Commissioned by Francis I., King of France, Cartier command an expedition to explore the Western Continent. On April 20, 1534 he sailed for twenty days, before arriving at Newfoundland. Entering the Strait of Belle Isle, touching the coast of Labrador, he took possession of the country in the name of his king. He erected a cross, which hung the arms of France. Explored the Bay of Chaleurs, landed in Gaspe Bay, held friendly discourse with the natives, and induced a chief to allow two of his sons to go with him to France, promising to return them the next year. Also planted a cross with the French arms upon it. Sailed northeast across the Gulf of St. Lawrence, entered the branch of the St. Lawrence River north of Anticosti Island. Unconscious of having discovered a magnificent river, he turned and sailed for France to avoid the autumn storms, arriving at St. Malo on Sept. 5, 1534.
He gave Canada its name, after he mistook the Mohawk word for village (kana:ta') as the name of the whole land. Canada -- a Mistake! We owe the name of our country to a misunderstanding. When Jacques Cartier heard the Iroquoian word "kanata", which means town or village, he thought it was the name used for the country. The name began appearing on European maps. According to Cartier, the Mi'kmaq loved to trade. His accounts say the Native people "showed a marvellously great pleasure in possessing and obtaining these iron wares and other commodities, dancing and going through many ceremonies… Video of the first meeting and adoption of Canada as the country’s name: http://www.histori.ca/minutes/minute.do?id=10123 http://hrsbstaff.ednet.ns.ca/phillie/SocialStudies/Atlantic/jacques_cartier.htm
This nineteenthcentury illustration depicts French explorer Jacques Cartier at his first meeting with the Indians at Hochelaga (now Montreal) in 1535. For an interactive link; Retrieved from: http://www.knowla.org/image.php?rec=684
Excerpt from his Writings: The next day part of the saide wilde men with nine of their boates came to the point and entrance of the Creeke, where we with our ships were at road. We being advertised of their comming, went to the point where they were with our boates: but so soone as they saw us, they began to flee, making signes that they came to trafique with us, shewing us such skinnes as they cloth themselves withall, which are of small value. We likewise made signes unto them, that we wished them no evill: and in signe thereof two of our men ventured to go on land to them, and carry them knives with other Iron wares, and a red hat to give unto their Captaine. Which when they saw, they also came on land, and brought some of their skinnes, and so began to deale with us, seeming to be very glad to have our iron ware and other things, stil dancing with many other ceremonies, as with their hands to cast Sea water on their heads. They gave us whatsoever they had, not keeping any thing, so that they were constrained to go back againe naked, and made signes that the next day they would come againe, and bring more skinnes with them. How that we having sent two of our men on land with wares, there came about 300. wilde men with great gladnesse. Of the qualitie of the countrey, what it bringeth forth, and of the Bay called Baie du Chaleur, or The Bay of heat.
Oh Canada in Aboriginal language http://www.firstnationhelp.com/ali/okanata.php Google Images
Indian Hudson's Bay Company Trade Goods: Living History School
For an interactive experience: http://www.inuitcontact.ca/flash/
Before watching the video listen to audio and think about how it makes you feel; what images does the narrative bring forth?
Having listened to the audio, watch the video; does it change the way you feel, and are the visuals what you imagined?
Mi'kmaq interactive alphabet.swf
Mi'kmaq talking poster image.swf http://www.firstnationhelp.com/ali/posters/poster1.html
Canadaâ€™s First Nation Help Desk. Retrieved from http://www.firstnationhelp.com/ali/kloqoejk.php (2010). Lizotte, M. An Indian Encampment, A Point in History. Retrieved from http://www.apointinhistory.net/fort-michillimackinac.php (2011). Early Settlement Archaeology. Pennsylvania Historical & Museum Commission. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Retrieved from http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/historic_archaeology/3359/early_settlement_archaeology/407026 Eddins, N., O. (n.d.). Traders and Indian Trappers of Beaver Pelts. The Fur Trapper. Retrieved from http://www.thefurtrapper.com/fur_trappers.htm (2009). Emily Carr, Radio Minute. The Historica-Dominion Institute. Retrieved from http://www.histori.ca/minutes/minute.do?id=10214 (2009). Emily Carr, Radio Minute. The Historica-Dominion Institute. Retrieved from http://www.histori.ca/minutes/minute.do?id=13503 (2009). Historical Exploration Toolkit. Inuit Contact and Colonization. Inuit Heritage Trust. Retrieved from http://www.inuitcontact.ca/flash/ Indian Hudson's Bay Company Trade Goods. Living History School. Retrieved from http://youtu.be/5-b-H67J2iM Jacques Cartier: First Contact with the Indians (1534) Retrieved from http://wadsworth.com/history_d/special_features/ilrn_legacy/waah1c01c/content/amh1/readings/cartier_indians.html (2010). "Jacques Cartier - His First Interview with the Indians at Hochelaga". KnowLa Encyclopeadia of Louisiana. Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities. Retrieved from http://www.knowla.org/image.php?rec=684
(2009). Jacque Cartier, Radio Minute. The Historica-Dominion Institute. Retrieved from http://www.histori.ca/minutes/minute.do?id=10123 (2008). Jacque Cartier. Son of the South. Retrieved from http://www.sonofthesouth.net/revolutionary-war/explorers/jacques-cartier.htm Mi’kmaq Talking Posters. (n.d.) Smith/Francis Orthography. Eastern Woodland Publishing, Truro, N.S. Retrieved from http://www.firstnationhelp.com/ali/posters/ Mi’kmaq Talking Posters. (n.d.) Mi’kmaq Talking Poster; Food of the Tribe. Smith/Francis Orthography. Eastern Woodland Publishing, Truro, N.S. Retrieved from http://jilaptoq.ca/swf/landscape_07.swf Mitch. (2011). The surrounded Villasur expedition is attacked by the Pawnee and their French allies. Image c. 1720. American Military and Naval History. Retrieved from http://www.americanmilitaryhistorymsw.com/blog/category/history/ (2008). Natives Trading With the French Early 17 Century. Historical Narratives of Early Canada. The National Post Retrieved from http://www.uppercanadahistory.ca/finna/finna2.html (2004). O’Canada in the Aboriginal Language. Atlantic Canada’s First Nation Help Desk. Retrieved from http://www.firstnationhelp.com/ali/okanata.php Pethokoukis, S., Keska, J., & Lewis, C. (n.d.). The Fabulous French Explorers. Retrieved from http://xbox.district106.net/html/downloads/5Z/13spetho/Welcome.html (2009). Sir George Simpson Receiving a Deputation of Indians in York Factory. Inuit Contact and Colonization. Inuit Heritage Trust. Retrieved from http://www.inuitcontact.ca/index.php?/vignettes_en/early_trade_hbc/ (2004). Stars; Soundtrack in the Aboriginal Language. Atlantic (2008). Spiritual Flute: The Beauty of Nature. Sound Track .Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=W_19VdTakY4&feature=related