Page 1

Development

Research

Journal of

International

MINDSHARE

ISSN 2229-4872 Volume 2 Issue 4

2012


ISSN: 2229-4872

Mindshare Volume 2 Issue 4, 2012

Published by:

Mindshare Publications Lucknow INDIA


editors

Padamshri Dr. Govind Swarup FASc, FNASc, FTWAS, FRS

Mindshare

PhD (Stanford), DSc (Hons.) (Roorkee, Varanasi) Ex. INSA Hon. Scientist & Ex. Director, NCRA/GMRT, INDIA

Volume 2 Issue 4 (2012)

President

Rev. Fr. Paul Rodrigues Vice President

Dr. Donald HR D'Souza Secretary General

Syed Zulfi

editor-in-chief

Prof. Tetsuji Yamada Chair & Professor, Center for Children & Childhood Studies Rutgers University, New Jersey UNITED STATES

managing editor

Prof. Prem Misir

Prof. Iqrar A. Khan

Pro Chancellor, University of Guyana, GUYANA

Vice Chancellor, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, PAKISTAN

Prof. Padmanabhan Krishna Dr. Abdul Raouf Sitara-e-Imtiaz Hon. Scientist, INSA, IAS Trustee, Krishnamurti Foundation India Visiting Prof. Cambridge University, UK

Distinguished National Professor Higher Education Commission of Pakistan University Professor and Advisor Univ. of Management and Technology, Lahore, PAKISTAN

Dr. Anil K. Bhatnagar

Dr. Srinivas K. Saidapur

Former Vice-Chancellor of Pondicherry University University of Hyderabad & CIEFL, INDIA

Vice President Indian National Science Academy Ex. Vice Chancellor, Karnataka University

Dr. R. K. Kohli

Prof C. P. Malik

Certified Senior Ecologist, ESA, USA Dean University Instructions Panjab University, Chandigarh, INDIA

Director Life Sciences, Advisor (Acedemics) Jaipur National University, Jaipur, INDIA

associate editors

Syed Zulfi

Dr. Vinod Chandra

Prof. Shweta Singh

Vice Principal, Jai Narain PG College, Lucknow, INDIA

Loyola University, Chicago UNITED STATES

editorial advisor

Dr. Azizuddin Khan

Dr Shanyu Tang

Dr. Dr. Dr. Dr.

Dept. of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology Bombay INDIA

London Metropolitan University London, United Kingdom

Dr. Jimmy Thomas Efird

Prof. Mamun Habib

University of North Carolina, Greensboro NC, USA

American International University DHaka, Bangladesh

M.A.A Khan Chandana Dey N. Shukla Masooma Zaidi


MINDSHARE • Volume 2 Issue 4

Contents

Signature I, on behalf of Mindshare, express my admiration for young scientists who are continuously striving to overcome the innumerable challenges of scientific research and invite then to use the Journal as a forum for scientific communication and cooperation. The search for the truth must go on, and the Journal shall, as always strive to make its albeit small, but significant, contribution in charting a path for the future of research, global change and our human prospect. Managing Editor

Write to the managing editor zulfihussaini@gmail.com Write your letters or requests for the PDF format of the magazinemindshareinternational@gmail.com Original manuscripts are invited for publication. Authors can send to: mindshareinternational@gmail.com

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III


MINDSHARE • Volume 2 Issue 4

Contents

Volume 2 Issue 4 Contents Contents

Page No.

Editorial

ii

Madhumala Sengupta

1

Right to Education Act 2009: A Basic Component of Human Right Movement

Jazcinth Prudence Leewait

6

Children working in the coal mines of Jaintia hills

Ritika Behl

14

Emotional Abuse of children of working mothers'

R. Umarani

21

An Analysis on the Prime Factors for child abuse in India - A Fuzzy Approach

Zolfa Mobaraki, M. J. Karveh, S. Sumitra

29

Child Rights in International law

Swati Bijawat

33

Alternative schooling: a new paradigm of learning

Vidhi Mamtani, Punya Pillai

39

Children's construals of happiness

Manas Pandey

46

Schools fit for children the indian scenario

Neeraj Shukla, Shalini Singh, Shantanu Srivastava

51

Impact of management development In the growth of an organisation

Pratham Parekh

60

Gender gap in breast feeding child, factors and implications

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IV


ISSN: 2229-4872 Mindshare Int. J. Res. Dev. Vol. 2, Issue 4 (2012), pp 1-5 RN: 2-W/12/MS/2-4 Corresponding Author: Madhumala Sengupta email: dr.msengupta@rediffmail.com

Right to Education Act 2009: A Basic Component of Human Right Movement. by Madhumala Sengupta

A

democratic government must be all inclusive and participatory in nature otherwise such a democracy turns out to be farce. The democracy, as a precondition to its success must educate its people. The large scale ignorance undermines the very principle of democratic government. Hence development in the educational sector is imperative. The government of India has undertaken many such measures to eradicate illiteracy and introduce basic education for its people. The culmination of all such endeavours is the promulgation of The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act 2009. It is an Department of Education Calcutta University, Kolkata, INDIA

act to provide free compulsory education to all children of age group 6-14 years. Although it is too early to assess how far the Act has been able to universalize education so that an inclusive society can be ushered in, yet it has created enough controversies within this short span of time. Hence an analysis of it especially the Act itself and its potentiality for creating an inclusive and vibrant society are called for. First of all a brief discussion of the Act will help to understand its different provisions, thereby highlighting and analyzing the pros and cons. This would help to undertake a healthy debate on this issue and constructive suggestions may emerge from this discussion.

KEYWORDS

Children's Rights, RTE Act, Free and Compulsory Education


MINDSHARE • Volume 2 Issue 4 • Right to Education Act 2009

The Act is divided into six chapters containing the different aspects of the Act. The Chapter I includes the preliminaries where the following terms and conditions are defined and explained in an unambiguous manner for implementation of the Act without any controversy. These are ⁻ Appropriate Government ⁻ School, specified categories in relation to school ⁻ Capitation fees ⁻ Child, child belonging to disadvantaged groups, child belonging to socially weaker sections ⁻ Elementary education ⁻ Parents, guardians ⁻ Local authorities ⁻ Screening procedure ⁻ National Commission for Protection of Child Right, State Commission for Protection of Child Right etc. The Chapter II deals with three issues related to the provisions of the Act. It is specified that every child of age six to fourteen years has a right to free and compulsory education in neighbourhood school till the completion of elementary education. It further provides that no child shall be liable to pay any kind of fees or charges or expenses for his or her education which may prevent him or her from pursuing or completing elementary education. The Act also mentions that disabled child as defined in

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Persons with Disability ( Equal Opportunity, Protection and Full Participation) 1996 act, shall have the right to pursue free and compulsory elementary education. The second issue is about the special provision for children who have not been admitted to school or have not completed elementary education. If necessary these children may continue in school beyond fourteen years of age for the completion of elementary education. The third point is about the child's right to transfer to other schools if there is no provision for compulsory elementary education or for any reason whatsoever. The head of the institutions must not delay or deny transfer certificate otherwise disciplinary action will be taken against him. The Chapter III of the Act specifies the duties of the appropriate authority, local authorities and parents regarding right to education. The central government and state government should have the concurrent responsibility for providing funds for this purpose with central government preparing the estimate of capital and recurring expenditure. The grant-in aid of revenues and the percentage of expenditure are to be determined by the central government in consultation with the states. The central government may request the

Sengupta, M

Finance Commission for additional resources for any state. The central government has to develop frame work of national curriculum, develop and enforce the standard of teacher training and generally promote innovation, research, planning and capacity building. The list of the responsibilities of the appropriate government include ⁻ Ensuring and monitoring compulsory admission, ⁻ Attendance ⁻ Completion of elementary education ⁻ Good quality elementary education ⁻ Availability of neighbourhood schools ⁻ Ensuring that weaker or disadvantaged children are not discriminated against. ⁻ Providing infrastructure ⁻ Arranging teachers training. The responsibility of the parents has also been mentioned in this respect. The parents are to be convinced and the onus lies with them. The Act also emphasizes on pre school education beginning after three years of age for helping children get acquainted with school environment. The government has been asked to arrange for early childhood care and education. The Chapter IV of the Act spells out the duties of the schools and the teachers in respect of right to education. The schools

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MINDSHARE • Volume 2 Issue 4 • Right to Education Act 2009

receiving aids from the government shall introduce compulsory elementary education. Even those schools which are not receiving aid should reserve 25% of seats for the students belonging to weaker or disadvantaged sections of the society. This provision should be extended even if the schools provide pre school education before the age of six years. These s c h o o l s , h o w e v e r, w i l l b e reimbursed the expenditures incurred by them to the extent per child expenditure incurred by the state or actual amount charged from the child, which ever is less. These schools are to furnish all relevant information to government. The important directives in this respect are: The receipt of capitation fee from the students is punishable with fine ten times the capitation fees ⁻ Subjecting the child to screening procedure is too punishable with fine to the tune of Rs. 25,000/- on first contravention and Rs. 50,000/- for each subsequent contravention. ⁻ Birth certificate is required at the time of admission as proof of age, however, admission can not be denied for lack of age proof.. ⁻ Admission is to commence during the beginning of academic session but admission is to be granted if it is sought subsequent to extended period. ⁻ No child should be held back

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in class or expelled without completing compulsory elementary education ⁻ No child should be subject to physical punishment or mental harassment. ⁻ The schools other than state sponsored schools have to obtain certificate of recognition from the appropriate authority and must fulfill norms and standard specified in the schedule. The schools set up before the Act must do it at its own expenses within a period of 3 years otherwise recognition will be withdrawn. ⁻ The Act stipulates that school shall constitute School Managing Committee consisting of elected representatives. Among the various functions of School Managing Committee one is preparation and recommendation of School Development Plan. Regarding the teachers, it is mentioned that the teachers should have minimum qualifications. Government may relax the minimum qualification of the teachers if the qualified teachers are not readily available but the teachers must acquire the requisite qualification within five years. The salary, allowances, terms and conditions may be prescribed by the appropriate authority. The functions of the teachers were prescribed. These are ⁻ Maintain regularity and punctuality in attending schools

Sengupta, M

⁻ Conduct and complete curriculum in accordance with provisions of the Act ⁻ Complete the entire curriculum within specified time ⁻ Assess the ability of each child and supplement additional instruction if necessary. ⁻ Hold regular meeting with parents and guardians and apprise them about regularity in attendance, ability to learn, progress made in learning ⁻ The teachers are not to indulge in private teaching The Act prescribed the optimum teacher pupil ratio and it is mentioned that the teachers are liable to disciplinary action if they fail to discharge their duties. The Chapter V of the Act contains issues related to curriculum and evaluation. The curricular pattern and evaluation system are to be laid down by academic authority to be specified by appropriate government. The curriculum should conform the values in the Constitution, take into account all round development of child, build child's knowledge, potentiality and talent, physical and mental ability. The child should learn through activities, discovery and exploration and as far as possible through mother tongue. Re ga rd i n g eva l u at i o n i t i s suggested that comprehensive and continuous evaluation should replace traditional examination and the child must be freed of

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MINDSHARE • Volume 2 Issue 4 • Right to Education Act 2009

trauma, fear or anxiety. The completion certificate will be awarded after the evaluation process is over. The Chapter VI maintains that National Commission for Protection of Child Rights Act 2005 and National Commission for Protection of Child Right and the State Commission for Child Right are to examine and review the s a fe g u a rd s fo r r i g h t s a n d recommend measures for effective implementation of the Act. They are also empowered to inquire in to complaints relating to violation of such rights and take necessary steps. State Advisory Council and National Advisory Council are to be set up to advise the state and national governments in various related matters. The Chapter VII deals with miscellaneous issues while the Schedule of the Act contains infrastructural requirements or norms and standard of the schools for the successful implementation of the law. The Right to Education Act is no doubt a watershed in the history of human development. It seeks to cure one of the greatest scourges afflicting humanity , which happens to be illiteracy. Illiteracy has left people specially children disadvantaged, vulnerable and impoverished. This has shaken the very foundation of democracy and destroyed human potential in vast scale. Thus mass

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illiteracy which excludes poor people from opportunity can be eradicated by measures like SSARTE harmonization. The most talked about RtE Act has been criticized on many accounts. It is alleged that the Act is hastily drafted with loopholes and has not considered the quality of education adequately. The Act may have infringed on the right of private religious minority and as such it violates the constitutional rights. The Society for Unaided Private Schools in Rajasthan has petitioned to the Supreme Court in this respect. The provision of the Act considers that no child should be failed in any class or expelled. The stigma of failing is likely to cause psychological harm to the child, no doubt, but it is also true that under such circumstances the child fails to learn the value of accountability, performance and hard work. He fails to develop resilience and starts harbouring a sense of entitlement. Doing away with Board examination seems to be all right but the children should also learn to handle pressure. Another issue within the ambit of the Act is 'mental and physical harassment. 'The Act does not define the term mental harassment. It could be anything from light admonition for not completing home task to vile abuses. Besides mental harassments are hard to establish as reporting mechanism is poor

Sengupta, M

and social matrix favours the teachers in this respect. The Act seems to be harsh on the unrecognized private unaided schools. It stipulates that if the school does not have the recognition certificate from local authority or government then it will not be allowed to function. It has to meet the specified norms within three years in order to remain in the business. The unrecognized private schools are serving in many places and have been able to solve the problem of outreach. Besides the researches have shown that the students of private schools have scored higher in mathematics, languages and are also more satisfied. The teachers of private schools are 2 to 8% percent age point less likely to be absent. RtE Act has been applauded by various world bodies like UNESCO, ILO, UNICEF. It is expected that RtE will propel India to even greater height of prosperity and productivity guarantying right to quality education. However, implementation bottlenecks are t h e re . T h e H R D m i n i st r y estimated that Rs.35,000crores of rupees will be required every year to implement it. Only Rs. 15,000 crores were allocated for this for the year 2010-11.The Planning Commission expressed its inability to fork out money. The state governments are often unwilling to supply even part of funding. Hence financial problem remains

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MINDSHARE • Volume 2 Issue 4 • Right to Education Act 2009

as usual a perennial stumbling block. Financial irregularities are also blamed for non implementation or inadequate i m p l e m e n ta t i o n o f e a r l i e r government schemes like SSA ,DPEP etc. Some of the critics pointed out that the Act is a fraud on our children giving neither free nor compulsory education, only legitimizing present multilayered inferior quality education where discrimination shall continue to prevail. But the efforts must be taken to implement this Act so that the critics' voices are silenced and to

create an ideal system of education. As the onus of implementation of the Act lies with th e govern ment, th e immediate tasks of the government are ⁻ Promulgation of central and state rules related to RtE ⁻ Notifying teachers' qualification ⁻ Harmonizing SSA-RtE ⁻ Setting up national and State Advisory Council ⁻ Working out appropriate fund sharing patterns. ⁻ Facilitating academic support in CCE, curriculum, classroom

Sengupta, M

transaction ⁻ I n t r o d u c i n g Te a c h e r education facilities, strategies ⁻ Undertaking public campaign in collaboration with civil society ⁻ Setting up School Managing Committees ⁻ Involving universities NGOs for qualitative improvement. Most importantly the Act is a legal document which is not easy to read or understand so it is imperative that informed public and informed implementing agencies must be created to achieve the objectives enshrined in the Act.

REFERENCES The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009. No.35 of 2009. The Gazette Of India, Ministry of Law and Justice, New Delhi.

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http://www.indg.in/primary-education/policies http://www.rtiindia.org /forum/26961-righteducation-bill-2009.html

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ISSN: 2229-4872 Mindshare Int. J. Res. Dev. Vol. 2, Issue 4 (2012), pp 6-13 RN: 2-W/12/JPL/2-4 Corresponding Author: Jazcinth Prudence Leewait email: jazcinth@gmail.com

Children working in the coal mines of Jaintia Hills by Jazcinth Prudence Leewait

Abstract

T

Dept. of Human Development & Childhood Studies, Lady Irwin Colllege, University of Delhi, New Delhi, INDIA

he study was conducted on 20 boys between the age group of 10-18years old and 10 families. Four public services: police station at Ranikor, outpost at Borsora, pharmacy at Borsora and Public Health Centre at Ranikor were also selected for the study to investigate about the various health and safety facilities being provided to the children.

Through this study my major findings were migrant children as young as ten years old were working as trolley pullers in the coal mines. Education was not considered as major criteria amongst the children and their family members. There were no safety or health facilities for the children. The laws and policies have not been implemented in Borsora.

KEYWORDS

Children's Rights, Child Labour, Coal Mines, Hazardous Conditions


MINDSHARE • Volume 2 Issue 4 • Children working in the coal mines...

Meghalaya has often been termed as the “coal state” or the “black diamond state” of the Northeast. Coal is defined as a readily combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock. It usually occurs in the rock strata in layers or veins that are called coal bed. Due to the later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure, the harder forms of these rocks like anthracite coal and can be called as metamorphic rock. It is endowed with some very high quality minerals like coal, limestone, sandstone and even uranium. However, the actual revenue earner is coal, which fetches the state exchequer millions of rupees. Coal trade provides an opportunity for the people to gain employment. This sector employs both adults and children below 18years of age. Laborers from different places migrate to work in these coal mines. The poor and the marginalized also gained, with a business lifeline coming into existence along various national and international highways. Coal mining in Meghalaya is being carried out for decades in Khasi Hills, Jaintia Hills and Garo Hills in a blatant unscientific manner, leading to extreme ecological imbalance. Not only have the waters in some of the major streams of Jaintia Hills and other areas become contaminated, but unscientific mining has also resulted in other

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serious problems like death of miners. Government in Meghalaya promised to strengthen the infrastructure and develop proper mining industries. However, no one seems to be too concerned and the only bright feature in this big booming business is the turnover in foreign exchange. The production of upgraded coal comes from these areas from private non-captive unorganized sector. The mines are operated mostly by the local tribal in their private lands. Meghalaya law does not prohibit unscientific mining and considers it the right of the property holder to employ the land for whatever purpose is desired. As an area that is dominated by tribal groups, ownership of the land is handed down by elders to individuals, and occasionally, to communities or villages. This system has enabled the increasing number of privately controlled small-scale ventures to freely exploit the regions surface level coal. Without access to expensive or sophisticated machinery, land owners have a d o p t e d a c r u d e fo r m o f excavation that employs rat hole mines narrow shafts dug to a p p rox i m ate l y 1 m e te r i n diameter. The holes are dug either horizontal or vertical to the earth. Area of work Borsora is a village falling near the zero line of international border with Bangladesh. It is

Leewait, J. P.

situated in the West Khasi Hills of Meghalaya and is very famous for its coal field. It comprises of migrant population and labourers who were not accompanied by their family. Borsora is a hilly area. It has no proper roads. People build their houses on hilly areas. All we can find in the village is coal and coal mines. Borsora is accessible by road from Shillong which is at a distance of 159km. The road from Shillong to Borsora is very lonely as the frequency of vehicles is limited. I was motivated and got interested to do my thesis on children working in the coal mines when I was doing my summer internship at Impulse NGO Network. There are two ways to reach Borsora. One way is the border road and the other way is the main road from Ranikor. The border road is comparatively well maintained and well paved. The roads are very narrow and not well maintained. One cannot think of going to this area alone since the roads are lonely and it takes a longer time to travel than required. The roads are narrow one vehicle has to stop every time the other vehicle passes from the opposite direction. Otherwise there are high possibilities of accidents to take place. Crime rate is also very high since there are rivalries amongst the coal mine managers and the underworld militants due to access demand of money. There are a number of bridges that connects one road to

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MINDSHARE • Volume 2 Issue 4 • Children working in the coal mines...

the other. These bridges are made out of woods which become very risky. There are also high possibilities of landslides to take place. There is very little public transport that runs from Shillong to Borsora. The most popular form of transport is buses and Tata Sumos. Both utilize the share passenger system. They only function once in the day. The buses and Sumos start early in the morning from Shillong and the next morning from Borsora back to shillong. The cost for traveling from Shillong to Borsora by Tata Sumo is Rs. 250. Everything in this village closes before dawn due to limited electricity. I selected Borsora due to the support system and the accessibility to this area. I travelled on a shared Sumo to go to Borsora village. My mother’s colleague accompanied me to the village. He had all the information about the village. We travelled through the main road till Ranikor and then we used other mode of transport to reach Borsora. It took us eight hours to reach Borsora due to the curvy, narrow and steep roads. There are no fences on the side which will prevent the vehicles from falling down so the vehicles have to slow down on the curvy turns. Meaning of coal mine Coal Mining Safety and Health Act 1999 defines coal mine as a place where on-site activities are

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carried on, continuously or from time to time, within the boundaries of land the subject of a mining tenure. Coal mines is also called as rat hole mine. It is defined as a coal mining done by family members in form of a long narrow tunnel. It is very prevalent in Jaintia, Khasi and Garo hills. Local people who live in the coal mine areas and labourers called the mines as quarry. It means a surface excavation for extraction of coal. OBJECTIVE OF STUDY • To explore the lives of children working in the coal mines of West Khasi hills. • To study the institutional facilities available for these children. • To investigate awareness about laws and policies relating to children and their implementation in these areas. METHODOLOGY Participants The study was conducted on 20 boys in the age group of 10 to 18 years working in the coal mines of Borsora. Most of these boys were migrants and some were boys who were not accompanied by their family. I visited 10 homes of migrated families. I interacted with 2 coal mine administrators at their work area. I also visited 4 public services (Police station at Ranikor, Check post at Borsora, Public Health Centre at Ranikor and Pharmacy at Borsora). I

Leewait, J. P.

interacted with two policemen one from Ranikor Police Station and one from a check post at Borsora. Sampling technique The participants were selected by incidental sampling. Tools for data collection The following tools were collected for data collection: Semi-structured Interview Non-participant and Participant observation Case Study RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS The results of the study a d d re s s e s t h e t h re e m a i n objectives outlined in the introduction chapter. Through this study I found that children working in the coal mines of Borsora were mainly boys. I did not find any girls working in this area. The boys were migrants from Nepal, Bihar, West Bengal and Assam. Many children come from Balat, Jaintia hills and Assam to work in the coal mines unaccompanied by their families. They work 5 days in a week and return home during the week end. All these children come from low socio-economic status families. Some working children live here for months and only visit their homes during festive seasons. Most of the migrated families live in wooden houses built on hilly terrains. These houses generally consist of two rooms with a large

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number of family members. Children who are unaccompanied by their families live in temporary camps made of plastic sheets. These camps are made close to the rat holes where they work. 5-8 children live together in one camp. Most of these children were informed about the coal mining by their uncles, brothers-in-law and friends. One of the laborer said that he had inform his nephew about the work by showing him photographs of the coal mines. Most of the children land up working in the rat holes due to failure in school. Happy is a fifteen years old boy who came from West Bengal to work in the coal mines of Borsora. He failed in class seven and since then he has dropped out of school. He then decided to work. He got to know about the work in the coal mines from his friends. He came to Borsora two years back and work as a coal mine manager also locally called as a “Sordar”. There were children who were accompanied by their fathers. They enter the rat holes where they pull the trolley of coal out from the rat holes while their fathers extract coal. One of the father said that he had admitted his ten years old son in a school, but then he was not interested to attend school. He loiters around here and there and refuses to go to school. The father has no choice but to bring his ten years old son along with him to the rat hole. The father believed that it was much

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better for his son to accompany him to work rather than loiter here and there. Most of the working children have never been to school. The reasons are due to poverty, death of the father in the family and large size family. A few school going children were also seen working in the coal mines. These children work during the winter vacations. They come to Borsora in the month of December, work for three months and then join school when the session starts. Ulas Shylla is a fifteen years old boy from Jowai. He comes to Borsora to work during his vacation. He has been working in the rat holes since two years. He works for three months every year and return home when the session starts. These children did not understand the importance of education. One of the ten years old boy said that he is a big boy now and refused to go to school. Work and earning money for a living has become a part and parcel of their lives. In fact even mothers of these children are helpless. They have no choice but to send their children to these rat holes to work, so that the entire family is supported. There were reasons like the birth of a new born baby where the mother is busy at home taking care of the little one and the older brothers support their family by working in these rat holes. I found out that the various schemes provided by the

Leewait, J. P.

government like Sarva Shiksha Abhan and National Plan of Action for Children, 2005 pay a lot of emphasis on the importance of education, yet none of these schemes have reached out to the Borsora village. There is no informal education being conducted for the children in the village. No organizations and NGOs have reach out to the children in this village to spread awareness about the importance of education. Borsora is a village which is rich in the extraction of coal. The rat holes are dug horizontal to the ground. The distance of the rat holes varies from 400feet1500feet. Children below the age of eighteen years were seen working in the coal mines. Children earn a lot of money by working in these mines also known as rat holes. The children enter the holes within the span of fifteen minutes. They do not stay inside the holes for long hours. Some children are unaccompanied by their fathers and some are accompanied by their fathers. The children start working early in the morning at 6 o’clock and finish their work maximum by 3 o’clock. Some children pull trolleys of coal five times in a day and some can pull up to 13-16 times a day, depending on their capacity. One of the Sordar I interacted with was only seventeen years old, said that he does not force the children to

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MINDSHARE • Volume 2 Issue 4 • Children working in the coal mines...

work. There was no dearth of work. Anybody can work in any rat hole. The working children were free to decide where they want to work. They could freely leave the rat hole they were working with and work in another rat hole. I found out that the work environment was very friendly. The Sordar and the working children were comparatively of the same age. The Sordar is friendly with all the labourers working for him. The children get paid according to the number of times they pull the trolley of coal and the distance of the hole that they enter. The shorter the distance the lesser they get paid and the more the distance the more they get paid. So, the payment from varies from Rs.65Rs.100 per trolley. Each rat hole has various mode of payment. Some pay more and some pay less, again depending on the distance of the hole. Working children generally chose rat hole that offer more money. All the working children are paid according to the work they do. There are no bonuses or incentives given to them any time during their work. If they are absent from work for a day, they were not paid for that particular day. During times of accidents the Sordar would give them money to cure their wounds, but again the money given to them would be deducted from their payment. All the working children were paid at the end of the week.

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Children living with the families were paid for the whole weeks work and the children who are all by themselves were paid only for their food. The whole amount was generally paid to them at the time when they visit their family back home. None of the children reported of not being paid on time or of being cheated by the Sordar. There is no proper system of employing the children to work in the coal mines. Everybody who wanted to work was allowed to work. There were no hard and fast rules. No bonds were asked to sign by the children. The children employed were not given any kind of training. There were no facilities being provided to them at the work place. At the time when they begin to work they had to buy their own torch, which cost them around Rs.200. The Sordar of the coal mines manages everything outside the rat hole. He does not enter the rat holes for supervision or to even check on the working children. One of the Sordar I interacted with said that he rarely enters the rat hole depending on his mood. There was a very different kind of a system that exists in the functioning of work in the coal mines. Ticket system was very prevalent. One person was assigned as a ticket checker. He sits o u t s i d e t h e ra t h o l e a n d distributes one ticket each time the labourers enter the rat hole. The labourers collect the tickets and by the end of the day the

Leewait, J. P.

number of tickets from each person was counted and maintain. One of the Sordar I interacted with showed me a register where he had maintained the attendance and the number of tickets that each labourer collected at the end of the day. Work does not function during the night time, due to poor lighting facilities. I found out that none of the rat holes had any kind of lighting system. There were no street light outside the coal mines. The rat holes are very dark and the children had small torch attached with a band to their forehead. The torch is the only source of light they have. The Sordar of the coal mines is the one who manages the whole business functioning in the coal mine. He is in charge of the supervision in the coal mines. The owner has no role to play in the coal mining areas. The owner hands over the business to the Sordar and he manages everything in the coal mine. He then gives a report to the owner every week end when he collects payment to pay the labourers. The owner puts a demand that Sordar should take out so much amount of coal in one month. It is the duty of the Sordar to fulfill his owner’s demands. Children get paid according to the amount of work they do. Apart from this there are no other facilities being provided for the children working in the rat holes. There are no safety measures and no first aid boxes available in the

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MINDSHARE • Volume 2 Issue 4 • Children working in the coal mines...

rat holes, for these children. The children do not get any kind of incentives during times of injuries. The owner and the Sordar of the coal mine do not take any kind of responsibility in case of any accidents. The coal mines in Borsora are owned by different people. Some were business men and some were ministers. Children working in these rat holes generally wear thin t-shirt, shorts and converse. No helmet or mass was being provided to them as a safety measure. There is more emission of carbon dioxide inside the holes due to the presence of coal layers. The further the labourers dug the holes; at one point carbon monoxide is emitted. When that point comes and the labourers get the smell of carbon monoxide, they immediately stop digging further and stop working in those holes. This was one safety measure that the labourers took when it comes to protecting their lives. The labourers then move on to work in other holes. There are also coal mine owners who have taken initiative to protect the rat holes from collapsing during landslides and also to prevent the labourers from any kind of accidents. A few rat holes had wooden pillars; a few had iron pillars to support the roof of the holes. There are some rat holes that are bare and did not have any kind of support systems. During my interaction with the families I

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found out that there are high chances of accidents taking place in these bare holes which did not have any support system. I also found out those children who were working in these rat holes rarely encounter with such kinds of accidents because there work was to pull the trolley of coal out of the rat holes. So, they do not stay inside the rat holes for long hours. Another safety measure that the labourers take for themselves was that once they sense that the rat holes may collapse, they stop working in that rat hole and find another rat hole with better support system to work. But children do not understand the meaning of safety. They have become so brave that they were not scared of death. One of the boy I interacted with said that he is not scared of death. None of the boys could tell me the meaning of safety. Some boys reported that initially they were scared to enter the rat holes, but gradually they got habituated to this kind of work and now they are not scared anymore. While I interacted with the boys I notice injuries on their hands and legs. He said he has not seen a doctor or taken any medicine for the injuries. he said that with time the wounds will heal. The boys also complaint of body aches and very often suffers from viral fever. They rarely make use of the facilities provided for them at the Public Health Centre in Ranikor. One of the main reasons

Leewait, J. P.

was due to poor maintenance of roads from Borsora to Ranikor people generally prefer to consult the pharmacy at Borsora. It also takes longer time than required to travel. Another reason was that there are no doctors available at the Public Health Centre. I interacted with a one of the nurse and found out that the doctors were not available. They do not get cases of children working in the coal mines. There were no death cases or wounded children of working children being reported in the Public Health Centre. Facilities like ambulance were available. There were only two pharmacies in Borsora. I met the pharmacist and I found out that it’s been fifteen years that Borsora does not have a doctor. The pharmacist is the one who plays the role of a doctor. He is not authorized as a doctor, yet the people in the village come up to him for medicines. He said that he has been in Borsora for the past fifteen years and he had not seen a doctor since then. He said that there are very less wounded children who come to him for medicine. It is mostly the older men who come for stitches when they get injured. There were more children suffering from viral fever in the year 2011. Few years back he said that there were more children who suffered from tuberculosis. I found out that no death rates of working children

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have been reported. I visited the police station at Ranikor. I interacted with one of the constable where I found out that there were no cases of missing children or death rates of working children being reported from Borsora area. The constable said that they used to walk around the coal mining areas in Borsora and also warn the Sordar not to employ children less than 14 years to work in the rat holes. He did not know about Mines Act 1952. When I cross check with the coal mine administrator or Sordar, he said that the policemen never came to warn them not employ children less than 14 years. There were two rape cases that were reported. He refused to show me the case file as it was against the law to reveal the files. No initiatives have been taken by the police force to protect these children or to stop child labour. There is one check post in Borsora. I interacted with one of the constable. He said that they have n o ro l e p l ay to wa rd s t h e betterment of the children and the elimination of the child labour in the village. He also said that there were no cases of complaint against the missing and death rates of the children working in the rat holes. He said that even if there were such cases they would not know because the families do file a complaint at the check post. The policemen’s main duties were the operations taking place in the

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forest of Borsora. They have to keep a check on the underworld militants who would demand money from the Sordar and if they do not get the money then they kill the Sordar. CONCLUSION My period of work at Borsora village was a mixed feeling. I feel that if Sarva Shiksha Abhaan has been implemented in this village, then the children may get an opportunity to read and w r i t e t h r o u g h n o n - fo r m a l education. Through my interactions with these children I found out that they were mostly migrants from different far off places like Assam, Bihar, West Bengal and Nepal to work in these coal mines.. They generally live in temporary camps made of plastic sheet close to the coal mines. I notice that these children have no proper place to stay. The camps could fall off during rainy season and during thunder and storm. The camps would not protect them from the cold winter nights. The coal mine administrator locally called a Sordar does not take any responsibility to provide a proper place for these children to live in. In fact even the Sordar was seen living in these camps. The children who were with their families live in wooden houses built in the hilly terrains of the village. The rooms consist of not more than two. There are five to eight people living in these houses. The coal mines are owned

Leewait, J. P.

by different people. There are more than one coal mines in Borsora village. The owners are not seen in the village. It is the Sordar who manages everything and reports to the owner every week end. He demands a certain amount of coal within a month and it entirely depends on the Sordar to fulfill his demands. The children working as trolley pullers risk their lives each time they enter the coal mines. The children are so habituated to this work environment that all they could think of was how to earn money not realizing that their lives were in great danger. Metan an eleven year old boy bravely said that he is not scared of death. Most of the boys did not know the meaning of safety. They were all blank when I ask them what they understand by the word “safety”. All the children that I interacted were so used to this kind of work that for them it has become part and parcel of their lives. Prior to my field work I had a very different notion and perception about the working conditions of the children. I was prepared to see the m o st aw f u l s i g ht , b u t my perception change when I saw the children working happily. The work environment was very friendly. The Sordar and the children share a very friendly relationship. All these children were not forced to work. No facilities were being provided to them at the rat holes. They enter

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the holes bare headed without any helmet to prevent them from injuries. The children wear fewer clothes, some wear only their shorts and converse as the hole are heated up and it become unbearable to bare the heat. They wear torch light tight with a band to their forehead. I remember the first visit to the coal field. It was dreadful for me to see such young children crawling in to those rat holes and pulling out trolley of coal. They work in the rat holes not knowing what risk they have been taking for their lives. All these children could see was how to earn good amount of money. They did not think about the health hazards that they could go through due to excess inhalation of carbon dioxide and heat inside the rat holes. When I entered the rat hole I was horrified for many days. I got nightmares while sleeping and I often think

about those children who work in the rat holes every day. For them it was normal and an everyday affair to work in the rat holes. They were not scared or horrified. They work willingly with no fear on their faces. Money was so important to them that some of them never want to go to school. They have no awareness about their right to education, right to health and safety facilities. The government has simply neglected these children and has not taken any initiative to spread awareness to these children and to eliminate child labor. I strongly feel that the government should take strong initiatives to eliminate child labour in the coal mines and provide an alternative for these children’s betterment. I also believed that the owners of the coal mines should play an effective role and not just sit in his office and

Leewait, J. P.

demand for coal. Due to private ownership the owner has the full right to do whatever he wants with his land, but they do have the right to employ children to work in the coal field. Yet we see many children working in the most hazardous conditions. I also observed that there were poor health facilities in Borsora. The pharmacist said that he has been in the village for over fifteen years and has been fulfilling the role of a doctor without being authorized. I have gain a lot of experiences and knowledge through this thesis. It has helped me understand every sphere of children’s life. Poverty can take a child’s childhood away. This thesis has brought an insight in to the living conditions of the children in the coal mines and I hope that it becomes an eye opener for everyone who reads this thesis.

REFERENCES Retrieved March 24, 2012, http://www.novamining.com/miningdatabase/state-wise-data/india-miningmeghalaya/ Retrieved March 24, 2012, http://meghpol.nic.in/WKH/infowkh.htm Retrieved March 24, 2012, http://www.sentinelassam.com/northeast.php ?sec=2&subsec=9&id=23714&dtP=2009-1008&ppr=1 Retrieved March 26, 2012 http://zoclips.blogspot.in/2010/09/222-childminers-in-meghalaya-govt.html Retrieved March 24, 2012

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http://www.telegraphindia.com/1100906/jsp/ northeast/story_12899423.jsp Retrieved March 27, 2012, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Child_labour_in_ India Retrieved on March 27, 2012, http://articles.latimes.com/2011/may/15/wor ld/la-fg-india-child-coal-20110515 Retrieved March 28, 2012, http://www.legislation.qld.gov.au/LEGISLTN/C URRENT/C/CoalMinSHA99.pdf Retrieved March 28, 2012, http://www.telegraphindia.com/1030124/asp /northeast/story_1576390.asp

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ISSN: 2229-4872 Mindshare Int. J. Res. Dev. Vol. 2, Issue 4 (2012), pp 14-20 RN: 2-W/12/RB/2-4 Corresponding Author: Ritika Behl email: behl.ritika@gmail.com

Emotional Abuse of Children of working mothers' by Ritika Behl

Abstract

W

Department of Law, Amity Law School, Noida, (UP), INDIA

e all are well aware about the fact that a child is prone to various kinds of abuses. Such abuses can be divided primarily into four heads: emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse and neglect. Though apparently neglect and emotional abuse appear to be similar, the needs of children are different and are even dealt differently in both. This paper revolves around the emotional child abuse which is suffered by children on hand of their working mothers'. There is no exhaustive definition of a working mother but generally they can be defined as 'that mother who is juggling her responsibility towards her career and her motherhood'. It is said the home is the first

school for a child and his mother is the first teacher, the first individual with whom a child starts interacting. Indeed a mother is the primary role model in every child's growing years. Thereby it is also evident that the child is dependent on his mother for his emotional, physical and psychological well being and development. Further a child is even hungry for her care and undivided attention, at least during infancy. Infancy is the stage when a child starts developing. A child's motor skills change rapidly during the first two years which require close observation and interaction with the child. The foundation of Cognitive and Social-emotional development of a child is laid in the first five years of his life.

KEYWORDS Emotional Abuse, Working Mothers, Family Support Programmes, Child Protective Services


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Care refers to the behaviours and practices of caretakers (mothers, siblings, fathers, and childcare providers) to provide the food, health care, stimulation, and emotional support necessary for children's healthy survival, grow th, and development. Thereby its mother is not the lone caretaker of a child. The word “caretaker” is inclusive of mother, her spouse and family primarily. Child emotional abuse has been observed as an extreme habitual pattern of hostile or aggressive parenting which impairs the full development of full faculties of a child. It has been observed by various researchers that many parents who abuse their children were themselves maltreated as children and this behavioral pattern stems from their childhood events only. The emotional child abuse can lead to lower IQ and lower educational achievements besides impairing the moral reasoning of a child including less empathy, less compliance and less developed conscience. It open opens gateways towards criminal tendencies and various mental problems like depression, anxiety etc. The available resources are always given extreme importance whenever child development is an issue. But what many don't realize is that optimum utilization of available resources is also another inevitable aspect. Such resources

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can be divided into human, economic and organizational resources. Human resources include the caregiver's knowledge, education, physical and mental health; and their confidence. Economic resources include caregiver's autonomy, control over available economic resources and control o v e r t i m e . O r ga n i z a t i o n a l resources deal with alternate caregivers, community care arrangements and emotional support provided to the primary caregiver. These resources can be optimally utilized at community, district, national and international levels. Why working mothers'? Another question which comes to mind is why is it so important for a woman to work? An economically independent mother is open to more access to resources of care. The education of woman is a key factor which affects her status, in home and society. It further affects the kinds of care practices which can be followed by her for the child. The financial autonomy and decision making power are the key potentials for which it becomes necessary for a woman to work, especially when she's deciding to plan a family. When we understand that we ca n o p t i m a l l y u s e l i m i te d resources for the best of child we b e g i n t o u n d e rs t a n d t h a t

Behl, R

enhanced care giving would be an indispensable aspect. A child has to be understood as a product of family and community as a whole. A mother though responsible; is not the sole responsibility holder with respect to a child. Here the focus has been on working women because their circumstances themselves have seeds of emotional abuse. It has been extremely important for the st women of 21 Century to be financially independent and self reliant. The gravity varies from society to society but indeed when motherhood has professional growth as its competition it can definitely lead to imbalance in certain forms. A working mother is more plausible to be a victim of professional stress and anxiety, which coupled with inharmonious relations with spouse and/or his family can further worsen the matters. Besides the aspect that a mother is a working woman, crucial role is played by her husband and family. The support which such alternate caregivers have to provide to the mother and the child starts from the stage of pregnancy itself and should be extended for an infinite period. Presence of other factors Conjointly presence of many other factors like alcohol and drug abuse and domestic violence can also aggravate the scale of emotional abuse of a child. The emotional security and trauma

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suffered by a woman who is affected herself by alcohol/drug abuse or because of her spouse increases the pressure on her mind whereby the frustration levels rise impeccably. The wounded mother is more susceptible to be a blamed mother. They many a times suffer from guilt, shame and inadequacy which can interfere with their parenting skills. They are at a risk of either becoming overprotective towards their child or neglectful. Many a times they might have been inadequately nurtured themselves. Adequacy of Indian Laws in dealing with emotional abuse of children Since India became independent it was required to fight against various plagues of the society. From the very beginning children and women were made an essential part of the pathway towards development. Impeccable efforts were made to adhere provisions of Convention on Civil and Political Rights, and Convention of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, which were ratified in 1979. If we would assay the Fiveyear plans which have been undertaken by Indian government since independence we can conclude that the reforms have rotated around few issues. These issues undeniably were the pivotal steps towards progress. Such

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issues were inclusive of health & sanitation, education, nutrition, child marriage, child labour, child sex ratio etc. The reforms had been directed from “need based” policies to “right based” policies. However extremely less importance has been given to the psychological needs, emotional needs and need for care. Though Article 39 of Directive Principles of State Policy is a directive against moral and material abandonment of children yet no concrete efforts have been undertaken to protect the children against the emotional abuse. Various studies have revealed that 83% of the children suffer emotional abuse at the hands of their parents only and it is equally faced by both the genders. Thereby in a society where physical abuse is faced by 88.66% of the children and the offenders are parents only and where sexual abuse if faced by 53.22% of children, certain reformative policies specifically working on emotional abuse are impending. India ratified the Convention on Rights of Child in11th December, 1992. Article 19 of the Convention works as a detriment against abuse and neglect of children but has not been given a corporeal shape. Steps required to be undertaken In many countries around the world uttermost emphasis is given on child protection against

Behl, R

emotional abuse especially at the hand of parents. The majority of programmes focus on victims or perpetrators of the abuse. Very few emphasize primary prevention approaches aimed at preventing child abuse and neglect from occurring in the first place. The variety of solutions which can utilised by a country depends on various factors like poverty, social capital, education and other factors, specially varied characteristics of parents. Here the approach can be divided under following heads:1. Family Support Programmes There have been a high level of development in parental practices and the programmes which provide family support have been ex te n d e d ex te n s i ve l y. T h e approach adopted by such programmes generally is to educate parents on various issues of child development and help them in improving/ enhancing their skills in managing their child's behavior. Though most often these programmes have been intended to be utilized by those families where the abuse has already occurred or are under a high risk of such occurrence, it would be beneficial if proper education and training is provided in this area. Responses to child abuse and neglect depend on many factors, including the age and developmental level of the child and the presence of

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environmental stress factors. 1.1 Training and Education Such training and education should be provided to not just parents but also prospective parents. In an Asian country, Singapore the parental training starts at secondary level of education itself with the name of “preparation for parenthood” classes. For such families where child abuse has already occurred there the approach is to prevent any such further occurrence of abuse and to minimize the effect of the abuse that has already taken place. For example under the programme Wolfe et al, random mother-child pairs were assigned either to the comparison group. Mothers who had received such training reported fewer behavioral and adjustment issues with their children. Further it was proved that mothers who underwent such training had run a lower risk of maltreating their children. 1.2 Family visitation These have been tested to be most beneficial as they help in full utilization of community resources and help in limiting the risk of youth crime also. During the home visits, information, support and other services to improve the functioning of the family are offered. One such programme is run in Cape Town, south Africa under the name of 'Parent Centre', home visitors are recruited from

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the community, trained by the c e n t re a n d s u p e r v i s e d b y professional social workers. Families are visited monthly during the prenatal period, weekly for the first 2 months after birth, from then on once every 2 weeks up to 2 months of age and then monthly until the baby reaches 6 months. At that time, visits may continue or be terminated, depending on the supervisor's assessment. Families may be referred to other agencies for services where this is felt appropriate. 2. Training for health care professionals Training the health care professionals to analyse and realise the presence of various symptoms of emotional abuse whether at health centres or in schools should be emphasised. The health care professionals should undergo training for the same as there is no straightforward method of reaching the actual presence of abuse. 3. Legal Remedies There can be a legal systems which can be devised to check the emotional abuse on a child but since India is a developing country the challenges are aplenty. Therefore the government at state and centre level has to consider various elements before considering and implementing a legal remedy. Though the stringency of a

Behl, R

remedy may vary from state to state or society to society what should be kept in mind is that it works as a deterrent more, than a punitive legal principle. 3.1. Mandatory & Voluntary Reporting This sort of reporting has been made a part of legal system by various developing countries like Israel, Rwanda, Sri Lanka besides many developed countries like United States. The reasoning behind the introduction of mandatory reporting laws was that early detection of abuse would help forestall the occurrence of serious injuries, increase the safety of victims and foster coordination between legal, health care and service responses. Various types of voluntary reporting systems exist around the world, in countries such as Croatia, Japan, Romania and the United Republic of Tanzania. In the Netherlands, suspected cases of child abuse can be reported voluntarily to one of two separate public agencies. Both these bodies exist to protect children from abuse and neglect, and both act to investigate suspected reports of maltreatment. 3.2. Child Protection Services Child protection service agencies investigate and try to substantiate reports of suspected child abuse. The initial reports may come from a variety of sources, including health care personnel, police, teachers and neighbours.

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If the reports are verified, then staff of the child protection services have to decide on appropriate treatment and referral. Such decisions are often difficult, since a balance has to be found between various potentially competing demands such as the need to protect the child and the wish to keep a family intact. The services offered to children and families thus vary widely. 3.3. Community Based Efforts Community based efforts may focus one single units like schools or on the whole community, which can be divided into various sectors for the purpose. 3.3.1. School Based Programmes Generally the main objective of these programmes have been to make children aware about the sexual abuse. These programmes have further trained the students to recognise threatening situations and how to communicate to an adult about any such incident. Such type of programmes can further be designed to help children analyse the presence and continuance of emotional abuse at home. Children can further be trained and such skills can be provided to them that they are able to lower the effect of such emotional abuse. Another important step that can be taken even by school authorities, including teachers, is that behavioural abnormalities

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should be duly ascertained. 3.3.2. Prevention and educational campaigns Widespread prevention and educational campaigns are another approach to reducing child abuse and neglect. These interventions stem from the belief that increasing awareness and understanding of the phenomenon among the general population will result in a lower level of abuse. This could occur directly with perpetrators recognizing their own behaviour as abusive and wrong and seeking treatment or indirectly, with i n c re a s e d re co g n i t i o n a n d reporting of abuse either by victims or third parties. 4. Societal Approaches Most f the programmes primarily deal with the child and the offender but do not address the root cause of the issue. The main cause can be a variety of factors like poverty, illiteracy, employment opportunities etc. Further it has been noticed that increasing the availability and quality of child care, rates of child abuse and neglect can be significantly reduced. Re s e a rc h f ro m s e v e ra l countries in Western Europe, as well as Canada, Colombia and parts of Asia and the Pacific, indicates that the availability of high-quality earlychildhood programmes may offset social and e co n o m i c i n e q u a l i t i e s a n d improve child outcomes.

Behl, R

5.

International Treaties There are various I nte r n at i o n a l Tre at i e s a n d Conventions which directly relate with child abuse. They have undoubtedly paved the way for various developments in relation to child rights and protection. In November, 1989, the UN General Assembly adopted the Convention on Rights of Child. A guiding principle of the Convention is that children are individuals with equal rights to those of adults. Since children are dependent on adults, though, their views are rarely taken into account when governments set out policies. The Convention on the Rights of the Child provides clear standards and obligations for all signatory nations for the protection of children. The Convention on the Rights of the Child is one of the most w i d e l y ra t i f i e d o f a l l t h e i n te r n a t i o n a l t re a t i e s a n d conventions. Its impact, though, in protecting children from abuse and neglect has yet to be fully realized. Recommendations There are a series of methods and policies which can be devised to prevent and to minimise the effect of emotional abuse on children. The focus can vary from family and schools as a unit to community being divided into various sectors. It has to be implemented in such a format that root cause of

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the problems can also be averted in some manner. The initiative has to be taken by and specific efforts for the same have also to be undertaken by various governments units, researchers, health care and social workers, the teaching and legal professions, nongovernmental organizations and other groups. Better assessment and monitoring: Specific efforts have to be taken towards this direction that a proper assessment of such abuse should be made possible. Every school must have a group of paediatrics who can help in analysing the development of the children of the school, specially in primary classes, where the effect of emotional abuse can be most intimidating. A proper investment mechanism has to be devised by the government to monitor emotional child abuse. It might consist of collection of case reports, surveys, which can be conducted periodically, where

academic institutions and health care departments can be of immense help and support. It is essential that systems for responding to child abuse and neglect are in place and are operational. In the Philippines, for example, private and public hospitals provide the first line of response to child abuse, followed by the national criminal justice system, which helps the child in attaining expert help and support at all stages. Policy Development: Governments should assist local agencies to implement effective protection services for children. New policies may be needed: to ensure a well-trained workforce in this area; to develop responses using a range of disciplines, Doctors, Paediatrics, Sociologist; to provide alternative care placements for children; to ensure access to health resources; to provide resources for families.

Behl, R

Conclusion Emotional child abuse is a serious global disease which is isn't biased between developing and developed countries. Although the developed countries have realised the pitfalls of such abuse, developing countries are still on the pathway to accept emotional abuse as a deterrent to their society. Recognition and awareness, although essential elements for effective prevention, are only part of the solution. Prevention efforts and policies must directly address children, their caregivers and the environments in which they live in order to prevent potential abuse from occurring and to deal effectively with cases of abuse and neglect that have taken place. The concerted and coordinated efforts of a whole range of sectors are required here, and public health researchers and practitioners can play a key role by leading and facilitating the process.

REFERENCES Naomi N. Duke et all, April 1, 2010, “Adolescent Violence Perpetration: Associations With Multiple Types of Adverse Childhood Experiences”, Pediatrics, Vol. 125, No.4, pp. e778 -e786. Patrice Engle, “The Role of Caring Practices and Resources for Care in Child Survival, Growth, and Development: South and Southeast Asia”, Asian Development Review, vol. 17 nos. 1,2, pp. 132-167.

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World Report on Violence and Health, Child Abuse and Neglect by Parents and Other Caregivers. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2002. Dr. Savita Bhakhry, “Children in India and their Rights”, bhrc.bih.nic.in/Docs/ChildrenRights.pdf Helen Baker-Henningham & Florencia López Bóo, Inter-American Development Bank, "Early Childhood Stimulation Interventions in

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Developing Countries: A Comprehensive Literature Review," IDB Publications, 2010 UNICEF, Progress for Children: A World Fit for Children Statistical Review, No. 6, December 2007. Government of India, Ministry of Women and Child Development, National Report on : A World Fit for Children, 2007 Patrice Engle, Asian Development Review, Vol. 17, Nos. 1,2, pp. 132-167 Stephanie Covington, Working with Substance Abusing Mothers: A Trauma-Informed, Gender-Responsive Approach, National Abandoned Infants Assistance Resource Center, Berkeley, CA, Volume 16, No.1, 2007 Carole Echlin and Larry Marshall, Child Protective Services for Children of Battered Women: Practice and Controversy, Ending the Cycle of

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Behl, R

Violence: Community Responses to Children of Battered Women. Thousand Oaks Sage, 1995, pp. 170-185 Kathleen Kendall-Tackett, “The Health Effects of Childhood Abuse: Four Pathways by which Abuse Can Influence Health”, Child Abuse and Neglect, 2002, Vol. 6/7, pp. 715-730 Kiran Aggarwal et al, “Recommendations on Recognition and Response to Child Abuse and Neglect in the Indian Setting”, Indian Pediatrics, Vol. 47, 17 June, 2010 Jayita Poduval et al ,“Working Mothers: How Much Working, How Much Mothers, And Where Is The Womanhood?”,Women's Issues, 2009, Vol. 7, Issue 1, pp.63-79 Steven W. Kairys et al, “The Psychological Maltreatment of ChildrenTechnical Report”, Pediatrics, Vol. 109, No. 4, April 1, 2002

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ISSN: 2229-4872 Mindshare Int. J. Res. Dev. Vol. 2, Issue 4, pp 21-28 RN: 2-W/12/RU/2-4 Corresponding Author: R. Umarani email: umainweb@gmail.com

An Analysis on the Prime Factors for child abuse in India A Fuzzy Approach by R. Umarani

Abstract

C

Department of Computer Science, Sri Sarada College for Women (Autonomous), Salem, INDIA

hild abuse is the physical, sexual or emotional mistreatment or neglect of a child or children. Child maltreatment is defined as any act or series of acts of commission or omission by a parent or other caregiver that results in harm, potential for harm, or threat of harm to a child. Child abuse can occur in a child's home, or in the organizations, schools or communities the child interacts with.

There are four major categories of child abuse: neglect, physical abuse, psychological/emotional abuse, and child sexual abuse. This paper reports an informal study that investigated the abuse of children in India. The focus is on the main factors of child abuse. The purpose is to gain a deeper insight into factors of child abuse in India.

KEYWORDS: Fuzzy Applications, Child Abuse, Fuzzy Matrix.


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Introduction Different jurisdictions have developed their own definitions of what constitutes child abuse for the purposes of removing a child from his/her family and/or prosecuting a criminal charge. Child abuse is "any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker which results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse or exploitation, an act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm". A person who feels the need to abuse or neglect a child may be described as a “pedopath” [1]. Child abuse can take several forms: The four main types are physical, sexual, psychological, and neglect. A Coordinated Response to Child Abuse and Neglect is the Foundation for Practice, and Office on Child Abuse and doctor. There are many effects of child neglect, such as children not being able to interact with other children around them. The continuous refusal of a child's basic needs is considered chronic neglect [2]. A child abuse fatality is when a child's death is the result of abuse or neglect, or when abuse and/or neglect are contributing factors to a child's death. In India, 1,730 children died in 2008 due to factors related to abuse; this is a rate of 2 per 100,000 Indian children. Child abuse fatalities are widely recognized as being undercounted; it is estimated that between 6085% of child fatalities due to maltreatment are not recorded as such on death certificates. Younger children are at a much higher risk for being killed [3]. Girls and boys, however, are killed at similar rates. Caregivers, and specifically mothers, are more likely to be the perpetrators

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of a child abuse fatality, than anyone else, including strangers, relatives, and non-relative caregivers. Family situations which place children at risk include moving, unemployment, having non-family members living in the household. This paper reports a study that investigated the factors of child abuse use in India. The focus is on the major reasons for which children are being abused every day, and how it can be prevented and avoided. Methodology The study was carried out with 100 children in Salem. In order to grasp a general feeling about child abuse, the study took place in familiar settings. Samples were interviewed in places where they normally spend t i m e e . g . h o m e , e d u cat i o n a l institutions, shopping mall, recreation club and internet browsing centers. The interview framework was set in advance and scheduled for one hour, but some questions were adapted to individuals during the session. In order to grasp a general feeling about child abuse, interviews were informal and toned like a friendly chat. Several types of data were collected. Later the data collected were analyzed with user-centered methods. Participants 100 numbers of children both male and female aged 6-17, took part in the study. All the children are born and living in Salem, Tamil Nadu, India. Also they are all attending fulltime public or private schools in Salem. Materials and Methods Materials This was a child-based study

Umarani, R

with a cross sectional design, evaluating all children in the age group of 6-17. Sample size is totaled to 100. The instrument used was an interview targeting the children. The interview was designed to include items related to the reasons for their abuse. The instrument was applied to each participant. Children in different age group in different parts of Salem, Tamil Nadu took part in the study. Reasons for child abuse The outcome used in the data analysis was primary reasons for child abuse in India. The following are the primary reasons given by the children in the age group of 6-17 for their abuse. Family income level. Domestic violence Single parents Child-rearing practices Low self-confidence Past history of abuse Drug and alcohol problems The child has physical or mental handicaps These reasons are hereafter referred as S1, S2, S3,…..S8 respectively. The youth were divided into three age groups as 6-9, 10-13, and 14-17. Then, the total number of children abused for each reason in each age group is found out and tabulated. Methods The initial raw data matrix is formed by taking these factors as the columns and the age groups of children in years 6-9, 10-13 and 14-17 as the rows. The analysis of the reasons of social networks usage is a five-stage process [4]. In the first stage, the raw data is represented as a matrix.

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Entries corresponding to the intersection of rows and columns are values corresponding to responses from the participants for the interview. The 3 x 8 matrix (Number of age groups is 3 & Number of primary reasons is 8) is uniform i.e., the number of individual years in each interval is the same. In the second stage, in order to obtain an unbiased uniform effect on each and every data so collected, transform this initial matrix into an Average Time Dependent Data (ATD) matrix. The ATD matrix is obtained by dividing each entry with the interval of years in the corresponding age

group (i.e., 4). To make the calculations easier and simpler, in the third stage using the simple average techniques convert the above average time dependent data matrix into a matrix with entries eij € {-1, 0, 1}. This matrix is named as Refined Time Dependent data matrix (RTD) matrix or as the fuzzy matrix. The value of eij corresponding to each entry is determined in a special way as follows. If aij ≤ ( uj α * σj) then eij = -1 Else if aij € ( uj α * σj , uj + α * σj ) then eij = 0

Umarani, R

Else if aij ≥ ( uj + α * σj) then eij = 1 where aij's are the entries in the ATD matrix, uj is the average and σj is the standard deviation of the jth column. At the fourth stage, using the fuzzy matrices, we obtain the Combined Effect Time Dependent Data matrix (CETD), which gives the cumulative effect of all these entries. In the final-fifth stage, we obtain the row sums of the CETD matrix. The tables given are self-explanatory at each stage. The graphs of the RTD matrix and CETD matrix are given.

ANALYSIS First Stage Initial raw data matrix with youth age group as the rows and prime reasons of social networks usage (S1, S2,… S8.) as the columns is as follows. Age Group

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8

6-9

26

19

20

16

14

14

18

9

10-13

15

34

19

24

23

19

25

14

14-17

33

23

40

31

39

25

35

27

Second Stage The ATD matrix is calculated as follows. (Dividing each entry with the interval of age group i.e. 4) Age Group

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8

6-9

6.50

4.75

5.00

4.00

3.50

3.50

4.50

2.25

10-13

3.75

8.50

4.75

6.00

5.75

4.75

6.25

3.50

14-17

8.25

5.75

10.00

7.75

9.75

6.25

8.75

6.75

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Umarani, R

The Average and Standard Deviation of the above ATD matrix is Average

6.17

6.33

6.58

5.92

6.33

4.83

6.50

4.17

Standard

2.27

1.94

2.96

1.88

3.17

1.38

2.14

2.32

Deviation

Third Stage The RTD matrix for α = 0.15 isÌ

The ROW SUM matrix is -7 -1 7

The RTD matrix for α = 0.30 is

The ROW SUM matrix is -7 -1 6

The RTD matrix for α = 0.45 is

The ROW SUM matrix is -7 -1 7

The RTD matrix for α = 0.45 is

The ROW SUM matrix is -6 0 7

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MINDSHARE • Volume 2 Issue 4 • An analysis on the Prime Factors...

Umarani, R

Results The following graph shows the results of the analysis of children of different age group and their abuse rates due to different primary reasons for various values of α.

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MINDSHARE • Volume 2 Issue 4 • An analysis on the Prime Factors...

Umarani, R

From the above analysis, we observe that the child usage is the highest in the age group of 14 to 17 and it was not changed with the change in the value of the parameter α from 0 to 1. The mathematical inference is that the age group of children with high rate of child abuse is 14 to 17.

Fourth Stage The Combined Effect Time Dependent data matrix also confirms the same result. This matrix is the cumulative sum of all the entries in the RTDs. The CETD matrix is 0

-4

-4

-4

-4

-4

-4

-4

-4

4

-4

0

0

0

0

0

4

-4

4

4

4

4

4

4

Fifth Stage The Row Sum Matrix for CETD is -28 -4 24

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MINDSHARE • Volume 2 Issue 4 • An analysis on the Prime Factors...

Umarani, R

From the raw data matrix, the following graph is plotted which gives the percentage of children in each age group who are abused for each of the primary reasons.

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MINDSHARE • Volume 2 Issue 4 • An analysis on the Prime Factors...

Umarani, R

The following graph gives the percentage of individual reasons for child usage in the age group.

Conclusion This paper explored the main factors for child abuse in India. Here are some of the ways for prevention of child abuse. The federal government designates April as National Child Abuse Prevention Month. The National Indian Child Welfare Association (NICWA) works to provide Indian communities with resources and ideas to raise awareness and prevent child abuse. A packet of

information will be sent to each tribes' NICWA program to empower the people of each of the communities in preventing child abuse. Child abuse prevention has been historically and remains one of the most basic aspects of Indian culture. The practices of prevention though not labelled as such - are embedded in centuries-old spiritual beliefs, child-rearing methods, extended family roles, and systems of clans, bands, or societies. This natural

system of child protection and child abuse prevention has been threatened over time by forced assimilation, relocation, externally imposed social services, alcoholism, and poverty, but the traditions and values have survived. The old teachings, values, and family systems are still at the core of that child maltreatment prevention in Indian country, but more formal community responses are also in place.

REFERENCES [1] "Child abuse definition of child abuse by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia". Thefreedictionary.com. Http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Child+abuse. [2] Leeb, R.T.; Paulozzi, L.J.; Melanson, C.; Simon, T.R.; Arias, I. (1 January 2008). "Child Maltreatment Surveillance: Uniform Definitions for Public Health and Recommended Data Elements". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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htt p : / / w w w. c d c . go v / n c i p c / d v p / C M P/ C M P Surveillance.htm. [3] Noh Anh, Helen "Cultural Diversity and the Definition of Child Abuse", in Barth, R.P. et al., Child welfare research review, Columbia University Press. [4] “Elementary fuzzy matrix theory and fuzzy models for social scientists“ by W.B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Automation, Los Angels, 2007.

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ISSN: 2229-4872 Mindshare Int. J. Res. Dev. Vol. 2, No. 4 (2012), pp 29-32 RN: 2-W/12/ZM/2-4 Corresponding Author: Zolfa Mobaraki (IRAN) email: zolfa.mobaraki@gmail.com

Child Rights in International Law by Zolfa Mobaraki, M. J.Karveh, S. Sumitra

Abstract

C

College of Law, Faculty of college of law, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, IRAN College of Law, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, INDIA

hildren are one-thirds of our population and all of our future. They have rights as human beings and also need special care and protection. There are many rights for them, such as right to life, right to health, right to security, right to education. In international law there are several instruments for achieve rights of children. Most important instrument is UNCRC. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) is a comprehensive, internationally binding agreement on the rights of children, adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1989. This convention is a human rights treaty setting out the civil, political, economic, social, health and cultural rights of children. According of this treaty, every

child needs to have a safe, happy and fulfilled childhood regardless of their sex, religion, social origin, and where and to whom they were born. The Convention gives children and young people over 40 substantive rights, including the right to special protection measures and assistance, access to services such as education and healthcare, develop their personalities, abilities and talents to the fullest potential, grow up in an environment of happiness, love and understanding, be informed about and participate in achieving their rights in an accessible and active manner. In this study analyze the international instruments about the children rights and binding for states.

KEYWORDS

Children, Right, UNCRC, Protection, Human Rights


MINDSHARE • Volume 2 Issue 4 • Child Rights in International Law

Introduction Family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State. And the children are core of the family. The first group responsible for the care and education of children is family and in society the state is responsible for protection and assistance of them. But who is the child?!According to the first article of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC), a child means: “every human being below eighteen years.”The Convention as an important and complete instrument of protection of children rights deals with the child specific needs and rights, it requires that states act in the best interests of the child. This Convention sets out these rights in 54 articles in 3 parts. The contents of this convention are following that: Civil and political rights (like their treatment under the law); Social, economic and cultural rights (like an adequate standard of living); and Protection rights (from abuse and exploitation). Other documents relate to human rights that they include some special rights for children are: International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR). These covenants adopted by United Nations

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General Assembly on 1966. Child Rights in International law The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 December 1948.The declaration is the first global expression of the rights of all human beings and the origin of other covenants which are relating to human rights. This Declaration applies to children as well as adults. In UDHR, on article 25(the second paragraph), says: “Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection”. This Para is mention to care and assistance for all children irrespective of legitimate or illegitimate children. Also on article 26 provided that: Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Te chnical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit. Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children. In This article is mentioned to right to education and conditions of education.

Mobaraki Z, Karveh M J, Sumitra S

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966), I nte r n at i o n a l C ove n a nt o n Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966) as International human rights instruments are relating to Human Rights. According to article 24 of International covenant on civil and political rights, Right to have a name and nationality are as civil and political rights for children. The states parties to this Covenant recognized that: 1. Every child shall have, without any discrimination as to race, color, sex, language, religion, national or social origin, property or birth, the right to such measures of protection as are required by his status as a minor, on the part of his family, society and the State. 2. Every child shall be registered immediately after birth and shall have a name. 3. Every child has the right to acquire a nationality. The International covenant on economic, social and cultural rights under article 10 made provisions for the care of the child and his mother. It is mean, care of mothers during a reasonable period before and after childbirth is recognized by this covenant, it is importance because of their children. Also this article provided that: “Special measures of protection and assistance should be taken on behalf of all children

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MINDSHARE • Volume 2 Issue 4 • Child Rights in International Law

and young persons without any discrimination for reasons of parentage or other conditions. Children and young persons s h o u l d b e p ro te c te d f ro m economic and social exploitation. Their employment in work harmful to their morals or health or dangerous to life or likely to hamper their normal development should be punishable by law. States should also set age limits below which the paid employment of child labour s h o u l d b e p ro h i b i te d a n d punishable by law.” The Convention on the Rights of the Child is the first legally binding international instrument to incorporate the full range of human rights: civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights. In 1989, world leaders decided that children needed a special convention just for them because people under 18 years old often need special care and protection that adults do not. The leaders also wanted to make sure that the world recognized that children have human rights too. So the Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) is adopted and opened for signature by United N at i o n s G e n e ra l A s s e m b l y resolution 44/25 of 20 on November 1989 and entry into force on 2 September 1990. There are 193 states that are parties to the Convention. If a government signs the UNCRC it indicates that they are seriously

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considering ratification (a formal commitment by a government to uphold the UNCRC). This is a binding agreement to meet the provisions and obligations set out in the convention. So Governments of countries that are as state parties are required to report to, the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child periodically to be examined on their progress with regards to the advancement of the implementation of the Convention and the status of child rights in their country. The UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, a body of 18 internationally elected independent experts on children's rights, monitors progress towards implementing these rights. In assessing a country's progress toward s imp lementin g th e UNCRC, the UN Committee takes into account the government's report and submissions from nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) concerned with children's rights and welfare. UNCRC spells out the basic human rights that children everywhere have: the right to survival; to develop to the fullest; to protection from harmful influences, abuse and exploitation; and to participate fully in family, cultural and social life. The four core principles of the Convention are nondiscrimination; devotion to the best interests of the child; the right

Mobaraki Z, Karveh M J, Sumitra S

to life, survival and development; and respect for the views of the child. Every right spelled out in the Convention is inherent to the human dignity and harmonious development of every child. The Convention protects children's rights by setting standards in health care; education; and legal, civil and social services. There are four main sections to the UNCRC: 1. The Preamble, which sets out the major underlying principles of the UNCRC and provides a context for it; 2. The substantive articles, which set out the rights of all children and the obligations of governments (Part I, Articles 141); 3. T h e i m p l e m e n tat i o n provisions, which define how compliance with the UNCRC is to be monitored and fostered (Part II, Articles 42-45); and 4. The conditions under which the UNCRC comes into force (Part III, Articles 46-54). A number of Rights in the convention are following: 1. Right to life 2. R i g h t t o a c q u i r e nationality 3. Right to freedom of expression 4. Right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion 5. Right to freedom of association and to freedom of peaceful assembly 6. Right to education

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MINDSHARE • Volume 2 Issue 4 • Child Rights in International Law

7. Right to benefit from social security 8. Right to a standard of living adequate for the child`s physical, mental, spiritual and social development 9. Right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health and to facilities for the treatment of illness and rehabilitation of health 10. Right to the protection of the law against arbitrary or unlawful interference with his or her privacy, family, home or correspondence.

CONCLUSION Children as a part of family need to special protection, and states shall be made necessary protection of any children without any discrimination. The Convention on the Rights of the Child as a one of the International human rights instruments is special for children`s rights. It is set of civil, political, economic, social, cultural rights. And the state parties have to adopting the provisions and implementation t h e m . S o by a g re e i n g to undertake the obligations of the Convention (by ratifying or acceding to it), national governments have committed

Mobaraki Z, Karveh M J, Sumitra S

themselves to protecting and ensuring children's rights and they have agreed to hold themselves accountable for this commitment before the international community. States parties to the Convention are obliged to develop and undertake all actions and policies in the light of the best interests of the child. They by the provisions and principles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child can provide the best conditions for the protection of children's rights to help meet their basic needs and to expand their opportunities to reach their full potential.

REFERENCES Dr. H. O. AGARWAL, International Law and Human Rights, 16th Edition, Central law publications. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966) International Covenant on Economic, social and Cultural Rights (1966)

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The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) http://www.unicef.org http://www.childrensrights.ie

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ISSN: 2229-4872 Mindshare Int. J. Res. Dev. Vol. 2, Issue 4 (2012), pp 33-38 RN: 2-W/12/SB/2-4 Corresponding Author: Swati Bijawat email: swatibijawat@gmail.com

Alternative Schooling: A new paradigm of learning by Swati Bijawat

Abstract

E

Asst. Professor, Amity University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, INDIA

ducation is the edifice pillar of humanity. It is through education learning take place and each generation stands on the shoulders of the previous one. But unhappily education today has been reduced to a mere business. With cut throat competition schools are turning into factories where children are hammered into assembly-line products and the learning is so reflex that it is translating the children into a mechanized human being rather then an individual full of new and innovative ideas. Gaining such kind of education can earn a degree and can land a very good job, but then the purpose of education

which is to help children to discover their one self will not be justified. To impart good learning it is very important that schools should understand the importance of learning and should introduces new innovative measure to nurtures children into creative and sensitive individuals of new generation. The answer to this problem is the emergence of “Alternative Schooling�. This article highlights the meaning and importance of this particular stream of schooling, further it exposed the leading alternative schools and their fundamental philosophy.

KEYWORDS Alternative Schools, Education, Gurukul, Pyramid, Children.


MINDSHARE • Volume 2 Issue 4 • Alternative Schooling ...

Pooja’s Diary Place: Raipur It was the July of 1985, as a three year old I entered my new school, I was full of excitement, I worn my new uniform-grey plane skirt, starched creamy shirt and blue tie bearing the initials of my new school. I was dreaming for this day from a long time. Already I had experienced schooling through a play school where my learning was limited with playing on slide, carving shapes from clay dough and water coloring. But entering to my dream school like this was something else. Finally a transition was going on from a “chotta school” to a “big school” like this one. Day by day to my dismay this so called “big school” was turning out to be the worst nightmare of my schooling life. In the class I was used to sit on a bench, four in row continuously juggling for my small but important space from the invasion of tiny uniformed soldiers of my class. At times required to be silent I felt pokerfaced. I still remember how my teacher looked at me whenever I was unable to give the so called programmed answer she wished for. Every time she raised her expectations of being a genius child I felt scared. Knowingly and unknowingly her lethargic and disinterested attitude was creating a distance between me and her. Slowly as years passed and I moved from one class to another I became habitual of this unfriendly atmosphere of the school. I started developing a strong bond

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with my school. I was in LOVE with my school. It was not so much bad about the school as it taught me to be disciplined and committed towards my goals. It nurtured in me a sense of responsibility. My school gave me the wonderful teachers. Teachers who were having a strong value system. They were the once who guided me towards my ultimate goal of life i.e. to be successful. During my school day’s there was one question which I used to ask from me and I wondered would this question be answered some day. Beyond from the strictness, discipline, homework and exam would any school can take initiative for imparting tranquility, simplicity and joy to the children. Every time when I thought for the answer it went missing which I know now…. Present Place: Gurgaon. “Back to the School”, these were the golden words I uttered when as a parent I started seeking admission for my four year old daughter. Collecting prospectus, generating information, visiting schools, searching on the web portal were some of the way’s I was using to conquer the mission admission .As time rolls on my search was becoming endless, being suffered by the cold anonymity of my own school I was looking for a friendly and warm atmosphere for my daughter. Finally, my search finished with “Shikshantar” a friendly school existing in the middle of the concrete jungle of Gurgaon. A somewhat experimental school where, Child learns to enjoy learning for the sake of learning initially in the primary school

Bijawat S.

years. Once the joy of learning is firmly established, they are slowly guided towards assessments in the middle school and then gently initiated into the rigor needed in the high school before the board exams. The progression is very slow and the child never feels it. Gradually I was introduced with the school philosophy being inspired by the divine thoughts of Mahatma Gandhi, Shri Aurobindo and the Mother. “The right to education said the Mother is not only the right to attend schools, it is the right to find in schools all that is necessary to the building of a questioning mind and a dynamic conscience." Here teachers were not considered as Books, rather they were measured an observers. It was the first and the foremost duty of the teachers to help the students to know about the capabilities within them. In practice the teacher observe the activities of each student, his interest, the human achievement which attract him and the actions to which he was drawn naturally and spontaneously. Further the logo of Shikshantar which depicts a sapling within a Tree symbolize the potential that was within each one of us, hidden and dormant, waiting to be recognized, to flower to its maturity. Therefore because of this reason the true aim of a teacher there was to recognize that quality, nurture their special place in this world At Shikshantar, during their regular Parent Teachers Meeting (PTM), they called parents and kids together, during their interaction with the parents they let the kids freely run around ,play hide and seek, enjoying the see saw and conducted their chats with the parents. Such practice helped the parents to feel less

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MINDSHARE • Volume 2 Issue 4 • Alternative Schooling ...

pressured and let them talk more openly with teachers about their ward progress. It was the kind of school I wished for when I was a small girl. As time rolls on I was becoming very pleasing day by day with the progress my child was making in Shikshantar. I was really happy about the way things had shaped and felt really less burdened during my daughter entire schooling occupancy Alternative Schooling: A new Paradigm Today, alternative schooling is in demand, be it is home schooling i.e. teaching children at home or putting them in schools that encompasses a wide array of innovative teaching patterns. Now days, traditional classrooms which were characterized by soaring airplanes, comic strips, gags etc behind teachers' flip particularly when they were in scripting on the black board and class punishment is giving a way to further appealing and imaginative traditions of teaching which is term as Alternative Schooling Alternative Schooling: Meaning Alternative school is the name used in some parts of the world to describe an institution which provides part of alternative education. It is an educational establishment with a curriculum and methods that are nontraditional. These schools have a special curriculum offering a more flexible program of study than a traditional school. Raywid (1994) views alternative s c h o o l s a s a “c u t t i n g - e d g e ” educational reform, even though they have been in the educational arena for decades.

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“Amid all the current talk of school restructuring, alternatives are the clearest example we have of what a restructured school might look like. They represent our most definitive departure from the programmatic, organizational and behavioral pursued in regularities that inhibit school reform. Moreover, many of the refo r m s c u r re nt l y t ra d i t i o n a l schools—downsizing the high school, pursuing a focus or theme, students and teacher choice, making the school a community, empowering staff, active learner engagement, authentic assessment—are practices that alternative schools pioneered (p. 26).” Alternative Schooling: Indian Perspective! In India the concept of alternative schooling is not new; its progress went back from the traces of early 20th century, when philosopher like Tagore, Gandhi, Jyotiba Phule, Jiddu Krishnamurthi, Shri Aurobindo and The Mother realized the importance of education in the development of children and therefore of the nation. They stressed the need of adding value to the mainstream education through innovative methods of teaching within school hours. Once life should not revolve around competitions and achievement but must helped him to start an inward journey to explore life. Such practices could only be achieved when teachers see their work as much more then merely a job in a school. The new methods of alternative schooling in India draw’s inspiration from a traditional system of schooling called as “The Gurukul”. Students used to stay in “Gurukul”, where they received free food and shelter, and education from

Bijawat S.

a "guru" (the teacher). Progress was not based on examinations and marks; tests were given by the gurus but not ranks. This system aimed to nurture the students' natural creativity and all-round personality development. While today, the mainstream education system in India is still based on that introduced by L o rd M a c a u l ay. T h e G u r u ku l education was some what very intellectual and innovative. Vidhyarthi’s (the students) had choice in choosing the subject of their own according to their interests. The fundamental philosophy of Gurukul was very different from that of the main stream schooling. It was having strong political, scholarly and philosophical orientations. F o r t h e G u r u ’s t e a c h i n g Vidhyarthi’s was not considered as a work but their prime duty. They acted like observers, the means through which students realize there ultimate potential to excel in the stream of their interest. Small class size, close relationships between students and teachers, and a sense of community were the basic characteristics of the “Gurukul”. In India now a day’s many Alternative schools have emerged based on the thoughts of the previously mentioned stalwarts. They are authentic, holistic and progressive. Such schools involve following an educational philosophy different from that of the mainstream schooling. Being holistic in nature these schools forces the children to approach actively in life and develop in them the habit of questioning rather then accepting lamely without knowing the reason for it’s existence. T h e s e i n st i t u t i o n s a re b e i n g characterized by the feeling of ,

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MINDSHARE • Volume 2 Issue 4 • Alternative Schooling ...

freedom, respect for human beings and non interference between political, economic and cultural sphere of society. Inclusiveness of this element reduced the loads of heavy bags and an unmistakable sense of pressure threatening over the children. They weren’t tied to any single belief, religious or otherwise instead they found such practice’s much easier to learn and satisfactory enough to develop a passion for education. Alternative Schools: India at a Glance! In India Alternative Schooling is emerging as a new paradigm of learning which is being boozed up by the increase number of Alternative Schools opening in various corners of India. Whether it’s Mirambika, Shikshantar and the Rishi Valley School. All these institutions are creating benchmarks against the mainstream schooling which is guided by the philosophy of only imparting curriculum education to the students. Mirambika an unusual school situated in Delhi works on the philosophy of Sri Aurobindo and the Mother. According to Sri Aurobindo "The aim of education is to help the child to develop his intellectual, aesthetic, emotional, moral, spiritual being and his communal life and impulses out of his own temperament." Based on this philosophy Mirambika let’s each child to grow at a unique, inwardly-motivated pace, nurtured with loving attention. A school like Mirambika helps unfold unknown dimensions within the child. Parents, too, look and learn: from the place, from diyas (the collective term for teachers: didis or elder sisters and bhaiyas or elder brothers). Here, you can find harmony, easiness and

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happiness. The classes are not numbered here. Rather, they have names like Red Group, Blue Group, and later, Progress Group, Sincerity Group, Gratitude Group. Such demarcation helps the children to develop a healthy competitive spirit rather then a sentiment based on destruction resulting in the formation of a one sided personality exemplify w i t h u n h e a l t hy c o m p e t i t i o n , frustration and greed. Other then Mirambika there is another institution named “Rishi Valley” which is establishing new benchmarks in the field of alternative schooling. Base on the vision of J. Kr i s h n a m u r t i ' s p h i l o s o p hy o f education, Rishi Valley works with the purpose to furnish each child with the most brilliant expertise so that the children work with precision and efficacy to meet the demand of a gradually more complex world without losing their human side in this modern world. The foremost aim of the school is to provide the right ambience so that the child develops fully as a complete human being. “To live is to be related” with this intention the main aim of the school is (1) To develop the intelligence among students so that they can explore the world with generous sprit, (2) pound the affection towards the nature and other life forms,(3) to craft an ambience full of love, affection and freedom devoid of apprehension.(4) Let the students free from the clutches of any particular religious, political or social belief such that their mind remain free to curiously search the reason for the occurrence of fundamental questions. Based on these philosophies teachers here are committed to provide an ambience full of freedom,

Bijawat S.

affection and love such that children gets ample opportunities to enlarge there horizon and grow in this complex world. Thus, such structure of learning p u rs u e d by t h e s e s c h o o l s i s establishing new paradigm of education. The new structure is like a Pyramid, where learning and evaluation is based on a vertical growth. Here, the student is in competition with only himself. He doesn’t receive comparative grades but graded by a learning graph that traces is growth in different subjects. The pyramid cal structure allows him to keep dropping off his weak subjects beyond elementary level and ensures t h at h i s n at u ra l ta l e nt s a n d inclinations get etched out along the way. His aptitude automatically unfolds. Such practices are allowing a student to choose his individual rapidity for every subject automatically unfolding his natural talent and strengthening his power rather than highlighting his weakness. At the end of school he doesn’t need to undergo aptitude tests to find out what he is good at. That’s what the schooling should be all about. Letting the students to learn with full freedom, helping them to infused a habit of enquire and learn. Such follow ups facilitate the students to develop there inner strength and further impart a creative sense resulting in developing love and care for the nature. Conclusion Finally, we should always remember that children are the gift of God and the building blocks of a progressive nation. This is our foremost duty to provide them a good schooling environment devoid from

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the burdened of competitive pressures. The ambience should full of freedom, care, affection and love such that students receive ample opportunities to excel and touch new

Bijawat S.

horizon liberated from any exact belief, religious, political or social, so that their intellect may remain free to questioned, enquire and learn. Towards this move the instigation of

Alternative Schools can be reflected as a beginning of new genera of Schooling.

REFERENCES Books Miller, Ron. (2008)The Self-Organizing Revolution: Common Principles of the Education Alternative Movements, Holistic Education Press, pp. 105. Raywid, M.A. (1994). Alternative schools: The state of the art. Educational Leadership, 52(1), September, pp.26-31. Vittachi, S. Raghavan, N. and Raj, K. (eds.) (2008) Alternative Schooling in India, Sage publications India, pp 267. Articles Indrani Basu (2012, June26). Breaking the Mould with Alternative Schooling. Retrieved From http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/20 12-01-31/delhi/31008839_1_alternativeschools-class-students-older-schools Chintan Girish Modi. (2012, June 18) Let Them Play. Retrieved from http://www.lifepositive.com/Mind/Alternative _Education/Let_Them_Play82007.asp Deepti Priya Mehrotra. (2012, June 20). Alternativeeducation. Retrieved from http://www.lifepositive.com/mind/education/ alternative--education/education. asp Neelam Mehta. (2012, June 20).Learning Our Purpose in Life. Retrieved from http://www.lifepositive.com/Mind/Alternative _Education/Learning_Our_Purpose__In_Life3 2009.asp Alternative Education #India. (2012, June 25). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alternative_Educ

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ation#India Alternative Education. (2012, June 25). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alternative_educ ation Alternative School. (2012, June 25). Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alternative_scho ol Choosing right school. (2012, June26).Retrieved from http://desimomzclub.blogspot.in/2008/03/ch oosing-right-school.html Monday, March 17, 2008 Home Schooling and Alternative Education in India. (2012, June 28). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homeschooling_and _alternative_education_in_India New Temples of Hope. (2012, June 28). Retrieved from http://www.lifepositive.com/Mind/Book_Revi ews/New_temples_of_hope12003.asp Alternative Schools in India some Advantages and Disadvantages. (2012, June 28). Retrieved from http://www.likhati.com/2009/09/27/alternati ve-schools-in-india-some-advantages-anddisadvantages/#ixzz1ymvlWm5j

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Alternative Education History. (n.d). Retrieved From http://www.projectforum.org/docs/alternativ e_ed_history.pdf

Bijawat S.

Website Rishi Valley School: http://www.rishivalley.org/school/aims.html Shikshantar School: http://www.shikshantarschool.com/

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ISSN: 2229-4872 Mindshare Int. J. Res. Dev. Vol. 2, No. 4, pp 39-45 RN: 2-W/12/VM/2-4 Corresponding Author: Vidhi Mamtani email: vidhimamtani@yahoo.com

Children’s construals of happiness by Vidhi Mamtani, Punya Pillai

Abstract

T

Department of Human Development and Childhood Studies, Lady Irwin College, University of Delhi, INDIA

he present study was conducted to investigate children's construals of “happiness” and “unhappiness” in elementary school years. The research aimed at exploring the material and nonmaterial contexts that children associate with happiness. Parents' views regarding their children's happiness were also explored. The study was conducted in two settings- a slum setting and a middle income group residential area. Thirty two children participated in the study. Equal representation was given to girls and boys in both the settings. One of the parents of each child was also interviewed. The tools for investigation were prepared in the form of child friendly worksheets. The methods used were “smiley game”, “mark your report card”, story building, “five things”

and interviews. The findings of the study revealed that material resources made the children happy. Subjective differences were seen in children's responses in the two settings. Some sex differences were also noticed in the subjective responses of the participants. Children in the study construed “happy” and “unhappy” in terms of people, objects, activities, feeling states and virtues of self and others. Parents perceived their role to be of paramount importance in happiness and unhappiness of their child. Socioecological features of the research settings seemed to have a salient role in the experience and understanding of happiness and unhappiness among children and adults.

KEYWORDS:

Affect, Child Development Emotions, Happiness, Middle Childhood


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Definitions of emotion in p s y c h o l o g y, p a r t i c u l a r l y developmental psychology, can be equivocal and highly variable. Emotions have been defined and studied as internal experiences that can, but do not always, make themselves observable through expression and behaviour. Saarni ( 2 0 0 0 ) n o te s t h at c h i l d re n ' s emotional experience is inextricably linked with experienced relationships and the local context, and also emphasizes the value of methods of investigating processes characterising the child and context-affective transactions, advocating the use of systemic and process-oriented approaches (as cited in Misra, 2011). The “Rasa” theory has been commended for its richness, depth, and salience in understanding the emotional lives of Indians. The Sanskrit term rasa has nine forms (emotions) which do not have exact translation in the English language: (1) “rati” (sexual passion); (2) “hasya” (laughter); (3) “shoka” (sorrow); (4) “krodha” (anger); (5) “bhaya” (fear); (6) “utsaha” (dynamic energy); (7) “jugupsa” (disillusion); (8) “vismaya” (wonder); and (9) “sama” (serenity) (Misra, 2011). According to Singh (2001, p.25) some of the main emotions and their blends include “ s a d n e s s ( g r i e f, s o r r o w, cheerlessness, gloom, melancholy, self-pity, loneliness, dejection, despair and pathological severe depression) and enjoyment (happiness, joy, relief, contentment, bliss, delight, amusement, pride, sensual pleasure, thrill, rapture, gratification, satisfaction, euphoria, ecstasy, and at the extreme, mania).” Certain communicative behaviours are expressions of

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emotion because they fit the typical profile of how people express anger, sadness, or joy (such as jumping up and down, smiling, and hugging people) or because they occur under conditions that normally produce those emotions (Planalp,1999). In regard to need/goal satisfaction theories, it has been theorized that we are happy because we have reached our goals. Such “happiness as satisfaction” makes happiness a target of our psychological pursuits (Snyder & Lopez, 2007, p. 138). According to process/activity theories, engaging in particular life activities generates happiness. Csikszentmihalyi (1990) proposed that people who experience “flow”, an engagement in interesting activities that match or challenge task-related skills in daily life tend to be very happy. Those who emphasize the genetic and personality predisposition theories of happiness (Diener& Larsen, 1984, Watson, 2000) tend to see happiness as stable. The terms affect and emotion are often used interchangeably in scientific and general writing. Wellbeing and happiness have also been used as synonymous terms in psychology articles (Snyder & Lopez, 2007). Fredrickson (1998) has pointed out that negative emotions have received much attention in research on emotion and especially on their functions. Models of emotion often do not differentiate between positive states in the first place. They may focus exclusively on joy or happiness, without considering the possible distinctions between other positive states. In addition, because negative emotions seem to be associated with problems such as withdrawal and depression, negative emotions are

Mamtani V, Pillai P

more highlighted in applied research. Since positive emotions do not seem to be associated with many problems for individuals or for society, they do not receive comparable research attention. The central objective of positive psychology is to understand and facilitate happiness and subjective wellbeing (Seligman, 2002). Happiness and well-being, in this context refer to both positive feelings, such as “joy or serenity”, and to positive states such as those involving “flow or absorption” (Carr,2003, p.1). When asked to give representative examples of emotion, people typically name happiness (Averill, 1975; Fehr & Russell, 1984; Shaver, Schwartz, Kirson, & O'Connor, 1987).When asked which they would rather have for themselves or their children out of wealth, fame, or happiness, most people choose happiness. The apparent neglect of happiness in research may also be due to a lack of agreement on what it means to be happy. To some people, happiness is a highly aroused state like joy or elation; to others, it means contentment, tranquillity, or peace of mind. People can be happy when engrossed in an activity, unmindful of their emotional state.The sources of happiness can be divided into: external goods, feelings of sympathy, pleasant work and o b j e c t s o f u n s e l f i s h i nte re st (Tatarkiewicz, 1978). Veenhoven (1995) puts forward the view that money enhances happiness when it can contribute to the satisfaction of basic and universal needs for food, shelter and clothes. According to Anandalakshmy, 2005, things that make a child satisfied and happy

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include affectionate parenting, safe home environment, o p p o rtu n ities fo r mean in gfu l exploration, stimulation and deriving meaning out of cultural symbols. Also essential are friends or siblings to share activities and feelings, optimal play materials, rest and work that enhances self esteem. Method The present research was undertaken to explore the understanding of “happiness” among

8 and 9 year old children. Parents' views of their child's happiness were also studied. Structured research tasks, conducive to studying ideas of children in elementary school years were used for the study. The data was treated to qualitative analysis. The study was conducted in two settings; a slum setting and a middle income group residential area. The sample consisted of 32 children (boys and girls) in the age group of 8 and 9 years (Refer Table 1). Equal representation was given to boys and

Table 1 Distribution of the Sample: Children Participants (N1) = 32 Children

Age

Slum setting Boys

Middle income group setting Girls

Boys

Girls

8-9 year 4 olds

4

4

4

9-10 year olds

4

4

4

4

Total children

32

Keeping in mind the qualitative frame of the study, it was important to use multiple methods for engaging the children. The tools were constructed keeping in mind the objectives of the study as well as their suitability to research with school aged children. A description of the tools used in the study follows. 1. Smiley game It involved non-directive open ended word insertions by children

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Mamtani V, Pillai P

girls in both the settings. One parent of each child was also included in the study (Refer Table 2). Twenty four mothers, 9 fathers and one aunt participated in the study. It was difficult to get fathers to participate in the study as they often refused to be interviewed, or in some instances were physically unavailable when the children's homes were visited. Purposive and snowball sampling techniques were used for selecting the participants.

Table 2 Distribution of the Sample: Parents

No. of participants Parents 22

Mother

7

Father

4

Mother and father

1

Aunt

with reference to the picture shown to them. An example of a picture used is a “smiley”. The Smiley game was used to obtain children's descriptions of happiness and unhappiness. Children talked about things, instances and experiences, and people that make them and other children happy. In their responses they also voiced their feelings and the words that they associate with the two emotions, or states of being “happy ” and

“unhappy”. 2. Mark your report card This method consisted of 25 items based on material, nonmaterial and imaginary categories or situations. The child had to indicate how happy he feels in the different situations using “stars” as markers. Somewhat styled in format like a rating scale, this method was used as the children could identify with the “report card” and enjoyed telling the

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number of stars they would give to a particular situation that made them happy. “Mark your report card” was used to explore the contexts that children associate with being happy. 3. Story building Children were engaged with story building on happiness and unhappiness using picture cut outs and flash cards. A few opening lines of the story were told to the child. The child had to build upon the stories. One of the stories dealt with happiness, one with unhappiness and another was on both the emotions. 4. Five things In this method the children were asked to tell 5 things about family, friends and school that make them happy and unhappy. The worksheet consisted of thought bubbles in which children could write their responses easily. 5. Interview Semi-structured interviews were carried out to investigate what makes children happy and unhappy and the activities they associate with t h e s e e m o t i o n state s . S e m i structured interview schedule was also used to find out parents' views regarding their child's happiness. Results The findings of the study are discussed with reference to children's co n st r u a l s o f h a p p i n e s s a n d unhappiness, the material and nonmaterial contexts they identify with these emotion or feeling states, and parental perceptions of happiness and unhappiness in children. 3.1 Children's descriptions of happiness and unhappiness A range of responses were obtained regarding children's most happy moments. Material goods and

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enjoyable events topped the list of happiness elicitors. Going for an outing and buying new clothes and shoes were highlighted as happiness inducing by children in the slum setting. One of the participants said “eEeh rks diM+s Hkh fnyokrh gS] pIiys Hkh fnyokrh gS] twrs Hkh fnyokrh gS] ,sls [kq'k djrh gS] vkSj jlxqYys Hkh fnyokrh gS esjh eEeh”(Mummy gives me clothes, she also gives me footwear and shoes, she makes me happy like this and she also gives me Rasgullas to eat). Play was considered enjoyable by a few children in the slum setting. The children in the middle income group were most happy when their demands and wishes got fulfilled. For them, good marks, grades and getting medals and certificates made them most happy. Parents not fulfilling their demands, was a source of unhappiness for the children. This was stated more by children in the middle income group setting. A lack of good interaction with friends was another source of unhappiness. The children also felt unhappy if their siblings would fight with them. Getting scolded by a teacher and not able to watch T.V made children unhappy in both the settings. Most of the children said that they talk, play, and spend time with their friends when they are happy. Some children also said that they smile when they are happy! Watching television, eating, dancing, singing, and studying were other activities associated with being happy. Scherer and Wallbott (1994) found that sadness leads to withdrawal from other people. More children in the middle income group setting said that they don't talk to anyone when they are unhappy. Some children also said

Mamtani V, Pillai P

that they do nothing and just keep sitting in a corner by themselves when they are unhappy! Some children cry when they are unhappy; some become “angry” when unhappy. A few children also used the words “mnkl” (sad), to describe their feeling when unhappy. Children in both the settings said that they do not play with their friends, do not eat or study, sleep, or go outside their home when they are unhappy. Mood repair theory suggests that people seek pleasurable stimuli to try to eliminate negative moods, for example people go shopping to cheer themselves up (Raghunathan and Corfman, 2004). Children mentioned that friends and playing with friends as reasons for being happy in school. This was highlighted more in the responses in middle income group setting. A few children in the middle income group setting also said that they are happy in school when they get to do some “creative work” like “Rangoli cukuk” (making Rangoli), “clay work vkSj drawing djuk” (to do clay work and drawing). The main reason cited for being unhappy in school was also related to friends. Children reported that they were unhappy if a friend chose not to talk, ignored them or ended their friendship. The respondents also mentioned that the teacher makes them unhappy when she punishes or scolds them. Some children in the middle income group setting said that they get unhappy when they get too much of homework, free periods, or when parents do not give them their favourite lunch. Children in the slum setting mentioned that bullying, throwing things and going to school every day makes them unhappy.

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Children had the awareness of how they make themselves happy and unhappy. Most children reported that to make themselves happy they play with their friends or play alone. Children in both the settings also said that they dance, sing, paint or draw to make themselves happy. Five children also said that they do not do anything to make themselves happy! Some children even said that they have never done something that made them unhappy. Guilt was somewhat evident in the responses of some children. Situations where something wrong happens because of them made them feel guilty. Not helping others, hitting friends, listening to ghost stories also made them unhappy. In describing “happy” and “unhappy” children seemed to use comparable ease, but used more words for characterizing “unhappy” than “happy”. Participants in the slum settings seemed to have a greater vocabulary for emotion words. They used words like “nq [ k”,“:l tkrh gw”,“mnkl” (sorrow, I start sulking, sad) to indicate unhappiness. Girls cited more reasons for being happy and unhappy in their families. Boys cited more reasons for being happy and unhappy in their schools. Children gave construals of happy and unhappy, many times not seeing any boundary between situations that elicit happiness and those that elicit unhappiness. For children in both settings happy and unhappy situations were similarly characterized with subtle differences. Children identified happiness and unhappiness as being on a continuum and an alteration in a variable of the same situation could transform a “happy” feeling to an “unhappy” one.

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For example going to school makes them happy but doing homework does not make them happy. The children would often tell about their happiness in relation to others. Even though their emotion words vocabulary for unhappy states was more, children tended to identify the existence of “happy” states more than “unhappy” states. For example they liked to gloss over “unhappiness” and revert the unhappy story character to being “happy” as soon as they could in the story building task. They also prolonged the happy state of the “character” with further descriptions of why and how he/she is happy. 3.2 Contexts that children associate with happiness When asked about the two people that made the children most happy, “mother” and “friends” found maximum mention in both the settings. According to boys, friends made them most happy, followed by their mother. In the case of girls, their mother made them most happy. Sister, aunt, brother, father and cousin were also mentioned by a few children. No one perceived grandparents as making them most happy. The boys stated they would be happy in imaginary situations of playing with “Chota Bheem” (an Indian cartoon character) or any of their favourite cartoon characters, and getting a room full of chocolates and new toys. The boys would be most happy if they would get A+ in all school subjects. Boys seemed happier projecting themselves in an imaginary situation than girls. Acceptance by peers was also perceived to give more happiness to boys as compared to girls. Girls seemed to be happier going to school

Mamtani V, Pillai P

than did the boys in the study. The children in the middle income group were happier playing with their friends, playing with Chota Bheem, eating chocolates, ice cream and chips as compared to the children in the slum area. The children in the slum area stated that watching clouds in the sky, getting new clothes, bigger house, getting a room full of chocolates, celebrating festivals, watching T.V. and cartoons would make them happy. All the girls in middle income colony said the love from their parents made them most happy; some girls in the slum setting also said so. 3.3 Parents' views regarding their children's happiness According to the parents in the slum setting money as well as basic necessities such as clothes and shoes weresources of happiness for their children. Children in this setting also corroborated this stance as they would get money even to agree to attend school, do some household chore and so on. On the other hand in the middle income group setting material rewards like gifts and outings made the children happy. According to parents of these children what made them happy included computer games, “their favorite food”, playing and so on. Money was not perceived to be source of happiness for the child by parents in the middle income setting. Parents in both the settings mentioned that food and outings made their child happy. The parents would take their children for an outing, make their favorite food to make them happy but these were highlighted more in the middle income group. Parents perceived that their children get their happiness from both non material as

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MINDSHARE • Volume II Issue 3 • Children's construals of happiness

well as material possessions like money, spending time with family and so on, but the children stated that they were most happy while playing with their friends. Scolding from parents made the children unhappy and parents in both the settings agreed with this. Parents in the middle income homes talked of “their emphasis on the child's studies” and “low marks” in exams as a source of unhappiness for their children. Academics found no mention in the responses of the parents in the slum setting for either emotion. To increase their child's happiness, some parents had discussions with their children about the reasons for feeling unhappy at times and explained to them why their demands cannot be fulfilled. According to parents in the middle income group, children expressed their happiness by kissing, hugging, saying “thank you” jumping with joy; and even screaming words like “yahoo”, “hurrah”, “wow”. The children in the slum setting expressed their happiness by sharing details of the instance that made them happy, smiling, watching TV, playing. The results are in consistence with Planalp (1999) that certain communicative behaviours are expressions of emotion like joy (such as jumping up and down, smiling, and hugging people). Children would cry, not eat and sleep to show that they are unhappy. A mother mentioned that her daughter she stops eating when she is unhappy. A difference was that middle income setting children often “dqN ugha djrh” (did nothing), “cSBk jgsxk” (kept sitting), “ew¡g cukuk” (pulled a face), “fdlh ls ckr ugha djrk” (did not talk to others) when unhappy. Such behaviors were seen much less in

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children in the slum setting (8). Parents said, “pqi pki cSBh jgsxh] :l dj cSB tkrk gS] iM+ tkrh gS” (she sits quietly, he sulks in a corner, she becomes listless and does nothing). Cunningham (1988) has demonstrated that people in a sad mood more often wanted to sit and think, be alone and take a nap. Parents in both the settings emphasized that they themselves had the maximum role in making the children happy and unhappy. Friends and play are part of the scene but not a direct source of happiness or unhappiness. According to some parents children may learn bad habits from their friends. Parents also believed that children are not affected for long by fights with friends and they would become friendly again after a short period of time. Bullying and teasing was identified in the slum setting to be a source of children's unhappy feelings. A few parents in the middle income group setting also believed that their children have still not come into the developmental phase where friends are the most important people in their lives. Parents said that they fulfil the demands of their child to a certain extent depending on the need and money. They also believed that more than fulfilling the children's desires and wishes, it's important to tell them what's right and wrong. There was considerable overlap in the responses of parents and children in both the settings. Most of the parents knew what makes their child most happy and unhappy, and their answers corroborated what their child had mentioned, except in the domain of friends. Friends were identified more by children than by parents as sources of happiness. Also

Mamtani V, Pillai P

parents were identified as a source of unhappiness more by the children than by the parents themselves. Discussion Research on positive moods and emotions has found that they consist of feelings of enjoyment, relief and self-confidence. They also consist of a high level of joy, a moderately high level of interest and a smaller level of surprise (Izard, 1977). Happiness at the most elementary level is relayed through responses typically associated with simple sensory pleasures, such as smiling and laughing. At a slightly more complex level, we may speak of particular but relatively short-term joys and co nte nt m e nt ( a s s o c i ate d , fo r example, with reading a good book). These, in turn, may be integrated into more enduring states of happiness (for example, with respect to work or family). Super and Harkness's developmental niche talked about the “physical and social setting of daily life” which correlates well to Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory (Gardiner &Kosmitzki, 2008). The specific features of ecology in a research setting influence participants' beliefs, ideas and attitudes. Accordingly, the responses of children and parents in the slum and middle income group settings in this study have reflected some differences. For example, money may feature as a source of happiness in the slum setting, and emphases on academic achievement may be more paramount to parents and children in the middle income setting. Children in the study, construed “happy” and “unhappy” in terms of people “pkpq ds fy, yM+dh fey xbZ rks ge [kq'k gks x;s¸(we

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MINDSHARE • Volume II Issue 3 • Children's construals of happiness

found a match for our uncle, we got happy); objects (racket,cycle); activities “Little champs ns[kds”(watching little champs); feeling states“unhappy gks tkrh gw¡ eu ugha djrk dqN djus dk” (I get unhappy and do not feel like doing anything) and virtues of self and others“ i<+kbZ Hkh djrs gSa vkSj Ldwy Hkh tkrs gaS vPNs ls]” (I study and go to school). The findings of the present research are in congruence with social comparison theories as children would often assess their happiness and unhappiness in relation to their friends, peers and others. If a person believes significant others love her, it will make her happy. If she believes that they have mistreated her, it will make her angry (Bar-On & Parker, 2000). Similar results were revealed in the present research as some children said that they are happy in their family, because they get love from their family members. Many children would also get unhappy and angry because of fights with their siblings. Sometimes while interviewing the adult participants the researcher had to face difficulty because they

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would think that happiness is a very general topic and they do not know much about it. Freedman (1978) recounts the difficulty his research assistant had when interviewing people with respect to happiness. When interviewed in groups, people joked and trivialised the topic; when interviewed in private, they grew serious but stopped talking. The middle childhood years are a time that is particularly critical developmentally because it represents the transition from childhood into adolescence. Interestingly, in the present study, the reasons for happiness and unhappiness in school were reported to be in relation with friends and teachers. These two entities have been found to play an imperative role in making the child feel happy and unhappy in the school setting. These findings are in consistence with the work of Maggu (2011). Children gave construals of happy and unhappy, many times not seeing any boundary between situations that elicit happiness and those that elicit unhappiness. For

Mamtani V, Pillai P

children in both settings happy and unhappy situations were similarly characterized with subtle differences. Children identified happiness and unhappiness as being on a continuum and an alteration in a variable of the same situation could transform a “happy” feeling to an “unhappy” one. For example going to school makes them happy but doing homework does not make them happy. Associations have been found between happiness and significant personal relationships; the quality of the environment in which people live; their involvement in physical activities; and involvement in certain r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s ( C a r r, 2003).Socio ecological features of the research settings, including significant people, behaviour, daily activities and more specifically the ways in which emotions are manifest, guided and received, were found to be important determinants of the experience and understanding of happiness and unhappiness among children and adults.

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ISSN: 2229-4872 Mindshare Int. J. Res. Dev. Vol. 2, Issue 4 (2012), pp 46-50 RN: 2-W/12/MP/2-4 Corresponding Author: Manas Pandey email: manas_pndy@yahoo.com

Schools Fit For ChildrenThe Indian Scenario by Manas Pandey

Abstract

A

Chanakya National Law University Patna, INDIA

school is an institution designed for the teaching of students under the direction of teachers. In ancient India, schools were in the form of Gurukuls which developed gradually as missionary schools with passage of time. Today most of the schools follow the missionary school model in terms of tutoring, syllabi, governance etc. with minor changes. Schools in India range from schools with large campuses with thousands of students and hefty fees to schools with small or no campus where children are taught free of cost under. The educational system in India has faced a basic dilemma ever since its introduction by the British. The essence of this problem was summed up by Mahatma Gandhi when he said that there were no schools at all ancient schools have gone by the board and the schools established upon the European pattern were too expensive to fulfil the programme of compulsory primary education within a century.

In this research paper the author has researched on the issues related to schooling in India with a historical analysis of the same. The paper and its presentation has been divided into three major sections. Firstly, The Historical Study of Schools in India which deals with the Gurukul system, the Madarasa System and the Missionary system of education and how they changed gradually with time. The second part deals with The Present System of Schooling in India which includes the factors affecting parents' choice of school and current scenario of schooling in India. Thirdly, the paper has focussed on A Study on the Special Features for Girls and Physically Challenged Children which analyses the facilities that are provided and which ought to be provided in Modern day schools. Lastly the author shall give his views and suggestions to develop the education system of India at the grassroots level i.e., changes needed to be introduced at the elementary level of educational institutions.

KEYWORDS Human Resource Development, Organization, HR Function, Decentralization.


MINDSHARE • Volume 2 Issue 4 • Schools fit for Children...

Schools: A Historical Study Education in India is provided by both the public as well as the private sector. The funds for these schools come from the Central, State and Local levels and they also act as a regulating body for these schools. A School is an institution where instruction is given, especially to persons under college age. It is an institution for instruction in a particular skill or field. The earliest recorded system of education per se is found in the Rig Veda, which broadly deals with the philosophy of life and practices in learning (generally speaking, the word Veda means” to know.”) It is called the Vedic Era in the history of education in India and is thought to be almost 5000 years old. The Gurukul system of education is one of the oldest on earth wherein the guru-shishya system existed in which students were taught orally and the data was passed from one generation to the next. Gurukuls were traditional Hindu residential schools of learning, typically the teacher's house or a monastery. Education was free (and often limited to the higher castes), but students from well-to-do families payed Gurudakshina, a voluntary contribution to the Guru after the completion of their studies. At the Gurukul, the teacher imparted knowledge of Religion, Scriptures, Philosophy, Literature, Warfare,

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Statecraft, Medicine Astrology and "History". Only students belonging to Brahmin and Kshatriya communities were ta u g ht i n t h e s e G u r u ku l s . However, the advent of Buddhism and Jainism brought fundamental changes in access to education with their democratic character. The first millennium and the few centuries preceding it saw the flourishing of higher education at Nalanda, Takshashila, Ujjain, & Vikramshila Universities. Art, Architecture, Painting, Logic, Grammar, Philosophy, Astronomy, Literature, Buddhism, Hinduism, Arthashastra (Economics & Politics), Law, and Medicine were among the subjects taught and each university specialized in a particular field of study. Takshila specialized in the study of medicine, while Ujjain laid emphasis on astronomy. Nalanda, being the biggest educational centre, handled all branches of knowledge, and housed up to 10,000 students at its premises. British records show that education was widespread in the 18th century, with a school for every temple, mosque or village in most regions of the country. The subjects taught included Reading, Writing, Arithmetic, Theology, Law, Astronomy, Metaphysics, Ethics, Medical Science and Religion. The schools were attended by student representative of all classes of society. Traditional structures

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were not recognized by the British government and have been on the decline since. Gandhi had described the traditional Indian educational system as a beautiful tree that was destroyed during the British rule. But scholars have questioned the validity of such an argument. The village pathshalas were often housed in shabby dwellings and taught by illqualified teachers. Printed books were not used, and most writing was done on palm leaf, plantain leaf, or on sand. There was no fixed class routine, timetable, or school calendar. There was no concept of examinations and pupils were promoted whenever the guru was satisfied of their attainment of knowledge. There were no desks, benches, blackboards, or fixed seating arrangements. Hence, the decline of traditional education started in the mid- 1700s. By the 1820s neither the village schools nor the tols or madrasas were the vital centres of learning. In 1823, Raja Rammohan Roy wrote to the Governor-General Lord Amherst, requesting that he not spend government funds on starting a Sanskrit College in Calcutta but rather employ "European Gentlemen of talent and education to instruct the natives of India in Mathematics, Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, Anatomy and other useful sciences. The current system of education, with its western style and content, was

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introduced & founded by the British in the 20th century, following recommendations by Macaulay. The other historical form of schools was the Madarasa. Ever since their emergence, the madrasas have persisted with a curriculum that has seen few changes. The fact that lakhs of Muslim children acquire their primary, and perhaps their only formal education, in these madrasas where only literature and Islamic studies with a cursory knowledge of social sciences thrown in should be a matter of grave concern for all those conscious of Indian education systems' development. The format of the education imparted to the students of madrasas ought to be modified keeping in view the shifting demands of the society, a concern which can no longer be under-played and this is perfectly possible without an erosion of the cultural and religious identity. An account of nineteenthcentury missionary activity in India observed that missionary work had been 'intimately connected' with the British Empire in India and had extended in reach and scope with the Empire. This account went on to observe: 'No thanks, however, is due in the matter to the East India Company', for 'that Company gave no helping hand to missionary work', but rather 'performed the services of herald and forerunner [to

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missionary work] to which Providence had called it in an unwilling and reluctant manner' It is true that the presence of British rule facilitated Christian and missionary activity in a host of ways; it is also true that in its official capacity the British Indian government resolutely refused to champion Christianity. Schools: The current scenario Every poor Indian who can manage to make both ends meet thus strives to join the ranks of far better (and more expensive) schools, because only these can form the gateway to subsidised higher education. The past two decades have seen a phenomenal growth of two types of private schools outside the system of government schools (which have also grown by leaps and bounds, despite resource constraints). These are the so-called elite schools where education is sold to the highest bidder, and the plethora of petty teaching shops against which it is fashionable for the educated elite to occasionally raise a hue and cry. In between there do exists a large number of i n st i t u t i o n s , o f te n r u n b y charitable or religious organisations, which seek to make as many compromises as possible within the given system. It is not surprising that the government of a democratic state would also be compelled to join this race for providing more

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expensive schools for quality education. The Kendriya Vidyalayas, Sainik Schools, Railway Schools, Tibetan Schools and Navodaya Vidyalayas are responses to the basic dilemma facing the existing system. The KVs and NVs together run about 1,200 schools. The KVs, which were set up to cater to children of government servants having AllIndia transfer liability, have now increasingly opened their doors to the children of upwardly mobile, less privileged urban families. While political pressure is ostensibly to blame, the trend basically reflects a sensible popular response of the underprivileged. In the public perception, the system of mass government-sponsored education appears to have failed to deliver the goods, increasing expansion having led apparently to decreasing quality. Hence the upwardly mobile social classes are aggressively latching on to whatever better education is available at public cost. Present Status of Education In India Indian Education system is divided into different levels such as pre-primary level, primary level, elementary education, secondary education, undergraduate and post graduate level. The foundation of Education in India is primary or elementary education later to it the students get into the secondary level,

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undergraduate level and the post graduate level are the higher education levels. Education Governing Bodies: The governing bodies of education in India can be broadly stated thus: 1. Central Board of School Education (CBSE) 2. Council of Indian School Certificate Examination (CISCE) 3. State Government Boards 4. National Open Schools 5. International Schools in India Factors Affecting Parent's Choice for Schools Choice in education is an issue that ranks high on the political agendas of governments around the world and is increasingly being pushed hard in India. While many regard choice as a value per se, most proponents emphasise the improvement in educational standards that could result from it. Parents while choosing an appropriate school for children analyse a lot of things and choose among a wide variety of schools. A few factors affecting parent's choice of schools are: i. Proximity: While choosing the appropriate school for their kids parents want that the chosen school should be near the home or office of the parents. This serves various purposes and acts as the primary factor while choosing a school. A few purposes that it serves are,

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a) Parents prefer to pick up and drop their kids rather than send them to school through some public transport. Hence if the school is nearby the home or the office then the parents preferably drop their children and pick them up after school. b) Proximity also plays a vital role as the amount of time wasted in travelling to school and returning is minimized if the school is nearby the home. Hence parents prefer a school nearby. c) A school nearby can also help a child's overall growth as he an actively take part in after school extra-curricular and sports activities which most schools offer nowadays. ii. Fees Structure: Fees structure also plays a very vital role for parents while choosing the school. While government schools ask for very meagre fees, it is the private schools that load the parents with expectations of their children. The upper class and the lower class society does not have to deal with this problem as it is very obvious for the lower class that their children will study in the government schools while with meagre fees and the upper class families don't have to worry about the fees, hence the real pressure of this fees factor lies upon the middle class. The major factor affecting the fees expenditure is the number of children in the family. The number of children in the family determines the kind of

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school the kids go to. If there are two or three kids of approximately the same age group then the fees ex p en d it u re o f t h e fa m ily increases and hence the kids all have to go to a low-fee school. However if there is just one kid in a middle class family than they do strive for his or her best education possible. iii. Infrastructure and Faculty: Infrastructure and faculty of the schools are other important aspects which parents consider while. If a school provides a good infrastructure with an experienced faculty then it becomes a preference for parents. However if a school lacks in either of the two then it becomes a factor for the parents to consider. iv. Establishment of School: The establishment of school is another important aspect of which parents consider. The general belief is the older the school is the better it is. However it is not a very persistent factor but it surely does play a role. v. Courses Offered: Parents look out for a school which could help a child in its overall growth. Hence a major factor affecting their choice of schools is the courses offered. Parents usually prefer schools which offer to teach a third l a n g u a ge a n d va r i o u s n o t conventional subjects like Biotechnology, Fashion Designing, etc. Facilities required for physically challenged children in schools:

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Along with providing the basic facilities to the children in the schools, these institutions must also provide various facilities to the physically challenged children for their growth and upliftment. Such measures may include: 1. P r o v i d i n g g e n e r a l a n d vocational education facilities for hearing impaired, mentally impaired, dumb, deaf and blind children. 2. Establishment of integrated school for education to disabled children and joining them to the main social stream of the nation. 3. Emergence of the capabilities of the concerned children through various co-curricular activities and help them in being a good citizen. 4. Providing administrative and medical facilities to disabled persons through various camps and building their esteem through motivation and behavioural training. 5. P r o v i d i n g e m p l o y m e n t opportunities to the children through short programs and motivating them for self employment by providing sufficient inputs. 6. C re at i n g c o n f i d e n c e i n parents and providing them technical knowledge through seminars and group discussions. 7. Developing facilities of Hostel for such children to provide them in house services Conclusion The education system in India

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is one of the oldest systems in the world. It has been appreciated as well as recognized by various people including the current USA President Barack Obama. Even though the Indian Education system has delivered numerous great people yet the need to modify it is unavoidable. The system of education in India should be knowledge-centric rather than exam-centric. Children must be allowed to choose subjects according to their interests. Instead of gaining knowledge from voluminous books and lectures, children must be made to interact in groups and express their views on various topics. This will enhance the creative as well as imaginative skills of the students. Rather than taking notes from the teacher and textbooks, children must be made to research information on their own from library books and the Internet and share them in the class. Technology being the best friend of the students nowadays must be put to good use. This will help them develop good reading habits, self-confidence and openness to criticism. It will also help them in developing critical reading and analytical skills. Children will be able to remember what they learn when they apply it practically. They must be taken on field trips to museums, labs, planetariums, excavation sites, botanical gardens, etc. where they can learn by interacting with

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knowledgeable and experienced people in varied fields. It will also help them improve their communication skills. The need of the hour is the shift from imparting theoretical knowledge to practical knowledge to the students. The schools should foster team spirit through various programs rather than just giving stress on rote-learning methods. To add to all this, the schools must also bring awareness about culture and religion among the students and must focus equally on mental, physical and spiritual growth. The excessive commercialization of the schools must be reduced and the existing schools must reduce class strengths so that teachers can give proper attention to each and every kid. The basic purpose of this is to increase the studentteacher interaction so that the children should be comfortable enough to share their fears and concerns. In the end with all due appreciation to the Indian Education system, the author believes that it is not the end of the road and the authorities must put in continuous efforts to make a better schooling system in India for the students to learn and enjoy at the same time as Alfred Mercier said, “What we learn with pleasure we never forget”

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ISSN: 2229-4872 Mindshare Int. J. Res. Dev. Vol. 2, issue 4 (2012), pp 51-59 RN: 2-W/12/NS/2-4 Corresponding Author: Neeraj Shukla email: shalinisingh.8619@gmail.com

Impact of management development in the growth of an organisation by Neeraj Shukla, Shalini SIngh, Shantanu Srivastava

Abstract

T

Department of Commerce, Kalicharan PG College, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, INDIA.

he growth of an Organization depends largely upon the performance of managers. Systematic and continues efforts are important to prepare managers who can successfully meet the challenges of present and the future. The basic purpose of Management Development programs is to improve managerial performance by imparting knowledge, changing attitudes or increasing skills. Organizations spend lavishly on such programs with a view to attract and retain the best brains in the industry. This paper is basically based and focused on Management Development and how

Management Development helps in the growth of employees and organization. Through this research paper I am trying to throw the light on the importance of Management Development in the working and growth of organization. As with nonmanagerial personnel, a wide variety of training methods are used for developing managers. These training methods are on the job training like coaching, mentoring job-rotation and off the job training like sensitivity training, transactional analysis, simulation exercise etc. In this paper all these terms are discussed in brief.

KEYWORDS Management Development, Organizational Development, Coaching, Mentoring, Job-Rotation, Job Instruction Technique, Sensitivity Training, Transactional Analysis, Simulation Exercise.


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managers. These training methods are on the job training like coaching, mentoring jobrotation and off the job training like sensitivity training , transactional analysis, simulation exercise etc. In this paper all these terms are discussed in brief. Management Development is best described as the process from which managers learn and improve their skills not only to benefit themselves but also their employing organizations. In organizational development (OD), the effectiveness of management is recognized as one of the determinants of organizational success. Therefore, investment in management development can have a direct economic benefit to the organization. Managers are exposed to learning opportunities whilst doing their jobs, if this informal learning is used as a formal process then it is regarded as management development. Management development is an effort (effectively planned) that will enhance both the learner's (hopeful manager) capacity and capabilities to manage an organization and quite possibly themselves. The most frequently cited skills of effective managers are: effective and concise communication; problem definition, identification, solving; and influencing and ultimately motivating others. Much of these aforementioned skills can be

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taught through training and development programs. Management development envelops the idea of training, in order for management development to occur there needs to be some sort of training in place, often offered by the company they are employed by. To become a better performer by education implies that management development activities attempt to instill sound reasoning processes.

Methods On the Job Training The development of a manager's abilities can take place on the job. The four techniques for on the management development are: COACHING MENTORING JOB ROTATION JOB INSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE (JIT) Coaching Coaching is one of the management development methods, which is considered as a corrective method for inadequate performance. According to a survey conducted by International Coach Federation (ICF), more than 4,000 companies are using coach

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for their executives. These coaches are experts most of the time outside consultants. A coach is the best training plan for the CEO's because: It is one to one interaction; It can be done at the convenience of CEO; It can be done on phone, meeting, through e-mails, chat; It provides an opportunity to receive feedback from an expert. It helps in identifying weaknesses and focus on the area that needs improvement This method best suits for the people at the top because if we see on emotional front, when a person reaches the top, he gets lonely and it becomes difficult to find someone to talk to. It helps in finding out the executive's specific developmental needs. The needs can be identified through 60 degree performance reviews. Procedure of the Coaching The procedure of the coaching is mutually determined by the exe c u t i v e a n d c o a c h . T h e p r o c e d u r e i s fo l l o w e d b y s u c c e s s i ve co u n s e l i n g a n d meetings at the executive's convenience by the coach. 1. Understand the participant's job, the knowledge, skills, and attitudes, and resources required to meet the desired expectation. 2. Meet the participant and mutually agree on the objective that has to be achieved

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3. Mutually arrive at a plan and schedule 4. A t t h e j o b , s h o w t h e participant how to achieve the objectives, observe the performance and then provide feedback 5. R e p e a t s t e p 4 u n t i l performance improves For the people at middle level management, coaching is more likely done by the supervisor; however experts from outside the organization are at times used for up and coming managers. Again, the personalized approach assists the manger focus on definite needs and improvement. Mentoring Mentoring is an ongoing relationship that is developed between a senior and junior employee. Mentoring provides guidance and clear understanding of how the organization goes to achieve its vision and mission to the junior employee. Executive mentoring is generally done by someone inside the company. The executive can learn a lot from mentoring. By dealing with diverse mentee's, the executive is given the chance to grow professionally by developing management skills and learning how to work with people with diverse background, c u l t u re a n d l a n g u a ge a n d personality types. Mentoring is one of the important methods for preparing them to be future executives. This method allows

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the mentor to determine what is required to improve mentee's performance. Once the mentor identifies the problem, weakness, and the area that needs to be worked upon, the mentor can advise relevant training. The mentor can also provide opportunities to work on special processes and projects that require use of proficiency. Some key points on Mentoring Mentoring focus on attitude development Conducted for managementlevel employees Mentoring is done by someone inside the company It is one-to-one interaction It helps in identifying weaknesses and focus on the area that needs improvement Job Rotation For the executive, job rotation takes on different perspective. The executive is usually not simply going to another department. In some vertically integrated organization, for example, where the supplier is actually part same organization or subsidiary, job rotation might be to the supplier to see how the business operates from the supplier point of view. For manager being developed for executive roles, rotation to different functions in the company is regular carried out. This approach allows the manger to operate in diverse roles and

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understand the different issues that crop up. If someone is to be a corporate leader, they must have this type of training. A recent study indicated that the single most significant factor that leads to leader's achievement was the variety of experiences in different departments, business units, cities, and countries. An organized and helpful way to d eve l o p ta l e nt fo r t h e management or executive level of the organization is job rotation. It is the process of preparing employees at a lower level to replace someone at the next higher level. It is generally done for the designations that are crucial for the effective and efficient functioning of the organization. Benefits of Job Rotation Some of the major benefits of Job Rotation are: It provides the employees with opportunities to broaden the horizon of knowledge, skills, and abilities by working in different departments, business units, functions, and countries Identification of Knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) required It determines the areas where improvement is required Assessment of the employees who have the potential and caliber for filling the position Job Instruction Technique (JIT) Job Instruction Technique (JIT) uses a strategy with focus on

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knowledge (factual and procedural), skills and attitudes development. Procedure of Job Instruction Technique (JIT) JIT consists of four steps: Plan: This steps includes a written breakdown of the work to be done because the trainer and the trainee must understand that documentation is must and important for the familiarity of work. A trainer who is aware of the work well is likely to do many things and in the process might miss few things. Therefore, a structured analysis and proper documentation ensures that all the points are covered in the training program. The second step is to find out what the trainee knows and what training should focus on. Present: In this step, trainer provides the synopsis of the job while presenting the participants the different aspects of the work. When the trainer finished, the trainee demonstrates how to do the job and why is that done in that specific manner.

Plan

Present

Follow up

Trial

Trial This step actually a kind of rehearsal step, in which trainee

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tries to perform the work and the trainer is able to provide instant feedback. In this step, the focus is on improving the method of instruction because a trainer considers that any error if occurring may be a function of training not the trainee. This step allows the trainee to see the after effects of using an incorrect method. The trainer then helps the trainee by questioning and guiding to identify the correct procedure. Follow-up In this step, the trainer checks the trainee's job frequently after the training program is over to prevent bad work habits from developing. Off the Job Training There are many management development techniques that an employee can take in off the job. The few popular methods are: SENSITIVITY TRAINING TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS STRAIGHT LECTURES/ LECTURES GAMES AND SIMULATION EXERCISES CASE STUDY

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what others feel and think from their own point of view. Behavioral flexibility is ability to behave suitability in light of understanding. Procedure of Sensitivity Training Sensitivity Training Program requires three steps: Unfreezing the old values It requires that the trainees become aware of the inadequacy of the old values. This can be done when the trainee faces dilemma in which his old values is not able to provide proper guidance. The first step consists of a small procedure: - An unstructured group of 1015 people is formed. - Unstructured group without any objective looks to the trainer for its guidance - But the trainer refuses to provide guidance and assume leadership - S o o n , t h e t ra i n e e s a re motivated to resolve the uncertainty - Then, they try to form some hierarchy. Some try assume leadership role which may not be liked by other trainees - Then, they started realizing that what they desire to do and realize the alternative ways of dealing with the situation

Sensitivity Training Sensitivity training is about making people understand about themselves and others reasonably, which is done by developing in them social sensitivity and Unfreezing the behavioral flexibility. old values Social sensitivity in one word is empathy. It is ability of an individual to sense

Development of new values

Refreezing the new ones

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Development of new values With the trainer's support, trainees begin to examine their interpersonal behavior and giving e a c h o t h e r fe e d b a c k . T h e reasoning of the feedbacks are discussed which motivates trainees to experiment with range of new behaviors and values. This process constitutes the second step in the change process of the development of these values. Refreezing the new ones This step depends upon how much opportunity the trainees get to practice their new behaviors and values at their work place. Transactional Analysis Transactional Analysis provides trainees with a realistic and useful method for analyzing and understanding the behavior of others. In every social interaction, there is a motivation provided by one person and a reaction to that motivation given by another person. This motivation reaction relationship between two persons is a transaction. Transactional analysis can be done by the ego states of an individual. An ego state is a system of feelings accompanied by a related set of behaviors. There are basically three ego states:

Ego States Child

Parent

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Child: It is a collection of recordings in the brain of an individual of behaviors, attitudes, and impulses which come to her naturally from her own understanding as a child. The characteristics of this ego are to be spontaneous, intense, unconfident, reliant, probing, anxious, etc. Verbal clues that a person is operating from its child state are the use of words like "I guess", "I suppose", etc. and non verbal clues like, giggling, coyness, silent, attention seeking etc. Parent: It is a collection of recordings in the brain of an individual of behaviors, attitudes, and impulses imposed on her in her childhood from various sources such as, social, parents, friends, etc. The characteristics of this ego are to be overprotective, isolated, rigid, bossy, etc. Verbal clues that a person is operating from its parent states are the use of words like, always, should, never, etc and non-verbal clues such as raising eyebrows, pointing an accusing finger at somebody, etc. Adult: It is a collection of reality testing, rational behavior, decision making, etc. A person in this ego state verifies, updates the data which she has received from the other two states. It is a shift from the taught and felt concepts to tested concepts. Straight Lectures/ Lectures This method is used to create understanding of a Adult topic or to influence

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behavior, attitudes through lecture. A lecture can be in printed or oral form. Lecture is telling someone about something. Lecture is given to enhance the knowledge of listener or to give him the theoretical aspect of a topic. Training is basically incomplete without lecture. When the trainer begins the training session by telling the aim, goal, agenda, processes, or methods that will be used in training that means the trainer is using the lecture method. It is difficult to imagine training without lecture format. There are some variations in Lecture method. Straight Lecture: Straight lecture method consists of presenting information, which the trainee attempts to absorb. In this method, the trainer speaks to a group about a topic. However, it does not involve any kind of interaction between the trainer and the trainees. A lecture may also take the form of printed text, such as books, notes, etc. The difference between the straight lecture and the printed material is the trainer's intonation, control of speed, body language, and visual image of the trainer. Main Features of Lecture Method Some of the main features of lecture method are: Inability to identify and correct misunderstandings Less expensive Can be reached large number of people at once

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Kn o w l e d g e b u i l d i n g exercise Less effective because lectures require long periods of trainee inactivity Games and Simulation Exercises

Games and Simulations

Business Games

A training Game is defined as spirited activity or exercise in which trainee compete with each other according to the defined set of rules. Simulation is creating computer versions of real-life games. Simulation is about imitating or making judgment or opining how events might occur in a real situation. It can entail intricate numerical modeling, role playing without the support of technology, or combinations. Training games and simulations are now seen an effective tool for training because its key components are: - Challenge - Rules - Interactivity These three components are quite essential when it comes to learning. Trainees can therefore experience these events, processes, games in a controlled setting where they can develop knowledge, skills and attitudes or can find out concepts that will improve their performance. The various methods that come under Games and Simulations are: Business Games With the increase in globalization and changing technologies, many organizations are now moving

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Shukla N, Singh S, Srivastava S,

Role Plays

Equipment Simulators

In-Basket Techniques

Case Studies

from board games to computer based simulations, using interactive multimedia (IM) and virtual reality (VR). Business games are the type of simulators that try to present the way an industry, c o m p a n y, o r g a n i z a t i o n , consultancy, or subunit of a company functions. Basically, they are based on the set of rules, procedures, plans, relationships, principles derived from the research. In the business games, trainees are given some information that describes a particular situation and are then asked to make decisions that will best suit in the favor of the company. And then the system provides the feedback about the impact of their decisions. Again, on the basis of the feedback they are asked to make the decisions again. This process continues until some meaningful results do not came out or some predefined state of the organization exists or a specified number of trails are completed. Some of the benefits of the business games are: It develops leadership skills. It improves application of total quality principles. It develops skills in using

quality tools. It strengthens management skills. It demonstrates principles and concepts. It explores and solves complex problem. Leadership skilss Solves complex problem

Total Quality Principles

Management Skills Benefits of Business Games Quality Tools Principles and concepts

Business games simulate whole organization and provide much better perspective than any other training methods. They allow trainees to see how their decisions and actions impact on the related areas. ROLE PLAYS Role play is a simulation in which each participant is given a role to play. Trainees are given with some information related to description of the role, concerns, objectives, responsibilities, emotions, etc. Then, a general description of the situation, and the problem that each one of them faces, is given. Once the participants read their role descriptions, they act out their roles by interacting with one another. Role Plays helps in Developing interpersonal skills and communication skills

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Conflict resolution Group decision making Developing insight into one's own behavior and its impact on others Interpersonal skills Group Decision Making

Communication Skills Role Plays

Developing Insights

Conflict Resolution

There are various types of Role Plays, such as: Multiple Role Play In this type of role play, all trainees are in groups, with each group acting out the role play simultaneously. After the role play, each group analyzes the interactions and identifies the learning points. Single Role Play One group of participants plays the role for the rest, providing demonstrations of situation. Other participants observe the role play, analyze their interactions with one another and learn from the play. Role Rotation It starts as a single role play. After the interaction of participants, the trainer will stop the role play and discuss what happened so far. Then the participants are asked to exchange characters. This method allows a variety of ways to approach the roles.

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Spontaneous Role Play In this kind of role play, one of the trainees plays herself while the other trainees play people with whom the first participant interacted before. IN-BASKET TECHNIQUE In-Basket Technique It provides trainees with a log of written text or information and requests, such as memos, messages, and reports, which would be handled by manger, engineer, reporting officer, or administrator. Procedure of the in basket Technique In this technique, trainee is given some information about the role to be played such as, description, responsibilities, general context about the role. The trainee is then given the log of materials that make up the in-basket and asked to respond to materials within a particular time period. After all the trainees complete in-basket, a discussion with the trainer takes place. In this discussion the trainee describes the justification for the decisions. The trainer then provides feedback, reinforcing decisions made suitably or encouraging the trainee to increase alternatives for those made unsuitably. It is important that trainees must communicate with each other to accumulate the entire information

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required to make a suitable decision. This technique focuses on: Building decision making skills Assess and develops Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes (KSAs) Develops of communication and interpersonal skills Develops procedural knowledge Develops strategic knowledge Decision making skills Procedural Knowledge In-Basket Technique

Strategic Knowledge

Knowledge Skills and Attitude

Communication and Interpersonal

EQUIPMENT STIMULATORS Equipment simulators are the mechanical devices that necessitate trainees to use some actions, plans, measures, trials, movements, or decision processes they would use with equipment back on the their respective work place. It is imperative that the simulators be designed to repeat, as closely as possible, the physical aspects of equipment and operational surroundings trainees will find at their work place. This is also called as physical fidelity of the simulation.

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Equipment simulators can be used in giving training to: Air Traffic Controllers Taxi Drivers Telephone Operators Ship Navigators Maintenance Workers Product Development Engineers Case Studies Case Studies try to simulate decision making situation that trainees may find at their work place. It reflects the situations and complex problems faced by managers, staff, HR, CEO, etc. The objective of the case study method is to get trainees to apply known concepts and ideologies and ascertain new ones. The case study method emphasize on approach to see a particular problem rather than a solution. Procedure of the Case Study Method The trainee is given with some written material, and the some complex situations of a real or imaginary organization. A case study may range from 50 to 200 pages depending upon the problem of the organization. A series of questions usually appears at the end of the case study. The longer case studies provide enough of the information to be examined while the shorter ones require the trainee to explore and conduct research to gather

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appropriate amount of information. The trainee then makes certain judgment and opines about the case by identifying and giving possible solutions to the problem. In between trainees are given time to digest the information. If there is enough time left, they are also allowed to collect relevant information that supports their solution. Once the individuals reach the solution of a problem, they meet in small groups to discuss the options, solutions generated. Then, the trainee meets with the trainer, who further discusses the case. Case Study method focuses on: Building decision making skills Assessing and developing Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes (KSAs) Developing communication and interpersonal skills Developing management skills Developing procedural and strategic knowledge. Conclusion O r g a n i z a t i o n development totally depends upon its employees. If executives and managers are very capable, knowledgeable and skillful then only the organization can achieve its long term goal. Today, every good organization is focusing on

Shukla N, Singh S, Srivastava S,

various development programs just to enhance the knowledge of their workforce and if needed, it is also open for training them abroad. From the above research paper it is clear that how management development programs help workforce in exploring new methods, knowledge, working style etc. for the betterment of organization. These management development techniques allow the manger to operate in diverse roles and understand the different issues that crop up. If someone is to be a corporate leader, he or she must have these types of management development techniques. These management techniques help manager in enhancing developing interpersonal skills and communication skills, conflict resolution, Group decision making, developing insight into one's own behaviour and its impact on others, assessing and developing Knowledge, skills and Attitudes, develop procedural and strategic knowledge so that managers and executives can perform their jobs properly at their end and play vital role in management development, through which growth takes place in the organization.

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MINDSHARE • Volume 2 Issue 4 • Impact of management development...

Shukla N, Singh S, Srivastava S,

REFERENCES Aswathappa K - Human Resource and Personnel Management (Tata McGraw Hill, 5th Ed.). 265266

Singh B.P. & Chhabra T.N. Organisation Theory and Behaviour, (Dhanpat Rai & Co. 6th Revised Edition) 391-392

Rao VSP Human Resource Management, Text and Cases (Excel Books, 2nd Ed.), 217-228

Ivansevich Human Resource Management (Tata McGraw Hill, 10th Ed.) 409- 410

Dessler Human Resource Management (Prentice Hall, 11th Ed.) 306-308, 313-315

Bernardi Human Resource Management (Tata McGraw Hill, 4th Ed.) 282-283

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ISSN: 2229-4872 Mindshare Int. J. Res. Dev. Vol. 2, Issue 4 (2012), pp 60-64 RN: 2-W/12/PP/2-4 Corresponding Author: Pratham Parekh email: pratham.parekh@gmail.com

Gender gap in breast feeding child, factors and implications by Pratham Parekh

Abstract

G

Centre for Studies in Society and Development, Central University of Gujarat, Gandhinagar, INDIA

ender disparities among Indian families are not new scenario and such disparities are reflected in child care practices also. It has been already proven that proper and regular breastfeeding suppress post-natal fertility. This study examines implications and factors affecting breastfeeding decisions among the Indian wo men. Fact ors like, d u ra t io n, contraception and traditional notions and its implications on breast feedings are investigated. Interestingly all these factors showed alarming amount of gender gap. Breast feeding is heavily affected by preference of having sons. Due to this preference, after the birth of girl, parents continue to have children which further limits breast feeding of already born girl child and because of this reason daughter are dissuaded from breast feeding earlier

KEYWORDS Gender, Breastfeeding, Girl Child, Health

compared to sons. The family planning programmes offering contraception also adds in increasing size of gender gap, the mothers reached at â&#x20AC;&#x153;idealâ&#x20AC;? family size seems to have lower mortality rate and higher gender gap in breastfeeding. Breast feeding and subsequent fertility is negatively related because breast feeding the existing child restricts and delay next pregnancy and many times subsequent (mostly unwanted) pregnancy makes mother to wean current infant. Traditional practices in some states of India, limits the duration for breastfeeding female. These traditional practices are closely related to socio economic conditions of people and their attitude towards breastfeeding male and female members.


MINDSHARE â&#x20AC;˘ Volume 2 Issue 4 â&#x20AC;˘ Gender gap in breast feeding child...

India, though experiencing positive change in domain of child health care, there exist considerable gap between health care of male and female infants. This gap exists due to traditional child care practices and preferences for male infant. Gender disparity is decreasing among nutritional status of Indian infants but practice of breastfeeding is seems to be unchanged. Introduction A gender disparity seems to unavoidable phenomenon of human societies; it varies according to socio-cultural framework of various societies. It is rigidly so embedded in cultures that people unconsciously creates disparities even in child care practices. Postnatal fertility including breastfeeding is ver y well investigated and documented area of research by the practitioner of medicine and public health care researchers. On other side, strong gender bias throughout various domains of research is also observed but it seems difficult to find out disadvantages caused to female infants in terms of breast feeding. The initial development of infant is heavily depended on duration as well as frequency of breastfeeding because breast milk provides important nutrients which keep i n fa n t s s a fe f ro m va r i o u s

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infections. Gender differences in breast feeding is commonly seen scenario in India, though practice of breastfeeding is universal in India as pointed out by some studies. (Wyon & Gordon, 1971). Medical and public health researchers have suggested several mechanisms by which breastfeeding promote health for infants and young children in developing countries. First, human milk has immunological benefits; for example, it contains glycans that are believed to play an a n t i - i n fe c t i v e r o l e i n t h e gastrointestinal tract (Morrow, Ruiz-Palacios, Jiang, & Newburg, 2005). As per this studies frequency of breastfeeding female infants is for shorter duration than male infants, weaning of female infantsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; starts earlier and even female infants gets comparatively lower quality of food. Another factor affecting breastfeeding practice in India is that, many women are not aware various other forms of birth control and due to this, they depend more contraceptives properties of breastfeeding. On other side Indian mothers finds it difficult to meet high caloric demands of breast feedings during pregnancy in social setups where there is high rate of malnourishment. Obviously, there are many other factors apart from this that could influence a decision of breast feeding child, like health of mother, labor-market attachment,

Parekh, P

education, cost of available breast milk substitutes etc. But the present study is focused on factors like, duration, contraception and traditional notions affecting breast feeding decision of mother based on gender differentiation. As per ParveenNangia and T.K. Roy , Gender difference in duration of breastfeeding is particularly high in the states of Assam, Punjab and Sikkim, where male children are breastfed for more than six months longer than female children. On the other hand, in the states of Madhya Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, and Karnataka female children are breastfed for a slightly longer duration. The least gender disparity is observed in Bihar, where median duration of breastfeeding is the same for both male and female children. Duration Duration of breast feeding an infant has always been skeptical in India and when it comes to gender it becomes more ambiguous. Various kinds of trends and patterns are observed across geographical locations in India for signifying duration of breastfeeding female infant. All these patterns and trends are primarily based on cultural and traditional notions and practices of various regions in India. It is not wrong to say that cultural and traditional practices in India are highly gender bias and thus, same

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is reflected in breastfeeding practices also. For instance, immediate isolation of mother and newborn due to notion of purity and pollution, but many studies have admitted that notion of purity and pollution during and after child birth time is not gender biased. That means, there exists some practices which can provide some amount of equality to male and female infant though not effectively. Breastfeeding of female infant after birth is noticeably delayed in India, it is ver y clearly mentio n ed in community medicine studies that colostrum (which is considered as valuable input for any newborn) is neglected or wasted before putting female infant (and many times male infants too) to the breast. These studies also mentioned that in many ge o g ra p h i ca l re g i o n s i t i s considered as harmful substance for child health which not true. Thus, due to this notion girl infants are deprived and add in to infant mortality rate. Contraception Easy availability of birth control has very fluctuating impact upon breast feeding practice, if mothers rely on breastfeeding when more effective forms of contraception are unavailable, then access to modern birth control might lead them to substitute away from breastfeeding (Jayachandran &

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Kuziemko, 2009). There is an inverse relationship between breastfeeding duration and next pregnancy. Breast feeding already born infant tends to prevent or postpone next pregnancy. While subsequent pregnancy normally makes mothers to wean current child early. As mothers reach their ideal family size, their demand for contraception grows. They either breastfeed longer to suppress fertility or use other forms of birth control that allow them to breastfeed longer without being interrupted by another pregnancy. For the same reasons, breastfeeding increases discretely once women reach their “ideal" family size. (Jayachandran & Kuziemko, 2009) Tradition In populations with strong son preference, boys are typically more likely than girls to be exclusively breastfed at 6−9 months of age, when breastfeeding alone is considered inadequate to meet the energy and nutrient needs of infants (World Health Organization, 2001)Although the effect of son preference on sex composition of children ever born is undetectable in national-level estimates that aggregate across all families, there exists empirical evidence from India that son preference has two pronounced and predictable family-level effects on the sex composition of children ever born.

Parekh, P

First, data from India show that smaller families have a significantly higher proportion of sons than larger families. Second, socially and economically disadvantaged couples and couples from the northern region of India not only want but also attain a higher proportion of sons, if the effects of family size are controlled. (Clark, 2000). The sex difference in children not vaccinated at all is particularly high in Delhi, where proportion of nonvaccinated girls is more than three times higher than boys and in Punjab where it is two and a half times higher. However, the overall proportion of children not vaccinated is quite low in Delhi. In Tamil Nadu proportion of children who did not receive any vaccination is less than one percent, both for males and females, whereas in Goa, none of the children was reported to fall in the category of ‘not vaccinated’. (Nangia & Roy)Traditionally, Indian culture has given a preference to males over a female; this is true in sense of giving priority in breast feeding. It is easy in India to find out that sons’ health is more valued than daughters’ health and majority of male infants are benefited (over a female infants) due this notion. Not only in breast feeding , male infants gets advantage over female infants’ vaccinations and other health benefits. Though, male and female infant are given equal attention,

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gender differentiations are observed into practicing breast feeding sons and daughters. The change in infant feeding practices began in industrialized countries, and soon followed by educated fema le o f u n d erd evelo p ed countries by curtailing the duration of breast feeding. This practice is copied by uneducated counterpart of the urban and rural areas of underdeveloped countries (Kameswararao, 2004). To u n d e r s t a n d i m p a c t o f breastfeeding there is need to comparatively asses the breastfeeding practices adopted through various dimensions like duration, frequency and weaning of girl child. It’ll allow drawing a complete physical, mental and psycho – social development of the female infant. (Wambach, Campbell, Gill, Dodgson, Abiona, & Heinig, 2005). As per MridulaBandyopadhyay , Cultural and traditional practices have considerable implications on lactation and breastfeeding, and in the overall well-being and health of mothers and infants. Breastfeeding programs should take into account traditional beliefs and concepts when communicating with families about practices such as food restriction and food avoidance. (Bandyopadhyay, 2009). As there exists, an inverse relationship between breastfeeding and subsequent fertility as mothers wanting to

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conceive again thinks to restrict nursing-induced postpartum amenorrhea and because they conceive again they usually stop breastfeeding. Gender composition thus, strongly influence breastfeeding practices of current child. Jayachandran and Kuziemko also state that, probability of not having next sibling increases in India if newborn is male and the amount by which boys are more likely than girls to be the youngest child is greater for mothers who have reached or surpassed their “ideal” family size. Intensity of the mothers’ preference for son varies according to socio-culture setup and socio-culture setup where son are preferred over a daughter are likely to have more gender gap in breastfeeding practice. For instance , the estimates imply that in states such as Kerala with sex rat i o s n e a r o n e , m o t h e r ’s breastfeed sons only 0.2 months longer than daughters; in places such as Haryana or Punjab where the sex ratio is about 1.16, boys are breastfed 0.6 months longer. Traditionally Indian society gives preference to male child over a female child so; demand of additional child is greater if the previous child is girl. This is primary reason for weaning female infant earlier. Value the health of sons more than daughters and nurse sons more in the belief that breast milk is best," or that sons simply take to the

Parekh, P

breast" more easily than do daughters. (Jayachandran & Kuziemko, 2009). Studies by Jayachandran and Kuziemko has successfully proven that if the infant is male, mothers breast feed more frequently and frequency of breastfeeding is very lower if the previous newborn is female and subsequent is male and mothers prefer to breastfed sons than daughters. This raise a concern over decreasing fertility of India will increase sex differentiation if the desired number of children falls more rapidly than the desired number of sons (Das & Bhat, 1997). The Final Word Almost all studies on gender bias in breast feeding argue that subsequent child birth is inversely related to duration of breastfeeding. This basically happens because of traditional mindset (and other physiological reasons) and weaning a child early because of pregnancy. For same reason, demand for contraception grows when mothers reach “ideal” family size. This either breastfeed longer to overwhelm fertility or other forms of birth control are used which allows them to breastfeed longer without being interrupted by another pregnancy. Preference for son in Indian society is major reason for wider gender gap in breastfeeding practices. It has been proven by several studies that after a birth of girl, parents are likely to have

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MINDSHARE â&#x20AC;˘ Volume 2 Issue 4 â&#x20AC;˘ Gender gap in breast feeding child...

another child and this sets a limit to breastfeeding duration of already born female infant. Looking at data of National Family Health Survey in India, it is easy to find out this gap, not only in terms of breast feeding but in terms of other health care practices also this gender gap exists. Gender gap in breast feeding practices in India has accounted about 20% excess female (between the ages of one and three years) deaths every year. Child health care in India is complex area of investigation and when it comes to gender, it

becomes really skeptical to the explored or proven results. This study, tries to open up the gates for further empirical and effective ex p l o rat i o n o f d i ffe re nt i a l breastfeeding practices and its cause in India. It would be wrong to deny that female and male infant in India are given equal chance to breastfeed. Though this study limits itself at conceptual level, it brings out feasible understanding of basic factors and fundamental scenario in which there exist wider gap in breast feeding practice based on sex of

Parekh, P

infant. Breastfeeding should be considered as child right and policy makers should provide framework within health policy which can enforce population to treat infants equally instead of just putting check on frequency and duration of breastfeeding. There exist wider scope for civil society (rather for entire society) to bring psycho social change, which modify mindset of people and change customs and rituals enabling more healthy and unbiased breastfeeding practices.

REFERENCES

Bandyopadhyay , M. (2009). Impact of ritual pollution on lactation and breastfeeding practices in rural West Bengal, India. International Breastfeeding Journal, 4(2). Clark, S. (2000). Son preference and sex composition of children: evidence from India. Demography, 37(1), 95-100. Das, G. M., & Bhat, P. M. (1997). Fertility Decline and Increased Manifestation of Sex Bias in India. Population Studies, 307-315. Jayachandran, S., & Kuziemko, I. (2009). Why Do Mothers Breastfeed Girls Less Than Boys? Evidence and Implications for Child Health in India. Stanford: the Pacific Conference for Develpment Economics. Kameswararao, A. A. (2004). Breast Feeding Behaviour of Indian Women. Indian Journal of Community Medicine, 29(2), 62-64.

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Morrow, A. L., Ruiz-Palacios, G. M., Jiang, X., & Newburg, D. S. (2005). Human Milk Glycans That Inhibit Pathogen Binding Protect Breastfeeding Infants against Infectious Diarrhea. Journal of Nutrition(135), 1304-1307. Nangia, P., & Roy, T. K. (n.d.). Gender Disparity in Child Care in India: Findings From Two National Family Health Surveys. Indian Statistical Institute. Wambach, K., Campbell, S. H., Gill, S. L., Dodgson, J. E., Abiona, T. V., & Heinig, M. J. (2005, August). Clinical lactation practice: 20 years of evidence. J Hum Lact, 21(3), 245-58. World Health Organization. (2001). Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding. Geneva: World Health Organization. Wyon, J. B., & Gordon, J. E. (1971). The Khanna study- population problems in the rural Punjab. California: Harvard University Press.

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