END

OOOENO

Terminates program execution

fOR

tOFORI•t TOtO

~s repeuLve

toop, specifying loop varable end n~.mber 01111!ended rtetatms (1n thiS example ·I' 101 10 rerabOnS)

FRE

PAINT FRE (0)

RetU'ns number ol bytes oleva~able II\M"IOfy

GET

tOGET C 20GET CS 30GET ld,C -40GETid.C$

Accepts SAI>g1e cnaracter from keyboard Acce!* Mgle mng choraotOt from keyboord .t.ocepls w>g1e cnaraet« f-om apecl'«< . . . ne Acoepts ~led &ongle &1'1110 Char.cter from lOgical file

GOSUB

tOGOSUBn

8egr'ls exe<:UIIOO ol a subrOUbne when beglrs on lire ·n·

GOTO

GOTOn

eon.nue progra'Tl executon • 1118 n ater a stop oorrmand Pre>

S!a*-'1 a.OSE

~

gram cl'langelare I*IT•n.d IF GOTO

tOIFX·10GOTOn

Trancfcno><GCUton tolono ·n• of rOllA ol condnoon • true

IF THEN

tO If X-tOTHENY -3

Code following THEN ~ e<~ only • result ol oon<)toon iS true May abo lle fato.ved l)y line no.moer to uansler executon.

INPUT

101NPUT A 201NPUT A$

AcceptS ¥alue of ·A' !rom ke-)tloard Acx:ePIS value of strtng var~able 'A' from keo;board lhe stnno does not ha\18 to be enclosed in quo~ Ac:ceptS spec.rled llllluet hom keyboard AcooptS valuo of 'A' from logcnl flo 'd'. acoopb IIJ)(lCffiod ett~ng from logocal fifo 'd' AcceptS $peclled values and suing from tog cat fie 'd . Slings do not have to be enclosed In quo:es.

30 INPUT A.A$.8,8$ 40 INPUT lid, A 50 tnput'd, aS 60 INPUT lid, A,A$,8,6$ LETX•10

Optional. Assigns varl!lblo

LIST

LIST LIST ·n LISTrwn LISTn

Lists current program. Lists current p!ogram thtougn to,. 'n'. L~ts linoc 'n' through 'm' o1 ourront program. L~ts ccrrent Pfooram from line 'n' to end

LOAD

tO LOAD 20 LOAD • NAII/lE . 30 LOAD • NAII/lE ' , d 30 LOAD • NAII/lE ' d, c

Loads next ti'IOQJrtered p-ogrem from tape unit tnto memory Loads progra'Tl Otlile 'NAir1E' nto memory from tape 1.11" Loads specotied ile 'NAME' lrom device 'd Loads specified lie ·NAME' from devoce 'd lOt command 'c'. N'CI C64 orly - c • 1 'or drect merroty loed)

16

·x· tho velue oliO.

LET

The ltllftMCto<, VOiuiM 4, 1 -OS

,


'

Command/

E~e

p~

NEW

NEW

Deletes CUI!ent ptogr~ 11'1 llle'TIOrY· sets varables 10 zero

NEXT

NEXT

lndoca196 end of code cotta ned 11'1 I FOR/NEXT loop

ON .GOSUB

10 ONAGOSUBl m, n

BeQns eocecwon ol ~own. whch begtna on cpec{oed lone (on lhos oXl!mplo, 'I', m . or 'n' ) def>Ondng on \aluo ol indc>t 'A'.

ON . GOTO

100NAGOTOI,m,n

TraA>IefS conro to specified lone I',In • or n lf1dex 'A '

OPEN

100PENa 200PENa. d 300PEN II d. c ~0 OPEN a. d. c. ' NAME"

()pens logical hie 'a fol reed only Irom taPe ~.r~ot ()pens logocalfde 'a' fol reed onl~ lrom dewle 'd Opens logiCIII ht. ·a· fol command 'c' trom d&llooe 'd OpMo logical lilt 'a' on oovooe 'd' HdoviCO 'd ' IOCI8Pt8 torm:~nod tiles file nomo Ia poeitionod fol oonvnond

PEEK

PEEK(a) PEEKV\)

Aeturrs byle valJetrom acldress ·a·. Adaess can oe dynamc.

POKE

POKE a, b POKE A. 8

Puts bvte 'b' into address ·a·. Paramelers can be dynamic

PO$

10 PRINT POS(O)

Prlru ne~t avaolablct pronl poa~~on (pocotJOn ol cursor on scroon).

PAINT

10 PANT A 20PRNT A$ 30PANT A, AS 40PRNUd. A 50 PR.NT •d. AS

Prirts va\le 'A' on do3play 11(;1_, PrirAS speciroed str1'1Q on acreen PnrAS specdiEid values or strongs on screen. begmeno on neX1 availa, ble pmt poslton (pte-tabbed positlons are on coh.mns 10,20.30 40 etc.). Pr1115 '18-Ue ol 'A' on devoce 'd Prints specfied s1rng on deiiiCle 'd'

REAO

10 READ AS. B$

Reads neXIIWO dele olon'leniS iniO varlllblca AS lind B$

REIII

I 0 RE\1 commenl

Aamark lnOieator Executon Slups enwe lone

RESTORE

10AESTOfiE

ReseiS data poonter so lha1 next READ 18081\... frst element ol ir$1

Sla~

~

on vaue or

DATA SlatemEIOl RET~N

9990 RETURN

Subro.Alne 8:01, ~· contrcl 10 lhe stalemenl loloMng 1'\"061 tec.nl QO&Ubd<ecbng ltancfOt 10 lhe IObrOU'..ne

RUN

RUN AUNn

Begona exec..tion ol ptogram at~ line nurrober Begins execuion ot program a line ·n

SAVE

SAVE "NAME " SAVE • NAME •• d SAVE • NAME •• d. c

Saves current hill or ptoglam 'NAME' on 1ape unt Savescurren1 program or file 'NAME' on~ 'd' Saves file 'NAME' on devce 'd' c' SPeCif•eol or eot

STEP

10FORI-1 T010STEP2

Alters lOOp varoable oncoement

STOP

STOP

Stops program e~ecu110n

SYS

SYS (x)

Compete control ot pet s crenlilerred to a subSys:em at decimal add'ess con1alned en the argument Brackets opt10rel.

USA

USA (x)

Transfers proorarn control to a progrBm whose address is 81 locahom 1 and 2 (VIC/C64 • locatoona 784,785) 'x' 111 a pwameter passed to and ltom lhel'1'\8dlinalanguage p<ogram

VERIFY

VERIFY VERIFY • NAME. VERIFY • NAME., d

Verlies current program aga111S1 neXI program on tape unol Verlles current program ag&nst program NAME' on rape unt

WAfT a, b,c

Hal:s execubon ol BaSIC untj conl8n:S of eddre&S 'a'. anded w'lh value b' 81\delldus.-eor'ed with llllue c'.ISnot equallozero. 'c' os

WAIT

VerlleS ourrent program 'NAME

on deYlee ·o

op00<1al 81\d defaults 10 zero

The Trent~~etO<, vo~~~ ... 4 , 1 - 05

17


Arithmetic Operators El<ampe

P\tpose

IOA·B

AssiQns a value to a variat:le

t

30PfUNTAI2

E>tpOnGntiat.on

I

40C-A18

Oovison

SOC=•VB

Mulll;llicalion

+

60C•A+8

Add!Xln.

-

70C•A-B

St.btractoon

IO IFA· B THEN PRINTC

'A' Equals 'B'.

<>

IOIFA<>BTHENC-4

'A' Does not eqwl b'

<

IOIFA<BTHENCS•

·x·

'A Is less than B

> <•

IOIFA>BTHENCS•

·y·

'A' IsgreatEW than '8'

IO IFA<•BTHENC•20

'A' Is less than or equal to 'B'.

>•

IOIFA>-BTHENC-0 1

'A' Is greeter than 01 eqo..elto 'e·

AND

10trAANOBTHENC•9

'A 81"<1 8 ITUSIIlOV'I b81N8f01Sialemel"t1010belr,j(j

OR

201FAORBTHENC•9

'A mJSlbe true or '8' mUSt be true for statement20 to belrue

NOT

30 IF NOT A THEN PAINT C

Fxpression os trued 'A is faiSAI

Syrrixll

-

0

-

Note the no.rne<ical v.Uo.a used in 11\8 evatua110n OIIOgcal rompansons ate: 'true IS any non-zero m.mbe' and 'taise'IS zero •

Special Symbols Example

Pur pace

10A-1:B-2:C-3

~ multlplestatemet\:$ on a

'

tO PRINTA,B 20 PRINT A$;6$

Nlt:JHs same lire pnn11n0 ElemEnts are separated by 3 spaces AJK:Nts same hre pnnbng Strong elements are concatenated

X•10.99

Decimal point

tO PAINT A. B LOAD "NAME" ,d

Allows same line prin~ng. Elements oro soporoiOd and pnnte<l 111 pr• 'lab od priM po61t.ona (columns 10 20,:!0, etc.) Sepotatesperem~into.d save. open. mod$. on. goto. e-.

?

10?A

Allbreviallonlo<'pnnt $1!)(esasonecnar~ hslsasword PAJIIT

$

10 A$ • • ABCOEFG .

Strng Identifier.

%

10Mb •INT()()

lnlfl()« identlier

10PRINT18

Logical file nurrbof ndocator

10/U- "ABCDI:~O·

Sll.ng endo9ur811

()

X • (A-2)/(B + 2)

Expresson prtorrty evaluation

tOC•,..D

Value of Pi 3 .1415927

Symbols

,

" Reserved Variables

0

18

lne

Hierarchy of Operations

Varoablt

l'urpoM

Ooera10r

o..cropciOtl

OS

Disk Stii'YS number (e>cept 2.0)

()

Brac~o:s

OS$

DISk Sta'Us strlng (except2.0)

I

Exponentiaton

El

Error ltre (B Series only)

-

"'egabon (unaty monus)

ER

Error runbe< (8 or4y)

•'

Multilllrca:oon & Div6ron

ERRS(

Error Str ng orrey. Seo tablo 101' messages. (B only)

+-

Add•:l()ll & Subtraction

Tl

Tme n Jiffies ('ieolh's sec.) since power up or TIS reset (excepc B Ser18S)

<->

Relatronal Opera:rons

NOl

Logrcal NOT (t1teger 1WO'scomptement)

AND

logrcaiANO

OR

LogocaiOR

Tl$

TmenHHMMSS

ST

The Slatus _..,.. S.S tabe 1o< fii>CIIons.

The Tnlnuctor, Volume <1, luue 05

always dicla!e prorlty


Basic 4.0 Disk Commands Functon

E•omplo

Purpo$0

APPEND

10 APPEND.fd, ' NAME'

C\Jen lile 'NAME' on CleVice d'lor I!PpenOing. l'.ew elatalsiiOCieO to end of e~ISUng Clata

BACKUP

BACKUP 00 TO 0 I

OJPteate dsk 111 ctwa 0 onto diSit 11'1 ctll/8 1

CATAlOG

CATALOG DO

DsplafSiistollileiW!Ift., spao~ orNe

COLLECT

COLLECTOt

P.JI'geo doslt on spocliod drrte of erry om property c:losecl f~ (ord1 cated by • besiOe IJe type)

CONCAT

CONCAT 'NAME I' TO 'NAIAE2'. D1

Concatena:es 1118 'NAME1 ' to 1118 'NAME2' , 18 NAIAE2• NAME2 .. NAME1

COPY

COPY 'NAME'.OOTO 'NAME' .01 COPY 'NAME',OOTO 'DUP' ,00 COPYOOTODI

Copes fioe 'NAME' from d'IVe 0 to 01w I Makes d~pcate of lole 'NAIAE' Copioo on1iro oonton1A from 00 to D 1

OCLOSE

DCLOSE Wn

Close$ dsk logocal file 'n'

DIRECTORY

OIRIOCTORY 00

Exact same as Calalog

OLOAO

OILOAO 'NAME ' ,Od.Uu

Loacls proorwn ·NAME· from dri\18 'd' on 111it 'u

OOPEN

OOPENi n, 'NAME' ,Oct Uu

Opens lie · NAME' for readong from drive d' unn 'u' Defauvalues: d-0, u- 8. Dola • rotrlovod through filo numbor 'n'. Open~ filo ·NAME· for wro~ng to drlvo 'd', un( 'u'. Not nooesS&ry for RELative flea.

OOPENfn, 'NAME' ,Dd,Uu,W

use preference

OSAVE

DSAVE ' NAME' ,Od,Uu

Saves ctKrenl program to drove 'd' on uM ·u· as file · NAME ·

HEADER

HEADER' OISKNAME • •Dd.lid,Uu

Formats disk in dnve 'd' um 'u' assiQning 11 a • DISKNAME • &nd 'kl'.

RECORD

10 RECOROt n. a

Pe>~~itions relalive

RENAME

RENAME 'NAME' TO 'NEWNAME' .00

0\anges afole rwne

SCRATCH

SCRATCH • NAME' ,01

Elmnates ile ·NAME· hom di6><

fie opoo on 1ogi¢1111e nurri)or 'n' to rocord """" ber a' 'a' rooy bodynemc b\Am~t bocncloeodon bmc:l<ots

Additional B Series Commands Functon Sets bank number to 'b'

BANK

BANKb

BLOAO

BLOAO 'NAIAE' ,Od,Uu.ON Bb,Pp

BSAVE

BSAVE ' NAME' ON 8b,Pp1 toPp2

Saves current memory in bank 'b' from ada816 'pi ' 10 'p2' as file

DC LEAR

DCLEAR 01

ln.balae dosk in drive 1

DELETE

DELETE 10.30

Deletes i nes from current program Specrfv LIST

DISPOSE

DISPOSE COSUB

Purges ataek of unwanted return add•o~ses ~Ike 'POP)

CLSE

If STTHEN E•1 ELSE E•O

Alternate condi~on following IF..THEN May also be usadtotlanster execwon

INSTR

PRINT INSTR (A$, BS)

Returns oosrlon d strong BS within A$ Returns 0 II not lcund

KEY

KEY KEYn, 'CATALOGOO• +CHR$(13)

Displays lost d function key dofln1ion1

PUDEF

1'\JDEF' - ...C'

R&-defonos Pront Usong format Characters Defaullos ' , $' In lhos example. space • ~ 10 • CO'M'Ia to period, parod to comme, and dell..-s 10 pounds.

RESUME

RESUME RESUMEn

Conbrues execution al'.er progem errot CY edoinQ Aest.mes execubon at l .ne 'n' Aest.mes exA!O.Ibon at Nrt of curtntaet...e FORINEXT

RESUME NEXT TRAP

TAAP60000

USNG

PRINT USI'IG '·SI/1.111' :X

'NAME' to drrveo unt e Addresses are <n decimal.

~

range same as

Der,_ lunclon key 'n .


r

String Functions

..

Funcoon

Example

PurPOSe

/ISC

10 A•ASQ. X"t'2' ')

Aetllt,..lhe ~~Uger vakJe correspondng 10 /ISCII code olltle l.ra CllatiiCIO< "' Clrltlg

CHR$

10AS·~rt

Ret..rns charecllf oorrespondilg to /'SCI I code nurnbef.

LEFTS

I 0 PANT LfFfS()C.S. a)

Relllrns lelnnost·a cna-acters trom stmg

LEN

10 PRNT LEN(l($)

Returns tenglh

MIO$

10 PANT MIOSQCS. a b)

Returr-c 'b' characters "om otr ng, starting wr.h lhe 'a'th c:herac:tor

RIGHT$

I 0 PRINT RIGHT$()($, a)

Roturrcs righlmost •a· charaders from siting.

STR$

I 0 A$ • STRS(A)

AeiUrns &tring represencaoon of vare~e 'A

VAL

I 0 A • VALV\S) 20A•VAL('A')

Rerurns numeric represertalOO of string. If str no not nunenc. relJrns • o•.

a 111nno

I'SG, LEN arc1 VALI\Jne00r6 rerurn rumenc resuts. Tile{ ml.6t oe used as pall 01 any e>cpr8SSIOil. Assgnement sl8temer11S are u&ed here kx pies Ol'iy. 01!181 sa:ament lyp8S may be u&ed

Arithmetic Functions Funcoon

Example

Puroose

ABS

IO C•ABS(A)

ReturrlS magnitl.do ol argument without regard to sign

ATN

10 C ·AlN(A)

Returrc arctangont ol arg...,ont. 'c' Will be o~prDOGOd in rodions

cos

tOC-COS(A)

Returns ~ine ol argument. 'A' must be expr-.1 r1 ra<JI&'lS

OEFFN

10 OEF FNA(B)•C'O

AIOws user to delrne a tunctron. FuncllOn label ·a must be a angle le~er:: argument 'b rs a d~rnmy.

EXP

10C•EXP(A)

Ren.rns 000Siill1 ·e· rMed to 1he power: ol the ar~

INT

10C•INl(A)

Ret~r,..latgoct ..,tegor

LOG

IOC•LOG(A)

Returns natural toger tiYn of argunem Argument mus1 be great.er lhan or 8QU8110 zero.

AND

10C•ANO(A)

Generates a random number between zero and one. II 'a' os less then 0 , the same rendom m.mbar is produced In each Cllll to md If ·a· •0. the same sequence of random number is geMrAted AaCh ~me rnd scaled K 'a' IS greater than 0. a new sequence is pre>duced lor each cal tC) rnd

SGN

10 C -SON(II)

Returns ·1 Wergument" I'Oglltive, returns 0 Hargu,.,..nl is tero, and retums -+ I K argument is positve.

SIN

lOC•SIN(A)

Aeturre son ol argunent. 'A' mUSl be eXPfessecl 111 radrans

SOA

10

TAN

10C-TAN(A)

c- SOA(.A)

-

f\3n or~ to orgurnont

Rel\rtns 1ne IQUite r001 ol argum811t A9M'rc tangent of argunort. 'A' m.JCl bo oxpt~ rn radians

Mathematical Functions Function

Basic Equlv•lent

Secant Cosecant Cotangent ln~erse Sine tn~erse Cosine

SEC(X) = 1 I COS(X) CSC(X) - 1 I SIN(X) COT(X) • 1 I TAN (X) ARCSIN(X) s ATN( X I SQR(-X•X + 1)) ARCCOS()() - ATN( X I SOA(-X.X + 1)) ... a/2 AACSEC(X) • ATN( X I OC>R(XoX-1)) AACCSC(X) • ATN( X I SOR(XoX-1 ) + (SGN(X)- 1•n/2) AACCOT(X) - ATN(X) + 1'112 SINH(X) 2 (EXP(X) - EXP(-X)) / 2 COSH(X) • (EXP(X) + EXP(-X)) I 2 TANH(X) - EXP(-X) I ( O<P(X) + EXP(-X)} • 2 + 1 SECH(X) • 21(EXP(X) + EXP(-X) CSCH(X) • 21 (EXP(X)- EXP(- X) COTH(X) • EXP(-X) I ( EXP(X)- EXP(-X)) • 2 + 1 ARCSINH(X) • LOG( X + SQR(X• X + t)) ARCCOSH(X) • LOG( XI SQR(X•X-1)) ARCTANH(X)- LOG( (1 1X)1(1 X)) l 2 ARCSECH(X) • LOO( SOR(- X•X+ t) + 1/X) ARCCSCH(X) • LOG( X I SQA(XoX-1 ) + (SGN(X) - 1•1112) ARCCOTH(X) • LOG(X) + ,./2

ln~erse Secant

ln\erse Cosecant ln\erse COlangent Hyperbo1CS/le Hyperbolic Cosine Hyperbolic Tangent Hyperbolic Secant Hyperbolic Cosecant Hyperbolic Cotangent Inverse HyperbotJC Sine Inverse HyperboLe Cosine Inverse HyperboLe Tangont Inverse HyperboLe Secant Inverse Hyperbol c Cosecant Inverse Hyperbole Cotangent


OS & OS$ - Disk Status Variables

ST - The Status Variable Bit

Val

0.7

0

0

1

1

Cassette Read

IEEE

Tape Load/Ver.

Vic/64 RS-232

OK

OK

OK

OK

time out on write time out on read·

2 4

Short block

short block

3

6

long block

long block

unused

4

16

unrecoverable read error

any mismatch

CTS signal missinc

5

32

checksum error

checksum error

unused

64

end of file

"

7

-128

end or tape

20 21

22 23 24

25 26 27 28

29 30 3t 32

DSR signal missing break detected

EOI device not I Dresen!

t 2·19

parity error framing error rec. buffer overrun

2

6

OS Enor Description 0 OK, no error eXISts

endoltape

33 34

39 50

51

52

Printer Control Characters

60 61

CHR$ values are sentiO print tile wth Secondary Addr 0 Of 1

26

63

Ope-a1ion

CHR$

10 13 14 15 18 146 19 147 17 145 16 27 8

62 64

LW\Q F&Cid

65 66

'Carriage Return' (automatic Une Feod onCBM printa<t) Begin doublo-wd#l character mode End do\Alle-wldth character mode Begin reterse Clla-acter mooe End reverse character mode Set top a page Feed 10 I>P of next paoe Swilch to upper.10Ner case character set S'Ni!ch to upper casalgraph cs character set Tab to poeition rn neJ<t2 charaete<s Move to spedfoed dot poeition Begin dot·programmable graphic mode Repeat grapnlcs oina

67

70 71

72 73

74 75 76

files scratched response (not an error) Unused: can occur, should be ignored read error; block header not found read error; sync character not found read error; data block not present read error; checksum error in data read error; byte decoding error write error; write verily error write protect on read error; checksum error in header wme error; data extends into next block dtsk td mtsmatdl syntax error; general syntax syntax error; invalid command syntax error; command line> 58 chars syntax error; tnvahd filename syntax error; no filename given syntax error; command file not given record not present overflow in record file too large fife open for wr~e lite not open file not found file exists file type mismatch no block; t,s tS next avatable block ilegal track or sector ilegal system track or sector no channels (available) dir error (drrectory error) disk lui or directory full cbm dos v2 (or v2.x for later dos's); power up message, also indicates write attempt with dos miSmatch dnve not ready format speed error controller error

Table Of Secondary Addresses

8032 Control Characters

Eg OPEN 4, 4, 7 ; 7 is the Secondary Address on CBM printers that alters line spacing Once open the nfYW value can be sent Secondary addresses ate not applicable to the VIC 20/Commodore 64 RS-232 rrutines ('devce' 2). keyboard (device 0), screen(de"'oe 3), or the CBM 8010Modem (device 5).

Most functions can be activated by combinations of simultaneous key depressions, a phenomena of the keyboard hardware. Notice that the CHRS values of complimentary functions differ by 128.

1/0 Device & Device Number (OVI) Sec Addr. 0 1

2

3 4

5

6 7 8

9 10

11 12 13 14 15

21 t7 18

Printer 4

Cassette 1 or 2

VICIS4 Cassette

Dsk

1 Load& relocate (dflt)

8

seq. read Loacl, and Dlr Pmt dala ex· actly as reread oeived Program Save Print data ao Wrrte Be + Loadwlhout re4ocating corCI1!1Q tO pre· enCI.of·file marker on viou~ defined IOfmat Close Format Write fie + oof Write file + eol RIW channels Set·UO + endol lape +end ollape aJe2-1 4 marker on marker on Oose ClOse Set numbor of l1nos per page lor paging Enable printer format dlagno•bcs Deline a programmable chafacter Set spacing~ tines Upper/Lower case ASCII/Graphics SuPoress Diagnostic Messaoe Printing Resel Printer $Q( Uni·Direction Rooet Uni Drection Set Condense mode Reset Condense mode Set pseudo lener quaity Command Cit Reset pseudo lener quaily Storing bit image data Pmtng bit da1a previously writtan

Function

CHA$

ESC/RVS

Keyboa.rd Combination

7

G

GRAPHICS TEXT

142 14

Shift N N

Both Shifts + "

SCROLL DOWN SCROLL UP

153 25

ShiftY y

Left Shift

SETBOTIOM SET TOP

143

ShiftO

Shift +

15

0

INSERT LINE DELETE LINE

149

ShlftU

21

u

ERASEBEGfN ERASE END

150 22

Shift v

SET/CLRTAB TAB

137

Shift I I

BELL

9

v

+TAB+ I

z z

+A+L +A+L

Shift + RVS +A+ L RVS+A + L Shift + TAB + 13 + DEL TAB+ 8 +DEL Shift +TAB TAB

8032 Window POKES TOP:224. T whareT•Oto24 80TIOM:2.25, B where B • T to 24

LEFT:226. L where L- 0 10 79 Rt0HT:213, R where R- L to 79

The T111nsactor, Volume4, laue OS

21


Error Messages Oescrlptlon

Message

BAD DATA

Sinng du wn received lrom an open f~e. but !he program waa oxpoctong numorlc data.

BAD SUBSCRIPT

The program was !tying to reference an element of an array whose number 6 OU'.Side of the range speofied in lhe DIM SU!temenl

CAN'T CONTINUE

The CONT ocmma/ld wiH na work, elner because 11\e program was never 'RUN. there has been an er· ror, or a lne has been edlled.

OE\IICE NOT PRESENT

Tho reqwed VO c:1wce -snot avadable bran ' OPEN', 'O..OSE', 'CMO' 'PAINTI', 'INPUT#', Of ' GETI

D·VISION BY ZERO

DWOI by lei'O IS a rnalherl'atcal cddo1y Md noa alowed

EXTRA IGNORED

Too many rtems of data were l)ped on response 10 an orput statement Only lhe fifillew rUims were ac-

cepteo

.,

FILE NOT rOUNO

If ya. wwe lookng for a file on Utpa. an 'end-of-Utpe' marl<er was found If you were lOOking on a dille, no

FILE NOT OPEN

Thofilo opoolfiod in o 'CLOSE', 'CMO', 'PRINTN', 'INPUH', 0< 'GETI , muatloret be 'OPENed

FIL.E OPEN

An anemot was made to OPEN a file using the number of an already open lola

FORMUlA TOO COMPLEX

The suong expressoo being evatU8180 siiOufd be split onto a1 1eas1 two pans tor the system to work wen.01 a fOrmula has too many parentleses.

ILLEGAL OIRE:CT

Tho 'INPUT' sa:ement em odf be used "''lhn a program. ard 1101on drecl mode.

ILLEGAL QUANTITY

A nurnbAr ur;ed as th& argumenl of a functonor stalement ii out of the ollowaba range.

LOAO

A problem ha$ oooured durong program LOAD, diSk or tape

NEXT WITHOUT rOR

Thos is~* by eother incorreclly nest1ng loops or hav1ng a va~oabk! ntllne In a NEXT' S1atemel11 Uoal doesn 1corJespond with one In a' FOR' statement

NOT INPUT FILE

An attamot waa made to • NPUT' Of ' GET' data Irom a filowtuch WIIS opoofl«f to be lor output only.

NOT OUTPUT ALE

An anemot was made to 'PAINT' data to a file whiCh was soeofied as 1nou aty

OUTOFOATA

A 'READ e:BI8menl was execuled but 111-1!1 nodaaleft \.flfead in I DATA' UllmenL

OUT OF ME~ORY

Thefe a no mo<• 'ram' available br progr...., or varoablec Th• mo)' GAIO oocur >Nhon too rn311Y 'FOR loop$ hove~ .-:ed, 0< " " - thore are too many 'GOSUB'a on el1ec:t.

OVERFLO.V

The restA a a oomPIItalion is laroer than the .argest number alloNed. w"'ich •a t 70t 4 t884e ... 38

REDIM'D ARRAY

An array may only t:>e 'OIM'ensloned once 11 an array vanatlle lsu58d before tnal array IS 'DIM'd, an automatiC 'DIM· operaton os perfOrmed on that array sening the number of elemeniS 10 len, and any subse· quent 'DIM's wil cause ths error.

REDO FROM START

Charaetow cJata wlb typed tndur.,gan ' INPUT' Slatemem when numeric data was expected. JUSII &type tne tm'y 10 11181 it is cooect, and the program v.il contnue by nsen

RETURN WITHOUT GOSUB

A 'RETURN' stn:omont wao onoountorod, and no 'GOSUB' oorrmand has~ ISSaed.

STR.NG TOO LONG

(excecx 2.0) A stnro can con1an up to 255 cllaraaers

SYNTAX

A Slatenntnt 01 CXlml'lland IS unrecogn,zallle. A miSSII'Ig or extra paranlhess, miSSpelled keywords 9'C

TYPE lA ISMATQ-4

Th• 0«0< oocu,. when a numbor ia u * on pleco of a ttring, 0< -vorM

UNDEF' D FUNCTION

A US8f defoned functoon was referenood but k has never been dei1ned uslnglhe 'OEF FN' sla:ement

UNOEF' 0 STATEMENT

An attempt was made to ·GOTO' or 'GOSUB' or 'RUN' a llne numt>er tnat doesn't eKiSL

VERIFY

Tha progrom on tape or dsk doo3 not motch the program currenUy"' 11'emory

fife wltll tllal name ex1sts .

B-Series Error Messages This list IS a s1.m11ary a B- Senes error messages lhal are dcsplayed by PRINTing ERR$()() where X equals the 1181ue down the left column

X

Explanation

MttiNgt

0

?SlOP KEY DETECTED

Occurs when doing a KERNAL VO fiJncbon ard tie STOP '<e/ is pressed May occur during LOAD or SAVE (or OPEN, CLOSE GETI . INPUTI, PRifliT# when the casrel\etape isi'I'IOIIIII9) CLOSE IW1}'oparo wrt.afaes to savodala

I

?TOO MANY FLES

Maunum OPEN ties IS ten

2

?FILE OPEN

M a110mp1 ~ meoe 10 OPE'I or OOPEN 11 fie woth a liB numbef already on use

3

?FILE NOl OPEN

An attampi'MI' made to access" fda not prevoously OPEN or DOPENed

4

?FILE NOT FOUND

The tole spec1oect on OPEN or LOAD was not lound on lhe devoce speclfl«f. In t1e case of tape VO, and end OII8Pe marker was encountered.

5

?DEVICE NOT PRESENT

An allampt was made 10 access a de'tloll not currendy conoeaeo or powere<J·up on t1e IEEE-488 bus. May happen on OPEN, CLOSE . CMO, INPUTf, GETI, PRINTI . ~ foenatneiS not specltled wolh OPEN, thiS error Will occur.

6

?NOT INPUT Fl.£

M attampla wos mede 10 read 11 file O<ogonally OPENed for Nrlbtlg.

7

?NOT OUTPUT FI..E

An attemDIS was made to v.rite oata to a fila orogwaffy OP£Ned for readng The keyboaod c:at'irot be "''flj8n to

II

?MISSifliG FJLENAIIIE

All LOADs8fld SAVEslrcrn llle IEEE pon

22 The Tl'wluctor, VolurM 4, Issue 05

eg doSl<) requrea fjename

,


X

Explenetlon

lletMOe

9

?LLEGAL DEVICE NUMBER

Ocrurs d you try to access a de'vice in 8ll illegal manner For examole. LOADing pr SAVEitY;jlrom/to llle keybOard, screen, or RS.232.

10

?ARE YOU SURE

Conlirmaoon prompt for BACKUP. SCRATCH. and HEADER. It iB not en uror ~ and oocurs orl!f n d<recl mode. not diYlnQ BASIC program e><ecuoon.

11

?BAD DISK

t.'$Cl&a lalute on HEADER COfMlalld

12

<telJrn:> READY <relurn>

This IS NOI An Error Message ThiS tneS58g8 ecs )OU kno.v flal ~our ly$lellle reedy 10 1.68.

13

<spaoa> IN <cpace>

NolAn Error t.1~go. Uaod to ondJCCto whiCh lno on error hii:S ooeurred "on".

14

?BREAK

This occurs 'Mien lhe STOP key is pressed durono BASIC execution. CONT can be used 10 restart !he program

15

]EXTRA IGNORED

Too many l~ems of oata or separators were entered In response to an INPUT statennef11.

16

?REDO FROM START

Thicdiag108tic mGGG3go occurs whoo o nunnoro vorioble is uaod wilh INPUT ond no,.,_.....-nericdata is recovod INPUT oonllnues to lunCIJOn until acceptable dllla has been receved

17

Lasl EYU!ed N~mber

This Is Not An Frror Message llis s tleii!SI vaue !hat has bGIIn procecstd lhrouglllhenumerc::al OUlpUI buffot (eg print 100.10 prntERRS(17) wil printiOboeh""*

18

" IIIOAE'

19

Po.- On Message

This Is NOI An En a Message. PrfliS.

20

?NEXT WITHOUT FOR

Ethor a NEXT oe Improperly nestod or thO vorloblo in a NEXT statement corresponds to no prevrously executed fOR state-

<re-um>

This Is Not An Error MlliS3gl!. Prnts • MORE • and carnage return. • • • COI.1t.400ClflE BASIC 128, 84.0" • • '. • C0'.1MOOClflE BASIC 256, B4.o·' .

mer(.

21

?SYNTAX

BASIC cannot recognize 1M sratemetlt ~u have typed. Caused by such lhlngs as mossing parenlhecls il1egal chara<:IG<$, incorroct punctuaiiOt\ miccpeled keywa-d

22

?RETUR'I WITHOJT GOSUB

A RETURN statemere was encou1tered wi'h noprevous GOSUB.

23

?OUTOFOAlA

2•

?UEGAL QUANTITY

was made 10 READ OO.ta Iron a OAlA statemern but no dala exln or 1118 program liaS already read lllern al. O::OJrs wt..n a tuncron "':oc:<:em1c1 .,.;tt- a par-or out ol rongo cao lfiOd by 1 A m:.1nx &ubeoripl 011 of range (0 < X < 32767) A~ atlemQI

2. LOG (nega:JVe or zero argument) 3. SOR (noga~ve ergumenl) 4. AlB Wllerll A<O and B not integer. 5. Csll ot USR oetore a maChine language SUbroU11ne has been pa:ct>ed rn. 6. Use of stnng lunctclns MID$. LEFTS. RIGHTS. with length parameters out of range 7.1ndex on .. GOTOoutol range. 8 Addreseol PEEK. POKE, WAll or SVS rut ol range 9 B.,te perameiMs cJ WArT, POKE. TAB and SPC out of rango.

25

?OVERFLCW

NJmbers resiAUng lromCOIT'putatronsor rf'C)Ut tnae aregrila:eflhan 1 70141184E +38or less than 293873587E-39

26

?OUT OF t.AEt,~ORV

BASIC 1ex1 $p(IOII. or Vanables space. or Arrays memory space has been conplelely tneo

27

?UI\'OEANED STAT!' MENT

A GOTO. GOSUB or THEN has been IIJ(ecuted wth a line number that cloo$ not ox$1

28

?BAD SUBSOliPT

An attempt was ma<J.to referenoe an array element whiCh is outside tre dmensions soecilied in lhe DIM statement

29

?REOIM'O ARRAY

An euempt was made' to defile an array using a variable already usee! In an array

30

?DIVISION BY ZERO

Illegal dtvide Message IS 1Clllovl9d by lhe line m.mber - list and chock vanabkla.

31

?ILLEGAL DIRECT

INPUT INPUTI , GET. GETI , and OEF cannot beusedtndt'ecl mode

:12

?TYPE MI$1.1ATCH

An arrttwnetc: ope<atJon has been gMJ'I non-nuneriC data, or a stmg opera1011 has been no.meroc dall

33

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35

?FORMULA 100 COMPLEX

BASIC has run out of 1ernporary pointers to keep uack 01 slbstnngs In evaluating a stmg expression Breek lhe expresSIOn 1n10 two ~rnaller parts to core the problem.

37

?UNDEFINED FUNCTION

Ref«eno& wes mode 10 a u.;er defined functoon which had rever been defined whh DEF.

38

?LOAD ERROR

Cassette lape only To omprove tape reliabilly, programs are recorded IW10II wilh SAVE This error wWI occur 4 LOAD finds recordng errors on ooaaspondng pociloons of bol!l recordings. Wmo<e hln 31 o"ors are dereclod on llro 61'11 flO'O, LOAD wl noiiiUOff'lpt to rood toe second.

39

?VE.RIFY ERROR

AVER FY ooer8!JCYI 001101 match ltle contents ol file .,.ilh lhe contents of nwrnory Re-SAVE your progr~m on MOitoer dlskortaoe

40

?OUT OF STACK

loo many open FOR .. NEKT loops or too many GOSUB callS.

41

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Ro:~umo wit not oporale after a felal error

42

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At d lhe DISPOSE type Items have been d sposed d pr nona ex1s1

43

?OUT OF TEXT

ALOADor OLOAO nasatternpted 10 brrng 111 a hie larger than 64K. This errpr mand.

rOCOOVGG 'I'IOfO 1han 81) charactor. v.othout o

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TIM l'rlln.ctor, VOlume 4, IMut 05

23


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24 Tl1e Tnneactor, Volume 4, luue 05

POKt 53276, PEEK(53276) OA 2 t Sprt:el

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Oedrr<!l ('hK blod<8)

135 135 136 136 137 137 138 138 139 139 140

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11264

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0

0-16363

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1~-32767

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9 10

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VIC20

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1

Oelaut Address Dec ('hK blodle) Hox 8000-SIFF 32768-33279 ' 33280-33791 33792-J.4303 ~:lOol-3481 s ~816 35327 35328-35839 35840-36351 ~2-38&83

8200-83FF 8400-85FF 8600-87FF 8800-89FF 8A00-88FF ecoo-60fF &E00-8FFF

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0200-!XlfF

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VIC 20 Screen & Border Colours IU(

Sci'Mft

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8 24 40

CYN

56

I'UII GAN BLU

72 88 104 120 136 152 168 184 200

VEL ORO Lt. ORO PNI( Lt. CYN Lt. PUR

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11

12

25

26

27

28

42

43

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59

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100 122 138 154 170 186

91 107 123 139 ISS 171 187

60 70 92 100 124 140 158 172 188

202

203

218 234 250

219

41 57 73 89 105 121 137 153 169 185 201 217 233 249 1

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Lt. GAN Lt. BLU Lt. VEL

232 246

POKE 59520. Rf

Border CVN PUR

POKE 36879 X :

235

251

Commodore 6845 Video Chip

ClAN 13 211 45 61

a.u 14 30 46 62 78

77

113 109 125 1<41 157 173 189

126 142 158 174 190

204

206

206

220 236 252

221 237 253

222 238 254

94 110

i

A1

Ho<tzcnbllotal numbor ol cllorecter. on lone(""'~ ltlCiudng l'ooozon-.al re:race. (rue value • numb« -. 1) Hotwlntal nc.rntlef cA ~acters diSI)Iayed (t~hd)

R2

Ooslance(n cha'acte<$} from lefttonghtmargMlcA IK:feen .. 1

R3

S,nc W1Cllh Lo nybb!e 6 ve<11C81~Yt~C wdln (Ill onesl Hi rybbl9 1!: horaontall)ftiC (on c:h8racters)

R4 AS R6 A? AB

N\.rnber 01 display lines 1rdud ng retrac:e (Nvt) Vtl<1lcal posrtion 01 the~ of the tcr-' N\.Wllber or display lines on 110reen INvd) Hooght of upper edgo from bonom o f tcroen (in lon01 cicptoyod) Interrace and Skew: Bot 0 1 •Interlaced mode 0 • non Interlaced mode Bitt ij Bit 0 • 1 then mle"lace and vtdoo mode Bot ' not used S.t3 not used Bot 'I 1 - SC8n from 32770 on morrory BoiS I•SC8n lrom32772tntnen'Ory B~ 6 curiiOf (not mplefrertec:t oo the PET) B4 7 cursor (not rnplemel1led on the PET) Number of"'-~ top ol one doepi8y lne and top ol tt.. next (»I(){ (notrnplemeni8Ciooll18 PET)

AO

VEL 15 31 47 63 79 95 111 127 1<43 159 175 191 207

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CurOOt(notrnplomontodonthoPET) Control RegJStet. B•t 0 add 256 to start address (512 lor 8032) Brt 1 add 512 to start address (I024 for 8032) Bit 2 invert ftyback Btt 3 inlf9rt video s ignal Bot 4 use top half ot4K charector gcoorotor Bot 5 (not omptementeel on ltto PCT) S.t 8 (rot omplementod on ltle PET) S.t7 not used VMle ... 32768 .s add<- d first cherectet (mtJbpty by 2 for 6032)

Rt I R12

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Qnor tocauon HI (noc molemelltod on me PEi)

Curcor IOcabOn LO (not mplomonteel on tho PET) Lght pen postJonHI (read only) t.ght pen pc:>Giuon LO (read orlyj

A17

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10

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55

56

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61

62

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74

75

78

77

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82

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160

161

165

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122

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137 138 1J9 1~ 153 16• 156 168

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157

168

169 170

171

172

173

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183

184

165 186

187

188

189

190

191

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106

107

106

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202

203

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208

207

3072

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209

210 211

212

213

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215 218 217 218

219

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53248

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2000

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227

228

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242

243

244

245

246 247 24B 249 250

251

262

253

25A

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61440

IS

32711

1000

241

The rr.n-ter, Volume 4, ,..,. 05

162

153

164

232

233

255

2048

1000


Com modore 64 SID Note Values The veluo under Ht e PO<Ed >nlo ~ H byte ~ llle ifequetq regoste<a(54273, 54260, 542:87) U<.ewtseWih Lo (54272 54279. 54286) ~I

Note

c

Cll 0

Oc:!DeO

Oc:lave1

Oc:lave2

Oc:tave3

Oscillator FreQuency OeQnal• HI (x266) + Lo 1 12 268 28A 1 28 301 1 45

Osclillator Fr Hi (x256) + Lo Decmal• 24 536 2 2 568 56

OsOIIator Froquoncy

Oeoiftator Frequency

01

318 337

E F Ff G

I

3M 379 401 425 .SI

Gil

A AI

477

B

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

506

... Noce

c

or E

F Ff

I

AI B

716 758

903 851 902

195

2

204 246

3 3

83 134 187

244

2025

221

!>56

3 3

250

1012

3

163

35

5 5

152

2884

5 6 6

?37 71 167 12 119

3034 3215 3406

3823

233

4050

4 4

7 7 7

3608

9 9 10 11 I1 12 13 14 14 15

104 247 143

48 218 143 78 24 239 210

Octave7

Oscillator Frequency

Ollollator Frequency

Osollator Frequency DoclnalHI(x266) + Lo

Oscillator Frequency Ho (x256) + Lo Oocmlll •

Ho (M256) + Lo 17 18 19 21

209 239 31

22

95

23 25

28

181 30 156 49

29

223

31

165

26

Ho (x256) + Lo

Decmal •

195 195

Ill

6430 6812 7217 7&47 8101

A

117!>

90 125

21.S 2273 24al 2551 2703

Octave I

6069

G Gf

1137

81 102 123 145 169

2 2 2 2

112 180 251 71

4

Hi (x256) + Lo 8 97 8 225

Oetave5

4291 4547 4817 5103 5407 5728

Cf 0

82

1072 1136 1204 1275 1351 1432 1517 1607 1703 1804 1911

Decmal •

Oc:tave4 Deomal·

I

602

HI (x256) + Lo 4 48

Deomal·

6M3

33

135

9094 9634

35 37

134 162

10207 10814 11457 12139 12000 13625 1«35 15294 16203

39

223

42 44 47 50 53 56 59 63

62 193 107 60 57 99 190 75

17167 18188 19269 20415 21629 22915 24278 25721 27251 28871

67 71 75

69

385311

94 100 106

1111 125 131 214 121 115

40830 43258 45830 48:\0C

134 142 150 159 168 179 189

~1443

200

54502

112

199

5n43

212 225

119 126

124 151

61176 &4814

]g

SA 89

30588 32407

15 12

34334 36376

30

24

130 126 250

6 172 243 230

143

238

248

46

253

I

Commodore 64 SID Envelope Rates

CB2 Note Values

Master VOlume (MV) = LonybbleotS4296 MVand A/0/SIR RegistetS (RI & R2) are writ& onlv V01ee1 : 54277/8 • Vooce2: 54284/5 • Volce3 5429112. See ~emory Map

Values are 101 smple CB2 SOI.tld. PETJCB\i . POKE 59467 16 POKE S9466. (Ocr) POKE 59l64 X VIC20 POKE37U716 POKE 37146, (0cl) POKE 37 144 X POKE 56587 16 POKE 66586, (Ocr) POKE 56584, X C64

Oe1el 5

Note

I

Oc:taveo Oc:teve1

B

251•

Cf

224 210 199 188 177 168 158 149 140 133

c

"'

Of

E F Ft

G Gf A AI

Oel•l1

238

125 118 110

104

99 93 88

83 78 74 69

65

POKE At , (l-11 + Lo} H

Hi nybb'e Lo nybbe

Oc:tave2

Oc:l8ve3

Oel8ve4

Oc:wve 5

251

125 , 18 110

251

125

0 16

0 I

238

118

32

2

224 210 199 188 177 168 158 149 140 133

110 104

48

3

64

99

80

4 5 6 7

238 224 210 199 188 177 166 158 149 140 133

104

99 93 88

83 78 74 69

85

93

96

88 83 78 74 69

, 12 128 144 160 178 192

65

16 ms 24 ms 38 ms 56 ms 66 ms 80 ma 100 mo 250 ms

10 II 12 13 14 15

224 240

Decay Rata

SUS1aon Lewl

Release rOle

peak toSL

vov,.lh's c1 MV

SltoO

0/•oMV 1/loMV 2/loMV

ms 24 ms

:J~,sMv

72 ms 11 4 ms 168-

24 m1 48 ms

IllS

+ La Lo nyt:ble

e ma

2 ms

8

8 9

208

Based on lo!~ Note n .. (Nole ,....1) 12 I (1112) R - Por v.dh fiiSI POKE Iabove) ,0

Otopeak

(H1

Ho nybble

Lonybbe

Anack Ra:e

Vliue

Oet•l5

nrWe

POKE R2

a

48

ms

72 ms 114 ITl$ 166 ms

5/,,.uv

204 ms

ff•o.IAV

204 ms

240 ms

'11oMV "hsMV •ilsMV

240 ms

4115MV

300 ms 750 1nb

500 ms

1.5

800 ms , 0. 3.0 s 50s 80s

24 30 90 15 0 24.0

s s

•Cf,~MV

"I•!M/ ''~• !Nil 13{, .J,f/

I

s s

•41.-MJ -MV

l

300 ms 750 ms 1.5 s 2.4 s 30 s 90$ ISO$ 240 s

f

VIC 20 Note Values WllerellooO ~ ero ahown. otoe neoeeaary 10 lltetnate between INim 10 get lhe .-uo note Voice frequoncy regste<s111e 368741516 Nose reg IS 368n VoiiiTle is Lo nybblll of 36878 See Memor(

Map

OctaveO Note

c

Cl 0 Of E F Fll

G Gil A AI

e

VIWe 131 140 145 151 158 161 166 173 178 181 186 189

Mod Val

162 167 17~

182 1811 190

Ocl8ve1

Oc:taveZ

Volue

Mod Val

V!We

192 197

195

224 226

200

227

203

229

206

207

231

208

209

21 1 21 4 21 6 21 8 220

212

232 233 234

222

223

219 221

Mod Val

OctaveS vam Mod 239 240

Val.

240 241

228

235

238 237

230

237 239

238

.. .. . .

The Tr.,. .etor, Voluma 4, luua 05

33 5


SuperChart: VIC 20 I Commodore 64 DECMAL HEX

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The Tl'ansactor, Volume 4, 1uue 05

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10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

18 19 20 21 22

23 24 25 26 27 28

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lll,x O,y

T

u v

EOR Z,X LSR Z,X

X

CLI EORY

w y

z

EB

(

(1

J:

rn

.IR

:"11,13

IJ

JMP EOR LSR

s

il,z

1

t

0

68 69 6A

~

~ . Ia

68

U:l

EORX LSRX RTS ADC(I.X)

ADCZ AORZ PLA

AOC# ROAA

JMP(I)

6C 60

£!3

6E

6]

ADC ROR

[£!

BVS

E9

ADC(I),Y

6F

74 75 76

n

88

89 90

0 0

n

73

67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87

91 92 93 94 95 96

97 98

67

70 71 72

DEC MAL

@

51 52

95

37

A B

6502

8 il,a

81 82 83 84 85 86 87

31 32

BITZ ANDZ ROLZ

@

p

5E 5F 00

ANO(I.X)

ASCII SCREEN BASIC

50

29 30

I

* +

eo

ORAX ASLX

s

6 7 8

DECIMAL HEX 40 64 41 65 66 42 67 43 68 44 69 45 70 46 71 47 72 48 49 73 74 4A 75 4B 76 4C 77 4D 78 4E 79 4F

@ B)

u

AOCZX

!I

~zx

120

78

SEt

57

121

79

ADCY

58

122

59 60

123 124

61 62

125 126

63

121'

7A 78 7C 70 7E 7F

99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 1 11 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122

O ,V'

ADCX RORX

123 124 125 126 127


Jim Butterfield DECIMAL 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 13S 136 137 138' 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152

153 154 155

156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 1 81

HEX ASCII SCREEN BASIC END 80 81 orange FOR 82 f-.. EXT 83 load & run DATA INPUT; 84 85 11 INPUT 86 12 DIM 87 13 READ I 88 14 LET 89 IS GOTO 8A 16 I RUr-..1 88 17 IF 8C 1e RESTORE 80 car ret I GOSUB 8E graphics RETURN SF REM 90 black STOP 91 cur up ON 92 rvs ofl WAIT 93 clear LOAD 94 1nsert SAVE 95 brown VERIFY 96 t red DEF I 97 dk. grey POKE 98 md grey PAINH 99 t. green I PAINT 9A t. blue CONT I 98 t. grey LIST

I I

A2

n

A4 AS A6 A7

0

AB

A9 AA AB AC AD AF Ar BO 81 82 83

183

184

88

185 186

B9 BA

187

BB

188

BC BD BE BF

189 190 191

ii

A3

B4 BS 86 B7

182

I I I

DEY

I I

9E yellow 9F c~an AO u A1

0

• u 1"1 •• [8 [9

Fil Cl

Gl e:J Ed

m u ll

0,0 ~

Ill

STA(!,X) STYZ STAZ STXZ

I I

9C -nagenta 90 cur loft

6502

• •• •Ia II

I

• •• I

II I

a

I I I I 11 I I 11 I I I I

I 11 I I I

• I

• •

TXA

STY STA STX

sec

STA(n.Y STY Z,X STA Z,X STXZ,Y TYA STAY TXS

F~

SPC( THEN NOT STEP

..

*I t

STAX LOY. LOAQ,X) LOX• LOYZ LDAZ LDXZ TAY LOA If TAX LOY LOA LOX

AND 8CS

>

LDAQ),Y

-

SGN INT ABS

LOY Z.X LDAZ,X LDXZ.Y

USA

FRE

POS

SQR R\JD LOG EXP

cos

SIN

200

201 202 203

150

151 152 153 154 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174

CLV LDAY TSX LDYX LDAX LDXY

176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191

HEX ASCII SCREEN BASIC co "'"' TAN C1 iJ,a ATN C2 IC,b PEEK LEI\ C3 E,c C4 E-.d STR$ cs r.e VAL P,l ASC C6 C7 !IJ,g CHR$ C8 i.lJ .h LEFTS C9 &:1 ,1 RIGHT$ CA MD$ ~.J CB 2J.k GO

204 205 206 207 208

cc

209

01 02 03 04 OS 06

CD CE CF

0,1

'SI,m tZl,n n.o n.p • .q

6502 DECIMAL •92 CPYw CMPn.x 193 194 195 CPYZ 196 CMPZ 197 DECZ 198 199 NY 200 CMP¥ 201 DEX 202 203

-~

CPY CMP DEC

0

BNE

204 205 200

01

D,w

08

~ .x

09

O,y

DA DB

~ .z

ffi

207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219

220

DC

(1

220

221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255

DO DE

CD

210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219

175

00

<

DECIMAL 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199

155

CLR

CMD SYS OPEN Q.OSE GET NEW TAB( TO

DECIMAL 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149

DO

OF

EO E1 E2 E3

E4 E5 E6 E7 E8 F9 EA EB

cc ED EE EF FO

Fl

F2 F3

F4 FS F6

CJ,r

"'.s

<1:

~

CMP(I),Y

~

a:

0,1

Ld.u

CMP Z.X DECZ,X

~v

. ..

CLD CMPY

CMPX DECX

IJ ••

[I

CPX# SBC(I,,X

!!

••

•• •• •• •• •• •

J::.l ,IJ I!

CPXZ SBCZ NCZ NX SBCir NOP CPX SBC INC

1!1

BEO SBC(I).Y

n

~

IJ ll

SBCZ.X INCZX

~ ~

SED SBCY

F7

F8 F9 FA FB FC FD FE FF

••• !I

•• a ~

SBCX INC X

221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230

231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245

246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255

The Transactor. Volume 4, Issue 05

35


SuperChart: BASIC 2.0/4.0 DECIMAL 0 1 2

@

A B

4

01 02 03 stop 04

5

05

6 7 8

06 07 bell 08

9

JY3

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

ASCII SCREEN BASIC

00

3

HEX

18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33

34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54

55 ~

57 58

59 60

61 62 63

c

OAAZ ASLZ

H I

tab

PHP ORA/I ASLA

J K

L M N

OD car ret OE text OF top left

ORA ASL

0 p

BPL ORA(I),Y

Q

cur down reverse cur home delete del line ers start

R

s

T

u

ORAZ.X ASL Z,X

v

w X y

sadl dn

CLC ORAY

z [

escape

\ 1

1D cur right

-

OAAX ASLX

t

space !

space I

22

23 24 25

H $

H $ CVo

26

3

G

ex:;

1E 1F 20 21

DECIMAL end- line BRK 0 OAA(I.X) 1 2

D E F

OA 08

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1A 1B 1C

CVo &

space ! •

Btrz

&

CVo &

ANDZ ROLZ

I

I

I

28 29 2A

( )

( )

(

)

* +

* +

* +

• -

33 34

35 36 37 38 39 3A 38 3C 3D 3E 3F

-

. I 0

1 2

3 4 5 6 7 8 9

..

. •

<

-> ?

36 The Transactor. Volume 4, 1ssue 05

JSR AND(I,X)

H $

27

28 2C 2D 2E 2F 30 31 32

6502

.

.

I 0

I 0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

.. . • <

.. . • <

=

=

>

>

?

?

PLP AND II ROLA BIT AND ROL BMI AND(I).Y

ANDZ,X ROL Z,X SEC ANDY

ANDX ROLX

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63

DECIMAL 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119

120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127

HEX 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 4A 46 4C 40 4E 4r 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59

SA

SB

sc 50 5E

SF

60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 6A 6B 6C 60 6E

6F 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 7A 76 7C 70 7E 7F

ASCII SCREEN BASIC @ g @ A lll ,a A 6 ID.b B

c

6502 DECIMAL RTI 64 EOR(I,X) 65 66

El,c

67

D E F

c

B,d D.e

68 69

G

OJ,g

H I

D E F G

DJ,h

H

E;] ,I

I

G,j E:J,k 0,1 CSI,m 121 ,n O,o

j

j

K

L M

N 0 p

0

R

s

1

u

v w X y

z [

\

] t

+-

Q,f

D.p • .q D.r !l ,s OJ.! Q,u l&l,v

D,w ili ,x O ,y fl! ,Z. EB IJ

OJ ~. 1::!1 . ~

D (])

g D D 0

EORZ LSRZ PHA EOR fl LSRA

K

L M N

0 p

0

JMP EOR LSR BVC EOR(I).Y

R

T

v w X

y

z

t

~.~

[I [8

(9

6J Cl ([j

I!!

(J

~

0,0 il

E!J l'J

s

81

87

EORY

89

86 88 90

91 92 EORX LSRX

+-

RTS ADC(I. X)

93

94 95 96

97 98 99

ADCZ RORZ PLA ADCJI RORA JMP(I) ADC ROR BVS ADC(I),Y

ADCZ,X ROAZ,X

0 ~

80

• CLI

Ea Hl 0 11

78 79

85

0

~

77

EORZ,X LSRZ.X

[

\ l

70 71 72 73 74 75 76

82 83 84

s u

SEI ADCY

ADCX RORX

100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127

I


Jim Butterfield

DECIMAL 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 ... 139 140 141 142 14~

144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 156 159 160

161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191

HEX AOC I SCREEN BASIC 80 END 81 FOR 82 NE=XT 83 load & run DATA 84 INPUT# 85 INf'UT 86 DIM 87 bell READ 88 LET 89 seVdrtab GOTO 8A RUN 88 IF 8C I RESTORE 80 car re! GOSU8 8E graphics I RETURN SF bot righ1 RFM 90 I STOP 91 cur up ON 92 rvs off WAIT 93 clear LOAD 94 nsert SAVE 95 ns line VERIFY 96 ersend DEF 97 POKE 98 PRINT* 99 SCloll up MINT SA CONT 98 escape UST 9C ClR 9D cur left CMD 9E II SYS 9F OPEN AO 0 CLOSE A1 IJ GET A2 liiil NEW A3 0 TAB( A4 II TO AS F'J 0 A6 II SPC( A7 THEN 0 1\0T A8 liiil AS l!l.ll STEP

I

•• •• •• •• I • • •• •• I

I• •• • ••a

AA

AB AC AD AE AF BO

81 82 B3 B4

85 66

87 98 BQ· BA 88 BC BD BE BF

•• • • I •I •• * •• •• • -- m • • •• I

-

;:p

~

;:s

I 1

EiJ ::J

:a

a

il 3l

L

IJ ll '-'

..... Q

0 ,0 ~ ~

s

II II B

II

II Iii I

!I

650?

STA(I X) STYZ STAZ STXZ DEY TXA

STY STA STX

sec

STA(I).Y

STY Z,X STA Z,X STXZ,Y TYA STA Y TXS STAX LOY# LDA(I,X) LOX It LDYZ LDAZ LDXZ TAY LOA# TAX LOY LOA LOX

AND OR

BCS

>

LDA(I).Y

=

< OON INT ABS USA FRE

POS SOR AND LOG EXP

cos

SIN

LOY Z:X LDAZX LDXZY CLV LDAY TSX LDYX LOAX LDXY

DECIMAL 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 156 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191

DECMAL HEX ASCII SCREEN BASIC 6502 DECIMAL 192 co TAN 8 CPY II 192 193 C1 M.a ATN CMP(O.X 193 194 C2 IIJ b PEEK 194 195 S,c C3 LEN 195 196 C4 fl d STA$ CPY7 196 197 O ,e C5 VAL CMPZ 197 g .f 198 C6 ASC DECZ 198 199 C7 OJ,g CHR$ 199 200 C8 l1.h LEFT$ INY 200 201 CQ ~ RIGHT$ CMPI' 201 202 CA MIDS DEX 202 ~-i 203 CB e::: ,k GO 203 cc 0 ,1 COl\CAT CPY 204 204 205 CD ISI.m DOPEN CMP 205 (.) CE IZI,n 206 DC LOSE DEC 206 ~ 207 CF n.o RE=CORD 207 0 O,p 208 DO HEADER BNE 208 209 D1 • .Q COLLECT CMP(O.Y 209 ~ > 210 D2 O,r BACKUP 210 Q) a: 211 D3 IJB,s CQPY 211 212 D4 0,1 APPEND 212 21 3 D5 !Ll,u DSAVE CMP Z.X 213 18l,v 214 D6 DLOAD DEC Z,X 214 215 D7 Ow CATALOG 215 • 216 lli,x DB RENAME CLD 216 217 D9 D.y SCRATCH CMP Y 217 218 DA tJ',z DIRECTORY 218 219 DB E8 219 220 ll DC 220 221 DD rn CMPX 221 222 DE lii!, IR DECX 222 223 DF ~ 223 ' 224 EO CPX/1 224 [I E1 225 SBC(Q,X 225 E2 226 ~ 226 227 E3 liil 227 228 E4 CPXZ 228 229 E5 Ill SBCZ 229 230 E6 NCZ 230 231 E7 231 232 E8 NX 232 233 E9 ~ . II! SBCN 233 234 EA Ill NOP 234 235 EB 235 236 EC CPX 236 237 ED SBC 237 238 EE INC 238 EF 239 239 240 FO BEQ 240 24 1 F1 SBC(I,,Y 241 242 F2 242 2~ r3 243 244 F4 !I 244 (I 245 F5 SBC Z,X 245 246 F6 IJ INCZ.X 246 247 F7 247 248 F8 ii SED 248 249 F9 !! SBCY 249 250 FA 250 251 FB 1!1 251 252 FC II 252 FD 253 SBCX 253 FE iii 254 NCX 254 n 255 FF ~ n 255

..

-

• •• • •., •• •• •• •

•••

1M Transactor, Voklme 4, Issue 05

37


BASIC 2.0 I BASIC 4.0 Memory Map

Jim Butterfield, Toronto Ont.

Reference to DOS, MLM, 80-Column, or those marked with an • are for BASIC 4.0 only. There are some differences between usage for the 40- and 80-column machines. 32K BASIC 4.0 Zero Page contents for 4000 and 8000 series machines after power up by Richard Evers. BASIC 2.0 Zero Page contents are mostly identical except lor vectors. Location

HeJC

loo -02

00 0!

lo4 lo~

os

106

06 07 08

lo7

108

0-2

3 4

s

OA

lo~

os

oc

10<;

lili\-""' 00

~~

2 C3

4E

31~

4I(X)

8

Bl()() 9l<>t

10 11

10100 ni(X)

12

12I(X)

13-15

161(X)

13-15 13 14 1s 16 -IE :;

19-21

19 16 20 13 21 (X)

:~

IF -22 IF

20 21 22 123 -27 23 2~ 25 26

31-34

35-39

29

42-43

28

~~ ~

~

,,

41 1 ~

42103 43 1 ~

46-47

32 - 33

~~

50-51

134 -3s

34

52-S3

51-65

56-57

S8-S9

17 ~ ~ 1""

45

!46-47

:~

148 -49 48

liQ

~~~~criplc)rst;ck (l•errcxlrarystrings)

61 62

t79

fl'

o

12~

~ 04

41 :0401 3

4

4 l.runo

3 03

Start of Arrays 4l -run• 3 I~~tc:r. End ol Arrays

Start of Vanabl""

3

4 0. ~ 0 00

4I ;•

StringSiorage(moving down)

0

String UtiliiY Umit of Memory

o oo _{

0 F'f' ~•i:lc_:urrentDATA llnenurrber 81? 00 ~~ 0 ICumlntdataacfdress 1

l

0 fl' 255 0 00 0 4 fl' l2ss

68~9 ~ ~ ~ ~

"' vector ·- variable name

~ 04 4 00 _Q 70-71 ~~: ~ ~~: l2255 !i5 jVariat~epolrterlorFORINEXT 72-73

op-sove; BASIC pointeuave

JI11~AJ:!~~74~-_m ;:~~U_.Qil ~~tl~o~~~~~.,;;.,,..<sy ~8-so 48 75-60 1s oo oloo

INtl<mbokl., acrup_. _m nniulant o"'r tc. ==-= == = =10 : =• .

38 The Tren-or, Volume 4, ' - - OS

66 -liD 66 67 68 69 6A 68 6C 6C 60 60 GE-IiF 6£ 6F 70-37 70

73 74

75 76 71 78 79 7A 7C

10 7E 7F 80 81 82 83

Ococription

4000 8000 Hex Dec Hex Dec 76 Ff 255 Ff 255 77 16 22 00 0 78 00 0 Ft' 25~ 79 00 0 00 0 8003 303 3 81-.\1 81 4C 76 4C 76 Jumpv~w lorfunction• 82 43 67 Ff 255 8300 000 0 84-93 84 FF 255 fl' 255 Miscellaneous numeric work area 85 87 135 00 0 86 04 4 Ff 255 87 Ill 128 ()0 0 88 03 3 fT 255 8900 000 0 9000 000 0 91 00 0 00 0 0200 000 0 9300 000 0 ~ 94 90 144 94 144 Acrum•l : Exponent 95-98 95 00 0 00 0 Acxum•t : ManllSSa 9600 000 0 97 04 212 04 212 ._ 98 72 114 72 114 9'l 99 00 0 00 0 Acxum•I:Sisn 100 100 00 0 00 0 Serieuvaluaiion oonstant pointer 101 101 00 0 00 0 Aoc:um•l hi~rder(ovcrflow) I02-107 102 00 144 90 144 Aecum"2. Exponent 103 04 212 04 212 Aa:un1"2: Mantim 104 oc 108 6C 108 105 00 0 00 0 106 00 0 00 0 107 00 0 00 0 Accum•2: Sign 108 108 00 0 00 0 Sig~ oomparuon. Att"'1 vs "2 100 109 00 0 00 0 Aa:um•l to-order(roundillfl) 110-111 11 0 OA 10 OA 10 Casootte b<lff len/series pointer 111 B3 179 B3 179 112-135112 E6 230 E6 230 CHRGET.!UbrouUne;ge8ASJCchar 113 77 119 71 119 ,INC m I I 4 DO 208 DO 2Ql .BNE $0076 11 502 202 2 116 E6 230 E6 230 ;iNC $78 117 78 120 78 120 118 AD 173 AD 173 .LOA $0202 11 9 Cl2 2 02 2 120 Cl2 2 02 2 121 C9 201 C9 201 ;CMP ,.S3A 122 3A 58 3A 58 123 80 176 BO 176 ;OCS$0087 124 OA 10 OA 10 125 C9 201 C9 201 ;CMP •szo 126 20 32 20 32 127 FO 240 FO 240 :BEQ $0070 128 EF 239 Ef 239 129 38 56 38 56 ;SOC 130 E;9 233 E9 233 .soc •$30 131 30 48 30 48 132 38 56 38 56 ;SEC 133 E9 233 E9 233 .soc •soo 134 DO 208 DO 208 135 EO 96 60 96 .RTS 119-120 11 9 02 2 02 2 BASlC pointer (within subrooline)

84 ss 86 87 77 -78 71 78 88 -8C 88 136- 140 89 SA 88

"36"Qi ICurrent variable address

0 72 Ff I 2S~ F'f' 12~ v

64 &5

7B

~ ~ ~ ~ 25~1Po1Jnter:

ss60 00oo

63

64 &5

72

3 03

04 3 03 4 04

63

71

BASIC line number s: Ff' 255 fl' 255 56 00 ~ ~ fl' 255 IPm11ous BASIC line number 1 12 •• BASICstalementlorCONT

64 00 65 00 ~ <>t

ti6-67

~

50 5E SF -li2 Sf 5E

o

~~ ~ 1 'i~ ~ ~~;

10 -II 40 41 ·42 -43 42

1!

fordescrlptorSlad<

~ ~ ~ ~~~ : 12~ sl oo o oo

61 50 :; ~

64-65

ooo

sc

19

·" ' ""1!~~80 1 1'

38 3C-30 3C f>O~I 30 3E-3F ;~ 62-63

44 -45

oloo

1 22

I::';' ~ ~ ~I Polnter: Stan of BASIC

-2F 2E

~A-~R ~~

16 13

....,.. vM>cc~orsvs.coroctc.J

~ 40 &I Utiirv poinlerarea 32 82 1178 82 178 33 E9 l ~oo E9 ~ ~~· 34 lCE 1206 CE 1 206 35 ..S 72 00 0 IProd uct area for multiplication '' IM 0 fl' 1255

lru ""

48-49

59

0 lr, "' 110 prompt "•8

31 I ~

4~ I03

2F 130-31 30 31

56 57 58 SA 58

~ ~~~2~~ ~~ ~~

44-45

37 38 - 39 38

2~ I~

~ ~~ 1 2483II79B3

l2c - 20 2C 20

lu -37 ~!

0 ~~

:~~~~~:~IJ! ~:~

:n loo

128 - 29 ~~ ~I [2A -28 2A

;;:-'~~~FNxnag

o

;~ ~ I2S~ ~ ~ 2~ ~; 12s~ ~ ~ 2~

:!

:~

~~00

55

:~I~ 12s~ 1: 12~

16 11- 1s

1s

0 IFF !255 OIIA ft'lll 0100 0 '!ype:SFf•string.$00~ nurncne OI()O 0 '!ype:$80- lnteger,OO=ftoatingpt 1104 1 !':I~· DATA li«Sn; UST quoce, nltnl>ry

4F 50 51 -53 51 52 53 51 - SO 5~

~ 1~ olo ~.. ~ ... ': •.,.,~GET; S98~READ 0 Ff lzssi~"N sil!Jl/comparison evaluation flag 131~ -~ ~~ 0 !Dill< status OS$ descriptor

10 10 n - 12 :~

22-30

195 ''· ~• 34 Searchcharadet 0 loo 0 San'between-quoles flag 1

~~~ 9lj~ st ,::·"."· 7'~·~·.1l0i•'~'~'

6I(X) 1100

los .- 09 9 loA

4C 40

I 173

Contents

Dec

tlex

0 .~ 1~~ 76 USR jump irutruction I 73 I IS l151"''n' $(373

6

7

Location

4000 -~ •Hex Dec: Hex Dec:

Ott

02 03 <W

JQ3

Conlcnls

8C 80-8F 80 8E Sf 90-91 90 91 92 -93 92 93 94 -95 94

95

120 Cl2 2 02 2 136 Ill 128 80 128 Random numb<tr -.1 137 4F 79 4F 79 138 C7 199 CT 199 139 52 82 52 82 140 F4 244 Ff 255 141 - 143 141 00 0 00 0 Jiffyd()(klorTiaJ1d11$ 142 IS 21 08 8 143 89 137 IF 31 144-145 144 55 85 SS 85 Hardwaro ontl!frupi\II!Cior lRQ 145 E4 228 ~ 228 146-1 47 146 78 120 78 120 BRK interrupt vector 147 04 212 04 212 148-149 148 fl' 255 ~1' 255 :-IMI Interrupt vecmr 149 83 179 83 179


Location Dec

Hex

96 97 ~ 98 99 -9A 99 9A 96 96

96 97

oc

90

9€ 9F

9C 90 9E 9F

NJ

AO AI AI A2 A2 A3-MA3 M

AS A6 A7 A8 A9 M

AS .. As A7 A8 A9 AA

AB 1>1:. AD

AB AC AD

AE AF

AE

IJ.4

AF 80 81 82 83 84

B5

B5

ll6

86 87

00 Bl

B2 B3

B7 B8 B9

88 89

BA BA BB-BC 88

BC BD 80 BE BE BF' BF Ol-CI CO Cl

C2

C2

150 lSI 152 153-154

150 lSI 152 153 154 155 155 156 156 157 157 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 161 162 162 163-164 163 164 165 165 166 166 167 167 t68 Ui8 169 169 170 170 171 171 172 172 173 173 174 174 175 175 176 176 177 177 178 178 179 179 180 ISO 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 186 186 187-188 187 188 189 189 190 190 191 191 192-193 192 193 194 194

195 C3 195 C3 C4 -CS 01 196-197 1!16 cs 197 C6 C6 198 I~ C7 -QI C7 199-200 199 C8 200 QI-CAQI 201-202 201 CA 202 CB-CC CS 203-204 200

cc

CD CE CE 0' 0' DO DO 01 Dl 02 02 03 D3 D4 D4 05 05 06 -07 06

(])

204

205 205 206 206 207 207 21)8 208 209 209 210 210 211 211 212 212 213 2 13 214- 215 2 14 0100-QIOA Ot00-013E 0100-0it'f' 0200-0250 0251-025A 0258- 0264 0265-026£ 026F-0278 027A-0339 033A-Q3F9 033A

0338

033C

0330 033£ 033F-0340 0341 0342-0352

Contents Description 4000 8000 Hex Dec Hex Dec 00 0 00 0 Slatus word ST I'F 255 rF 25 Which key down: 255 - no key 00 0 00 0 Shih key: I i' dcpr=ed 19 25 05 213 Co neclion dcxk 02 2 00 0 FF 255 rF 255 ~ch PIA' Sl'OP and RVS Hi18S 0 00 00 0 1imin~ constant lor tape 00 0 00 0 Load =0. Verily= I 00 0 00 0 • ofchars In kl')'board bt.lfer 00 0 00 0 Screen reverSeOag FF 255 rF 255 IEEE output 255 achor<><tcr pending IE 30 20 32 EncHM-Iine-for-input PQinter 0 00 00 0 Not used OA 10 OA 10 Ou'SOr log (row, <:Oiumn) IE 30 20 32 IE 30 20 32 IEEE output blllfer FF 255 rF 255 Key image 01 I 01 I 0= flash cursor 2 Cursor liming countdown 02 2 02 20 32 20 32 O>araaer under eurso< 00 000 0 Cui'SOrin blink ph""' 00 000 0 EOT received &u111 tape 0 Input from ,;creen/ from keyboard 00 000 0 Xsave 00 000 00 000 0 How many open files 00 000 0 Input device. normally 0 03 3 03 3 OJtput CMD devict' normally 3 000 0 Tape character parity 00 00 000 0 ~te received 6ag 00 000 0 Logical oddres. temporary save 07 7 07 7 T•po: buller chuacter; MLM rornmand 00 000 0 Ale name pointer; MLMIIag, counter 00 000 0 Function not knOwn 00 000 0 Serill bit oount 00 000 0 Unused 00 000 0 (¥de counter 00 000 0 Tape writer countdown 00 000 0 T~po buller poinlOI'$, • t Md •2 00 000 0 0 Write leaderccunt; read pa-;:sl/2 00 000 00 000 o \\rite new byte; read error nas 00 000 0 \\rite &an btl; read bit seq error 00 000 0 Error log po.nters, passl/2 000 00 0 00 000 0 O=sr.an/1- 15 = CO<rnl/S40 = lo;~d S80=end 00 000 0 Write leader le!!!!th; read checksum 00 14~ 20 32 Pointerto screen line 81 129 83 131 IE 31 21 33 Position of cursor on above line C7 199 C7 199 Utility pointer: 1ape. scroll 00 000 0 00 0 24 36 Tape end aci!rs/end of current prog 01 I 10 16 0 Ta1~ timing con~ants 00 000 00 000 0 00 000 0 O=directcutS<ll', else progrommc:l 00 000 0 Tope read tin)er 1-<J14bled 00 000 0 EOT rteeivt'd lroon tape 00 000 0 Read character error OD 13 OF 15 • characters in file name 00 000 0 Current file lop addres5 61 97 61 97 Current file secondary address 08 808 8 Cunenl f~e dev~ num~ 27 39 4F' 79 R.gtu- hand window or line ma'!Pn 00 000 0 Polater: S!ort ofT"'"'_Buffer 256- 266 256-318 256-511 512-592

STR$ work area/MLM wort Tape read etror log Processor stack MLM work area: Input bufftr 593-602 File logical addrP<.•tohle 603-612 File device number table 613-622 File secondary addr table 623-632 Keyboard in)>llt buffer GS4-825 Thpe• t Input bufter 826-1017 Tape•2 input bufter 826 OOS character pointer 827 DOS drive I Oig 828 DOS drive 2 flag oos length/ write nag 829 830 oos •> ntax nas• 831 -832 DOSdiskiD 833 OOSeommand siring count 834-850 OOS Ole name buller

Contents Desc:riJ)(ion 4000 8000 Dee Hex Dec Hex Dec 215 00 0 00 0 216 216 OA 10 OA tO Une where cursor lives 217 217 00 13 00 13 Last key/ checksum/ rni.sc. 218-219 218 09 9 09 9 Ale name polmers 2 19 02 2 02 2 220 2'.:!0 00 0 00 0 Number of I'ISERTs Ol.tslanding 221 221 00 0 00 0 Write shift word/read character in 222 222 00 0 00 0 Tape blod<s remaining to write/read 223 223 00 0 00 0 S.riaf wmd buller 224-248 22~ 80 128 225 80 128 (~D-<olumn)oae<n wrop tGble 226 80 128 227 80 128 228 80 128 229 80 128 230 80 128 231 81 129 232 81 129 233 81 129 234 81 129 235 81 129 236 81 129 237 82 130 238 82 130 239 82 130 240 82 130 241 82 130 242 82 130 243 82 130 244 83 131 245 83 131 246 83 131 247 83 131 248 83 131 224 224 00 0 (8) column) Screen top ";ndow 225 225 18 24 {M column) Screen bottom window 226 226 00 0 (80 column) l..elt window margn 227 227 09 9 (80 column) Umil of keyboard Wier 228 228 00 0 (80 column) Key '"~""'~ n"B 229 229 OE 14 (80 rolumn) R<!peat countdown 230 230 10 16 (80 <:Oiumn) New key maJker 231 231 10 16 {80 <:Oiumn)Chlme time 232 232 00 0 (M column) HOME count 233-234 233 10 29 (8) column) Input vector £1 234 225 235- 236 235 oc 12 (80 column) Output vector 236 E2 226 237-ZH 237 00 0 (80 column) Not used 238 00 0 239 00 0 240 00 0 241 00 0 242 00 0 243 00 0 244 00 0 245 00 0 246 00 0 247 00 0 248 248 00 0 (Ill rolumn)Counter to speed Tl by 6/5 249-250 249 00 000 0 Caslette llatus, • t and • 2 250 00 000 0 251-252 251 00 000 0 MLM pointer/tape stan address 252 00 000 0 253- 254 253 00 0 24 36 MLM, DOS pointer, misc. 25~ 01 I 10 16 255 255 00 000 0 UnU>Cd

Location

H"" 07 r.e 08 D9 09 OA-080A 08

DC

DC

DO

DO DE OF' OF EO -F'8 EO El E2 E3 f.4 E5 E6

DE

£7 E8 E9 EA

EB

oc ED EE

EF' FO Fl f2

F3 f4 F5 f6

f7

EO

F8

EO

El E2 E3

El E2 E3

E4

E4 E5 E6 £7

E5

f1i £7 E8 E8 E9 -EA E9 EA

EB -EC EB EC

ED-F7 ED EE

£f

ro Fl

F2

F'8 ~li-FA

F3 F4 FS F6 f7 F'8 F9 FA

FB-F'C FB

fC ~1>-F'E

FD FE

I'F

rF

0353-0380 03EE-03F'7 03FA-03FB 03F'C 0400 -7F'FF' 8000- 83FF' 8000 -87F'F' 9000-AFFF

851-896 1006-1015 1018-1019 1020 1024-32767 32768-33791 32768-34815 36864-45055

BOOO-DFFF 45056-57343 EOOO- E7F'F 57344-59391 E810-E813 59408-5941 1 E820- E823 59424- 59427 E340- E34 F 59456-59471 E880-E881 59520-59521 FOOO- fi'FF 61440-65535

DOS command string buffer (S(H:oJumn) Tab stop table Monitor extension vector IE.EE timeout deleat ' SI'F- do1able Available RAM including expansion (~0-<olumn) Video RAM (80-<:olumn) Video RAM Available ROMexpansion area • (2.0: -BFFF. -~91 51) BasiC. DOS, Machine Lang Monaor (2.0: Basic, COOO-EOF8. 49152-S7592) Screen. Ke)i>oard. Interrupt program5 (2.0· EOF9-) PIA 1 - Keybuard 110 PIA 2 - IEEE-'188110 VIA - 110 1111d timers (80-<Xllu111n) CRT Comoller Reset. I/O handle!"$, Tape routines

The ltenaec:tor, Volume 4, 1aeue 05

39 l


VIC 20 I Commodore 64 Memory Map

Jim Butterfield, Toronto Ont.

There are some differences between the 20 and 64 as indicated. Zero Page contents at power-up by Richard Evers. t.oc.ulon Hex

00-02 00

01 02

03-04 03 04 05-06 05 06 07 07 08 08 09 09 OA OA 08 08

oc

00 0£

oc

'()[)

OF

0£ Of

10 l1 12 13 14 -15

10 11 12 13 H 15 16 16 l7 - l817 18 19-21 19 lA

18 IC

10 IE IF 20

21 22-25 22 23 24

25 26 -2A 26 27 28 29 2A 28-2C 28 2C 20-2E 20

2E 2F -30 2F 30 31 - 32 31 32 33 -34 33 34

35 -36 35 36 37 -38 37 38 39 -3A 39

3A

38-3C 38 3C 30-3E 30

3E 3F - 40 3f

40

41 -42 41

4~

43 -44 43 41 45 -46 45

47 -48 49 -4A 48-4C 40 4E -53

46 47 48 49 4A 48 4C 40 4£ 4F 50

51

Contents Deso1pllon \1C C64 De: Hex Dec Hex Dec 0- 2 0 4C 76 2f 47 USRJump. 64: Chip directional reg, 1 48 72 37 55 64: Chip I/O: memory &tape rontrol 2 02 210 33 51 2~ JMP SD248. &1: Unu..d 3-4 170 AA 170 Float-F"ucocl <Cdor 3 AA 4 01 209 Bl 177 &-6 5 91 145 91 145 f"IXcd-Aoot <eaor 6 03 211 B3 179 7 7 22 34 2Z 34 Seardl Character 8 8 22 34 Z2 34 Scan-qliOies n~ 9 9 00 0 00 0 TAB column sa,·e 10 10 00 00 0 0 O=LOAD.I=VERIFY II II 4C 76 4C 76 Input bu~r pointer!• sub<aipts 12 12 00 0 00 0 Default DLI.l lag 13 13 00 0 00 0 1yPc FF -Siring.OO•numeric 14 14 00 0 00 0 Type. 80 ·intt:jfer, oo-nooting pt IS IS 00 0 00 0 DATA scan/UST quote/memory llag 16 16 00 0 00 0 S00scr1pv"Fl\'x lag 17 0 00 0 0= INPlJJ',$40: GI:.I:S98a HEAD 17 00 18 18 00 0 00 0 ATN si~U~/Comparison <'Val Bag 19 19 05 5 OS 5 Currrot l/0 pranpt Baa 20-21 20 14 20 14 20 lnfl:?r v•1ue 2 1 00 0 00 0 22 22 19 25 19 25 PoiDtel": T~mporary string stad< 23 24 23 16 22 16 22 U..t lemp slnns vector 24 00 000 0 25-33 25 02 25 02 2 Stack for terJ1lOnlry llr1ngs 26 FE 2)4 FE 254 27 10 29 9f 159 28 0 000 0 29 00 000 0 30 00 000 0 3l 00 0 IE 30 32 00 000 0 33 00 000 0 34-37 34 OS sos 5 Utllty pointer are<~ 35 10 16 08 8 36 f'J 243 F3 243 37 01 I 01 l 38-42 38 00 000 0 Pnxltld area for multipicatioo 39 00 000 0 40 00 000 0 41 00 000 0 42 00 000 0 43-44 43 01 I 01 I Pointer: SIM of BASIC 44 10 16 08 8 45-46 45 03 303 3 Pointer: Start ol Varialll~ 46 10 16 08 8 47-48 47 OA 10 OA 10 Pointer: Slart of Arrays 48 10 16 08 8 49-SO 49 OA 10 0.\ 10 Pointer: End ol Arn.ys so 10 16 08 8 51-52 51 00 0 Pol.nler: Strlug Stomgt (moving down) 000 52 IE 30 AO 100 53-54 5J 00 000 0 Pointer: Scring Utility 54 IE 30 AO 100 0 Pointer: Umit of Memory 5~6 55 00 000 56 IE 30 AO 100 57-58 57 00 000 0 CtJrr.nt BASIC one numbfr 58 FF 255 FF 255 59..00 59 00 000 0 Prevw BASIC line number GO 00 000 0 61-62 61 3D 61 00 0 Pointer: BASIC s!a!e<rem lor CO'IT 62 00 000 0 63-64 63 00 000 0 Ctlrrtnl DATA I ne number &4 00 000 0 65-66 65 00 000 0 Cumnl OATh addres.~ 66 10 16 OS 8 67-68 67 00 0 Input vector 000 000 0 68 00 69-70 69 41 65 41 65 Current vl!riabJc t'tO.nle 70 00 000 0 71-72 71 05 505 5 Currmt variablt address 72 10 16 08 8 73-74 73 OS 5 Variable pointer lor FOR/NEXT 505 74 10 16 OS 8 75-76 75 ()() 000 0 V~<:>ve: Of>-"'~ BASIC pointer <>vo 76 00 000 0 77 77 00 000 0 Comparison symbolacrumulator 78-83 78 00 000 0 MJSC. work oreo. poloton, etc. 79 00 000 0 0 80 00 000 81 00 000 0

40 The TtanHC:tor, Vo lume 4, 1..,• 05

.

Contents VIC C64 Hcx Dec !lex Dec

Location Hex

Dec

52

82 00 83 03

53

54 -56 54 55 56 57 -60 57 58 59 SA 58 5C

so 5£

SF

GO 61 61 62 - 65 62 63 &4 65 66 66 67 67 68 68 69-GE 69 6A 68 6C 60 6E 6F SF 70 70 71 - 72 71 72

73 -8A 73 74

75 76 77 7& 79 7A 78 7C 70 7E 7F 80 81 82 83 84 8S 86 87

88 89 SA 7A-7B 7A 78 8B-8F 8B 8C 80

8E

90

8F

97

90 91 92 93 9t 9S 96 97

98

98

99 9A 98

99 98

9C

9C

90

90

91 92

93 94

95 96

9A

9£ 9£ 9F 9F AO -A2 AO

AI

114-86 87-96

84 85 86 87 88 89

90

4C

OD 08

00 ()A

If

ro

91 IF

92 00 93 00

0 00

3 03

76 13 216 0 10 15 3 15 0 0 0

4C 00 ll8

00 OA 07

03 Oi 00 00 00

00 03 303 10 16 08 97 87 135 81 9S-IOI 98 00 0 00 99 00 0 00 100 00 0 00 101 6S 101 65 102 102 <IC 76 4C 103 103 00 0 00 104 104 00 0 00 IO!i-1 10 lOS 00 0 00 100 00 0 00 107 00 000 1011 00 0 00 109 00 0 00 II 0 00 0 00 I ll t t I 00 0 00 112 112 00 0 00 113-1 H 113 01 I 01 114 01 I 01 115-138 115 E6 230 E6 116 7A 122 7A 117 DO 208 DO 118 02 202 119 E6 230 FJi 120 78 123 78 121 AO 173 AD 122 20 45 2C 123 02 202 124 Cll 201 Cll 125 3A 58 3A 126 80 176 BO 127 OA 10 OA 128 C9 201 C9 129 20 32 20 130 FO 240 FO 131 EF 239 EF 132 38 56 38 133 £9 233 £9 134 30 ~ 30 135 38 S6 38 136 £9 233 E9 137 DO 208 DO 138 00 !l6 60 122-123 122 20 45 2C 123 02 202 139-143 139 so 12$ 80 140 4f 79 4F 141 C7 199 C1 142 52 82 52 143 58 88 58 144 144 00 000 145 145 FF 255 FF 146 146 00 000 147 147 00 000 148 148 55 85 55 149 • 149 FF 255 FF ISO ISO 00 000 lSI 151 :0 16 00 152 152 01 I 01 153 153 00 000 154 154 08 808 ISS ISS 00 000 156 151> 00 000 157 157 80 128 80 156 158 00 000 159 159 00 000 160-162 160 00 000 161 25 37 38 94 95 9Cl 97

Deso1ptiln

0 3 76 Jump vl'Cior lor lundloru: 13 184 0 Misc. numeric work area 10 7 3

7

0 0 0 3

8 135 Aa:um• l: Ellponent 0 Aa:um•l: M~ntissa 0 0 101 76 Accum•t· Sisn 0 Scri<:O evaluation <Xlf\Stant pointer 0 Ao::um•t IIi-order (overllow) 0 Aa:um•2. Exponent 0 Aa:urn•2: MlnUSSII 0 0 0 0 A~•2·Sign 0 Sigrt totnpanson, Att* I vs • 2 0 Aa:um• l 1<>-order (rounding) I Cassdte b\lff len/Sc:rieo pointer 1 230 CHRG£1' sutrouUne; gH BASIC dlar IZ2 ;II'>C 57A 208 ;BNE$0079 2 230 :INC' S71l 123 173 :l.DAS022D 64: l.DA S022C 44 2 201 ;CUP '$3A 58 176 ;BCSSOOSA 10 201 :CUP•S20 32 240 :BEQ $0073 239 56 :SEC 233 ;SBC ' $30 48

56 ;SOC 233 :SBC*SDO

208 96 :RTS 44 BASIC point<r (within subnn) 2 12$ RHO aced vdur 79

199

82 88

ft.

0 Status wOld ST 255 Keyswitch PIA· STOP and RVS 0 Timing oonSiant lor tape 0 LOAD- 0, VERIFY • I 85 Serlol output dderrocl Chor 255 Serlill deferrtd Character 0 ntpe EOT receiVed 0 REgiller save 1 How many~ files 0 Input devk:e. normally 0 II Output CMDdevi<:e. normally 3 0 T..,e eharacttr pority 0 B)1e-received flng 128 Direct= S80/RUN= 0 output a>nllol 0 T)l Pass 1 error log/dulf buller 0 TP Pass 2 err log rorreaed 0 Jiffy Oock HML 59

naa

!


Location

Hex

Dec A2

A3 A4 AS

A'A;

1\J AI

AS AS

~

A7 M A9

M

AA

At,

AB AB AC-ADAC AD AF-AF AE AF 00-BI llO 81 B2 -113 liZ 83 84 llS

:;

B6

86

87 B8 00

87 83 00

8A 8A 1!8-llC 1!8

BD

BE RF

co

8C

BD BE

llf

co

Cl-<:2 Cl C2 C:J-(:01 C3 c~

C5 Cb

C5

C7

C6 C7

CJ!

CJ!

C9-CACII CA

CB

cc

CD

Ct. CF DO

CB

cc cu CE

CF DO

Contents VIC a-1

De;,cripllon

l.oatlon Hex

llex Dec llexO.C

162 74 163 16.1 55 164 1&4 00 IGS 165 00 166 166 00 IG7 167 00 16'1 168 00 IlXI 169 00 170 170 00 171 171 00 ln-173 172 00 173 00 17~-175 174 00 175 00 17G-l77 176 00 177 00 17tl-179 178 :c 179 00 IS) 180 00 181 181 00 181 182 00 181 183 II 181 184 05 1& 185 65 186 186 06 187-1 88 187 EF 188 10 189 189 00 190 00 190 I<ll 191 00 192 192 00 103 194 193 00 194 20 19$-1 ~ 195 60 196 FD 197 197 40 19fi 198 00 199 199 00 200 ~ 4A 201-W2 201 Ol m 4A ~)3 40 203 ~)4 01 ~ 2()) 2ll5 OD 200 20 206 207 207 00 201! 2M 00

116 85 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

38 55 00 00 00 00 00

60

3C

00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00

01-02 Dt

56

85 ~hlfflml FOia,. 0 t)de CXIUI'1t

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 3

Counldow•. • "'"""""' CXIUnl Tape b<.tlet pouteD Tp \\ ·tllr w.uu/lld Jlib'l'inbit 1)> wn - bylt/Rd enor, 1nbot crt w~ ~an bt/Rd bh eiT/stbl TpScan Cnt,ld.£nd/byte 1SSY Wr lead length/Rd chedc<Umlparity Pointer. 161'1' bult. «"roiling Tot><~ co 'ld

00

~

1>4

05 D6 07

OS

08

OA DB DC

DO DE

Tape tlmrng wostams

Of 1:).1 El F.2 1'3 El E5

Pointer: !ltart d Tape Bu~r

,,

OOFF -OIOA 256-266 f1oatingto ASCII work aroa 0100 013E 256 318 Tape error log 0100 -OIFr 256-S i l Procei$0r Motk arecs (Yl()l) -0258 512-600 BASIC lrput buller 0259-0262 601-610 Logical l ie table O.?b3 ..(126(. 61 1-62(1 Oe¥i~ numberlahle 0260-0276 621-630 Sec acldress L1l* 0277-0280 631-640 Kf)bd b.Jff.,. Ollll -02ll2 641-642 'i10tt d RASIC M.mory 0183-0284 64:1-4-14 Top ol BASIC M~mory 0285 645 Senal bus ~ """"'' ~"8 0!8G 646 Current colour rode 0?81 617 Colour under cursor 0?88 618 Screen memooy pi18e Max szeol keylxl butler 0289 649 Ol8A 650 Repeat all keys 0288 651 Rt>peat spetd counter 652 028C Repeal delay rounh!f 0280 KO)boord Shift/Control n"!! 653 0?8£ 654 Loot shill p<>llern O!SF-0290 655-(SG Keyboard table setup pntr 0191 657 Keyboard sluR IDOde om 0= scroll enable 6511 0!93 659 RS-232 oontrol reg 0!9~ 660 RS-232 command rt'll

D6 07 08

D9-RJD9

ocld!/End or P"O«rom

3 03 000 ~ I • Tp tomrr m.illfcl hot Cf'llrl 000 0 rp FOT, RS232 """ bot ro tef'd 0 00 0 ~ c:hiltactfr tnor/outb)te btl 17 10 • cn.racscrs •n Oe name 505 >Curo<fll Joso<.<llk 101 65 101 Curnsu >t'(locly lldclress 805 8 Curnnl devOCP 239 FO 240 Poklltr 10 file n..-ne 29 9F 159 0 Wr shift word/Rd Input char 000 000 0 • hln<k• rPmllln "8 to Wr/Rd 0 Seri>l word burfer 000 0 Tope motooinl~dock 000 000 0 110 start ~R:S$ 32 AO 160 109 30 43 l.etll.ll Sf~~ potnt!'l' 253 FD 253 64 40 ~ Lall key pn5a'd 0 , clws In ~f)bd buflfr 000 000 0 ~ - - ftllJ 74 49 73 End-<>1 ""' lor onpul poor11er 403 3 Input"""""' loJ row, Ol)lunn H 49 73 64 40 64 'o\>11kJ k..y 64 II no key I 01 I 0 • lla;ll cu rsa 13 II 11 Cursor timing oourcdown 32 20 32 Olar~ter under cursor 000 0 Cursor in hlink j'lh000 0 1~1 from ,;crf'('Mfrom kevboord

ECi

E7 tl!

E9

EA F.ll F..C ED

a:

Ef FO t'l

rl

~I

F2

F3 -F1 F3 F't FS -F6 FS F6 F7 -F'S F7 f'8 f'9 -F.\ f'9 FA FB FB

FC

FC

fD

Fl)

ffi FF

F'E

FF

• Commodore 64 Qnly 0295-0296 001-002 Blltlrnlng 0297 663 ~232SLI!US ~ • bots to send om-029\ 665-666 RS-232 SJ)eed/oode 02!!8 667 RS232 recei•e point~r 6QI RS232 input poonler OZCD 669 RS232 traasl!lit pointer 02iiE 670 RS:!32 <ulpUt poontcr ~F ·02AO 671~72 IRQ $0.-e <luring Llpo l/0 02AI 673 CIA 2 (:iMI) lntmupl conti'O! • 02A2 674 CIA I Timer A oontrollog • • 112AJ b75 CIA I Interrupt log 02A4 676 CIA I Tomer A enabled Oag ' 02A5 Screen row marker • 02('() -02FF. 704-766 ~<;pri t• II ) • 0300 -0301 7E8-769 £nor <nessa!jC li nk 0302 0303 770-771 BASIC worm start link 0304 -0305 772-773 Crunclt BASIC tokens huk 0306..0307 774-77~ Print tokens link 0308-0309 776-777 Stan new BASIC rode hnk 03(JA -0308 778-779 Get arithmetic elei11Erltlink 780 SYS A- reg save • 030C 03()() 781 SYS X- reg sa·,oe • OJ('£ 782 • SVS \-Jl!!l save

om

me

sn

VIC20

0400 ..()f'FF 1000 - lf'FF IEOO -IFF9 I000 -II F9 1200 2000 - 7FFF 8000 -8FFF 9000 -900F 9110 912F 9120 -9121' 9400 - 9SFF 9000 - 97FF AlOO - BFFf COOO -FFFF Ff8A-FFF5

02

00

Contenls O!w.rripiM>f\ VIC C64 ~ Hex Dec HuDEc 200-210 :m C6jl98 40 ~ 210 IE 30 OS s Poon!« 10 """"" """ 211 211 00 0 00 0 l'lloilouo ol ru·>~.~ ..., .OO.t IIIW' 212 212 00 0 0 • di:N OJI"'()f. ebe ~trolled 0 00 21l 213 IS 21 21 39 Cunell !Cift'fllm qh 21 4 214 U!l 9 DIS 8 Kow "'litre Cllrsor "'es m 215 00 13 00 13 Lall•nkey/cllcaswn/I>Jfkr 216 216 00 0 ' d INSER'l'S nu<landorg 0 00 217-240 217 9F: 1511 84 132 218 91': 158 84 132 Scr.en liflC link ~" 219 911. 158 84 132 220 !lE 158 84 132 221 91?. 158 84 132 222 9E 158 84 132 223 IE: :.1 84 132 224 IE. ll 05 225 IE. :.1 85 133 226 9E 158 85 133 2'27 9E 158 85 133 228 9£ 158 85 133 229 9F 159 85 133 2lO 9F 159 86 134 2ll 9f 159 86 ·34 2J2 9F 159 86 134 233 9F 159 86 134 231 9F 159 86 134 215 9F 159 86 134 2)6 9F 159 86 134 2)7 9F 159 87 135 238 9P t59 87 135 239 9F 159 87 135 240 9F 159 87 135 24 1 241 Fl' 255 87 135 Dummy SC:ree'o In~ 242 242 08 8 87 135 Soeer row marM>r 243-244 2•3 6E 110 FO 240 Soeer roloor poon!H 2H <l6 IS1l OS 216 24>-246 245 SE ~ 81 129 Ke)boord po<n1cr 246 EC 236 E8 235 %47-248 247 00 000 G RS-232 Ill;\ p<llr 248 00 000 0 l49-2SO 249 00 OliO 0 RS-232 Tx pntr 2SO 00 000 0 251 251 00 000 0 Not Known 252 252 00 ~00 0 Not l<nol.'ll 253 00 253 000 0 Not Known 254 254 00 000 0 Not Known 255 255 00 020 32 Stool d f1Udlioll! tv ASCII Work Are4

1024-4095 4096-8191 7680-61&5 4096-4601 46088192-32767 32768-36863 36864-36879 37 136-37151 371S2-371G7 37886-38399 38400-38911

3K RAM<'>q>an>oon aoea Normal BASIC memory IIOITnaiSCreen ~ 5cr~n memooy w/expansion BASIC memo!)' w/expansion Nrmoryrxp~~n•10n ""'a C'hmmr bit m~ VIdeo lmrrfaee Chip \<IAinterfa<e- NMI \<lA loot •oliiC~ - IRQ Alttrnate CDtoor Nybble area Mam Colotw Nybble are• 4~151 Plut'in ROM uea 49152-65535 ROM. BASIC 1/ld ()peratingSys:eo 65418-fS525 JIITpTabtfo(K#rnal)

s

030P 0310-0312 0314 -0315 0316-0317 0318-0319 O.'ll A-0.11R 031C-031D 031E 031r 0320-0321 0322-0323 0324 ..(1325 0326 -«127 0328 ..()329 032A-(J32B 032C-032D 032E 002F 032E-0321' 0330-0331 0332-0333

783 784-785 788-789 790-791 792-793 794-795 79G-797 798-799 8()()-a()l

802-803 804-805 806-807

308-809

810-811 812-813 81 4 815 81 4-815 816-817 81 8-819 OJJC-W~1l 82lHOI 9 0~0-(Xl7E 832-894 0380-00BE 896-958 O.'lCO-mFF 960-1022

SYS status rea save USR !unction jump Hardware .nterrul)l •'eCtor Break onterr...,e Vfl'l(l( NMI inltmopc vtctor OPEl\' vedl>r CLOSE vector Set-input •e<IO< Set-output vtctor Restore 110 \"taOf INPUT \'eCtOr Oul>UI fec!Ot Te!t- STOP vector CET , eaor Abort liD vooor Warm $lllr'l v«tor

USR vedoo LOAD link SAVEhnk Cassette OOIIEr (Sprite 13) (Sprilf I t) (5p<ilf 15)

• 20; (f:ABF) 20 FED2) 20 FEAD) 20 F40A) 20 1"34 A) 20 F2C7) 20. ~'JO!I) 20. ~1'3) 20 (F'20E) 20: IF27A)

~' (82481 • 64: (EA.'ll) &4 (F'£661 64 (FE17) 64. (F3~AI 64. (F291 , 64: (F20Ej

64. (1'250) ~- (F333)

I

&4 (FIS7) &4 (FIC.A) 2~·1F770) &4· (I'GED) 20qF1FS) &4, (F13E} 20: (F3EI') 64: (F32F) G1. (FEGGJ • 20: (FF.02) 20: lf549) 64- (F4A5) 20: (F685) &4· (F'SEO)

• •

Commodore 14 Scretn memory{clelault) Sfrite Pointers(delauiO BASIC RAM melllOf)' Aftemat~: RON plug- in are~ ROM BASIC Ahcm!llc: RAM RAM memory. including all•rnatt Video Chip (6566) Sound Chlp (658 1SID) Color nyllble memooy in•erface chip I, IRQ (6526 CIA) ln'erlaceehip 2. N~U (6526nA) A~t'matP· Olamctl'r sd

0400 ...(f7f7 1024-2039 071'8 -o7tl' 204~2047 0800 -9FfF 2048-40959 8000 -9FfF 32768-40959 AOOO -BFFF 40'160-49151 AOOO -BFFF 4906(>-49151 COOO -CFFF 49152 53247 0000 -D02E 532~8-53294 D400-D41C 54272-54300 0800 -OBFF ,55296-5l>319 0010-DClW 5632~56335 0000-DDOF 56576-~91 [)()()() -DFfF 53248-5~294 EOOO -F'F'FF 57344-65535 ROM· Operati~ S)'Sim EOOO -F'F'FF 51344 65535 Ahcmate: RAM FF81 FF'F5 6540!) 655:!.5 Jwnp Tabte(Kanol)

Volume 4, lnue 05

41

~

·


BASIC 2.0 I BASIC 4.0 Memory Map

Jim Butterfield, Toronto, Ont.

Reference to DOS, MLM, 80-Column, or those marked with an • arc for BASIC 4.0 only. There are some diflerences between usage for the 40- and SO-column machines. OK 11-Z

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E84F 42 The TtiRNCtor, Volume 4, 1.- 05

'


BASIC 2.0 I BASIC 4.0 ROM Routines

Jim Butterfield, Toronto Ont. The BASIC 4 0 40-character and SO-charader machines arc the Sol me exttpt lor oddre31es SEOOO-$E7rF. This map ~ho-.~ wt.e~e varloul routines lie. ne hr>t address s not r.ecessarily the proper entry point lor the roul,ne. Similarly, many routines require reg.ster setup or clata preparation before calling. BASIC 2.0 ROM ~

Routine~

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:ukr..,..,~ 1r k.f uc IF

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49


VIC 20 Super Expander(l211A)

Chuan Chee, St. Catharin~1 Ont.

Comptled 1:162103/29 Originally published In t.'OMPU1'Et

Memory Map AOOO A002 A004 AOOO AOil A04-4

-AllOt - A003 - A008 - AOIO - AD43 - A076

Afi17 - A08A A~B

Genenllllput/Oulpul Roulh>ea

A72C - A73F A740 -A7G2

Pu.cCIRCLE

Vector: R£SET(SA0441 Vector: N\11 ($A077) R0\1 id<>nflfication ('aOCI\1.41 Tabl.,lunction key nu'Tibe" Table; inodoJ function key ~fonlllons RESer routine

A763 -A7A. A7A5 -A70C

Por"' DRAW Parse POINT

A780A7C8 -A7CE

Parse COLOR

NMJ roollne

- AOBE

Pane KEY (8d parameters and check sy111ax) Display all function key definitiOns AIIO - AIIC Print ''+ thrS(34Tandanoptlonal'+ AII 0 -A 131 Print .. + thrS(13f and an optional '+ A 132 -~A 135 Table; ASCII ctnng br our put (key boekwatds) Al36 - AI31' Tabi.,ASCJI>tn11gbrourputr• • cht$(13)' backwordsj A 140 - A 149 Tl>ble; ASCII>otru-qj br Ol.ti>Ut chr$(34)' INickYllnbj AI4A - A17A DeletecurrentlunclionkeyJ1Illt8(keynu!Weron X) A178 - A180 Insert strins into functton key def,nitioo area A181 -A I BE lncate function key definition (key • In .X, return Index In .Y) AIBF - A213 Table: new BASIC keywords In ASCII form All• - A237 Table: -'<n cornopond,.gto new BASIC tokens(SCC to $00) A233 AlA I lnilin.ou loemlll voetol1. 110, RAM A2AZ - A2CI T.a.le; ke<nll vc<:toro (I., H) A2CZ - A2C7 Wirm Start routine A2C8 - A317 O~tput a dlaratter to device 3(charln .A) A318 - A336 End music mode A337 - A365 lnll!rpret ke)board matrix inp~t A366 - A369 Tabll>! keyboa!d lllilrix code lor Junction keys A36A - A371 Tobie: ton""r<ion pai'Pm lor luaction keys A37Z - A394 IRQ 10<1lln~ A39S - A3AS l~ut o chllr fromony device (device number In $99) A3A6 - A383 Output a char tu any devlc.:(d1uoln .A, de, lee num In S!lA) A3B4 - AJf'l 1~ut each mar hom keyboard buffer A3B4 - A3E7 Handle 'RUf\1' key A3F.A - A3Fl Handle 'RETURN' key A3F2 -A3FC 1'1'Ulfmm~O A3FD - A406 Pnnt an trre< ~on GRAPHIC 0 mode (error !olen in .A) A407 - A4B9 Lexleally ~nalyse BASIC ..,..I'Clll ne (transbte to tole ens) A4BA - A503 Point BASIC tokens on ASCII form A5Q4 - ASZ9 sun new BASIC nateme~t A515 - AS23 Handle ntw tokens oKCto 506) AS2A - A58A Get llld eva;uace an expression AS58 - AS8A Hlllclle new fundioft tokens (S07 to SODI A588 - A596 Tab~<>: IIASIC \lftjQIS for AA!ol AS97 ASA4 O.anso BASIC vectors during RF.Sr.T

AOOF - Al 31

r•.,

Muok: Roulln.,.

ASAS - ASOO Save currelll sound ta!>le (ad«ess ol talle tn X, Y) ASD I - A60 I II!Q lllUSIC dmer A602 - A625 Table: converston lor note index ID frequency A626 - A6F.S fntefJl!PI m t<ir moM rharact•rs (dlar in .A) A629 - A643 Execute '0' tommand, d~fauh 3 AG44 - AGSO Execute T tommand, ~fault 0 A6:1£ - A674 Exea~te 'S' COt1\J'Dalld, dcfa•lt 4 A675 - A686 Exea11e V' comma00 defadt 7 AfRT - A693 Executoe I!' oomma.'ld A694 - A69B E.(etule 'P' romrnand A69C - A6A7 F:xe<'I.IIP 'Q' command A6A8Play"""' note(note ind¥x in Y) A6AB - A683 Save"""' sound table when previous note finl<h~ AGS. - A689 Comrron rcrurn routine A611A- ACICI> 1'14) 11010 'A' to 0 ' A6CE - AtiDA Exet~.te • · comrna:ld A606- A6E5 Execuce 'S' command A6F.6 - A6EC Table: ronversion for no1es to note index AGED - A6EF Table: conversion for octave to base note index A6FO - A6F'9 Table: COI'Verslon for '-mpo to duration Oiffil"') l'anolnc t>ew c - . 1 RoYtiDee

A6FA A6FOA700A714 - A718

A71C A71F - A72B

• 50

Look for and evaluate ftrstl-b)te and two 2-byt~ ~ramct<f> Look for and evaluate two 2-b)te parameter$ Look lor and evaluate one 2-b)te parametet $3\~ Olll' 1-byte parame~er (parameter in .A. index in .Y) Look lor at>d PV3hate two l-h)1~ paramelers Look lor and~ one I -byte para.neter

The TrlnllletOI', Votvme 4, luue 05

A7CF -A708 A709 - AiOC A7DO - A7£9 A7EA -A809

A80A - A810 A8ll -A817 A818 -A818 ABIC -A81F' A8:lO -AS23 A824 - AS27 A828 - AM2 A843-AM6

Pone GRAPHIC (filii parl!l'lelm and t hfcl synwo

Go co execute commands alter pars ins Parse REGJO!I ParR' SC\:CI.R Pane SOUND Par..,OIAR Parse PAINT Parse RI'OT ParseRPEN

ParseRSND Pa"" RCOL

PaneRCR Parse ROOT

ParseRJO' Look lOr fln.t 1-byll: j)dtometeo A84f' -A866 lndlfe<:t jump to execute new coonmu ttl> (po,nter to pauunner save ar~ in .X Y, command index In .A) A867 - A878 Table:>·ector to eJ:erute rew commands(H) A879 -A88A Table: vedor to eJ:ecute rew commands(Ll A88B - AA22 £xfC\JteOlAPHIC ABAB - A9•£ Handle GRAPHIC l,2,3tl prevlout was 0 A8D4 - A942 TraMicr BASIC progrom to abo•a S2000 and e•e<:utt O.R A~3 -A94E Make~ereeo • $1EOOand char..:toroetotSIOOO A94f' -A9A8 Handle GRAPHIC • A967 - A9AB Transltr 8ASJC rrosrun down 1D old localloo and execute CLR A9~C- A987 Handle GRAPHK: 0 tl pre-ioos was 1,2 3 A988 - AA22 Set up profl"r GRAPHIC scretn M23 M28 Execute RCR AA29 - MGA Execute COLOR AA68 - M84 Execute R£010~ M8S - M88 Execute RCOI. M8C- AAE6 Execute ROOT AAE7 - AAFI Exlo:ute POINT AAF2 -ABI2 ExecuteSCNClR A813 -AB22 ExecuteDRAW(CTOX.Y .. ) AB23 - AB34 £xi!Cllte DRAW (C,X Y TO X Y ) AB35 - AB$4 Execute SOUND ABSS - A869 Execut• RSNO AB6I\- AB76 Execute RPOT AB77 - A870 Executt RPEN AB7EP1oC • s;nJ;Iepoint from parameter 5ave area A886 - ABE4 Ploe a smglepolnl from beginninR 5ta.ed X,Y coordinates ABES ~ up pointe~ lo char and colour memory ABFA - ACIJA ~ up pointer 10 CIOiour mi!JI'Iory ACOO O.aw aline wtth • new Slal1lng coordonlle ACII - AC92 Dl•w a line SC~inglrom preHous coonhnare (~.Sins • ve!$1011 ol Bresen~a'TI'> DOA llg<>rlohm) AC93 - ADI2 Execute ORCLE usmg pn~ of digttal diflerenllal • nalr.ser A847-A&4£

(ODA) A013ADI9 -AD22 AD23 AD39 -A06B AO«:-ADD£ ADDF-

Convert stanlng angle to radians O"'id" FAC•I by 16 Calculate nl'W scaled X andY conrdilllltt on loca• Calc:u~e unit o11te1 Urn<$ scalod ...t11o Execute PAINT CllecX ror possible new lo""' bound plvut cwrdinotc ADE8-AE01 Save poveil coordtnate AEC2 - AEOB Check for possible new upper bound pi\ 01coordinate AF.OCCheck if •ble to PAINT a cwrdinate AEDF -AEIE ~kif obi;o to PANT a coordrnalt (X.'I' m.A•.Y) AEIF - AE23 Ma-e !Jeslnning JCoJed X.Ycoordooat• to .A. Y A£24 -A£38 Check if roon!on&te has be<n olreody plotted on AE3C-AE44 MO\~ ~lrutlng>Yled X mordlnote to the ri8ht AE45 - At.SI Move beginning stiled Xcootdlnate 2 to the lcl AE52-AE56 Flag 'FORMULA TOO COMPLEX' error message AE57-AED9 Exectr'e CHAR AEOA-Afl l Execu·e RJOY AF14 - AF33 Set upconect VIC <hop ..:.nen rffll.,lt'r'l Af34S..ve number of coordinlles and colour ~gi~Pr AF39 -AP3E Save mlour regbter Af'3F- Af47 Copy beglnnl 118 from ending >ealt!d X,Y coordinate Af'48 - At'7S Scale X and Ycoordinates AF76 -AI'BO Scale X andY coordmates to !he range oto 159 (.X~.A•ooordinite-2/2561 (~umberol ro!umns or ro..1" .A)


[

Instruction Set Summary lnllr

ADC

Addr....ng

Mode

AND t oper ANOaddr AND addr,X ANDAOOR ANDAOOR. X ANDAOOR. Y AND laddr. X) AND laddr).Y

Af'll- A .A f'l(acklr)- A .A f'l(addr t .XJ- .A .A f'l (AOOR) • A .A f'l (AOOR + X)- A Af'I,AOOR+ Y) - A. .Af'I(Ciddr+X+1,addr+ .X])-.A .A f'l ([addr+ 1, addr) + Y(- .A

Absdule.X

ASLA ASL addr ASL addr, X ASLADOR ASLAOClR X

.A(-)- .A • 0- bot 0, bll7 ,. (ador(l-) -(addr) ,. (addr+ X]l-)- (adci'+ .X) ,. [ADDR) C-• - (AODR) (AOOR+ X)(-) - (AOOR+ X)

Relawe

BCCoper

Stanch 011

Relawe Reiawe Relaive RElaive Relatve Relafve AEiaM

BCSoPer

BEOoper BNEoper BMiope< BPL opor BVSopor 8\/Coper

Branch on C • 1 Branch on Z. 1 Branch on Z• 0 Branch on N • 1 Branch on N-o Branch on V- t Branch on v • 0

ZoroPago Absolute

BIT addr BITAOOA

A(\ (IIO'fr) .A 1'\ (AODR)

BAt<

~

SRK

CLC CLV

Impled lmpleo Impled 1mplod

CMP

111'\1Tl80ate

AbsOlJ~

Abcollto. X

Abeolute, Y (Indirect. X) f,ndirec;O,Y

• ASL

ln'vn«<oate Ze<oPage ZeroPege, X AbSo'uta Abso'ute X Absoute Y Ondoraa. Xl (lndotacr).Y

AccliTlutatOI Zero Page ZeroPaoe. X Absdul&

ace acs BEO BNE BMI BPL

evs eve

61 71

105 101 117 109 125 121 97 113

29

41

25

e9 66 75

60 70

79

c •0

3 3 3 2 2

2 3 4 4

2

3

4

39

61 57

~· ~·

21 31

33 49

3 3 2 2

OA 00 16 OE IE

10 6 22 14

80

FO DO 30 10 70

144 176

2 2

240 208 48

2

16 112

2 2 2

2

2

2

2 5 6 6

7 2'

2' 2' 2' 2'

2'

:>C

36 44

3

3 4

PC +21 PI, (FFFE)-PCL, (FFFFJ- PCH

00

0

1

7

CLC CLD CLI CLV

o-c o-o o-1 o-v

18

2~

t 1 1 1

2 2 2

CMPioper CMPadd! CMPaddr. X CMPADOR CMPAOOR, X CMPAOOR, Y CMP (oddr, X} CMP(addr)Y

.A-1 A- (addr) .A- (addf +X) A - (AOOR) A - (ADDR+ X) .A [AOOR+ Y) .A - [(eddr+ X+l,addr• .XJI .A- [lllddr + t, eddr)-+ .Y)

CPXIope< CPXaddr CPXADOR

X- 1 .X - [addr) .X - (AOOR)

EO E4 EC

Zero Pago Abool.ne

CPYfoper CPYaddr CPVADOR

Y- lf Y -(addr) Y - (AOORJ

a>

Zero Page Zero Page. X AbGolute Absolute, X

OECaddr OECaddr, X OECAOOA OECAOOA, X

(aodr) - I - (addr] [aodr+ X] - 1-(addr+ XI (AODR) - I - (ADOR) (AODR + .X) - 1 - [AOOR + X)

OEX OEV

lm~ll!d

DEX DEY

.x - 1-.x

EOR

lmrnecflate Zero Paoe Zero Paoe X Abwlute Absolute, X Abooluto, Y (norect.X) ( ndirecQ.Y

EOR lopef EORaddr, X EORAODR EORAOOR, X EORAODR, Y EOA (llddr. X) EOR (llddr~Y

.AY:JI- A .A"' A Alol add'+ X)- .A A 1.1 (AOORJ- A AU[AOOR+ .XJ- A .AV[AODR+.Y] - A AV([eddrt X + 1, acklr + XJJ- A Alol[(llddr~ 1, eddr) + YJ- A

ZoroPaoe Zero Pogo. X Ab5o4uto AbsOllte, X

INCaddr INCoddr, X INCAODR INCAODR. X

[addr)+ 1 - [addr) (addr + ,X)+ 1- [addt + X) [AOORJ t 1 - (AODRJ [AODR + X) + 1 - (AODR t X)

Implied mplied

INX INY

X+ 1 y.q - Y

Absou11t lndrect Absolu19

JMPAOOR JMP(AOOR) JSRAODR

(PC+ 1)- PCL. (PC+2l- PCH (ADOR) - PCL. (ADOR +1]- PCH PC+21, (PC+1]- PCL. [PC+2)- PCH

CLO

CLI

Zero Page Zerof>ag& X Ab$oi1M Abooluto, X Absolute, V (lncf~ect. X) (lndrecQ,Y CPX

lmmocia:e

Zero Page Ab&Jiute CPY

DEC

INC

INX

INY JMP JSR

Immediate

lm~ll!d

TIM TrwnMclor, Volume 4, leaue 05

1-e tao

EORaddr

2

I

-

... ...

z c

ADC

N

v

... -

0

I

-

l c .,. I -

AND

N

v

-

0

I

z c

... ...

ASL

N

v

0

I

z c

ace

5'

24

..

.

0

eo

: bo17 - N, IX6 - V

0

6

45

90

N v ... .,.

5'

4

30

lnttr

4'

3

1 2 2 3 3

Statue Regl_.ar • P

4'

37 53

20 30

..

2 2 2

Clock Cyclet

2 2

35

c

BytM

50

BIT

52

Hex Dac:

A+HC- .A.C A+(addl) +C- .A, C A+(addr+ XJ+C - .A. C A+ [AOOR) +C- .A. C A+[AOOR+ X)•C- A,C .A+(ADOR+ Y)+C - A.C .A+ ((oddr + .X+ 1, addr• .XIJ +C- .i\, C At' [(acldr ~ 1 odcr),. .Y) + C - A. C

AND

~

OpCode

Operation

P0Ciope1 ADCaddr ADCaddr. X AOCAOOR AOCAOOR,X ADCAOOR, Y ADC (add<, X) ADC (ddOr).Y

I

Immediate Zero Page Zero Page, X

Auembltr Format

2'

...

- - - - -All Branches

BC$ IM!Q

• • Add I II blanch to same page • Aod 2 • blanch to d'fpago

BHE

BPL

z c

11fT

N

58 88

Y - 1-Y

Iadet)-

-x

216 88

2

184 201 191

2

213 205 221 217 193 209

2 3 3 3 2 2

224

228

2 2

236

3

2 3 4

2

2

cc

192 196

2

204

3

3 4

C8

196

06 CE

214

2 2

DE

200 222

3 3

CA

202

1

88

136

1

2 2

49 45

73 69 85 77 93

C9

C5 05

co DO

09

Ct 01

C4

55 40 50 59

2

1

F6

2.6

fE FE

238

2 3 3

E8

232

C8

200

.c 6C 20

76

lOB 32

6 6

I

z c

- 0 - - u - -

-- -- -u ---N v 0 z c . ..,. - ... "" 0

I

CLC CLD

cu

CLV

CMP

N v

0

z c

... - - - ... " .,.N v- 0 -I .,.z ...c

CPX

.,.z c-

DEC

.,.N v- 0- -I .,.z cN v 0 I z c .,. ... -

DEX

z c .,. "" - - - -

INC

.,.N

v

0

I

I

--

CPY

7

4 4

2

2S4

5

3

230

E6

0

6

2

2

v

2

81

-

MK

4

2

89 65

I

BVS BVC

4' 4'

2

3 3 3 2

41 51

2 3 4

0

- ... ~~< - N

oe

v

IIMI

DeY

EOA

4' 4' 6

5' 5 6 6

N

v

0

I

N

v

D

I

7

1 I

2

3 3 3

3

2

5 6

l

c

""N v- 0- -I "'z c-

-

-

INX INY

JMP JSA


lnltr LOA

Add,_lng MocM

Fomtet

lmmedl41e

LDAiopet

ZeroPaoe Zero Page. X

LOAaddr LOAaddr X LOAAOOA LOAADOR,X LDAAOOR, Y LOA (eddr, X) LOA (ad<lr),Y

A~a A~e.X A~le.Y

(lncftrecl, X) (lndirecl),Y LDX

Aea1mbMr

OpCode

1- A (ada)- A

A!l

AS

(adc7+ XJ - .. (AOOR)- A (AOOR? X)- .A (ADOR+ Y)- .A ((eddr + X+ 1, adO'+ .X)) - .A [laddr + 1, addr) + Y) - .A

'.

A06oMe A06olute, Y

LOX 1/op« LOX eddr LOX adct. Y LDXAODR LOXADDR, Y

lmmodiate Zero Page Zero Page, X Atlsot.rte Absc*Jie. X

LOY Ioper LOY 8!lCt LOY a!lCt, X LOYADOR LOY AOOR, X

1 - .Y [addr]- .Y faddr + X)- .Y AOOR) - Y (AODR+ XI- y

Accumwa Zero Page Zero Page x Absoi.Jte AbsoiJte. X

LSRA LSA&ddr LSA&da. Y LSRAOOR LSRAOOR X

A (-) - A

(AOOR+ .X)(-) -(AOOR+.X]

HOP

lm~led

NOP

ORA

lmmodiate Zero Page Zero Page, X Absolute Absolute, X Absolute. Y (Indirect X) (lnarect),Y

PHP

lmplred lmplred lmplred

PLP

Impled

AOL

Aco.mllator

LDY

., LSR

PHA

PlA

lmmodiato Zero Page Zero Page. Y

...

Oper8tlon

BO 69 AI 81

(add!)- X

(addi+.Y) - .X fADOR) - .X ADOR+ Y)- .X

174 190

3

AO A4

84

180 172 168

4IA

2

c

... -

LOA

...

N

v

D I I

...

l

c

LOX

3

2 3 4 4 4'

160

2

2

N

v

0

I

164

c

LOY

2 2

2

3

3 3

4 4'

1

2 5 6 6

N

v 0

I

..

LSA

NOP

2

4

-

-

... - - - ... z c

86 78

94

No CJ>eratm

EA

234

1

2

- _l -

ORA Ioper ORAaddr ORASdOr, )( ORAAODA ORAAODA,X ORAAODfl. Y ORA (addr. X) 0RA(8ddr)Y

AU f - A .AU (a()(j-) - A .AU (ada+ .l<) - .A .Au IAODR( - .A .AU ADDR+ X]- .A AU(ADDR+ Y]- A A U((I!ddr- X+1 addr+ X}) - .A .AU ((addr • 1, addr] + .Y]- .A

09

9

2

N

v

0

I

2

5

15

21

2 2

13

3

29 25 1 17

3 3 2 2

2 3 4 4 4'

- - - c-

PHA PLA PHP PLP

AI,SP - 1 - SP At SP+I - SP PI. SP 1 - SP P1, SP+1-SP

48

72

1

v

0

t

2

68 09 28

ROLA ROladdr ROL&da X ROLAOOR ROLADOR,X

A -1-A (addr) (-)- (addr) (aodr+ X](-)- (addr+.X) (AOOR) (- ) - (ADDR) (ADOR + XJ(-) - (ADOR + .X)

Zero Page Zero Page. X Absolute Abooluto. X

RORA RORaddr RORaddr Y RORAOOR RORADOR,X

A (- ) - .A : c - bit7. b.tO-C (addr) (- ) - (addr) " (addr+ X](- ) - (ador + .X) " (AOOA) (-)- [AODR) " " (AOOR + XJ(-) - (AOOA +.X)

6A

RTI

Acx:umu~tor

c- btiO

re

00 10 19 01 11

3 4

N

104 8

, ,

3

IA.I

-40

1

4

1

2

"

2 2 3

6 0

3

7

1

2

2

5 6 6

<IG 02

5

6E 7E

106 102 119 t 10 126

3 3

40 60

64 96

1 1

6

2 2 2 3 3 3

2 3

66 76

.A- 1 -C - A.C C • Borrow .A- (actlr) -C- A. C A-(addr + X]-C - AC A - (AOOR) .A (AOOFI+ XJ - C- A ,C .A - (AOOA- .Y] -C- A, C A -((addr+ X+1 , addr+~-C-A,C A-( ja<101+1 , addi)+ .Y)- -.A,C

lmp!iod lmpliod Implied

SEC SED SEI

1-C

Zero Page Zoro Pogo, X Absolute X Absolute. Y (lndtect. X) (lndreci)Y

S'TAocldr STAoddr X SlAADOR STAAOOR, X STAAOOR, Y SlA (addl, X) SlA (addr)Y

.A - (addr) .A • (addt + X) .A- (ADDAl .A - (ADOA+.X) A - ~AOOR + .Y] .A - (addr+.X+1.addr+.XJ) .A - ((addr + I addr) + Y]

ZoroPage Zero Page, Y Abllllute

SlX!I<Xlt STXaddr Y SlXAOOR

.X -(addl)

Zorof>aga Zorol'llge,X Absolute

S1Yaddr S1Yacldr, X STYAOOR

Y -(addr) Y - (addr.+ X) Y -(ADOR)

lmpliod Implied Implied Impled Impled Impled

TAX YXA TAY TYA TSX TXS

A • .X )( - .A .A - .Y

AA BA

y - .A

98 BA

2

-

6

E9

233 229 245

ED

FO

2:37 253

F9

249

E1

225

Fl

241

2 2

56

1

2

248 120

1

2

1

133 149 t41 t57 153 129 145

2

2 3

2

4

A~ute

3 3 3

4

38 FB 78

x-~+Y)

X-

OOR)

SP - X x-SP

65 93 80

90 99 8t 91

86

96 8E 84

94 8C A8 9A

2 2

p

PHA PLA PHP PLP

N

v

0

-

I

.. ....c 2

AOl

N

v

D

I

.. ..

ROR

... ...

zc

.. 4

_rrome~_

- - - - - N v 0 I 2 c ... ...

..

..

RTI

IITS

sac

4' 4'

6 5'

v

0

z c

I

- -f -- -- -' v 0 z c - - - - - -

1-:" N

SEC

SED

~

SEJ

I

STA

5

5 6 6 3 4 4

tl

v

0

1

zc

STX

2 2 3

3

N

v

0

-

I

z

c

--

STY

I 1 t 1 1 1

2 2 2 2

N

v

0

I

l

c

lAX lXA l AY TVA TSX lXS

2 2

134 ISO 142

3

132 148 140 170 138 168 152

186 154

' lU'.tY Pl

__lrOIT

N

1-0 t-1

c

7

E5

FS

- - - ... -

ORA

42

3E

...

I

6

38 54

" "

---

,;

4'

26 36 2£

'

IU

7

?A

SBC #oper SBCaddr SBC!Iddr. X SBCADOR SBCAOOR X SBCAOOR Y SBC (adO-. X) SBC (llddr),Y

c- A.c

2

bot7-c

ilnn'ediCie Zero Page Zero Page. X Abtlolute Absolute. X AbaoMe. Y (lndrect. X) (ll'ld rect),Y

TXS

.. ...

I

4E 5E

sec

TSX

D

56

)AOOR) (- ) - (AOOR]

XI

P t PC ! SP+3 - SP PC+t-PC PC I , SP+2 - SP, PC+1- PC

TAX TXA lAY TVA

v

2 3 3

addr+ XJ(- l - laddr-

RTS

STY

N

lnatr

46

laddt)(- ) -(addr)

lmpied

STX

6

AE BE

Impled

STA

2

B6

RTI

8ED 811!1

4 4' 4'

2 2

ATS

HC

3 3 3

162 166 182

BC

.... .. ..

2 3

2

AC • o-bcl7. boo-C

189 185 161

2 2 2

177

A2 A6

.)(

169 165 181 173

Clock Stetua Reglat• • P Cycla

74 70

Zero Page Zero Paoe. X At:.Jjute AbQOiute, X

ROR

85 AD

Dec:

BytM

4

4

-

-----

- -

... - -

...

All Transfn xcpt TXS

2

2

-

- I

I - I

.1. .1.

The ~or. Volvme 4,

-.u. 05 53


MCS65XX Microprocessor Instruction Set AJphabeticSequence ADC AND ASL

Add memory to accumulator witt\ carry. AND memory with accumulator. Shift left one bit (memory or accumulator).

!ICC BCS BEQ BIT BMI S.'IIE BPL BRK BVC BVS

Branch on carry dear Branch on carry set Branch on result zero Test b1lS in memory "ilh acrumulator. Branch on result mmus. Branch on rt";ult not zero Branch on result plus. Force break. Branch on overflow clear. Branch on overflow set.

a.c

aear carry nag.

(lJ)

CMP CPX CPY

Oeardecimal mode. Oear mlerrupt disablt bit Oear overflow Ras. Compare memory and accumulator Compare memory and index ·x·. Compare mf'mory and index 'Y'.

DEC OI::X DEY

Decremem memory by one. Decrement index ·x· by one. Decrement index 'Y' by one

EOR

ExdUSi\e-QR mtmory wllh accumulillor.

l'lC I'IX INY

Increment mPmory by ont. Increment index 'X' by one. Increment Index 'Y' by one.

J\.1P JSR

Jump to new location Jump to new location saving return address

WA LDX l.SR

Load acculmulator wrth roemory. Load mde~ 'X' wth memory. Load index 'Y' w.th mcmol'). Shift rig!lt one lilt (memory or accwnulator).

NOP

No operation

ORA

OR memory with accumulator.

PHA PHP

Push acrumulator on Slack. Push proressor rlatus on stack. PuU acwmularor from stack. Pull prcx:essor status from stack.

CU CLV

IDY

PLA PlP ROL ROR

R11

R1'S

SBC SEC SED SEI S1l\ STX

S1V TAX

TAY

TSX TXA TXS TVA

Rotate one bit left (memory or accumulator~ Rotate one bit right (memory or accumul•l<lf). Return !rom Interrupt Return from subroutine. Subtrclll memory from •ccumulalor with burrow. Set carry Hag. Set decimal rnodt Set interrupt diNblc status. Store accumulator in memory. Store index ·x In memory. Store index 'Y' in memory. Transfer accumulator to index 'X'. Transfer accumulator to mdex 'Y'. Transfer stack pointer to index 'X'. Transfer Index 'X' to accwnulator. Transfer Index 'X' to "o\Ck pointer. Trans.fer tndex ·y· to accwnulator.

Addressing Modes Accwnulator Addre..lnfl · This form of addressing is represented with a one byte instruction, implying an operation on the aQcumulator. hnlnedlare AddreltlniJ · In Immediate addressing, the operand is contained in the second byte of the instruction, with no further mpmory addressing requiled. Abtolule Addrealnt · In absolute addressing. the SECOnd byte of the instructiOn speci!ies th~ C!ghtlow order bits of the effective oddress while the thrrd b)'1e specifies the eight hrgh order bits. Thus, the absolule addressing mode aRows access to the enlire 6Sk bytes of addressable memory.

Zero Pate Addre..IDIJ • The zero page instructions allow for shorter code and execution times by only fetching the second byte oft hi' instructions and assuming a zero high address b)1e. Careful use of the zero pese <:an result in stgnificanl increase in axle efficiency. Indexed Zero l'a3eAcldreNin1J · (X, Y Indexing)· ThiS lormoladdressing rs used tn COOJunction with the rndex regiSter and is referred ro as ·zero Page. X· 01' ·Zero Page, Y • . The effective address is calculated by adding the second byte lo the contents of the index register. Since tlti~ is a form of ·Zero Page· addressing, the content ol the second byte references a location in page :rero. Additionally due to the ·z.ero Paee' addressing nature of this mode, no carry Is added to the high order 8 bits or memory and crossing of page boundaries does not ()('CUr lndexedAbiOhtte Acldrealn~I'(X. Y Indexing)- Thislonnol addressing is

used rn conjunc:Lon with Xand 't index register and is referred to as ·Absolute. X·, and ·Absolute, Y•. The cJ!ective address is formed by adding the contenrs or X or Y to rile address contained in the second and thrrd bytes on the Instruction. This modt' allows the index register to contain the index or count Vdlue and the instruction to contain the base address. This type ol indexing allows any location referencing and the index to modify multiple fields resulting in reduced coding and execution time.

lmpUed Acldrealna· In the tmphed addressmg mode, the address contain· lngthe operand is imp6citly stated in the operation code of the tnstru<iion lteladve Addresalot ·Relative addressing iS used onlywlrll branch instruc· uons and establishes a destination lor the conditional branch the second byte of the imtructlon b«:ornes the operand which ls an • otrsct • added to the contents of the lower eight bits of the program counter when the counter is set at the next instruction. The ranse of the offset is -128 to + 127 bytes from the next inS! ruction. ln~nd lndired Add~"eulnl · In indexed indirect addressing (referred ~ Qndicect, X)), the 5erond byte olthe instruction is added to the contenu

to ol the X index register, di5cal'ding the <:any. The result of the addition points to a memory locallon on pase :rero whose contents is the low order eights bits ol the effective address. The next memory location in page zero co mains the high order eisht bits of the effective address Both memory location~ specifyinsthe high and low order bytes oft he effective address must be In page tero

lndlrect lndeRd Addrealnt ·In indirect indexed addressins (referred to as (Indirect~ Y), the sea>nd byte oft he instruction points to a memory lomhon m pase ztro. The contents olthts memory localton IS added ro the contents c1 theY rtgister, the rewb being the low order eight bits of the Bfective address. The carry from this addition is ddded to the contents of the next pase zero memory location, the result being the high order eight bits of the effective address. Ah6lute lndJrect · The second byte ol the mstruct10n contains the low order eght bits of a memory location. The high order eight bits of that memory kx.allon is contained in the third llyte of the instruction. nte COIIlWts of the fully specified roemol} loarlon Is the low order byte of the eflecthe address which IS loaded into the sixteen b.ts of the p~am counter.


BASIC 4.0 I 2.0 Kernal Routines •

CBM

Address

Operation

Hex

Dec

CHKOUT CHAIN

FFC6 FfC9 FFCf

65478 65481

CHROUl

FF02

CLALL CLOSE CLRCHN

FFE7 FFC3

65487 65490 655 11 65475

CSYS

FFCC FFOE

65484 65502

CVERf GETIN

FFDB FFE•

65499 65508

LOAO O!'EN ~

FFDS FFCO

65493 65472

SAVE STOP

FF08 FFE1

65496

Save 'ram· 10 deviCe

65505

UOTIM

FFEA

655'4

Scan eiOp key depressed lncreo"eelt18111 tome cock

Lebel CHKIN

Open dlanrld for

.,j:M

OpM cna~ few Ol~ lf1lUI character kom ctrame1 0Jti)U1 cn.,9Ct., to Channel 0ose all cnamets ana Mes Close a speclf•d logCII file Res•JOre delai.At 110 deviCes SYSveciOr Verry ram trom a deviCe Got r:horoc:or from current onput device Load ram from e deYce

Registers In

.X

.A

Registers Out

.X

.A

.Y

-

LFI

.Y

811

I

LFI

I

da&a

at

alt

elL ell

data LFN

ah.

addrlo

addr hi

start lo

Start hi

alt all.

ell ell end lo + t

stan hi aJ;.

Open • fog()GI ""

t>ttab ()

alt

end hi all

ell end lcH I 811 end lo + I

dllla

118rtlo

all

end '" all

start to startho yes. Z • 1, no .A -lasl ' ON kybd SQII'I

I

I

I

I

al

~

end IV

I

at. = ahlred

VIC 20 And Commodore 64 Kernal Routines CBM LetMI

Address Hex Dec

Operation

Regletera In

.A

.X

Reglstera Out

.Y

.A

ACPTR CHKIN

FFAS FFC6

65445 65478

Input byte ~om Serial Port Open Chomd for nput

CHKOUT Ci tRIN

FFC9 FFCF

65481 65487

~enamel tor OU'PUI

CHROUT COOT

FF02

65490

FrA8

65«8

CNT CLALL

FF81 FFE7

65409 655 11

CLOSE CLRCHN GFTIN

FFC3

65475

FFCC FFF4

IOBASE lOINIT

FFFJ FF84

65484 65508 65523 654 12

FFB1 FF05

65457 65493

MfME!IY MEMTOP

FF9C FF99

OI'EN

FFCO

654J6 65433 6547 2

PLOT RAMTAS ADTIM

FFFO

65620

Aolld ( C- 1) or Set ( C- O) x, y anor pos.IIOn

FF87 FFOE

654 15 65502

lnL ram, alocate laP8 buf. se1 screen $0400 Road real tme dock

FFB7 FFBA FF08 FF9F

65463

IXH&blo

FFEO FF93 FFBA

65517 65427 65466

Read UO status .vord AeSlOre default I/O vectors Save 'ram· to devooa Scan k&ybOIIId Return '!Creen sua in rON« & colliTlns Senti secondary eooress IIIIer listen·

SAOA$W

FF90 FFBO

65424 65469

FFOB FFA2

65499 654A2

FFE1 FFB•

65505 65460

FF96 FFEA

65430 65614

Send secondary address alter 'talk' lnorornont rool tmo dock

alt

FFAE FFAB FFBD

65454 65451 65421

Command senal bus to ·unlosten• Commend senal bus 10 'untalt< Srore (.C • 1) or Restore (.C • 0) ram vectors

all

LISTEN - LOAD

REAOST RESTOR SAVE SCNKEY SCREEN SECOND SETLFS SETMSG SETNAM SETriM SETNO STO" TALK

fKSA UOliM UNLSN UNllK VECTOR

654 tB 65496 65439

LFf LFf data data

-

al. al

LFN

al

Ill data ak

E'lallleiOosal:lle Kamal r'l'essages Se1Uename Set real tme Clocll Set I A<, 128) ~ A>l127) IEEE \1 neoul Sea, $101> ~ey depressed Comnnond -.o1 bus dovloll to •talk

8fL

-

~

- all.-

1111

Ill

all

ch addr lo elt

aiL addrhi elL

OEVI start h• bot hi tophi

startlo

c-o

botlo

C-O

toplo

endlo~1

0·1 C•1

at

~atoocalle

Set togooal '""· and second addresses

.Y

all

dllla al al d8la

k1pul characw lrom channel

OJ!PU! CI\Wacter to channel OJijM byle 10 -ldl port 11111akle saeM ed lor 0ose a1 charnels ana Illes Oose a spec/led tooCIII f~ Ras:ore oecai.At 1/0 deVICes Get chara~er from currenl•nput dev10e Returns oase address 01 110 devices lrot•all:ze lnpuUOulput Command dev1ces on Tie serral bus to losten load ( A-0) or Ve11fy (A •1) 'ram' from o device Read ( C • I) 0t Set ( C • 0) fle botlom cl memory Rood ( C- I) 0< Set ( C • 0) lhe lop of memory

.X

row

cd

al msb ST

an ~tart

lo

start h•

an

Lff

*'

OEVI

bot lo toplo

ell

end hi bot ho lOP ho alt

rr:~N

aY

lilt msb2

all

811

endlo+ 1

all ondhi

ell

alt

• rows

I CO$

ISb

SA

Ava $40 C011rol msgs on. sao error msos on SOO off addrh addrlo

msb

msb2

I

lsb

yes Z •1 . no .A • last rON kybd scan

DCVI SA ett .

alt C·l

tabllo

tablhi

c-o

alt - !1119red

lllbt lo

labf "'


User Callable ROM Subroutines

,

Some 110 routiles requ1re extra memory set up. See lhe apprOOfiate Memory Map. Oa1a wiltlin paren1hesis are lor Basic 2.0/4.0 users. (Direct call) ondlcates no required set w. 2.0

Entry Point For: 4.0 VIC20

1 C2D8 491l80 8350 45904 C3BB 50107 2

C328 49960 B3AO 45984 C406 50164

3 C355 50005 83CO 46029 C435 502.29 4 C357 50007 BC3F 48191 C437 50231

5 C3S9 50057 B3FF 46079 C474 50292 6 C399 49960 8400 46093 C46A 50314 7 C3AB 50091 841F 46111 C49C 50220 8

C439 50233 B4AO 46253 C52A 50474

9

C442 50242 8486 46262 C533 50483

10 C46F 50267 B4E2 46306 CMO 50528 11 C495 50213 84FB 46331 C579 50553

C52C

50476 B5A3 46499 C613 50707 13 C550 50525 8504 46548 C642 50754 12

14 C572 50546 BSE9 46569 C659 som 15 C575 60649 B5EC 46572 C6SE 50782 16 C5A7 50599 8622 46626 C68E 50830 17 C6C4 508&1 974A 46922 C857 51287 18 C873 51315 B8F6 47350 C968 49771 19 C90E 40086 BAOB 47835 CAD3 51923 20 C9E2 49890 BADF 47839 CAD7 51927 21 CAlC 51740 6610 47901 C61E 51996

22 CA22 51746 BB23 47907 CB24 52004 23 CA~ 51779 6644 47940 CB45 52037 2.4 CA45 51781 BB46 47942 CB47 52039

25 CC9F 52383 6096 48536 C09E 52836

Ct4 A388 41915 MOB 41 992 M35 42007 M:J7 42039 M74 42100 M6A 42122 A49C 42028 A52A 42282 A533 42291 MOO 42336 A579 42361 A613 42515 A642 42562 A6f:!3 42565 A65E 42590 A68E 42638 M57 43095 A96B 41579 MOO 43731 M07 43735 ABlE 43006 AB24 43612 AB45 43645 AB47 43847 A09E <14446

25 COF8 52726 BEF5 48865 CEFF 52991 AEFO 44797 27 COF7 52727 BEF2 48882 CEFA 52986 AHA 4479A 26 COF4 52724 BEEF 48679 CEF7 52983 AEF7 44791

CFQS s:nx> AFOB OOE7 53479 S>E7 0185 53637 8 185 OlaF 53695 Bl BF 0091 54049 8391 C807 51415 079E 5f006 B79E CSEB 51435 0785 55221 8785 CSEF 51439 0789 55225 8789 C921 49697 D7EB 55275 87EB

29 CE03 52739 BFOO 48696 30 CFC9 53193 C187 49543 31 OQ6g 53353 C2BII 411849 32 009A 53290 C2EA 149898 33 0260 53869 C4BC 50364

34 0678 54907 35 068F 54927 36 0690 54931 37 D6C6 54982

44608

45287 45445 45503

45857 46894 47029 47033 47063

38 0773 55155 C99D 149709 0867 55399 8867 47207 39 0934 53812 C65E 52002 OA28 55648 BA28 47656

40 09EE 53998 CC18 52248 0AE2 50034 BAE2 47842 41 OAAE 55982 CC08 ' 52440 OBA2 56226 BBA2 40034 42 0AE3 56035

coro 152493

DBD7 56279 8807 48087 43 0606 56072 C032 52530 06FC 56316 BBFC 46124 44 0818 56088 C042 52546 56332 eeoc 48140

ococ

45 0610 56093 CD45 52549 OCOF 56335 8COF 46143

46 0927 56103 CD51 52561 DC18 56347 BC1B 48155 47 DCD9 56537 CFID 53123 DOCD 66781 BOCO 48589

48 OCE3 56547 CFSO 53133 0007 56791 8007 48599 49 OCE9 56553 CF93 53027 DODD 56797 BODO 48605 nla nla ria 50 F011 64785 0472 54386 ria 51 E308 58328 E202 57858 E742 59202 E716 59158 52 F156 61782 F185 61829 F1E6 61926 F12F 61743 53 FOBS 61622 FOD2 61650 EE14 ~ ED09 60681 54 FOBA 61626 F006 61653 EE17 60051 EOOC 60664 55 F128 61736 F143 61763 FF93 65427 FF93 65427 56 F16F 61807 F19E 61742 EEE4 6 1156 E040 60736 57 F17F 61823 F1AE 61870 EEF6 6 1174 EOEF 60911 56 F163 61827 F189 61001 EF04 61188 EDFE 60926

Openltloo

Rei'--'"

.Y

.X

.A

RlgllatriOUt .X

.A

.Y

Open Up Space In BASIC lelCI AlybpHi New. AryTopLo Un<itered Check Avaiable Momory (callod by 1) (S8'ncasabovc)S1Brtaddreos ol movo1<1 $SF, 60(5C, 50) ?OUT OF MEMORY Send BASIC Error Message Warm start BASIC Main CHAGET entry

(d'recl cal) Enor N I (d'rect call) (directceii) $7A • H$FF, $76 • f$01 ($77, 78);01FF-Basic lnbiA·1

lnbuf len.

Crunch tokens. insert t:ne

F01 Chaillng, CLA. & READY. Fix Chaillng

(direct call) (direct call) (dlrec! c::all)$7A• I $FF, $7B• U 01

Rec8\ie line Iran keybO&'d

Crunch tokens (called by 7) Ancline In BASIC

.X • lnb.JI len. ($0200.)().1$00 StllBAS lO S1T18AS HI I

Do NEW

(drect cal)

Reset BASIC a!ld do CLR

(drect caJ)

OoO..R

(d riiCl cal)

Aesel Ouget 1o Start of BASIC Conlt'lue BASIC oxooutlon [CONTJ Get fixed-pi mmber lrom BASIC text Send RETURN, LF I in screen mode Send RETURN, LINEFEED Pm1 stnng from A. Y Pml l)(&comPJted Slrino Prnt'?' Prnt char (OU\PUI .A to devCe) R-.11 s•ong SOO • 1$rF Ewluale Expressoon <SOn l'li>'T18flc sao = I SOO Clleck lor corrrna Cllecldor '(' Check lor')' Send 'SYNTAX ERROO' Find n.pt v811able, oven name Bump Variable Addr by 2 (caled by 30) Float to Flxec1 corwerson In Aro/11 Fhced lo Float converoon in Aoo/11 Get Accl1 least SIQnlficMl byte to X regi~r Evalual9 stmg [VAL) Evaluale stmg from X. Y (lixlve+4) Gel tNO paroms b' POKE, WAIT Add (lrorn memory) MIJI1iply from memory loce.110n Mult:Py Accll by ten Unpack memory vanable to Aocl/1 Copy Accl1 to (X,Y) Locatbn Mow Accl2 to Aocll 1 Mow Rounded Accl1 to Accl2 Move Un-RoundedAcc11toAccl2 Round Ace.I 1 Print ro~nt value Print ftoating.p:>int value in Accll Cnvert num tostrng at $0100 (calld by 4n Entry to M.L.M. Print a cnara01er Print system message Send 'talk' 1D IEEE/Serial Sond '&swn' to IEEEISoool Send secondary addfess Sand cher to IEEE/Setiu Send 'un1alk' Send 'unlislen

(drecl cal)

SU1BAS H1

CUrUnlo

Curtin Hi .Add'ess ot text in Ohrget pu; $7A 78 ($77, 78) (cfrect cal)

LF (ISOA)

(dreclcal)

LF(tSO,AJ Addr Hi

AddrLo

Addr in $22,23 ($1 F.20

Lerll#l

(direct ceJQ

Cha'

I Addre$$ r:J Expres>i!On

Ow AddrHi

Addrlo

In Dlrget Painler

resuk in Aocltl1

(direct caiO

Ow

(direcl caiO (dreclca'l)

Char Char

(drect ca\1) Name in S45, 46($42, 43)

f/arAddr Lo

VarNJdrHi

f/arAddr Lo

VarAddrHi

(dlrectceiQ (directcal9

I

I

Aodross - (Q-orgot Pit.)

Data F1. Pt. recult in Aoo# 1

I

F1. Pt r89JI1111 Aoo#1 Addr Lo I Addr H1 Addross- (Cilrget Pit.) .X-Pram2, PrGm 1 in Aoo#l (fled p1) AddrLo

Addr HI

Addrlo

Addr HI

F1. Pl. r89Jil in Accll F1. Pl. r-..ltinAoo#1 (result 1n Aocl1)

AddrHi

Addr l o Addr l o

Addr Hi (directcal9 (direct call) (direct cell) (direcl cal)

Value Hi

Vak.Je Lo (direCI C8ll)

W$00

I

I

f$0 1

(direct call) Char Offwt

Dev f Oov N

SAOA$60

Chat (direct cal) (direct cal)


I,

Point l"or:

u

4.0

VIC20

Cia'

59 F18C 61836 FICO 61888 EF19 61209 60 F2A9 62121 F200 62173 F34A 6228:' 61 F301 62209 F335 6Z261 F770 63344 62 F322 62242 F356 62294 F542 82786 163 F«<A 82474 F449 ~7 Fe47 63)47

60947 lnput lrom IEEEISenal 61985 ClaM logical file (k«nal tin)

~ F410 62493 F4SC

62913 Pr.nt fie name tape headet ~;jock ~ Find

M F494 62500 F403 66 F5A6 62886 FSE5

EE13 F:>91 FeED F4QE F5AF 62556 F659 Em65 F5C1 62675 Ftl67 63591 F7EA 62Q4g F7AF 63407 F720 63575 F894 63524 F817

67 f612 63506 F857 68 F855 63573 FII!IA 63530 F9CO 83680 119 F85E 63S82 F8A3 63651 f8C6 63686

~1

Algllt-Out

Alllllt-ln

~

.X

.A

.Y

Oa!a LF I

zftag- 1 wpressed

63213 Clleck10fSTCP key

62510 LOAD IUbtoutnG 62!95 PrrtSEAACH:N(L

Slart Ho

Slart Lo

1$00

.

Cdrectcal) (orl!CI cal) IPoirter 10 string in SBB. BC (same lot 214 0)

Len

(driiC1 cal) {drctcal)

63277 Find ont tape heed« block

63511 Pr• F\.AY .: wail

-

(drect cal) (dreclcal)

63553 Reed tape 10 b.Aior

f847 63559 Read tape

70 F886 83622 F9CB 63691 F8E3 63715 ro&l 63568 11 F66E 63630 F803 63699 F8E8 63720 F869 63593 72 FB76 64374 FBBB 64443 FCF6 64758 FB6E 64398 73 FC9B 64555 FCEO 64736 FCF9 64761 FCSO 64701

.Y

.X

.A

Wrote tape from butfl!l

Ldrlen

Wrhe tape. leader lEngth In A ,_.tape I/O

(driiC1 cal) (drect cal)

Sei111191T\4)1 vector

BASIC Keyword Tokens and Entry Points

.,...,

ASS

-

Dee

1!6

182 DB84 56154 Cll6E 52622 OC58 51l408 BC58 48216

ANO

H

17~

APPENo••

00

212

IS:;

C6

1116 0665 S48a5 C8C1 5 1393 0789 55119 8 788 .46981

NI'W

A2

16:1 C65B 50623 6502

A1N

Cl

193

E08C 57484 03<0 !64060 E308 58123 E30E 58126

82

130 CC<O 522!"16 8019 "6409 COIF 52510 A01F <4318

BACKUP'"

02

210

FFA6 66445

NEXT NOT

M

CN.-LOG"'

~

2 15

FFB4 85460

ON

81

1118 COCf 1112087 BECC 41!844 CEO. 52948 AE04 44758 145 C85.'1 51283 6806 47318 C$-OB 515.'11 A94EI <13339

CHA

C1

lt9

OPEN"

9F

159 fi<Q) 65472 FFCO 65472 FFCO

aose·

N)

160 FFC3 65475 FFC3 66475 FfC3 66475 FFC3 55475

OR

eo

17G CEC8 528a6 C086 4!1286 CfE6 53222 -'FE&

CLR

9C

1!"16 C577 50551 BSEE j46574 C65E 50782 A65E 42500

PFfK

C2

104

06EB 5e018 <;943 51523 0800 SG309 DllOO 47117

CMO

90

·~7

fWIE 41758 CAM 511146 M86 4365ol

POKE

t7

151

0707 56().47 C95A 51544 0824 55332 8824 47140

COll ECT"'

01

208

FFA2

I'OS

89

185

027A ba882 CIC9 50377 039E 54•74 lmE 451182

CONCAT''

cc

204

FF93 6S427

PRNl"

tO

15.'1 F>'02 6S4110 FF02 66480 FF02 66080 IT02

OONT

9A

164

t8

152 C889 5151l5 BABe 47752 CABO 51 lAO MilO 'l&t8

COPY..

00

211

AEo\0

87

135 CBOT

cos

BE

1110

-

PRNll AECCIAO' •

CF

207

ORA

AEiol

eF

143 C843 5 1267 B8C6 47302 C938 5151 5 A93A 43:1:23

IJClOSE• •

B3 131 C800 5 1200 B68J 41235 C£- - 206 FRill 65433

RENAME ..

oe

21 6

DEF

96

1!i0 0211) 53901 C40C 50396 0383 541!16 8383 46003

AI'STDRE

IC

140 C730

DIM

I!G

134

RETURN

63

142 C70A 51162 8850 47197

ceoo

5U10 A802 43218

OIRECTOAV"'

[l,tl.

218

Ff84 86480

RIGHl

C9

201

05011 54790 C862 5 1298

one

55CB4 872C 46892

Ol.OAO"'

co

205

FF9e 65ol3)

ANO

68

1ST

tFTF 57215 0228 5.'1801 EOIIol 57492 Eot7 :57495

051\VE'"

06

213

FfAE 66464

RUN

eA

138 C185 5 1071 8808 47112 C87 1 51313 -'871 43121

Er-D

80

128

C741 5 1000 87C8 470<18 Ct:l1 5124t Ae:ll 43057

SAVE"

84

148 Ff08

EXP

eo

100

OEOA

SCAATCH'"

00

217

FN

M

1115 02CE 53988 C510 !10461

SGN

Boll

180 8005 56133 C06F 5:'591 OC39 56377 8039 40185

FCA

81

12!1 C658 50716 B«>E 40814 C742 $1010 A742 •2810

SIN

SF

191

FRE

88

184

0259 53849 C4A8 50344 037D 54 14 1 9370 45Q&ll

SPC(

A8

166 CGFC 51706 BIIFO H&C» CAre 51900 AAfO 437M

GET'

Al

101

FfE4 G:ICial HE4 66608 FFE4 655011 FFE4 65508

SOR

BA

186 DESE 51i926 0108 S3512 OF71 ~71101 8F71 411009

GCSU8

80

141

C190 51088 8813 47123 -C683 51331

<3139

STEP

fie

169 C6A8 ~ 8731 46897 C196 $1093 A795 42901

GCTO

119

137 C7NJ 5 1117 8830 47152 OlAO 513fill A8AO 43168

STOP

go

,....

C13F 5 1001 BJa <7046 C82F 512"7

HEAOEil ..

DO

20IS

STR

C4

1116

033f 54D7t C58E 5057•

F

88

13~

C830 51240 6800 47283 CS29 61<90 1'\9211 03304

svs·

se

158

F~

INPUT'

85

133 FFCf 65487 FFCF 65487 FFCF 65487 FFCS' li6407

lt.B(

A3

1113 COFC 51706 BAFD <7808 CK8 51900 AAfO <3768

f'IPUTf

&4

13Z CAA7 51879 BSAA 48036 C8A5 52133 ABAS 43941

TA"

co

192

Nl

8S

181 0808 562llO CE02 52738

IJSR

87

IB3

LEF1

C8

20()

l.tl.l

C5

107

oct7 &<!OlD CllE3

lEN

C3

195 oo:iO :>4870 C382 51378

"vt:RIFY"

95

149

FFOB

LEl

88

136 CIAO 51373 8030 47408 alAS 51021 ASAS 43429

WAIT

92

146

0 710 55056 C1l63 51555 0820 56341 8820 41149

~d

B>.SIC~O

CECB :iZ9J9

ROt.A Ervy Pore BASC•o VIC20

ooee

C64

49289 CFE9 53225 AFE9 45033

FFA8 86451

~ ~ 1M

C891

ens OFDe

~1601

Cll22

~ · 234

aa

550Z) 86EC

46828

86442

51051 B7EE 4roe& C8ST 51287 A657 43095 66040

57304 0282 538llO E261 57853 £264 57!1541

case

51"1 A8F8 43258

CF63 53091 C12 1 49441 0081 53371 8081 45185

f

57000 0184 53538 DFEO 57325 BFEO •9133

Ffllf ~

OOF• 54260 B3F4 <16008

AM:)

.

oocc ~· ecce

4III33Z

050A 54746 C83e 51254 0100 5SO.O 8700 - 8

one

l iST

tB

~~

!W;IC40 BASIC20 VIC20 ca. c:;e~ :)0613 8630 oti640 CalC 50844 AII9C 42652

LOAD•

93

147

FF06 66<103 FF06 66400 rro6

LOG

8C

188 08f8 MSC2 CB20 52000 08EA 55786 I!SEA

lotiO

CA

21:12

lol<on

55164 877C 46972

• 1 ( - Rou6no I ' •

-

OG1 1

~~

C860

-

~13(8

06003

rroQ

o:lol03

-

H~

0137 55095 6737 <E903 0642 50160 1\642

~72

·~-

FFCO 65ot72

•scoo -

~11175 BC02

-

48130 CCC6 52230 AC08 44038

Ff9C 864:Je

FFB7 65663 6Q)():!

8787 47001 telO 51229 M I D 43037

-

~91!

FFD8 6569G FFD8 e5496 FFD8 65496

r-

FFBA 6$<66

OFOF 57311 0289

~7

E268 57980 £268 51i63

()OM

54373

-

~WaS

43065

·-

48181

53106 F!Cl 53171 E127 57639 E12A 57842

E028 57384 0202 53970 F291 58Q33 F:IIW

-

~

AI AOMI.Airllp 10 l oc:aiCin 0000 (twu USA Julnp Vecuw) 5~< 27

07o\O 55213 07A0 47021

65499 FFD8 65499 FFOB 65499 FFDB 65499

-

BASIC 4 0 Kern4l -

The lranN01or, Volum. 4, ~ 0&

67


VIC 20 I Commodore 64 RS 232

Control Register

OPEN LF, 2, SA, CHR$( I7 I6IS I 41J

2

Comman d Register (optional)

CHR$( 17 1 6

ljol ) +

Sl4 13 l2lt

01 )

Baud 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 I t 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1

RS 232 User Port Lines 1 2 3 4 5

I

s

7 • • 10 11 12

:::::::::::: I At CO EFH J

VIC20 RS232eoontrollodbyV1A 1 (6522)at$11110 CG4 RS 232 os controlle<! by CIA 2 (6526) ot $0000 PonN A

B

c

Chip GND FLAG?

0

PBO PSI

E F

PB2 PB3

H

PS.

J

P85 P86 PB7

K

L M

N

OoliCioptJOn Protective GroUJ'Id R9081Ved Data R11011011ed Data Requect to Send Dote Termonal Ready Aong lndCIIIOf Receoved line Sgral

Abril

GNO

s. s.

RTS OTR AI

oco

Unas9gned

Oear ToSend C TS Data Set Ready OSA PA2 TransMrt:ed Oma GNO S{)MI Ground GtlO Avaoable Mooes t) 3-tlne lf'lterlace (5... S... GND) 2) X-Lone onte<lace 3) UoO< ova~able only (YnU$od in codG)

s...

Oir

M odoc

t 2 N t 2 N 1 ? OOT 1' 2 OOT 1' 2 N 3 N 2 N 3 N 2 N 2

user· 50

t10

JXJXJX

134 s 150 -

Duplex

300

0

FUI

GOO 1200

I

Hoi

f-;o 1

2400

I

0

2400

1

0

1 0 t 1

3600'

1

1

0 0

4800'

0

1

1

7200'

1

1

I

0 1 t 0

1

I

I

1

19200'

0

Parity

X X 0 DISabled 0

9600'

I

• rot omplemented

I X I Notl.JMd I

OUT I 2

Word lAngth

t 2 3 0 0

8 Sots

0

7 Bits

1

0 6 Bits 1 1 5 Bits I

• thoso hno$ ere held high duflng 3 hno modo

S top Bit• I Slop Bd

0

1 2StopB•ts

VIC 20 I C64 RS 232 Status 7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

ST - Status Variable

~

Parity Error ' - - - - Framing Error •

'- - - - - Receiver Buffer Overrun ~------

Unused ' - - - - - -- - -CTS Signal Missing ~-------------------- Unused ' - - - - - -- - -- - - OSR Signal Missing ' - - -- - - - - - - - - - - Break Detected

Notes: • If the Lff/ is 128 or greater. a Line Feed will be sent alter each Carriage Return • The Secondary Address SA does not affect AS 232 operation • Before Clos1ng the channel. check output buffer for data with: V!C20 : 100 IFST•OAND (PEEK(37151)AND 64) • 64 THEN 100 110 CLOSE LF C64 : 100 SX ST : IF (SX 0 OR SX=8) THEN 100 110CLOSE LF

=

• 58 The n-.c~ot. Volume 4. 1.ue OS

=

0

3Line

I

Xlono

75

0 1 0 I

K L IIN

H..,dlheke

0 t

1 Odd

0 t

1 Mark 1 Spaoe

1

Evon

-

Not Used

I


IEEE 488 Bus Signals Manager

Transler

Manager

ATN

AnenttOn

DAV

Data Vahd

EOI

End or Identify

~

M!lnaoer

IFC

Interlace

Clear

Transfer

Transfer

NDAC

Data Not Accepted

NRFO

Not Ready I()( Data

The controller (PET/CB\118) sets thiS signal low whr:e c Is sending commands on the data bus. When ATN is low, onty peripheral addresses and controlmessag~JS are on the data bus. When ATN IS hig\, only previOUSly ass.gncd dCMOCl8 CQn trons'cr data.

1

Pm·

MnEmOilC

I 2

1 2

0101

3

3

4

4

Not impfemontod in BASIC, but ava~able to the user.

Managor

REN

Remote Enable

AEN IS held low by tho bus controller The PET/CBM has a pin grounded that keeps REN permanently loY.

Dald

0101-8

5

6 7

6

8

8 9 10

11 12 A

8

c

14

D

15 16

E

F

17 18

H

19

J

20 21

K

L M N

.

Ground

E-5 ~

Sense Note

u

24

1

Potll

Functon

1

Ground 1VIrrdeo

5 0 7

AEAD2

8 9

Vlri'e Honz

1 2 S 4 5&

10 11 12

::::::

A B

-" and Lower cassece rs are shorled

a

t

10 11 12

I

Oelni'IOn

Data Input/Output Lone l 1 Data lnpuVQJtpul Lrn8 12 Data tnoutiCMout L1ne 13 Data lnputfOutput L<ne 14 End or Identify Data Valid Not Ready For Data Data not AccoptGd interface Clear Service Request

A1entoo O'lassos Ground ~EEE cable shield) Data lnpul'<Ntput Llno 15 Data tnput'Outpu Une 16 Data lnput:Outr>ul Line 17 Data lnput.'Output Line 18 Remole Eneble OAVGround NRFDGround NOACGround IFCGrouncl SROGround ATNGround Data Ground{OI01 - 8)

a

~

• s e 7 • t 10 r 1 12

AI C DE F HJ K L MN

SRO

Oigotal Ground + 5 VOlts 10 operate cassette crrcu1try only Compulef conlroled "6V tor cassette motor Read line lrom cassette Wrie line c:assene McnriOrs closure of any loclung type c-.na

1

:::::::::::: EOI O<agSense READ I

Oescriptron

e

PET/CBM User Port

~

N31T19 GNO + 5V MOtor Read Write

ATN GNO 0 105 0 100 0107 0108 REN GNO GND GND GND GNO GNO GNO

3

AI COE F

Pin# A-1 B- 2 C-J 0-4

SRO

23

Ground connectiOns. Thore are six control and management signal ground returns, one data srgnaJ ground return and one chaSSIS shield groundead

Cassette Port

5

• P111 Numbers for Standard IEEE Cable Conneclor

2

I

0 103 004 EOI OAV NRFD NOAC IFC

22

Data These sgNIIS represent the br1s ol olnpul/QJIPV! formation "" !hoi data bus When a L "" 1- 8 010 sig!llllrt low rt rop<ooonts 1 and whenhighO

GNO

0102

7

II 12 13

This signal is held low {true) by the lis· tene<while roading . When the data byte has been read, lhe listener sets NDAC tugh. ThiS signals the talker that aala has been accepted

Sorii!Co Request

s 9 tO

The controller sends <Ia internal r&OOt Signal as FC low {true) to ntialize all <levJCeS to the ide Slate. When the controller IS SWitched on or reset IFC goes low for about 100mll<seconds.

SAO

J •

Pin I

When the I~ byte of data ~being trans'erred, the talke~ has the option of senlng EOIIOw. Tne controller a!ways sets EOIION while the last data byte <S be>ng transfe(red from the controlet.

When 1\RFO IS ION (true), one or more lislene<s are not ready for the next byte of data. When ol devices are ready, NRFO goes high.

a

:::::::::::: A I C D E F HJ K l MN

When OAV IS low, thtS ggnrfes that dal8 s valid on data bus.

Manager

General

IEEE Port Pinouts

c 0

E

F H J K L N N

Vert GND GNO GNO 0.1 PBO PB 1 PB2 PB3

DesarplrOn

Syst&'TI GIOI.fld \rodeo Out for external cfrcplayt Connoaod to IEEE SOO Connectod to lt;EE EOI 1181d low causes power up 10 D<agnostrc rouunes Connected to cassene 1 reaa line Connected to cassene 2 read line Oiagl106tic tBpe write 118rty TV Vertical for exlefnal d61liays 1V Hor<mntal for external dsjllays

Edgosensili\e nputo16S22 VIA PB0-7 are inCIEpen<lenUy programmable tor Input or OutPUt

PS4

PBS PB6 PS7

CB2 GNO

Specie! I/O po1 ol VIA Olgta Grourcl


VIC 20 Expansion Port 22 21 10 11 11 17 1115 U IS 12 11 10 t

I

7 I

$ 4 3

VIC 20 User Port 2 1

1 2 3 A 5 I

p.,,

Nom.

1

GND

2

3 4

5 8 7 &

9 10 II

coo

CD1 C02

C03 CD4 coo CDC COi 8LI<1

8LK2

12 13

8LK3 BLKS

14 15

RAMI RAM2 RAM3 VPJW CRIW

10

17 18

19 20

21 22 A b

tAO NC +5v GND GND CN>

c

CAt

0 E

CA2

F H

CA4

J

CA3

CAS CA6

K

CA7

L

CA8

M N p

CA9 CA I O CA l l CA12 CA13 1/02 1103

A

s

T

u v w X

y

z

4>02 NMI RCSET

f

EDCI A

AB C OEfH.IKLMN

Funclion

PN t 2

Detc:ropt1on System grouncl

Data busblO Data busbl 1 Data busbl 2 Data bus be 3 Data bus be~ Databusbi 5 Data bus bit 6 Data bus bit: 7 8lt aec:oded P.AWROtJ bock 1 0 $2000 (BaNe kMl 81t aec:oded RAM/ROM bock 2 0 $o4000 {BaNe li:M) 8lt aec:oded RAM/ROM bock 3 0 $6000 (aaNe II:M) 8k ooooded ROY l:llcld 5 0 SAOOO (ACM!towj 1k OIICOded RAIA block 0 S0400(acwe1owj 1k oecoded RAM block 0 SC800 (aciNG toN) 1k decoded RAM block 0 SOCOO (aclve klw)

System Ground (100mamaxmum) +5V RESET Cold Start. Memory rS destroyed JoysiJCk Sw.tch 0 JOVO JOY I JoysiJCk Sw.lch I JOV2 JoysiJCk Sw.lch 2 PEN L'Qht Pon Input Allo Joystick Fire Bu:ton SENSE Cassette Swrtcn oenae 5ne Comecled to Set oat Bus ATN Ltne Se!oali>WN 9 \AC + Phase Translormer ourpu (50 rna maxiD1.011)

4

5 6 7

8 9 tO

GNO GND GNO

11

12 A B

CBt PBO PBI PB2 Pe3 PB4 PB5 P86 PB7

c 0 c F H

lnterupt Request hne to 6502 (acwe ~

J K L M N

Ad<ltoss bus b<l 0 Address bus bit 1

Ad<ltess bus bit 2 AO<ltess bus oot 3 Mcress bus !lot 4 Address bus brl 5 Address bus brt 6 Address bus brt 7 AddrEIIIS bus brt 8 MdrOII$ bus bit 9 Addres$ bus bit 1o Address bus bit 11 Address bus brl12 Address bus brt 13 1/0 block 2 (located at $9600) 1/0 block 3 (located at S9COO) Phase 2 sy.;lam clock 6502 Non-Mackable lrter~ (active low) 6502 Reeet pon (actiVe ow)

Oe<lcriPtlOn

Ground

3

Aead/Wr~te 1111e Iron VIC Chip (hgh read, bw路,.IIIB) Read/Write line Iron CPU {111gn-reao, low路wr~e)

P00-7 are 1ndepande<\dy progtanmabe IO< Input or Output

Special VO pin of VIA

CB2

GNO

VIC 20 AudioNideo Port

Plnl

Nomo

1

+&I

2 3

NC

GNO

4

5

P1111

Name

I

SAO

2 3

GND

4

CLK DATA RESET

6

60

The ~or. YolurM 4 , 11- OS

ATN

Ooscripilo~

10 ma. max.mum

GNO

S~emGrourd

AUO VIOL VIOH

AudOO!.c VIdeo l ow VIdeo High

Colour

Aed Grey

Blacl< Wh>W Coloul refers to Radio Shack Par\142- 2394

VIC 20 I Commodore 64 Serial Port

5

I 11 11 12

::::::::::::

I :::::::::::::::::::::: I Z Y XW V U T S R P N M L K J H

7 I

Oescrpton SeN!I SAO Ill (eaw to..) System G<ound Serra' ATN tn/Ovt

Seri<i Oock lniOvt Seri<i Data ln/CM ResEts 81 devices on Seraat bus (acbve low)


Commodore 64 Expansion Port

2~21 201 t 1117 1 a nu

u 12 1110 •

7 •

1 •

a

2

Commodore 64 User Port

1

1 2 3 4 5 I

Natre 1 2 3 4

6

6 7 8

9 10

Dot Clock 1101 GAME ~M V02

AOML BA DNA 07

IS

06

16 17 19 19

05 04 03 02 01 DO GNO GNO

8

c 0 e

F H

J

K L M N p R

ROMH RESET NMI •2 A15 A1 4 A13 A12 All A10 A9

s

Al3 A7 AG

u

A5 A4

w

A:3 A2

T

v

X y

z

0 C 8 A

A 8 C D E

Oesctpton GND Sytrom Ground +5VOC Totl!l User Port and Canridge deoces +5VOC can draw ro more than 450ma. lAO lntetupt Request line to 6502 (aCIJve low). RIW Aead!Wrrte.

I1

21 A

f

f>lnl

12 13 14

20 21

r

AI AO GND

0 101 1 12

::::::::::::

I :::::::::::::::::::::: I Z Y XW V U T 8 R , NM L K J H

7 I

Prnl

Func1100

1

Ground +5V RESET CNT1 SP1 CNT2

H J K L M N

Oesapton

1l

Sysurn Ground (1 00 ma maxrnum) Cold Start Memory IS NOT destroyed Selral Poncounter from CIA 11 Sel111l Port from CIA I 1 S...ai Port counl« from CIA 12 SP2 So<ICII Port from CIA 12 PC2 Harodlhelong tne from CIA 12 SanaiATN Conneaed to Serial Bus ATN line 9VAC +PhaSe Tri!Miormer output (50 rna maxrnum) 9VAC - Phase Transiormer output (50 ma ma~rnum)

12 A B

c

GNO GND FLAG2

0

PBO PB1

1:

PB2

2 3 4

5 6

8 18 MHz video dol clock 00 Block 1 0 SOEOO-SOEFF 4actNe II:M) llllbufG<ed 00. AciNeioN TTc.. rnput. N;wa IO'N TTL input 110 Block 2@ $0F00-$0FFF (aCilve tow) buffa<lld TTL OUtput. 8K dEicoded AAMIROM block@ $8000 (active low) buffered TTL output Bus Avariable signal lrcm the VIC II chrp · unbu11ered- 1 is maximum lOad. Orect Memory Access request 11!18(actue low ni)Jt)IS Til rnpU\, [~Ill bus bt 7 • Data bus bt 6 • Ollt.t bus bt 5 • Ollta bus bt 4 • Dota bu$ b~ 3 •

r

7

8 9 10

Deta bus b<t2 • Deta bus bl 1 • Oeta buS bt 0 • Syslem grourd 5yslem Ground 81< decoded RAMIROtJ Block buffwed 6502 RESET oon (actw low) buffwed TTL oulllnbufllored rn. 6502 t~on MaGkablo ln10rrupl (odMIIowj buftGiad TTL oot. unbuffered "' Ph~ 2 S)'$tcm clock. Adorass bus bi\15 • Add'ess bus bit t 4 • Aad'ess buS llU 13 Ad<i'ess buS bit 12 • Add'ess bus bit 11 • Ad<i'ea; bus bit10 • Ad<i'ess bus bot g. Add'ocs bus btt Addraas bus M 7 • Address bus bit 8. Aad'ess buS bit s· AO<ress bus bit 4 • Adctess bus bit 3 • Add'ess bus bit 2 • Adctess bus bit 1 • Acidr- bus brt 0. Syctam Groond

o seooo

F

PB3

H

PB4

J K L

PBS

PB0-7 are rl'dependently programrml:le 10< Input or Output

M

PB6 PB7 PA2

N

G'IO

Special I/O pn o1 CIA

Commodore 64 AudioNideo Port

Ptnf

N1lme

1 2

LUM

3 4

5 6 7

a

GNO AUO COMP JACK CHA NIC N/C

DescripiiOn

Lumnance Syctam Gtound AodioOUI C<mposl"' Vodao Audio tn Chlomaout 'lo comect.on Nocomecton

• - Unbuffered 1 is TTL load max.

VIC 20 I Commodore 64 Joystick Ports 1 0

\. Pin I

Ncme

t

JOYO JOY 1 JOY2

2 3 4

5 6 7 8 9

2 0 0 8

0 7

3

..

0

0 0

5 0 0 9

a

Oescripbon

JOY3 POTY

fiRE

I'WJ tha Loghl Pen if1)Ut. (C64 port 1 on!y)

+5V GND

100ma. maxmum Sys:em Ground

POTX NOlo Sao Morrory Mop lor roading Joyst.ek Ports

The TrlnuctGf, Volume 4, ....,. 05

81


Commodore Disk Specifications 09090

Model

Drives per Head Hf'ads per Drivf'

8250 2 2

8050

4040

2

2 I

2. 12 1.18 1.05 1.18 1.04 1.18 4 KB

1.05 MD 521 KB 183 KB 4 KB

3~0 KB

77

23-29 2S6

I

2031 I I

1541 I I

4KB

170KB 168 KB 167 KB 2 KB

170KB 168KB 167KB 2KB

77

~5

35

35

17-21 256 1328

17-2 1 2S6 66-1

17-2 1 256

8266

23-29 256 4104

40KB 1.2 KB

40 KB 12 KB

-

-

• 3 3 s 30 •• IS3 153 360 125 IS IS 8.34 834 100 100 100 3600 3600 300 300 300 • Track-To-Track: Mlcropolls 8050 • 30 rns. Tandon 8050 "' 5 ms. • • Ave rase Track: Micropolis 8050 • 750 ms. Tandon 8050 "' 125 ms.

30 360

30 360

100 300

100 300

S.75 8.25 15.25 21

S.7S 8.25 1525 21

200

200

I 6

Fonaattecl Storate Cclpdcity per Urut Max Sequent.al Files/Dnve MAX Rtlative Files/Drive Disk System Buffer

09060 I

4

I

7.47 MD 7.41 MB 7.35 MB 4 KB

4.90 MB 4 KB

153 128 32 256 29162

153 192 32 256 19442

s \18

5MB

40 KB

40KB

1.2 KB

1.2 KB

1.2 KB

1.2 KB

4.98 MB 4.94 MB

168K8 167 KB

Olak Formats

Cylinders (Tracks) Sectors per Cylinder Sectors per Track B)tes per Sector Blocks ~·ree

-

-

-

-

-

664

Trqlller Rates (bytea per 11e<:0Dd)

lnternallo Unit IF.E£-188 Bus A - nmea (mllli-.eeoncla)

Track-To-Track Average Track llead Settling Time Average Latency RPM

Physical Dimensions Height (inche11) Wrdlh (rnches) Depth (inches) Weight (pounds) Electrical P<l"'er (Wattsj Voltage (all models)

Block-Read Block-Wnte Blotk·Elecute Buller-Pointer

B-R 8-W B-E 8-P

Format • 8-R: · ch;dr;t;s • 8-W: • ch;dr,t;s • 8-E.' ch,dr,t,s • 8-P: ' ch;p

Block-Allocate Block-Free Memory-Wnte Memory-Read Memory-Execute

8-A

• B-A· • dr;t:s

B-F M·W M·R M·E

• 8-F: 'dr:t.s

User Command

u

Oi

OR T S P AOL AD II NC DATA X PARMS

-

7.0 ISO 13.75 28

7.0 15.0 13.75 28

7.0 15.0 13 75 28

s.s

3.0

8.0 14 25 20

7.0 13.0 10

60

50

50

40

35

110- 120 VAC. 60Hz

Disk Utility-Command Set Command

-

Abbreviation

•\1-w· adL/adH/ncfdaLa • M·R' adl/adh • M·E • adl/ndh • ux:c.h;dr;t:s

The channel number in OOS· id~ntlcal to I he Secondary Address in the IIS$0Ciated OPEN statement Th@ Drive number· 0 (Of I lloroy dual drives) The Track number. I through I 54 (depending on the model') Sector number . 0 through 112 ( dependtng on !he model") The pointer Position fort he buffer poi Iller The Low by1e of the Address (use CHR$(AOL)) The lligh byte of the Address (use CHRS(AOL)) The Number ol Characters: I through 34 The actual data in hexadecimal. This Is transmitted by using the CHRS function. ie. CHR$(11) would send the decimal equivalent of hexadecimal II The index to the user table The Parameter.; mociated with the Ucommand (optional)

Sector Distribution By Track Number of Sectors Track Number 1- 17 18-24 25-30 31 - 35

4040 21 19 18 17

2031

1541

21 19 18 17

21 19 18 17

Track Number 1- 39 40- 53 54 - 64 65- 77 78- 116 117-130 t31- 141 142- 154

8050

8250

29

29 27

27 2S

23

25 23 29 27 25

23

09060/09090- 153tracks per recording surface ( 4 on 09060 and 6 on the 09090) "'ith 32 sectors per trKk

User Command Jump Table Sta.nda.rd Syatax

Alte.mate Syntax

Ul U2 U3 U4

UA UB

UG

U7

UF UG

U9

UH 1:1

us

us

u.

uc

UD UE

UJ

f unctloa

Block-Read replacement Block-Write replacement Jump to S1300 Jump to S1303 Jump to SI30G Jump 10 S1309 Jump to S130C Jump to SI30F Jump to SIOf'O (NMI) Power·Up vector (rc:sd)


HAM (Hlock Allocation Map) Formats 4040, 203 1, and 15418A."Format - Track 18Sector 00 Desaiption Data Tuck-Seclor of lillit Directory block 18-00 ASCII 'a' fdentifte$ DOS 2.G format 65 Reserved for future DOS use 00 trark( 1-35 Bit map of availablt> blocks

Byte•

0-1 2 3 4-143

8050 BAM Format Data Byte'

Oesaiption

0-1 2 3

Track-Sector of next OAM block ASCII 'c' Identifies DOS 2.5 format Reserved for futJre DOS use Lowest track 1 mapped in this BA \1 block Highest track • ( + 1) maptXd in thi5 BAM block 'lumber of unused blocks on tract· Bit map of available blocks on track· (BAM 2: 11-140)Bit map of available blocks on tracks:

~

5 6 ... 7-1 0 11- 255

38-03

8AM2 Tr381 Sc03 39-01

67

67

00 01 51 I 1 2- 50

00 51 78 51 51 52-77

BAM I Tr38 I ScOO

8250 BAM Fonnat Data

Description

Byle•

BAM 1 Tr38 I ScOO

0-1

Track-Sector or next BAM block ASCII 'c' Identifies DOS 2. 7 format Reserved lor future DOS use Lowest track • mapped in ftrst BA.\1 block Hlghesl nack • (+f) mapped in rust BAM block number of unused blocks on trac.k: bit map ol available blocks on track: (BAM 4: 11-2S)Bit map ol available blot.b on tr<lcks.

2 3 4

5 6 7-10 11- 255

0-1 2-3 ~

5

6 7-10 11-255

4-5 6- 21 22-23

Data

!9-32 33-255

160 50,65 160

00 Data

38,00

67 00 160 160 50,67 160 00 Data

l>-1

2-3 4-5 1>-7 S-9

67

00 101 151 101 101 102-150

2031 Directory Blocks · Track IS Sector OJ through 18 •~o Dtrec1ory Blocks Track 18 Sector 01 through 18 8050 Dtrectory Blocks· Track 39 Sector OJ through 29 8250 Directory Blocks· Track 39 Sector OJ through 29 D9060 I 09090 Directory Blocks · Starting on cylin der 76, u~ all Track:. ·Sectors 00 throusJl 31, then expands to iddttional blocks u requared, prov•d•RR 'Unlimited' Directory size.

Description

Shifteds~e

ASCII '2o' idenlilie$ DOS version and formli Shifted spac.es Not used

6}1e" 0-1 2 3-4 5-20 21 - 22

Desalpllon Track-Sector to first BAM block ASCll 'c· ldennhes DOS 2.5 lormat reserved for future DOS use Not used Diskette name, padded wtth shilled spaces Shifted spaces Diskette 10 number Shifted spaee ASCII '2c' idenli[~ DOS ver~iun and format Shifted spac~ Not used

09060 I 09090 Dl.rectory Header - Track 0 Sector 0 Byte"

38-01 (Oir) 67 00 I 51 155 lSI !51 152-1 54

01 51 1 I 2-50

Reserved for 2031 BAM Diskette name, padded wtth shifted spaces Oiskelle 10 number

~4-25

!6 !7 28

38-09

00

8050, 8250 Directory Header - Track 39 Sector 00

3

38-00 67 00 51 101 51 51 52-100

67

2031, 4040, 1541 Directory Header - Track 18 Sector00

2

BMt• Tr38/ Sc09

38-03

Directory Format

Byte" 0-1

BAM3 Tr38 I S<.Q6

09060 I 09090 BAM Format- Track 1 Sector 0 (normal location) Description Om a Trac.k-Sector panter to next BAM block srFF'F' =last Track-Sector panter to previous BA.\1 blOCk SFFFF -first Lowest tr.ck • mapped in thi) BAM block Highest track • ( + I) mapped 111 thiS BAM block Number of blocks unuSI"d on this track Bit map ol available blocks on this track Bit map ol the next 49 tracks

Byte•

Byte" I 143 144-161 162-163 164 165- 166 167-170 171-255

8AM2 Tr381 Sc03

00,255 76. 00 00,00 01, 00

Description Tr&.k-St:uor pointer to b<td track and seaor list ldentdtes DOS 3.0 lormat Track-St'clor of frsl direc1ory blort Not used Track-Sector of firs BAM block

23 24-27 2&-29 30-31 32-255

Descnption Track-sector pointer to uc:xl dirt:ttory block File type Track-sector pointer to first file block File name, padded with shifted spate~ Track- sector ol fir5t ~ide sector if REI.4tive fie Record lei1Ph If relative file Reserved for future life information Track-sector poi ntcr for replacement Number of bl01.k) u:.ed by the file Stven more 32-byte hie entnes (same as 2-31 above. plus two additional unused bytes) Additional 'lotes

1 2

3

4 5

32 byte$ per file entry except the lirst entry is 30 bytes Total of eight (8) file entries per di rectory block File types are: Scratched Files soo $01 Sequential Files Program nles S02 User-Defined S03 Relllive Record S04 File I~ codes are OR'eel with $80 when file is properly closed Trock volue of 00 in byte zero indiCAte$ the 14>1 u~ block in the directory Sector value then shows next byte to use

TIM lranuc:tor, Volume 4, laue OS 63


1

Commodore Related Progra•nming Books Author

Title

Publlshe.r

SuperPET Related Books. ,.. SuperPET System Overview SuperPET Waterloo 6809 Assembler SuperPET Waterloo MicroBASIC SuperPET Waterloo MicroFORTRAN SuperP~T Waterloo MicroCOBOL SuperPET Waterloo MicroPASCAL SuperPET Waterloo MicroAPL

Bosweli/Grove/McPhee/Welch Cowan/Shaw Graham/McPhee Dirkson/Welch Commodore Boswell/Grove/Welch Wilson/ Wilkerson

Sam·s Books Sam's Books Sam's Books Sam's Books Sam's Books Sam·s Books Sam's Books

Lance Leventhal Lance Leventhal Findley

Osborne Osborne

Zaks Zaks

Sybex Sybex Sams WILY LB BYTE McGraw Hill Compute!

6502 Programming Books. 6502 Assembly Language Programming 6502 Assembly Language Subroutines 6502 Software Gourmet Guide & Cookbook Advanced 6502 Programming Programming The 6502 6502 Software Design 6502 Assembly Language Programming 6502 Systems Programming Beyond Games: Systems Software for your 6502 Personal Computer Top Down Assembly Language Programmer For Your 6502 Personal Computer Machine Language For Beginners

Scanlon Fernandez/Tabler/Ashley Windeknecht Skiers Skier Mansfield

?

6809 Programming Books. 6809 Assembly Language Programming Programming The 6809 The 6809 Companion

Lance Leventhal Zaks/Labiak James

Osborne

?

BP

Hardware Related Books. PET/CBM & The IEEE 488 BUS (GPIB) Interface Projects For The PET/CBM PET Interfacing Advanced 6502 Interfacing Programming & Interfacing the 6502 with experiments How To Program and Interface the 6800 6809 Microcomputer Programming and Interfacing, with Experiments 6502 Applications

64 The Transactor, Volume 4, laaue 05

Fisher/Jensen Hallgren Downey/Rogers Holland DeJong Staugaard Staugaard Zaks

Osborne

.

?

Sams Sams Sams Sams Sams Sybex


• Title

Author

Publisher

Vic 20 Books. Vic Programmers Reference Guide Compute's First Book 01 Vic Compute's Second Book Of Vic Compute's First Book 01 Vic Games Users Handbook to the Commodore Vic 20 Vic-20 cOmputer Writing Workbook 34 Vic-20 Computer Programs lor Home, School & Office I 01 Programming Tips & Tricks For The Vic-20 Start With BASIC On Your Commodore Vic 20 Vic BASIC: A User-Friendly Guide More Than 32 BASIC Programs lor the Commodore Vic Computer Computers lor Kids-Commodore Vic-20 Edition Getting Aquainted with your Vic-20 Vic Graphics Vic Revealed VtcGames Mapping The Vic

Compute! Books Compute! Books Comput~! Book:. Weber Adler Adler Adler Monro Zamora Rugg/Feldman/ Wilson Larsen Hartnell Nick. Hampshire Nick Hampshire Nick Hampshire Compute!

Sams Compute! Books Compute! Books Compute! Books WSI ARCsolt ARCsolt ARCsolt REST PH Dilithium Press Creative Comp. Press Creative Comp. Press Hayden Hayden Hayden Compute! Books

Commodore Compute! Rugg/ Feldman/Moore Compute!

Sams Compute! Books Dilithium Press Compute! Books

Raeto Collins West Nick Hampshire Nick Hampshire Nick Hampshire Osborne Osborne Peckham Compute! Books David Jeffries and Fisher Berenbon Zamora Rugg Strei Imatter/Goldstein Haskell Jeffries Boren Brown

Compute Books Hayden Hayden Hayden Osborne Osborne Osborne Compute! Books Dilithium Press

-

C64 Books. Commodore 64 Programmers Rei.Guide Compute!s First Book of 64 More Than 32 BASIC Programs for the Commodore 64 Computer Mapping The Commodore 64

Pet/CBM Books. Programming The PET/CBM The PET Revealed The Library Of PET Subroutines PET Graphics CBM Professional Computer Guide PET Personnel Computer Guide Hands-On BASIC With PET Compute's First Book Of PET/CBM PET Basics PET Fun and Games Mostly BASIC: Applications for your PET PET BASIC I 32 BASIC Programs lor the PET Computer PET/CBM An Introduction To BASIC Programming and Applications PET/CBM BASIC PET Fun And Games A PET In The Classroom Instant BASIC

?

Sams

PH Dilithium Press BRDY PH Osborne Dilithium Press 1

The Tranuctor, Volume 4, 1-.ue 05

65


Glossary Access Time

-The lime required for a computer to locate and transfer data to or from a storage medium.

Acoustic Coupler

-The two rubber cups on an acoustic modem that hold the receiver in place to allow transmiSSion and reception of data.

Acoustlc Modem

- A telephone modem that is not hardwired into the telephone lines, but uses a microphone and speaker to transmit data to and from the telephone.

Accumulator

- A location within the microprocessor that is used for storage of the result of an arithmetic or logic operation.

Address

- A location between 0 and 65535 in computer memory.

Algorithm

-A set of rules, usually mathematical. that help in solving a particular problem.

ANSI

- American National Standards Institute.

APL

-Advanced Programming Language.

ASCII

-The 'American Standard Code lor Information Interchange'. Is an eight level codeserialtran:;mi:.:.ion of alphanumeric code The first 7 bits represent 128 standard ASOI characters. The eighth bit is a parity bit for error checking. The eight data bits are preceded by one start bit and and followed by one or two stop bits.

Assembler

- A computer program that translates source code, ie. the actual written assembler program. into a machine readable form, the object code.

Backup

-The exact duplication of a diskette by the use of a dual disk drive and the backup procedure.

Bank Switching

-A method in y,hich switching between various RAM locations can be achieved through software.

BASIC

- Acronym for Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code.

Baud Rate

-The rate or WhiCh data is transmitted, which Is expressed In terms of bits per second. Baud rate/10 equals bytes per second (approx.)

Binary Number

-A numbering system that uses either the digits 0 or Ito express all numeric values. The binary digit IS also known as the 'bit.

Bit

-One eighth of a normal byte. in binary it is either a 0 or a I symbolizing yes or no. on or off. etc.

Block

- 256 characters of information, as stored on a diskette. Also known as a sector ol a d1skette

Buffer

- RAM used for temporary storage of data un!Jithc data can be accepted by the device it is being sent to.

Bus

- The lines connecting the memory. microprocessors. and other portions of the computer or peripherals that send or receive data.

Byte

-The equal of one character of information, which is 8 bib. Numerk value of one byte can fall between 0 and 255 decimal.

CPU

-Central Processing Unit, the microprocesoor.

COBOL

-COmmon Business Oriented Language.

COMAL

-COmmon Algorithmic Language. Written for Commodore machine.~ in Denmark.

Compiler

- A computer progrnm that will accept a program written in a language such as BASIC. then convert it

#

over to a form that the computer will Immediately understand, a machine language. DaisyWheel

- A print wheel that uses impact of a solid character to produce its impression. The daisy wheel is

circular in design to allow for the wheel to spin around quickly to the correct character.

66

Density

-The number of bits in a single linear track measured per unit of length of the recordmg medium, ie. single or double density diskettes.

Data Transmission Rate

-The BAUD rate.

Direct Access

-A method of accessmg information from a storage medium, such as a diskette, where the access time is not alfected by the location of the data on the disk.

Tile Tlw-uotor, Vo lume 4 , 1-.oe 05


Glossary Directory

-A list generated by the disk drive of all files currently stored on its diskette.

Diskette

-A thin, flexible magnetic disk permanently enclosed in a semirigid protective jacket.

DOS

-The 'Disk Operating System· which controls all of the action) of the di:.k drive.

Dot Matrix Printer

-A printer head that forms it characters by the use of numerous metal pms to punch out the •mage required on paper.

Dynamic memory

- A form of random access memory that maintains its stored information by constant refresh cycles.

Dynamic

- In a constant state of change. (ie. variables)

EPROM

- Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory.lsa form of ROM that can be erased b) ultraviolet light, and re-programmed when necessary.

EAROM

- Electrically Alterable Read Only Memory. Is a form ot ROM that will remain constant under normal operating conditions, but whose contents can be modified by a series of deliberate electrical signals.

File

-A collection of related records brought together as one. single unit.

File Type

- Pertaining to Commodore DOS, there are four different file types. These are PRoGram, SEQuential, RELative, and USeR.

Flag

-A single storage bit used to signal the occurence of a certain condition.

Floppy Disk

-A diskette

F'low Chart

- A logical diagram of the order in which a particular problem is thought to be resolved. Usually required when complex computer programs are to be wriuen.

Formaltlng

- Pertaimng to Commodore DOS, is the process of organlzmg a diskette Into specifiC tracks and sectors to allow for storage and retrieval of information.

FORTRAN

-An acronym for FORmula TRANslating system, a high level computer language.

Full Duplex

- In communications, me simultaneous cransmission and reception of data, unlike half-<luplex.

Graphic Plotter

- A device that connects to the computer, and is controlled b) the computers software to draw exact patterns as decerrni ned as the compuced X and Y co-ordinates.

Half- Duplex

- In communications, allowing only one way data transmission or recept1on at any one single time. Compares in prlndpal to an inexpensive walkie talkie

Hard-Copy

- Refers to any printed output in general.

liard Disk

- A totally self enclosed data storage system. The disk il~lf is sealed inside the unit. and rotates at approximately 3500 RPM to allow lor high speed access to information. A special feature of this type of storage syscem is che vast amounl of storage space available in relation to a floppy disk system.

Hardware

-The actual physical components or a computer system, ie. computer, peripherals, magnetic storage media, paper etc.

Hexadecimal

-A numbering system with the base 16. Its digits range from 0 through F.

High- LcvciLnnguasc

A computer language such as BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN, PASCAL, APL and PL/1, to name a few, thac use english like commands in the design of computer programs.

Impact printer

-A printer which forms its characters by the physical striking ol the nbbon and paper.

Increment

-To increase the value of by a certain quantity.

Interactive longuoge

- A high-lcvd language !hal allows execution, modification, chen rc excculion <~gain, for as many cydes as required. BASIC is one example of such a language.

Interface

- A wiring device to connect two or more devices together in a harmonious extstence. where data can be transmitted or received' accurately.

Interpreter

- A compuler program that cranslates and executes each statement in a program ent1rely before attempting to continue on to the next statement in line. This is a built in feature of Commodore BASIC.

The Transactor. Volume'· laue OS 67


Glossary Interrupt Dri\ en

- A program whose execution is activated by the computers operating systems attempts to check its various tnterrupl routines. Similar to a water wheel placed in a fast moving river. Very little change in the now if the river but the water wht'E'I i~ allowt>d to operate.

1/0

- An abbreviation for Input/Output, or the transmission to and from the microprocessor.

Jump

- In assembler. a branch to a sed ion of code other then what the normal program flow would expect.

K

-In reference to storage capacity, it is equal to 1024 bytes of data.

Light Pen

- A hand-held, light-sensitive device that is wired d1rectly to the computer to allow the light-pen/ screen positions to be transmitted to the computer lor analysis and re-action.

Low-Level Language

- A computer language, such as assembler, that requ1res very little translation to become acceptable by the computer.

Machine Language

- A programmmg language that is Immediately understandable by the computer, therefore not requiring any translation at all. In reality not a language as such but a coding of binary digits

Matrix Printer

-Dot Matrix Printer.

Memory Map

- A llstlug ul addresses antol correspondiug luu~tiuns for all RAM and ROM locations within the

computers memory.

18

Microprocessor

- The central processing unit of a microcomputer containing the control unit, arithmetic logic unit, and a number of storage location, all within one small ~ilicon chip.

Modem

-A devtce that MOdulates and DEModulates Stgnals transmmed over lhe telephone lines, I rom analog to di8Jtal and vice-versa.

Monitor

- A video-display, similar to a television screen, that is used for computers :md other electronic devtces requmng a stable VIdeo ourput.

Mnemonic Code

-A St>t of abbreviated commands designed to help make the writing of an assembly lanQuage program simpler for the programmer.

Network

- A number of compu ters and peripherals connected together through either a lorm of timeshari ng system, or over the telephone lines in a similar manner.

Nibble

-A group or 4 bits, or one hall of a b) te.

Null String

-A string variable without any characters in 11.

Object Code

-The compiled, or machine code version of what was origmally a source code program.

Operand

-The address or a unit of data to be operated upon

Operating system

-The software I hat controls the execut1on of all computer programs, the diagnostic system to help in the debugging process, all input/output, all housekeeping duties ol the computer, and all else that go into the running of the system. In Commodore, the operating system is located in ROM.

Output device

-A device. or one in a series of devices used to collecl data from another device. To alleviate conluston, the printer is an outpu t device when accepting data from the computer to be printed.

Pascal

-A high-level programming language.

Parallel

- A type of pon or interface that allows all eight bits of data to be transmitted at the> ~me time, each through a :;eparate piece of ~i re.

Peel<

-A BASIC keyword used to look at a position In memory to determine the value located there.

Peripheral

-Any number of external devices that can be used with the computer to increase its productivity.

Pixel

-One graphic point on the computers screen. The type ol compu ter, the graphic mode of operation it is in, and the resolution capabilities of the screen determine how high of resolution will be viewed.

Poke

- A BASIC keyword used to store a numeric digit between the values of 0 and 255, within memory.

Port

-A connection point on a computer to connect an external interface to with some form or peripheral.

Thellatâ&#x20AC;˘ctor, Volume4, Ill .. 05

â&#x20AC;˘


Glossary PROM

-Programmable Read Only Memory. A memory storage chip that may be programmed by someone other than the manufacturer. This chip can only be written to once, and becomes a permanent modification when the process is complete.

QWERTY

- On a full sized typewriter keyboard, or computer terminal, the first six letters in the third row are QWERTY

RAM

-Random Access Memory. As the name implies, this memory is such that access to it can be made in a total random 5e<JUence. When the power i~ turned off with this type of memory, all contents are lost.

Read

-The operation performed by the computer as It takes in new mformation from an input devtce.

Read/Write Head

-The piece of hardware that can take information from, or write information to a magnetic storage medium.

Register

-A number of small temporary storage locations within the computer, that are used for such things as the operating system. and other functions that the programmer may rE'quire

Resolution

- The number ol pixels (points) that can be displayed on a computer screen both horizontally and vertical!}.

ROM

-Read Only Memory. As the name implies, the contents of this section or memory can be read from. but not written to. When the power is turned off, the contents of ROM are retained.

Sector

-An area on diskecte that is comprised ol256 characters of information. Also know as the block. this block is read and write compatible, and can be accessed by the experienced programmer, or left up to the devices of the di~k drive itself.

SequenUal Access

-A manner in which to read or wnte data

as complete blocks or tnformation. with each byte accessed

in the exact order in which was stored. Serial

- A type of port or interlace that allows only one bit of data to be transmitted at 11 time through one the

data line. Software

-A computer program and its supporting documentation.

Source Code

-A high level language program that requires interpretation or translation into a form acceptable by

the computer before processing. form of RAM whose contents are stable as long as the computer is turned on. Unlike dynamic RAM. there i' no refresh cycle required.

Static Memory

-A

Storage Capacity

- The amount of data that a device can accept lor storage, usually expressed in bytes.

String

-A set of alphanumeric dtaracters stored within memory that can be recalled, modified, or transmitted to peripheral devioe such as a printer, disk drive. ca_c;sette drive, modem etc.

Syntax

-The correct grammatical design of a computer program according to the particular rules JCt down when the computer language was designed.

Synchronous

- Occumng stmultaneously with a regular or predictable time relationship.

Thermal Printer

- A dot-matrix printer producing its printed characters by the ulie of a dot-matrix pattern that has

been adapted electrically and heat sensitive paper. Track

- With reference to a diskette, a track i~ one circular portion of a diskette surface that is further subdivided into sectors, or blocks of information

Variable

-An area of identifiable storage space that can be read or altered as necessary. Variable length cannot

exceed 255 characters. Volatile Memory

- A form of computer memory that loses Its contents alter the power has been turned off. Kandom access memory. or RAM is an example of this.

Write

-A store a section of computer memory, or a quantity of produced data on an external storage medtum such as diskelte or cassette.

Write Protect

- In order to avoid losmg stored data on cassette or diskette storage mediums, write protecting is a method to stop any unintentional damage.

The TrlnMCtor, Volume 4, 1uue os

69


ICRO PEC SOFTWARE MEANS BUSINESS FOR THE COMMODORE 64 When it's time to get serious. it's time to boot up MicroSpec business software. Our complete line of business software is made to give you some real applications for your Commodore 64. From data base management to full accounting software, we have the package for you. It's attention to detail that makes our packages so beautiful and makes them stand out from the rest We realize that most people are first ./' time users, so we designed all our packages to .. be completely menu driven and user prompted for each input We also know that most people use only one disk drive, so we designed all our packages to virtually c eliminate disk swappin~o Other features like C' non destructive input routines really make our software easy to use. But all this doesn't restrict you. Pure random access file structure maximizes your disk capacity and allows you to bring up any record for viewing in less.tban a second. In our effort& to put together the best packages available, we worked on more than the software. We took the same approach with the documentation as the software. We made it complete and easily understood for the fiJ'St time user. We even provide sample repons in many cases,

/

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•...- - ...... ... -...... -- ..-... -- -.. - -- - --.. -•...... ..•- •... -. -- .. .. ---.... -..... --...=.. --- -..- - - ..-- --- --- ..-- ..-Cl

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The Demonstration Package, which shows how eacb program runs, is available for$19.95. So, if you're serious about your 64, call or write for a complete brochure or 10 rJpt down to your aearest computer retailer for a demoaatratloa.

WHEN YOU AND YOUR 64 ARE READY TO GET DOWN TO BUSINESS GIVE US A CALL

P.O. BOX 863085 • PLANO, TX 75086 (214) 867-1333 70


â&#x20AC;˘

The

Five yeara of service to the PET community.

The Independent U.S. magazine for users of Commodore brand computers. EDITORS: Jim and Ellen Straama Sample laeue free on request, from:

635 MAPLE o MT. ZION, IL 62549 USA 71


MPI INTRODUCES SUPER ACTION MEMORY EXPANDER BOARD FOR VIC 20* Adds 24K and 3 Expansion Slots With Switches and Fuse $109.95 INTRODUCTORY PRICE (Expandable To 351< By Simply Adding Memory Chps ond Switches)

$109 95

ld9es To lOpe t c()de wlltl torY rested p..nd • ~ oestruct s~ rds fOC ~IJCtiO~. 5ter corif proteC ~~ &o0 ~te lf\~s l(lCIIJ fvode 2« IQW) RMJUS: TrOI1 •Adell 24K t.lemay (29K wi1'1 VIC. 51(). c UIUStfat'O

:Clle

'Upgoolloofd 10 3SK bof aclcing IC'I oncl swilctas • Menlory Ml!chollle In 81\ IICIIOIW (No need 10 MJetmmD'IeO'ItlllllmOI'j boold 10 run your ollw prOQIOIM) '31)j)C111Son lloll Wllh IWIIdles (for game or uto 111111\' cor11tdgeS). 'Aliff bullon allcow tttta11ng compulilf wilhoJI lllmirg pc.w ctf ••5 omp 11M proltellel •SWtt:h reloeoMS exponslon cor111c:lges In mtniCIIV so 11101 it~ IJe SOYtd on 10pe os o backup for vw -.oluoblt prog10ms (The uneJII)Cilded W: will not allow cartlklges 10 IJe tcJ¥eO on 10118) • Wrllll pr<NC! swt1etws oii<M> progtoms stared tn RAM ot ROM locoaon 01 enH~e MomOfY to IJe ptOIIelld ogol1111 occidental wrllt. • SWitch allOWS mtmlll)' 10 IJe mO'IIICI IJe!WMn RAM Oncl ROM lOCO lion (UsefUl Ia 08'191oplng your own gam• Oncl IO'MQ 00 10118).

24K rremay, 3 1xporelon IIOII,IWI~ o*"lbled ond temld . • • . $1ot.l5

SOme as abO'Ie willl sodo.elllll01 allow ~ to 1<1* odd yw own memory chips 10 lllng lllellloty fr0111 24K to 35K . • . • . .. • • . .. . . . • .. . • • . $12 4.15 Full 35K mtmoty, 3 expon&la~ lloll, 3K oxponaor moue, eprom soc:1te1 (IWI!ell oei0C10blo botwotn BLK 3 & BLK 5) onG aiiiWitchol osaombled end leSitd (eprom not lnctudOd) • .. . • . .. • . .. • .. • .. .. . •. $14t.l5

Bare35Kb001dwlll1comptelt lnsiTUcaooandp011SIIsl •.••.... . . $31.15

•Gokl pl(ll8d oord ectoe ccnrec10r. ·No olhor mtiTIOI'/ o~poMioo 110td0d. • E05IIy plugs lmo your VIC, no moulflca~oos neoesuy. wear on your VIC 20 slnct 110001 nev8l ~ 10 11e remowo 01 power tume0 011 onG oo to run omet ropes

sows

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Add $5 f04' shipping and handling Mo. reslclents Odd 5V2 " saltS 10x

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send check 01 money Ofdel to

3SK rN!mary (401< wllhVIC' 51\)

MPI lox 8123-1 KanSGs City, MO 64112

Assembler for the The Banner MachlnerM For the Commodore b~ (with 5 fonts) or the VlC-'20 wtth UK mtm· ory • Use on any Epson MX. with Graftrex 0< tnt FX and RX printtrs • Menu-driven proqram Of)trates like o word processor. • Makes signs up to 1o· tall by any length • Makes borders ol variable width up to -l'" . • 8 stzes of letters from ~· to 619" high. • Proportlona spacmg, Automauc centering, Rlgnt ano tell jusUtylng. 549 95 Tope or DISk (Speoty computer equlpmcnQ

~lcrobrokcr E~ctuns, realistic an<1 tducauonel stOCk market simulation based on pl<luslblc financial events S3~ .9!! Tape or Disk Sprite lellt or lhe easy way to create, copy, aller, and save up to 224 sprite snopes. Sll4.95 Cross Rcfcrcnclt Gtn~trator for IASIC program s Displays line numbers in which any word of BASIC vocabulary apf)tars. Allows you 10 change variable name and ask ror ttnes where 1t appears, and more. Sl9.95 •

For the Commodore 64:

For the VIC-20:

5pKc Raider l'.n amazing arcade sttnulatton. Your mission Is to destroy ll~e eneMy snips s 19 95 Super Roller Chollens•ns dtec gamt Spnte sraphtcs and sound Yahtzr:e-style rults ot play Sl4 95 Formulator A lormula scotnLitc calculator dts~ned for tasks wh-ch reQUire ref)tlltove artthmette computatiOns You can save formulas and rur~tnc txprtss•ons 539 9S

Ca•ca of Windsor A cave advtt~­ ture samt. The object 1s to restore wealth and napponess to the small village ot w ndsor. St ~ 9S lurgcr I Frica fast aCtion JOfShck 9al'le. Eat trt bur9ers and lnts but avoid tnt shakts lor o top score.

,csc:hool lduahonal

'rosr-•

ASC fun. 123 Fun; and Gon9(r tnt Cat w oth: Addition and Subtraction Numbtr Hunt, and letter Hunt AI programs havt btisnt color, mus1c lind actiOn Each $1 ~ 95 c~ 6& 1M VIC <n w

are 1n 72

Z

su 95

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Commodore 64

• easy to learn •easy to use •fast • comprehensive manual Pef"501'lal assembly language by Brad Terrpleton also ava1lalje for the Corrvrodore

...<XX>

a.cm - 9.ax> o;enes

$99.95 from your local Commodore de~er. For your n-rMt dealer call:

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Write Advanced Programs Quickly! Tired ol writing reams of code? Take a quantum j ump into the future! Tommorrow's programmers are using software devei· opment tools such as THE TOOL. THE TOOL lets you make use of powerful machine language subroutines. Your programs will execute fast using less code. Input/output routines and professional looking screens are easily created. Features of THE TOOL include :

THE TOOL For The Commodore 64 T M $65.00 developed by Micro Application distnbuted by 8MB Compuscience Canada Ltd. 500 Steeles Avenue, Milton, Ontario

l9T3P7 416-876-4741

• Screen Design functions which allow controlled input and output • • • •

High Resolution Graphics with alpha/numeric display Screen Save and Load functions (for hi-res and text screens) Structured BASIC instructions , e.g. IF THEN ELSE Programming Aids (e.g. auto, renumber, delete, find, trace, hardcopy) • 2 keystroke disk commands (DOS support extensions) • Game Design instructions Goy, scroll, screen , colour) • ASO page user manual

Dealer Inquiries Invited Name --------------------------------Address -----------------------------Prov/State _____ Postal/Zip Code _ ______ O MasterCard DCheque Accfl Expiry Please include numbers above name ---

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73


MW-302: VIC-20/ 64 Parallel Printer Interface.

COMMODORE USERS Join the largest, active Commodore users group in North America and get-

36-pin oonnector

~ Works with all centronics type parallel matrix & letter printers and plotters-Epson, C.ltoh, Okidata, Nee, Gemini 10, TP-1 Smith Corona, and most others. Hardware driven: works off the serial port. "Quality construction: Steel DIN connectors & Shielded cables. Has these switch selectable options: Device 4, 5, 6 or 7; ASCII or PET ASCII ; 7-bit or 8-bit output: upper & lower case or upper only. Recommended by PROFESSIONAL SOFTWARE for WordPro 3 Plus for the 64, and by City Software for PaperClip. MW·3D2 • • • •

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CANADIAN DEALERS ALBERTA Computer Shop of Calgary 3515 18th St. S.W. Calgary, T2T 4T9 (403) 243-4356

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Access to club II brary of over 3000 f ree prog rams. Informative club newsletter.

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The latest information about the PET, CBM · VIC, SuperPET and Commodore-64.

Send $20.00 ($30.00 overseas) for Associate Membership to:

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74

(4 16) 273-6350 PROLINE

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TM

Intelligent Software for the Commodore computers Catalog S/1/83

Mf 1ne Of progrorns (such as Ills) oonslsiS Of lhe lc:llowlnO products.

• •

All ore wr11ten for Carmodore oompulefs: onv ot my progroms lo'tll lood ord IUl wtthoiJ rnociftoallon In the entire line (Including older

PITs).

STOCK HELPER"" •Commodore 64 and VIC-20 Stock HELPER is a tool to maintai n a history of stock prices a nd market Indicators on diskette, to display charts. and to calculate moving averages. Stock HELPER was designed and written by a "weekend Investor" for other weekend Investors. Stock HELPER ts available on diskette for. Commodore 64 $30.00 ($37.00 Canadian) VIC-20 (16K) $27.00 ($33.25 Canadian) plus $1.25 shipping ($1.55 Canad ian) The VIC-20 vel'$lon only charts 26 bi-weekly periods rather than 52 we&ldy peroodl.

••or.

1. WOJCII'Ioc $2$. n Includes ltle fOllOWing teotures: VERY fost n1e routlnes,lnci\Jdlng o disk file catalog; outomo11c form t-ondllng on ..ocfor. or friction-feed PM18B: tuUv Imbedded mcwgln. )ustfftootlon. spacing. lormotflno, and paging conllols; blocl< oommonds and errOt-lropping In edtlng mode: and o lpool routine (fomlOIIed output to chk lor lot« mcm printing). 1 believe WfP Is the most ~ testeo. user-or1enled word prooessor OYC6:i :lle at ttis lime at onywtaere neor lhe prtce. for mocnlne. Requires o minimum Of 10lc of memoty (Sk ~nslon on VICl and o printer. 2. Copvcalc; S20 ($ 15 If ordered lo'tth onothef program) . ~ tso~ ver1lon ollie ~elar2onlc spr~b- ltlal

onv

ore beoomlng enemely popular lor UMI on peoona oompo.JierS. n olow$1tle user 10 set up o Yl$ble grd ot numbers on 1he saeen. ord uselhe screen-editor to make changes In the Qrld. with the totols reftec:Hng the changes Requires 6lc RAM (3k expansion on VIC); smaller version avaloble for unexponded VIC. 3. IQII bCIIMc:n ~ u ; UO. 1hb p!Ogrom rrrc:Jintoi1S OOI-qJ1819 Dmllng slatlslles tor o baseball 01' 50IIbollleogue of up to 250 ployecs. It gen8IOI8S reports on o player, team. 01' the entire leoQue (lncludng standings) II requires a mlnm.Jm 1()( ot RAM a pMIIIrls suogesled but not required. • · lrwentofy; s30. A genoraJ.purpooe perpetuol inventory control program. It produces o variety of reports. lnctwlng order torms; m..tlllple vendors Q(e supported. Requires 1()( of RAM: o prlnlef Is

suggested.

5tl25 Magnolia Lane • Plymoul h MN 5544 2 (612) 559- 1108

AI programs: s• tpport cassette ord dlslc lies and ltle C8M printers (easily rnodl!lob4e to othor prlntors). oome on oossette. and Include documonto1ton. PrlccN Include shipping; Colrl. resldenh OOd 6". All programs ore ~hied bV 1he autt'lor; lllOse r1ghls will be enforced. Programs available from,

I\IIIIO'I•Ote ond Hai'ER a'e 1'..-notkS Ill IM8Cr- - .. nc ~.oo ondVIC-zo.-.~ ~·--u"

Wlllklm RobbiN, lox 3745, Son Rafael, CA 9~91 2

(M)agreeable software , inc.

...

TM JOT-A-WORDTM

Disk Software for the Commodore 84

A computerized version of the old five letter word game. Simply pick a secret live Jetter word (one of the almost 5000 words contained on the disk) and then play against the Jot-A-Word Genie or simply play a solitaire version. Starl by typing in a five letter word. The Genie responds by telHng you bow many letters your guess and the secret work have m common. Don't try to cheat, because the Genie is too smart and 11 will not a ccept non-words or continue a game that you have given it wrong scores. This is a simple but stimulating game for ages 9 to senior citizen. A real challenge to your intellect, reasoning powers, logtc and deduct ion skills. It's simply hard to beat; as a fun and educational experience! Graphics and music add to the e njoyment.

ONLY S

95

mErD

1342BRT.23 ::wllrE~ BUTLER. N.J. 07405

Dealers & Distri b u tors Inquiries Invited Ptas a1e in US ddla<s

201-838-9027

"The Genie is hard to b e at!" 76


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••

r

Here is your chance to play golf on a championship course without all the headaches of gettmg a tee ttme. waiting for that slow foursome ahead of you, losing balls, getting rained out or spoiling a good handicap. This game may be played in the privacy of your home or in a clubhouse lounge for the enjoyment of many members. A challenge to even the best players, this game requires a htgh degree of practice, expertise and accuracy to attain a good score. PRO GOLF Features : • A full range of golf clubs (driveway, fairway wood, wedge and irons 2-9) • Realistic shot distances depending on club and swing • The ability to hook or slice a shot • Up to 4 players in one game • Detailed, colourful screen layouts of 18 different holes (tee, trees, sandtraps, rough, water, out of bounds) • Simulated ball reaction to course hazards (e.g. ball bounces off trees) • Hole distances, par, yards to green,strokes taken on hole. total strokes per round and player totals displayed • A full screen enlargement of greens for putting • Accurate putting simulation for angle and distance • Practtce of real golf skills -club selection, type of shot (normal, hook, slice), length of swing, special shot strategy (e.g. chipping, getting around or over trees, water, sandtraps) 76

PRO GOLF For The Commodore 64 $34.95 written by George Adams distributed by BMB Compuscience Canada Ltd. 500 Steeles Avenue, Milton, Ontario L9T3P7 416-876-4741 Dealer Inquiries Invited Name - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Address Prov/State _ __ Postai/Ztp Code - - - D Money Order

OVISA O MasterCard DCheque Accll Expiry _ __ Please include numbers above name Add $2 00 fof shipping & handling Ontario residents add 7% sates tax.


COMMODORE 64•

N

o motterwhich direction you wish to travel in, experience the advantage of computer communications with The SMART 64 Terminal. Discover the program that puts you an the 1\ighr Road ro: Public-Access Nerworks, Unlversiry Systems, Private Company Computers and Financial Services. The SMART 64 Terminal designed with Quality-Bred fearures, Affordable Pridng ... And Service. So why not travel the communications highways rhe SMART wayI

~

$:39. 95

.f.ccessorles lnduded:

0

0

0 0 0

n.to•

Seleclve Sroroge ofReceived 0 User-Defined FuncTion Keys. 0 Formorred LJnes. Dora Screen Colors. Prinrerond 0 Review, Reorronge. Prtnrflles. Alarm nmer. Nodem Serrtng. 0 Sencbtfl~lves Programs and 40or80Co/. Operor/Ofl •. 0 ScreenPrinr. FllesafANY5/Z£. Auro-Dial. 0 DiskWedgeDul/r.fnl Adjwroble rronsmltlrf!'Cf!lve roblel allow custom requlremenf1 These ondorher feorures make The SMAJlT64 T~lnOI me bestctloice fororond fOl.lfno retecommunicOJioru.

MICR O TECHNIC•

'(o loloc:Qo~C)4 ~4!01!0 II'OOf< I 01< g((ommuclc:te ~Noaw>eslnc

'SI!ppOITieo<Dk.rm COI"Tl09l'

t>v0oro20Colpoooroon

Deoler AvoilobUlly

Coli (203) 3&9~~

• soLu·rtoN

P.O.IK>X29.W, H•wHov@f'\. Ct. 06515

Pnces are on us dOllarS

JOIN THE COMPUTER REVOLUTION WITH A MASTERY OF THE KEYBOARD! In the age of the computer, everyone from the school child to the Chairman of the Board should be at home at the computer keyboard. Soon there will be a computer terminal on every desk and In every home. Learn how to use It right ... and have some fun at the same time! Rated THE BEST eduCBtlonat program lor th• VIC 2ont by Creative Comput ing Magazine

TYPING TUTOR PLUS WORD INVADERS The p roven way

to learn t ouch t yping.

COMMODORE64 Tape$21.95 COMMODORE64 Disk$24.il5 VIC 20 (unexpanded) Tape $21.95 Typing Tutor pus Word Invaders makes learning the keyboard easy and fun t Typing Tutor teaches the keyboard in easy steps Word Invaders makes typong practice on entertaining game. Highly praised by customers "Typing Tutor IS areat!", "Fantastic", 'Excellent", High ouality", "Our children (ages 7· 15)/itera//y walt in line to use it ', "Fvenmy lillie sister likes il'' • Word fn. vsders is sensational/" Cuetomer comment saya It ell ... " .. . it was everyrf!/ng yoo aCivertlse<!lt wou/CI oe. In three weeks, mv 13 year old son, who had never typed before. was typ/ng35 w.p.m. l had improved my typing speed 15 w.p m and my husband was able to keep up whh his college typing c/11$$ by practicing at home." Wr1t 1 to ow- New

IFR (FLIGHT SIMULATOR) CARTRIDGE FOR THE VIC 20

$39.95 JOYSTICK REQUIRED

Put yourself in the pilot's seat I A very challenging realistic simulatoon of instrument flying In a light plane Take off, navogate over dlfhcult terrain, and land at one of the 4 airports. Ar11hclal hor ~on ILS. and other worKing Instruments on screen Full aircraft features Rea istic aircraft perlorrranco stalls/spins, etc. Transport yourself to a reaHime adventure In the sky Fl ght teste<! by professiOnal priOts and JUdged " terrific · ! . , . Shipping and handing St .OO par llliilli. order. CA residents add 6"/o tax.

j}(c\DEm¥ SOFTWARE P.O. Box 0403, San RefMI, CA D4SI12(415)40G.ol60

Program lbneger~mlnQ eny exceptlonat VIC 201M orComrnoclota&4Tll gemeorollw progrlll'l you"-"- devtloped.


<--->~ rsussterr:l ~ IEIL~OILI

~

-;

For your Commodore 64 For ody $12.95 each. our CURSOR 64 tapes are your best buy lor the Commodore 64 They take advantage of the color. sound, and sprites that make the 64 such a delight to USI8. Most of our packages lndude three excellent Basic programs on one cas· sene tape. The programs are not copy protected, so you can look at the source code, and team how to make the 64 do its tricks. W e don't have room to deSICribe all 25 of our CURSOR 64 programs here As a sample.>, you may want to ordor tape 64-5 with tho exciting Godzllla program. You'll be challenged as you try to save Tokyo lrom from the ram· paging GodZllla. Or uy tape 64-3 with lhe popular MIMI' text a<IVenttKe thai wi£ take you hours to solve {even if you cheat and read the program source). We have super programs for the VIC 20, such as Oung.on ($12.05), a visual adventuro lor 16K VICs. Our VIXEL p1ograms are also popular with V IC owners. And, we still sell all 30 of the original CURSOR cassettes lor the original PET and CBM. Call or write for a catalog today. Be sure and toll ue whothor you havo a 64, a VIC, 01 a PET. We welcome credit cards, and ship most orders the same day lhey are received. Dealer Inquiries lnvlted.

IITEIFACEI

FOI co•PUTEII

D..ALII Ml DIIITAI. III'VT/IUTI'VT The BUSSter line of analog and dig tal prod· ucoo was designed to cOllect data and to output signals to laboratory and tndustnal equipment in cor~~unchon wtth a m 1crocom· puter system. These powerful setl-comalned modules reduce a computer's worl<toad by providing read or wrrte operauons to etCternal devices. They are controlled as slave Inter· laces to real-w01id Phys•cal aoplcat1011s Control is over an IEEE·488 (GPIB) bus 01 RS-232 port The internal buffer and bmer prOVIde flexibility by allowing the BUSSier to collect data whtte the hOst computer ec busy wtth other tasks. All unrts have a ttrror whtch operates from .01 seconds to 46 hours

CURSOR 64, Box sgos Santa Barbara, CA 931t0 805-683-1585

• BUSSter - 64 channel dtgttal tnput module to read 64 dig•tal s.gnals Butlt·rn buller .. .. . . . . . . .. $495 00 • BUSSter 864 -64 channeldtgtlaloutput module to send 64 dJQilal sJQnals .$495 00 • BUSSter C8-4 - 64 channel dtgttOI inpuV output module to read 32 and wnte 32 dtgttal signals BuiHn bulle< ..... . . $495 00 • BUSSter 01 16 channel analog tnpul module to read up lo 16analogs,onalswolh8 bot resolution 1'4 %1 Burll-.n buffer $495 00 • BUSSter 032 - 32 channel ver. on ot the 016 $59500 e BUSSter E4 - 4 channe analog outpul module to send 4 analog soonals v.1th 12 btl $495 00 reso·ubon 106%) • BUSSter EB - 8 cl'lan'let verston o1 the

e-

E4

. .

. .

.

AND MAILING UST PROGRAM . FOR

COMMODORE 64-r?1

$595 00

• BUSSter E1 8 - 16cha'lnelverSlon Ollhe E4 $69500 Add tho sulfix -G lor IE££·488 (GP/8)01 ·R l01

COUPARE THBE PIA'nJRES: • t.lt file definition

RS 232

•• ~ ,.tadng with total

All pnces are USA only Pnces and soecofo catoons slbtect 10 change Without nohce

~

Ganbal

30 DAY rRrAL-

•• tiD,_,

• WORDMO con1fallla

Purctoase a BUSSter PlodUCI use ot and •' 'lr:AJ are not comp-eleoy sa· s'oed re1um ,. NJ' totn 30 08\'5 and receove a full rel~no

Also .. 11 lila ror COMMODOftl! 1112 ... $179"

MASTERCARD VISA

J Connecticut microComputer, Inc. INSTRUMENT DIVISION

36 Del t.lar Drive • Brookfield. Cl. 06804 (203)77s-4595 1WX: 71<>-45&-0052

78

tiCO,. on 1541

MAILPilO 64 ...••$12995

US OoMars Ouole<l-S 10 SlltPOII'IJ 4 Hono11"t9

[irlWBI

•II record seledlon

c.l fO. .... n•• fl yo• lam' dealer:

....---.. ,

PRO·LINE -I

'

2 ISOFTWARB

f'f\O.UNi liOFTWARE LTO

(~16)

273-6350

715 M QUUNSWAY EAST UNIT 8 1115''WG.A. ONTAIIO CANAOA l 4Y 4CS


Finally!

An Affordable Full-Size, Full-Feature PRINTER

For your VIC-20®, C-64®

ATARI®

$229.95!! BASIC PRINTER (Requires one Option Below)

Centronics Parallel Types And RS-232 Serial Types

FEATURES: • F~l graphics capebilily • In the graphic mode, a COlumn ol graphiC data can be repeated as many

times as you want whh a single coomand • Double width character outpUt under so!tware comol (5 char. per Inch). • Print position addressable by character or dot (pos.tioning control). • Graphic character and double width character modoe can bG lntormixed on

a singlo nno.

Any of these Options allow you to connect and print - cables included.

• Automatic printing. When the telrt exceeds the maxfmum line length no data is lost duo to ovorflow.

APROPRINT-2064™loictured)

.. Add: $35.95

For Commodore VIC-20 I C-64- Cabklfncluded.

• Self-test printing mode. • Paper width Is adjustable up to 10 Inches. Standard ptaln paper. • 50 cps print speed. • 80 characters per line • 5 x 7 dot matrix.

APROPRINT -4080T "' . . . . . . . For a ll Atllrl Computers - Cable induded.

.Add: $45.95

APROPRINT-1000™....

.Add : $29.95

RS-232-Serial - Name your computer

APROPRINT-8000™..... .

Centronics type Parallel- Name your computer

.Add: $29.95

ADD: $8.00 shipping (coni USA) $25 00 (Canada. HI. AK)

• Fum 2 yr. Worrflllty. • Fore~gn character sets For U S., U.K., Sweden, and Germany.

(All other foreign orders Add $55.00 (shipped by Air)

The ONE VIC-20® Memory Expansion Board that DOES IT ALL! Maxomum ~omoty alowt you to uto more powerlul programs tor: • EDUCATION • EI'ITERTAINMENT • MAIL LISTS • BUSINESS APPUCATIONS • FINANCIAL RECORDS

-RAMAX.

......... -__,...........,.._

... 5.

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NWIO ilw¥• 1• ...,_.,.~-,1\.1.11_. ~ P"\.U8 a.~ T'HIOII JIW ~

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()Of- MAIIOVriWITI<E,_.

,.AIIIAJ. ,_,_IMI.. flt!IUICllllll;

• Adlll • 10 I W 2'7t

"'*of tdcMiciNII RAirii'IO

. . ...,....VIC<ZOa.....,.. MMCif k

• ftUit• ..... ..,... UMf I&IAtiOI GlllfY Gill"'

.....'-"oil.,.. N RAM..,.,..,. kKt (llf /141 l i«<t..,

IUC~ . .. Nl'O-a7'11) 111314-245151 IU(;) IW IlKS Adr ..,.._..16l. .......cir'l8lwl

A perftcl ~kJ ....

=..::'·------

n:-.=::.::.~·:;r"'...,;:;:~~

rH1 POWER ill ICICII 1D ywt VC M h i lOW DtOt ~••UUA'Ttol.-yVC~

,SI'eGIAL lDN MICC.I

Only $149.00 ~~~..W!Wdt10 ..... COnlr • _, USA Fotliglll GlOM P1Me

...

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--

• • llOt. .,..,..

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TO ORDER:

-

, . . . . ~dG.IIpo.wlftiO'I)

• BUll_.. .ICIIIFUM iD proted.~

• T-. MH..,....., HG • r.o 12) ..,_ ........ ..,n COfNCIDII 811ow allldi· U.V...... b ... et'"*f10114f~

AH'f

tUW ............Qr. . .I!JIIt VIC~PDtt.

VftfV.._....,~C I 76MIO~

Jll•u•••

• Hlp! . . 1 . , _ .. loog. ..

~

....

· ~OI*·IQ-

" net 1 I 11 *'"llfr "'" • OliQirW C:Ohdb_b.,_......., ......

• • 1'1'10!11'1 . . .

RAMAX Jr.'*-" MIMJt.. ,.,...,•~•'OIIr.MOf 1 . . . . . . . . . . MMAJC-

• ,ICIO'Y ......

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WE SERVICE WHAT WE SELL

Ploor• adelaC111(805) 482-3604

• .......,..oiComtnadc:n .......tbnlll of Allri Inc.

VIC-:lO l~--bwad

AUrl" •b-•*"

APROPOS TECHNOLOGY

1071-AAvenlda Acaao camartno, CA 93010

APROPOS TECHNOLOGY

.

. , .... , ....... 011 Z1ll Ow~Wuc>

Serd CNclo 01 Monty Onle<For 1he Too-l Call. r u l - edd Ill' 1111 Or Ccr1llo::t your lDc:el 0 1111 r

~ AJ Pile.- U.S.Ilc*n

..::e".rt"' .... '*-·

)'Oiif..,., .,._,)'Oinlll

euu-.• • .-.. uw•••=•• lllletY

Specl81

Only$121.00

--·

Shipping lneluded

-------------...1


MICROCOMPUTER ~ SUPPLIES c= 100% Guaranteed

DISKETIES FROM

10/$25.00 S.S. S.D

Shop Without Going Shoppi ng

MEMOREX DYSAN 3-481 SS/00 133.00per10 104110SSJOOSoft S54.00 per10 3-491 OS/00 S4S.OO per 10 104/20 DS/00 Soil $76.00 per 10 3-481·2 SSIDD 2 Pack Malter $8.00 plua T5c pottage '

All other aires ancl 101mat e.allable ancl 'IOiume Cllacount. Fll, 'N' Fila, hold 50, 5 Y." diskettes 131.50 each Flip Pac, holds 10 5V•" dlakette1 S T.OO each Disk Banke, hold 10 5V."dlakellea S T.OO Plastic Library Cases, cnolce ol colora; s-4.50 each EPSON AX80 Printer 1525.00 EPSON FXSO Printer $850.00 EPSON FX100 SCALL OUADAAM Interlaces SCALL COM REX CAll Daisy Wheel Printer; $8119.00 COM REX Monitors, 8 modele from $198.00 MX110 Ribbons $14.50 ' WRITE OR CAU. FOR fRfE CATALOG

To order. S.nO money orcs.r. c• ""teG c~ue. "'eonaf ct.quet mu.t G.. . .,

FREE CATALOG! UTILITIES, GAMES, AMATEUR RADIO FOR THE VIC 20 AND COMMODORE 64

NEW ITEM ...

C64 WORLD CLOCK ·graphic map showing time In cities across the world..... TapeS 7.95 Disk S10.95 ( + $2.00 shipping - US. Currency)

Over 30 other programs! Low prices! Excellent service!

our IMinl<. VI$.\ 0t MASTEI\CAIIO. (lnetw. Cot II • ond ••pity llolo t. e lgMI'UitJ AGO &"" tot t n'Pplng e nd twndllng, Mlnlm111m $3.00 p.r CHMt.

INTERNATIONAL MARKETING SERVICES

RAK Electronics PO.Box1585 Orange Park, FL

P.O. Box 522, Bouchervllle, Quebec. J4B 6Y2 (514) 655-9232

32067-1585

0...- ,.,lclento otkll% ,.a.T.

Reveal secreta of the mind. UH your Commodore 64 ayatem to analyze youraelf. your apouae, your date. relatiVH and friend a Dlacovef your personality type. career potential, behavoor tendenciN, va ues, and the people wlt.h whom you w111 be most c ompellble Thla program roquo rea the use of 1 ·toyatlck" . Pnce $32.95 Oialt ($27 05 Casaette).

Get thla aoftware I t your loCIII d ealer or order dorectlrom :

80

1=Q

!f:

i:P'

BehaviOI' Modification Uaeyour Commodore 64 ayetem to ~nge your behavior pett..na thrqh computer hypnosis. Disc: OYer how to communiCIIte with yourseH, on a eonaclou• and subconacloualevel. P'rogram your own poal-tlypnollc auggestlons. The PSIBioteedbadc Oevtee Ia Inciuded with lhls program Price 187.05 Dlek ($711.96 ea...tta).

II=!.J P5 SYFCTOW~RE 0 ~

I'

nUl INTEA!';ATIONAL

2118 Forest lake Dt'hle Clnctnnab, Dh •O 452« USA Telephone. 513 474- 2188

This Space Could Be nsacti For You! Kelly M. George Advertising Manager 4168764741


TELSTAR 64 SophiSticated lermtnalCommunications Can ridGe for the 64

'PFO' 100 000 CP 01 02 BELL

12:30 00

10:14•36

(TELSTAR's Status Line)

Don't settle for less than the best! • Upklad/OO.Vnloae! t!Yirom dtsk or tape. • Aummatic Fie ms:at on • Communicates mIndustry Sundard ASCI • Reel-Time Clock plus Alarm Cix:k. • Une ealtlng capabolrty arows coneamg end resendtng long command lines • 9 Quick Read functions • Menu·driven • Similar to our famous STCP Terminal pacl<age. • workS with COmmOdore Modems and supports arto-dlaJing. The best feature is the pnce - only $49.95 (Cartrklge and Manual)

Machine Language Monitor Cartridge •

for the CBM 64 More than 20 commands allow you to access the CBM 64's Microprocessors Registers and Memory Contents. Commands include assemble, dtsassemble, registers, memory. lrans•cr, compare. plus many more Someday every CBM 64 owner will need a monttcr such as this

Cartrilge and Manual - S2U5

C64 PROVINCIAL PAYROLL A complete Canadian Payroll System for Small Business. Employees per disk (1541) • Calculate and Print Journals e Print e 50

Cheques • Calculate submissions

summary for Revenue Canada e Accumulates data and prints T-4s e Also available for 4032 and 8032 Commodore

TV PRO DATA MANAGER & WORD PROCESSOR For COMMODORE 8032 Computer

8050. 4040 Dr.

NOW AVAILABLE FOR THE COMMODORE .•

'.

DATA MAJIAGER Number of re co rde le on ly limited by your dlek cepechy. Up to 150 field• per record. Mulmum of 76 charecterw per field . U~« formatted. Screen editing . Sort and seerc h feature. Pattern match aearch . Selective f'101d p rinting end formetting. Form lettef addre11ing. Melling lilt 8nd meiling leblt printing . Formet for fanfold Ro lodex end index card printing.

WORD PROCESSOR Screen editing. Automatic line length eot. Add. move or delate text. Globeledit. Page numbering 8nd titling. Form letter addressing. File append for printing.

BOTH PROGRAMS ABOVE, ONLY $89.00

Computers. Available from your Commodore Dealer.

ICROCOMPUTER SOLUTIONS 1262 DON MILLS RD. STE. 4 DON MILLS. ONTARIO M3B 2W7 TEL: (tll 6) 4 47 tl811

Also for Commodore 64 and 8032

AMORTIZATION SCHEDULE- $30.00 (Disk) INVENTORV MANAGEMENT _ $66.00 (Diek) AI M>ftwere ,. fully ..,pporud for updetea end revi81ona for up to llbt momhe 1ftar purch....

Specify Computer model number and Disk model number.

INPUT SYSTEMS. IN C. 25101 S W 194Avr rlumeslead fl3J031 1]0~)14) 3141

DEALER INOUI RI E'S INVI TED


GO SUB INTERNATIONA L IN CO R PORATED The Flexikey System

Features: 19 Keys, each of wh ich may have 3 sep-

erate definrtlonsl Complete documentation including program listings! Retail Wo rk s on the VIC20 (Expand ed) and C-64 compu ters1

$69.95

Compatible with most existing software' Great fo r use w ith business programs and

electronic spread sheets! Ideal fo r machine language prog ramm er! VISA & MASTERCARD WELCOME

Deale! Inquires Invited - (316) 265-9858

GOSUB International- 501 E. Pawnee- Suite 430 Wichita. Kansas 67211 ' C-64 and VIC 20 are registered trademarks of Commodore International

Prices sUbJeCt ro change

e'll back you up! A'I''IENTION COMMODORE 64 OWNERS If you own a disk drive then you'll need "The

Clone Machine". Take control of your 1541 with this package that includes: 1.) Complete and thorough users manual .J Investigate

and

back-up

'My only copy gone!"

~

2.) Copy with one or two drives

3.)

'

many

"PROTECTED" disks , _) Copy all file types including relative types 5.) Edit and view track/block ln Hex or ASCII • 6.) Display full contents of directory and print '1 .) Change program names. add. delete files with single keystroke 8.) Easy disk initialization 9.) Supports up to four drives

Special intro 539.95 Dealers & Distributors Inquiries Invited

CAl J. (20 1) 838-9027 Ptioes ara Jtl us dollars

P.O. Box 113 Pompton Plains, N.J .

07444


Comrnoc:lore 64

and VJC-20

~ S99 ~ Telecommun with a ifference! Unexcelled communications power and

compatibility. especially for professionals and ser10us computer users. Look us over; Super'l"er m lsn'tjust " another" term1nal program. Ul<e our famous Terminal- 40, It 's the one others w ill be j udged by . • UP/DOWNLOAD FORMATS -CBM. Xon-xon, ACK-NAK. etc • DISPlAY M ODES- 40 column, 80/132 with

This Space Could Be ransacti11 ll For You!

Slde-scrou1ng EMULATIO N - 42 p::>pular tenn•nal protocols FUNCTION KEYS - 8 standard, 52 ~r·d~lrted BUFFERS- Recetve, Transmit. Program. and Screen EOmNG Ful'-screen editing o f Receive buffer ALE CONVERSION - I'ISCII to PGM, PGM to ~'~Sell PRINTING - Contnuoos pnnttlg With Smart ASCII and para'lel pmter, buffer pnnung with other 111terlac~ or VIC punter • DISK SUPPORT - D recto~y. Copy. Rename. Scratch.

• • • • • •

etc. • FLEXIBilrTY -~feet oaua. duplex, pallty, stopblt~ etc. f'rogram optiOt'ls are selected by menus and funct1on keys. For max1mum convemence. an EXEC file sets options on start-up. Superferm may be backed-up for safety. Software on dbk or cassene. with special cartridge module.

Write for t he full n ory on Supei'Term; or. If you already want t hat d ifference. o rder t oday I ~I l l'$

ConmocJOre 64 0< VlC·ZO. c;f>k Cltl\1\' or D<ltasellt, ana

compauo1e mtKJem. VIC venlon requ11ts 161( memory t~pansion. ~ast spe<1ty VIC 01 64 whtn Ol<ltrlng.

PRD·LINE .IIIISOFTWARE A CANADIAN COMPANY

designing,

developing, manufacturing,

publishing

Just need UP/ DOWNLOAD? If you don't yet need SuperTerm's povver. perhaps

Termlnal-40 Plus !VICI or '64 Terminal Plus is right for you. We took our top-rated. smooth-scrolling tenn1na1 programs, added up/download. disk commands. and even more convmrence. Then we put them on disk for fast loadng.just like you wanted. Need we say more?

Only S49.95 P.S.

rrao~

MC_,_r~re81C,_,4!JPI

1n your orf9lnal rerminal-40 or M 1ermna1 ana

dedUCt SIOOO.

v.c 3) and CooitiiOdo'e ... . , . .,...,..,.. of CcwrWIIoocw• ~ Ud.

and

distributing •

microcomputer

software DEALER ENQUIRIES WELCOME AU~HOR'S SUBMISSIONS INVITED C ALL OR WRITE

(41 6) 273-6350 PRO·LINE - · · I I II.DI"TWA...B

Sefid tor • .... llrodluoe.

(818) 333·7200 11M. ORDEJbdlll1~ "-"0 ...s ""'drrO I3SI lor COOl WI.>Ahtacw ICCiiC*tl .,.,. atd- .... MO Mli1WEST IIIII Ullll. ..... ,_ Fco-or- pejnlbe

I II . . .

~

Mlc "V In<.

US.S. U.S Blnl <JillY; 1111115 • .,...._

11 WEST 72nd ST. • KANSAS

• MO • 64114

7~~

T... QUffNSIIIAY ASl

Ul'>l~

M6S6S,UC.A 0'>1 ARlO t<r

<

8


P.O. Box 4364 Flint, Michigan 48504 (313) 233-5731 (313) 233·3125

ZANIM SYSTEMS

HOME CONTROL FOR YOUR VIC UNDER $200 The ZCM -1 is the Master Control module that provides the interface between your computer and our tine of Zanim Applicat ion Modul es. Up to 15 Application Modules can be piggy backed to the ZCM -1 Master Control module. The ZCM·1 1S compatible with any standard AS-232 (ser1al) Interface. A special Muter Control module, the ZCM·t V Is available tor the VIC-20 and CommOdOre-64 compU1ers. •The ZC M·t V is available lor VIC·20 and C-64 users.

VIC/C64 $129.95

AS·232 $149.95 ZAM·l Is the home control interface module that provides a fully versatile computer controlled environment. ZAM·1 can control up to 256 different lamps and appliances In your home or business providing you with an effective and easy to Implement energy management and elect r1c cont rol system. No epoclal modifications are necessary to your bu ilding as all control signals are sent over you r ex· lstlng wiring . ZAM·t c an be programmed In BASIC or optional home control software Is available. ZAM·t requires one ZCM-1 Master Control module. ' The ZCM·liZCM·W Master Control module Is required to use the ZAM·t Home Control module.

$169.95

The ZAM-2 allows your computer to continuously monitor up to 15 different doors or windows around your home or business. ZAM·2 is a bulc building block in a complete C!Jmputer controlled home securl· ty system. With ou r ZAM·t Home Control module, you can nave a fully Integrated security and en· vlronment control system. Upon an Intrusion, your computer can take the action most appropriate. whether that Is to ring an alarm bell, flash all the lights around your home, or dial the pollee.

·rhe ZCM·t1ZCM·1V Master Cont rol module is required to use the ZA M·2 Security module. $ 179.95 The ZA M-3 Is a complete telephone answering and dialing system . It Is capable or taking the pi'IOne oll·hook and dialing a number under computer control or o f ansv.ertng the phone when It rings. With the ZA M·t Home Control module and the ZAM·2 Security modul e. the ZAM ·3 Phone Dialer module can be Integrated into a complete home or business security/mon>toring system. Appllcatoons include secunty, auto phone d ialing, and c:ompU1er-answering systems

$ 199.95

· Pulse dialing option Is available as ZAM-3P.

•The lCM-1/ZCM-tV Master Control modulo Is required to use the ZAM-3/ZAM·3P Phone Dialer module. Prioos we In US dollar•

SERIAL OR PARALLEL (CENTRONICS) PORT SWITCHER

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DOES YOUR COMPUTER /"' +LOOK LIKE THIS? A PORT SWITCHER NOW AVAILABLE FOR YOUR COMPUTER (ZSW1) Devtce A~

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Volume 41 1t~ue 05

I

The Transactor Vol4 iss5  

The Tech/News Journal For Commodore Computers

The Transactor Vol4 iss5  

The Tech/News Journal For Commodore Computers

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