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STUDIO 4.2 qed Portfolio Submission SAIDATUL S. SHAZRI

13146646


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1KHO WORKSHOP D3 HOUSING COMPETITION D3 HOUSING DEVELOPMENT

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NATIONAL TRUST PAVILION III NOV

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ECOLOGY REPORT


1K HOME WORKSHOP COLLABORATION WITH NICOSIA UNIVERSITY


BRIEF

Designing building that can live through the time is the main intention of this workshop. Aiming a thousand year life, the design should foresee what is the culture and behaviour of the civilization and changes in the surrounding environment - climates in the future. With the produced conceptual idea, I am required to somehow incorporate the scheme into my next project - D3 housing., either partially or fully, as a continuation of understanding the ecological system of future housing.

SPACE MOVING THROUGH TIME


A current design trend encouraged a lots of sole development where demolition will take place once the building left unattended due to the maintenance and economic issue. This problem will leads to the rebuilding of new development over and over again, which increases the amount of waste production. Apart from that, they also speeding towards reduction of non-renewable resources and production of green house gases.

NEW DEVELOPMENT

FUTURE PREDICTION

(Chart Sources: Meadows,D.H Meadows,D.L Randers, J. and Behrens III,W.W (1972)Linda Eckstein

DEMOLISHED

10 YEARS SERVICE

30 YEARS SERVICE

40 YEARS SERVICE

Inflexibility of building design for maintenance area has encourage certain spaces or units to be left unattended until the whole building unable to operate. Thus, it will gradually create inefficiencies to the building performance through out the operation year.

new occupied space negative / unused space


Equality of Space

Changing needs of People

Reformation

002

Uniform Sharing Space

001. Typology change_ Space and type of units change based on an uniform sharing space. When there are changes in spatial needs, the typology will experience transformation.

004

UTILIZING WASTED SPACE

001

RE-USE, UPCYCLE, RECYCLE

002. Utilizing wasted space_ Changing of needs will require space to allow the evolution and expansion of space, therefore waste and unused spaces are then used to fill up the demand

'ULTIMATE' UP-CYCLING New Generation of Materials

TYPOLOGY CHANGE

003

MATERIAL & RESOURCE UTILIZING Standardization of Parts

TIMELINE

Reassemble

Re-use of Building Materials

Ultimate up-cycling concept involved four main aspects which consequently related to each other creating a loop of system.

Technological Development of Materiality

Use of material till Breaking Point. Full life cycle of material

Evolving Standardization

003. Material & resource utilizing_ Due to the uniform sharing space, the material comes in standardized parts. The standardization authorize re-usage of the material and technological development of materiality so that the material can survive until its breaking point. 004. Re-use, upcycle, recycle_ This process comprises of two elements which are material and spatial. Due to technlogical development which may involved new generation of materials and evolving of standardization system can leads to the easeness of reassemble and reformation of the space. Thus, equality of space can be achieved despite any metamorphosis that will happened throughout the time.


001 TYPOLOGY CHANGE

002 changing spatial needs

COMBINE MODULES CHANGING SPATIAL NEEDS

Standardized Structure, Service Within By creating parts that are all the same and uniform, waste is reduced as reassembling and reuse is promoted

UTILIZING WASTED SPACE

Assembly As the parts are all the same, uniform grid system is created. This creates modular space which can be separated and distributed more easily

UPCYCLE

Pods are made up of Standardized Parts. Therefore, when changes occur, uncycling is easier

+

Module can be combined to increase space according to needs. Space can also be increased in the vertical axis.

Implementing plug-in concept with modular system allows to support the changing of spatial needs. The modular system is highlighted through a standard volume of space per person. Practically the module will combined with each other through plug-in concept to expand the spatial needs. Plug-in concept has been used as our main strategy to design a temporary tools where it is flexible enough to attach and detach the module once it is damaged or in tobe-replaced condition.

new occupied space negative / unused space


PART REPLACEMENT Part Replacement

003

MATERIAL & RESOURCE UTILIZING

1.

Material beused usedtilltilbreaking breaking point and replaced with more Materials will will be point The re1000 Year System The system lasts parts will be replaced as and advanced equivalents. placed with more advanced equivalents when they fail.

1.

2

Part Replacement 1.

1000 YEARS SYSTEM

Materials will be used till breaking point The replaced with more advanced equivalents 1.

1.

1st Generation

2.

1.

Next Generation

3

1.

1.

The system lasts parts will be replaced as it is when they fail

Part used till Breaking point

1.

2 2.

1.

Part used till breaking point

1st Generation

1.

1.

3

1.

1.

Part used till Breaking point

1.

1.

2.

Next Generation

2.

Part used till breaking point

2.

Next Generation

3.

1.

3.

1.

1.

1.

1. 1.

1.

1.

3

3

2.

1.

Next Generation

2.

4.

4.

1.

1.

1.

1.

Next Generation

2.

1.

Next Generation

4.

4. 1.

3.

1.

Modifiable of plug-in concept allows the broken part to be replaced with the Part usedoftilldesign, available 'waste' will go available resources (waste). In 2.initial process 1. breaking pointThe up-cycled process is one through up-cycled process to fit the current needs. of the main highlight to sustain the environment by utilizing waste as a useful part in the construction. 1.

3.

1.

1.

Constant Advancement

2.

1.

1.

Part used till breaking point

Constant Advancement


Breaking part to be recycled

004 REUSE, UPCYCLE, RECYCLE

-

Next Generation 1.

2

3

Next Generation

Next Generation

Up- cycled

>>>> Re-cycled

4.

Next Generation

The broken part to be recycled

The broken part will go through recycle process and to be replaced with next generation material.

Utilizing wasted space

Utilizing material resources

Practically utilizing material resources is a part of the vital process to utilize the wasted space.


Middle Age

Space Upcycle Population issue

Modular concept Plug-in concept Material component concept

RESEARCH

Diagrams Images Renders

GROUPWORK DIAGRAM The diagram on right shows the work contribution of each of the group members. We experienced hardship in understanding each other and having problems in deciding on what concept we should go with. Due to difference in language, most all of the conversation lead to miscommunication. Even until the presentation stage, the members also had miscommunication regarding on how to do it. Lots of arguments and contentions happened make it’s difficult to work together. Because of our late idea bloom, we didn’t have time to develop more on the upcycle concept instead of just being able to present the timeline of upcycling, definition of upcycling and our main strategies. We didn’t manage to explore how the system works and what is the aspect that make it can survive for 1000 years. From this conceptual scheme, I’m implementing the concept of flexibility of the space or spatial upcycling. Using the space for different purpose, for different people and culture, for different period.

RESEARCH

Material Upcycle

IDEA DEVELOPMENT

Space Upcycle

PRESENTATION

PRESENTATION

TIMELINE Material upcycle Recycle - upcycle

Modular concept Plug-in concept Material component concept

Images

gary

Timeline

fatin

qed | msa

TIMELINE

Townhouse / Country house

matt

saidatul

RESEARCH

UPCYCLE

IDEA DEVELOPMENT PRESENTATION

RESEARCH

Structure Upcycle

IDEA DEVELOPMENT

Space Upcycle

PRESENTATION

Material upcycle Fabrication Diagrams Images

Diagrams Video Timeline

sophie TIMELINE Material system

Early Modern Period

Space Upcycle

Diagrams Images Renders

Modern Era

Diagrams

IDEA DEVELOPMENT

Re_map | msa Middle Age

Early Modern Period

TIMELINE

TIMELINE Material upcycle Recycle - upcycle

Uni of Nicosia

elena

RESEARCH IDEA DEVELOPMENT

RESEARCH

PRESENTATION

IDEA DEVELOPMENT

TIMELINE Modern Era Re-construction & modular Material Upcycle Diagrams Video

PRESENTATION

Images

lefki RESEARCH IDEA DEVELOPMENT PRESENTATION

TIMELINE Modern Era Passive system Building Orientation Natural energy Diagrams Images


D3 HOUSING COMPETITION HOUSING FOR FUTURE


INTRODUCTION

SITUATED AT A STRATEGIC LOCATION, KAMPUNG BARU WAS REGARDED AS THE FOCAL POINT OF MALAYS IN THE PENINSULA. BEING ABLE TO RETAIN MOST OF THE VERNACULAR CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDING FORM AND CULTURE OF THE SOCIAL COMMUNITY MADE KAMPUNG BARU UNIQUE.

SITE CONTEXT

KAMPUNG BARU CONSIDERED AS A LIVING HERITAGE WHICH IS LOCATED NEXT TO KUALA LUMPUR CITY CENTRE. THE SITE WAS INITIALLY ENCOURAGED TO BE INVOLVED IN AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES, ESPECIALLY IN PADDY PLANTING. HOWEVER, KAMPUNG BARU WAS DECLARED UNSUITABLE AS AGRICULTURAL LAND HENCE CHANGED INTO RESIDENTIAL AREA AFTER YEARS OF THE SETTLEMENT.

INDIA

BANGLADESH MYANMAR

PENANG

VIETNAM LAOS CAMBODIA

PHILIPPINES

MONT KIARA BANGSAR

PAHANG

THAILAND

SELANGOR KUALA LUMPUR

MALAYSIA

DEMOGRAPHIC DATA IN KAMPUNG BARU SHOWS THAT ALMOST QUARTER OF THE POPULATION IS JOBLESS, WHILE ANOTHER QUARTER IS HAWKERS AND OTHER HALF IS CONSISTS OF WORKING PEOPLE IN DIFFERENT KIND OF OCCUPATION.

SENTUL PERAK

KAMPUNG BARU IMBI CHERAS

NEGERI SEMBILAN MALACCA

INDONESIA

1945 Japanese Attack

JOHOR

1950s

Agricultural purpose unsuccessful as the area is prone to flooding.

1899

Kampung Baru is formalised as Malay Agricultural Settlement (MAS) by British to retain their village lifestyle within the city.

2012 1972

Kampung Baru is included in Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur (DBKL)

HAVING A LOW-DENSITY BUILDINGS SURROUNDED BY HIGH DENSE BUILDINGS, KAMPUNG BARU BECAME THE WETLAND OF KUALA LUMPUR WHEN BEING HIT BY HEAVY RAIN. ALTHOUGH THE SITE RECEIVED ALLYEAR SUNLIGHT EXPOSURE, FLASH FLOOD HAS BECOME ONE OF THE MAJOR ISSUE IN KAMPUNG BARU SINCE THE GROUND LEVEL IS QUITE LOW COMPARED TO THE SURROUNDING AREA. FLOODING IS THE MAIN CATASTROPHIC EVENT HAPPENS OCCASSIONALLY IN KAMPUNG BARU. WHENEVER HEAVY DOWNPOUR OCCURS, THE RESIDENTS' RESTLESSNESS ARE TRIGGERED. FLOODING ALWAYS ASSOCIATED WITH LOT OF DAMAGES AND CONTAMINATION.

Settlement outgrows agricultural aspects, yet Kampung Baru retains its low-density characteristic.

THEREFORE, THE DESIGNER INTENDS TO CREATE AN ORGANIZED BUILDING SYSTEM THAT WILL MANIPULATE THE FLOOD TO BENEFIT AND HELPS THE COMMUNITY WITH THE ISSUE OF JOBLESS AND CREATING TOWARD A SELFSUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENT. THE DESIGN ALSO AIM TO RESTORE THE INITIAL PURPOSE OF THE AREA AS AN AGRICULTURAL PIECE OF LAND WITHIN THE CITY AND PRESERVE THE CHARACTERISTICS AND VALUE OF THE MALAY TRADITIONAL HERITAGE.


CLIMATE ATTRIBUTES Surrounded by rivers, Kg. baru always in insecurities of getting flooded due to the heavy rainfall. However, the phenomena didn’t occur until in year 2012. Due to the unfunctional pump that directed the water from Bunus River that overflowing to Kalng River, the site suffered in the flash flood.

1

2

3 ALL-YEAR ROUND SOLAR EXPOSURE RAINFALL THAT MAY LEAD TO FLOODING

1. Gombak River 2. Bunus River 3. Klang River


PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES

LOW BUILDING DESIGN VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE


SOCIAL ATTRIBUTES

HAWKERS AND FODD STALL JOBLESS


FLOOD MANIPULATION

MY DESIGN INTENDS TO CREATE A SENSE OF EMBRACEMENT TOWARDS THE FLOOD. INSTEAD BEING AFRAID OF FLOODING, GREEN GLADE IS DESIGN TO MAKE THE PEOPLE AND FLOOD LIVE TOGETHER HARMONIOUSLY. FLOODING MANIPULATION IS BEING EMPHASIZED IN DESIGNING THE HOUSING COMMUNITY. FLOOD MANIPULATION IS FOCUSED TO GENERATE ENERGY, FOOD, MATERIALS AND ECONOMY. TOWARDS GENERATING ENERGY AND FOOD, MORE JOB OPPORTUNITIES ARE ABLE TO BE PROVIDED FOR THE JOBLESS HENCE INCREASE THE ECONOMY OF THE AREA INSTEAD OF ONLY DEPENDING ON THE MARKETS.

PRECEDENT WATER SHED WaterShed achieves

the goals of an environmentally responsive home through a balance of simple, modern and vernacular design strategies. Using precedents from the Chesapeake Bay region and modern building technologies, the architectural forms are designed as both an aesthetic and practical approach to water. Interior and exterior spaces interact with the wetlands to give residents a continuous connection to the surrounding environment. - See more at: http://2011.solarteam.org/ design/architecture#sthash. v74BOi5A.dpuf


DESIGN STRATEGIES

PRECEDENT

WHAT'S GOOD ABOUT FLOOD?

} FLOOD DISASTER HOUSE WRECK VEHICLE DAMAGE FLOOD + HOUSE

Floods can also bring many benefits, such as recharging ground water, making soil more fertile and increasing nutrients in some soils. Freshwater floods particularly play an important role in maintaining ecosystems in river corridors and are a key factor in maintaining floodplain biodiversity. Flooding can spread nutrients to lakes and rivers, which can lead to increased biomass and improved fisheries for a few years. URBAN AGRICULTURE

HYDROELECTRIC GENERATION

CAPTURE RAIN

THE

Designed by Polish architecture students Ryszard Rychlicki and Agnieszka Nowak, aims to harvest enough rainwater to supplement the daily needs of its 500 residents in New York.

}

WATER ENERGY GENERATION - FOOD - ELECTRICITY

FLOOD MANIPULATION FLOOD + HOUSE

GREYWATER RE-USE

The core of the building is essentially a funnel, with a concave rooftop that acts as a pool for rainwater. Beneath the roof is large reservoir, from which water is sent into reed fields for natural filtering. The gutters that swirl around the exterior of the building, modeled on the ribbed surface of a leaf, collect additional water which is pumped from an underground tank up to the rooftop filtering system. The designers imagine that this harvested rainAwater could be used for such purposes as cleaning, watering plants and flushing toilets. Municipal water would be reserved for drinking, cooking and bathing. Such designated usage, say the architects, could help Americans get .unsustainable water consumption habits under control


ECOLOGICAL SYSTEM LEGEND FOOD + JOBS + CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL

FLOOD WATER

ENERGY GENERATION PHASE 1

FLOOD IS USED TO GENERATE: 1) ELECTRICITY USING PICO-HYDRO MACHINE TO GENERATE ELECTRICAL ENERGY FOR THE COMMUNITY THE SYSTEM WAS DESIGNED BASED ON TWO MAIN CRITERIAS: 1) CLIMATE Taking advantage of the climate, renewable energy generation are included in the design hence can reduce carbon footprint when maintaining the building services 2) SOCIAL Having a majority of people who works as hawkers and followed by jobless people, the design intends to create more opportunities for them to improve their economic state.

2) WATER FLOOD WATER IS FILTERED AND STORED FOR DOMESTIC USED SUCH AS PLANTING AND W.C FLUSH 3) FOOD PLANTING CROPS AND EVEN STAPLE PLANTS TO PRODUCE FOOD SOURCE FOR THE COMMUNITY SOLAR RADIATION IS USED TO GENERATE ELECTRICAL ENERGY DURING NON-FLOOD EVENT

ENERGY RE-GENERATION PHASE 2

APART FROM GENERATING POWER AS IN PHASE 1, PHASE 2 EXPAND THE POTENTIAL OF THE SYSTEM MAKING THE COMMUNITY A SELFPRODUCTION AND SELF-SUSTAIN COMMUNITY SOLAR RADIATION AND BIOMASS ENERGY ARE USED TO GENERATE ELECTRICAL ENERGY DURING NON-FLOOD EVENT

EXTENSION OF THE SYSTEM: 1) BIOMASS WASTE FROM DOMESTIC ACTIVITIES AND CROPS MANAGEMENT ARE TREATED AND USED TO CREATE BIOMASS ENERGY 2) MATERIAL ECO-MATERIAL FROM RICE HUSKS AND INDUSTRIAL WASTE CAN BE PRODUCED AND CREATE A MATERIAL REPLACEMENT FOR THE BROKEN PARTS 3) ECONOMY OPEN NEW JOB OPPORTUNITIES TO THE PEOPLE AND CREATING A NEW ECONOMICAL BUSINESS IN THE AREA

SELF-SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITY

PLANTATION

ELECTRICITY

SOLAR ENERGY

INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES

GREYWATER USAGE BIOMASS ENERGY


MODULAR UNIT HOUSING

DUE TO ISSUE OF REDEVELOPMENT OVER TIME, KAMPUNG BARU STILL REMAINED ITS CHARACTERISTICS AS A LOWRISE BUILDING AREA WHERE MOST OF IT IS RESIDENTIAL BUILDING. MOST ALL OF THE LAND OWNER INHERITED THE LAND FROM THEIR ANCESTOR, THEREFORE THEY DON'T WANT TO DEVELOP THE AREA AS A MODERN CITY. THEY ARE COMFORTABLE WITH THE ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY SETTINGS WITHIN THE SITE. GATHERING AND WORKING TOGETHER IN HOLDING EVENTS AND CEREMONY. TRADITIONALLY LIVING IN A LANDED PROPERTY WHICH CALLED AS KAMPUNG, MADE THEM APPRECIATE AND FEEL BELONGING TO THE SITE AND VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER - HUMBLE AND LOW. THEREFORE, I'VE DECIDED TO PRESERVE THE QUALIY OF A KAMPUNG WITHIN MY DESIGN BY INCORPORATING A LOW AND MODULAR UNIT HOUSING CONCEPT.

PRECEDENT

Common Addition of Space in Malay Traditional House

The flexibility in Malay Vernacular Architecture allows variations of spatial organization in the house. Main house

Foyer

Transition space & Kitchen

Lounge

Porch

Main house

Foyer

Kitchen

Lounge

Porch

Main house

Foyer

Courtyard & Middle house

Kitchen

EACH OF THE HOUSING UNIT WAS DESIGNED BASED ON CLIMATIC DESIGN OF MALAY HOUSE. THE ELONGATED OPEN PLAN ALLOW GOOD NATURAL CROSS VENTILATION. MINIMAL INTERIOR PARTITION EASE THE PASSAGE OF AIR FLOW. THE WEST-EAST ORIENTATION ALSO APPLIED TO THE HOUSING UNIT. IT MINIMIZED THE AREA EXPOSED TO SOLAR RADIATION.

Kampung Baru settlement showed the extensibility of the interior space through the renovation of the existing over time, hence creating an unorganized master planning of the site.


SPATIAL ARRANGEMENT FOR UNIT HOUSES

THE ARRANGEMENT / CONFIGURATION OF THE HOUSING UNIT IS ARRANGED SYSTEMATICALLY WITH GAP TO ALLOW AIR FLOW BETWEEN EACH BUILDING HENCE ALLOW GOOD CROSS VENTILATION. THUS, DECREASE THE USAGE OF AIR-CONDITIONING IN COOLING THE HOUSE. ZERO-ENERGY BUILDING IS TO BE ACHIEVED IN TIME.

6000mm

1850mm

7150mm

1000mm

8000mm

FLOOR PLAN


FOOD + MARKET + ENERGY SERVICE LINES

EVERY SINGLE UNIT HOUSING IS EMBEDED WITH SERVICE LINES UNDER THE FLOOR SYSTEM. THE SERVICE LINE ACT AS VEINS OF THE SYSTEM. IT WILL TRANSFER THE WATER AND ELECTRICAL ENERGY TO EACH OF THE HOUSE FOR DAILY USAGE. SERVICE LINES OF EACH HOUSING UNIT ARE CONNECTED WITH EACH OTHER TO CREATE AN ENERGY-SHARED SYSTEM WITHIN THE GROUP OF HOUSES. THE GROUP OF THE HOUSES CAN BE INTERCONNECTED THROUGH THE SERVICE LINES TO CREATE A COMMUNITY OF AGRICULTURE AT THE SITE.

20.07% JOBLESS PICO-HYDROELECTRIC

22.56% WORKING CLASS

HAWKERS/ VENDORS

GENERATIVE COMMUNITY SYSTEM. FOOD FOR PEOPLE AND FOR ECONOMY

SMALL UNIT OF HYDROELECTRIC GENERATOR IS INSTALLED TO MANIPULATE THE FLOW OF WATER DURING FLOOD EVENT. HIGH KINETIC MOVEMENT OF WATER THROUGH THE DESIGNATED DRAINAGE AS MOVE THE TURBINES WILL ALLOW THE GENERATION OF ELECTRICAL POWER WHICH WILL SUFFICE THE USAGE OF THE GROUP


ENERGY // PRODUCTION BIOMASS & HYDROELECTRIC

MATERIAL // PRODUCTION

ECO-MATERIAL PRODUCTION

VEGETATION // FARMING

HYDROPONIC & RICE PLANTING

SOCIAL // MARKET

NON-FLOOD SITUATION

POOL // STORE FLOOD SITUATION


228HA

FLOOD IS USED TO GENERATE:

228HA

EXTENSION OF THE SYSTEM:

1) ELECTRICITY

USING PICO-HYDRO MACHINE TO GENERATE ELECTRICAL ENERGY FOR THE COMMUNITY

1) BIOMASS

APART FROM GENERATING POWER AS IN PHASE 1, PHASE 2 EXPAND THE POTENTIAL OF THE SYSTEM MAKING THE COMMUNITY A SELFPRODUCTION AND SELFSUSTAIN COMMUNITY

2) WATER

FLOOD WATER IS FILTERED AND STORED FOR DOMESTIC USED SUCH AS PLANTING AND W.C FLUSH

3) FOOD

WASTE FROM DOMESTIC ACTIVITIES AND CROPS MANAGEMENT ARE TREATED AND USED TO CREATE BIOMASS ENERGY

2) MATERIAL

ECO-MATERIAL FROM RICE HUSKS AND INDUSTRIAL WASTE CAN BE PRODUCED AND CREATE A MATERIAL REPLACEMENT FOR THE BROKEN PARTS

* SOLAR

RADIATION AND BIOMASS ENERGY ARE USED TO GENERATE ELECTRICAL ENERGY DURING NON-FLOOD EVENT

PLANTING CROPS AND EVEN STAPLE PLANTS TO PRODUCE FOOD SOURCE FOR THE COMMUNITY

RADIATION IS USED TO * SOLAR GENERATE ELECTRICAL ENERGY

3) ECONOMY

OPEN NEW JOB OPPORTUNITIES TO THE PEOPLE AND CREATING A NEW ECONOMICAL BUSINESS IN THE AREA

DURING NON-FLOOD EVENT

ENERGY GENERATION

ENERGY RE-GENERATION

PHASE 1

FOOD + JOBS + CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL

SELF-SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITY

PHASE 2

ENERGY // PRODUCTION BIOMASS & HYDROELECTRIC

MATERIAL // PRODUCTION

ECO-MATERIAL PRODUCTION

GREEN GLADE VEGETATION // FARMING

HYDROPONIC & RICE PLANTING

}

SOCIAL // MARKET

NON-FLOOD SITUATION

POOL // STORE FLOOD SITUATION

FLOOD DISASTER HOUSE WRECK VEHICLE DAMAGE FLOOD + HOUSE

INDIA

BANGLADESH MYANMAR

PENANG

VIETNAM LAOS CAMBODIA

PHILIPPINES

SENTUL MONT KIARA

PERAK

BANGSAR

PAHANG

THAILAND

SELANGOR KUALA LUMPUR

MALAYSIA

KAMPUNG BARU IMBI CHERAS

NEGERI SEMBILAN MALACCA

INDONESIA

1945 Japanese Attack

JOHOR

1950s

Agricultural purpose unsuccessful as the area is prone to flooding.

1899

Kampung Baru is formalised as Malay Agricultural Settlement (MAS) by British to retain their village lifestyle within the city.

2012 1972

Kampung Baru is included in Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur (DBKL)

Settlement outgrows agricultural aspects, yet Kampung Baru retains its low-density characteristic.

22.56% WORKING CLASS

SITUATED AT A STRATEGIC LOCATION, KAMPUNG BARU WAS REGARDED AS THE FOCAL POINT OF MALAYS IN THE PENINSULA. BEING ABLE TO RETAIN MOST OF THE VERNACULAR CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDING FORM AND CULTURE OF THE SOCIAL COMMUNITY MADE KAMPUNG BARU UNIQUE. HAVING A LOW-DENSITY BUILDINGS SURROUNDED BY HIGH DENSE BUILDINGS, KAMPUNG BARU BECAME THE WETLAND OF KUALA LUMPUR WHEN BEING HIT BY HEAVY RAIN. ALTHOUGH THE SITE RECEIVED ALL-YEAR SUNLIGHT EXPOSURE, FLASH FLOOD HAS BECOME ONE OF THE MAJOR ISSUE IN KAMPUNG BARU SINCE THE GROUND LEVEL IS QUITE LOW COMPARED TO THE SURROUNDING AREA. FLOODING IS THE MAIN CATASTROPHIC EVENT HAPPENS OCCASSIONALLY IN KAMPUNG BARU. WHENEVER HEAVY DOWNPOUR OCCURS, THE RESIDENTS' RESTLESSNESS ARE TRIGGERED. FLOODING ALWAYS ASSOCIATED WITH LOT OF DAMAGES AND CONTAMINATION.

HAWKERS/ VENDORS

8000mm

GREEN GLADE INTENDS TO CREATE A SENSE OF EMBRACEMENT TOWARDS THE FLOOD. INSTEAD BEING AFRAID OF FLOODING, GREEN GLADE IS DESIGN TO MAKE THE PEOPLE AND FLOOD LIVE TOGETHER HARMONIOUSLY. FLOODING MANIPULATION IS BEING EMPHASIZED IN DESIGNING THE HOUSING COMMUNITY. FLOOD MANIPULATION IS FOCUSED TO GENERATE ENERGY, FOOD, MATERIALS AND ECONOMY. TOWARDS GENERATING ENERGY AND FOOD, MORE JOB OPPORTUNITIES ARE ABLE TO BE PROVIDED FOR THE JOBLESS HENCE INCREASE THE ECONOMY OF THE AREA INSTEAD OF ONLY DEPENDING ON THE MARKETS.

EACH OF THE HOUSING UNIT WAS DESIGNED BASED ON CLIMATIC DESIGN OF MALAY HOUSE. THE ELONGATED OPEN PLAN ALLOW GOOD NATURAL CROSS VENTILATION. MINIMAL INTERIOR PARTITION EASE THE PASSAGE OF AIR FLOW. THE WEST-EAST ORIENTATION ALSO APPLIED TO THE HOUSING UNIT. IT MINIMIZED THE AREA EXPOSED TO SOLAR RADIATION.

FLOOR SYSTEM

HOUSING UNIT IS CONSTRUCTED USING JOIST SYSTEM SO THAT AIR CAN FLOW THROUGH THE GAP OF EACH COMPONENT OF THE CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL HENCE CREATE A PASSIVE COOLING SYSTEM. ECO-MATERIAL MADE OF RICE HUSKS AND INDUSTRIAL WASTE IS USED. RAISING ON STILTS ALSO HELPS IN IMPROVING THE MOVEMENT OF AIR INTO THE HOUSE.

FLOOD + HOUSE

+ RANDOM & PACKED CONFIGURATION

SYSTEMIZED CONFIGURATION

=

THE GROUP OF THE HOUSES CAN BE INTERCONNECTED THROUGH THE SERVICE LINES TO CREATE A COMMUNITY OF AGRICULTURE AT THE SITE.

FLOOR PLAN

FLOOD MANIPULATION

THEREFORE, THE DESIGNER INTENDS TO CREATE AN ORGANIZED BUILDING SYSTEM THAT WILL MANIPULATE THE FLOOD TO BENEFIT AND HELPS THE COMMUNITY WITH THE ISSUE OF JOBLESS AND CREATING TOWARD A SELF-SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENT. THE DESIGN ALSO AIM TO RESTORE THE INITIAL PURPOSE OF THE AREA AS AN AGRICULTURAL PIECE OF LAND WITHIN THE CITY AND PRESERVE THE CHARACTERISTICS AND VALUE OF THE MALAY TRADITIONAL HERITAGE.

EVERY SINGLE UNIT HOUSING IS EMBEDED WITH SERVICE LINES UNDER THE FLOOR SYSTEM. THE SERVICE LINE ACT AS VEINS OF THE SYSTEM. IT WILL TRANSFER THE WATER AND ELECTRICAL ENERGY TO EACH OF THE HOUSE FOR DAILY USAGE. SERVICE LINES OF EACH HOUSING UNIT ARE CONNECTED WITH EACH OTHER TO CREATE AN ENERGY-SHARED SYSTEM WITHIN THE GROUP OF HOUSES.

}

DEMOGRAPHIC DATA IN KAMPUNG BARU SHOWS THAT ALMOST QUARTER OF THE POPULATION IS JOBLESS, WHILE ANOTHER QUARTER IS HAWKERS AND OTHER HALF IS CONSISTS OF WORKING PEOPLE IN DIFFERENT KIND OF OCCUPATION.

SERVICE LINES

6000mm 1000mm

CONSIDERED AS A LIVING HERITAGE WHICH IS LOCATED NEXT TO KUALA LUMPUR CITY CENTRE. THE SITE WAS INITIALLY ENCOURAGED TO BE INVOLVED IN AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES, ESPECIALLY IN PADDY PLANTING. HOWEVER, KAMPUNG BARU WAS DECLARED UNSUITABLE AS AGRICULTURAL LAND HENCE CHANGED INTO RESIDENTIAL AREA AFTER YEARS OF THE SETTLEMENT.

1850mm

20.07% JOBLESS

KAMPUNG BARU

7150mm

PROVIDING THE LIFE

THE ARRANGEMENT / CONFIGURATION OF THE HOUSING UNIT IS ARRANGED SYSTEMATICALLY WITH GAP TO ALLOW AIR FLOW BETWEEN EACH BUILDING HENCE ALLOW GOOD CROSS VENTILATION. THUS, DECREASE THE USAGE OF AIR-CONDITIONING IN COOLING THE HOUSE. ZERO-ENERGY BUILDING IS TO BE ACHIEVED IN TIME.

PICO-HYDROELECTRIC

SMALL UNIT OF HYDROELECTRIC GENERATOR IS INSTALLED TO MANIPULATE THE FLOW OF WATER DURING FLOOD EVENT. HIGH KINETIC MOVEMENT OF WATER THROUGH THE DESIGNATED DRAINAGE AS MOVE THE TURBINES WILL ALLOW THE GENERATION OF ELECTRICAL POWER WHICH WILL SUFFICE THE USAGE OF THE GROUP


PLANNING SYSTEM

A large 'hole' is placed at the courtyard acting as a water catchment system. This also evokes the community setting of the place. As when flooding occurs, the large body of water will disperse and eventually reaches the housing area. The water from the flood will then be captured by the courtyard, protecting the housing modules from the flood. When the flood resides, the water retained can be used to water the crops, thus producing food not only for the housing modules but also for the community. Future development allows further collection and distribution of food to the surrouding community also.


HAWKER UNIT Consist of units that have an open space as a robust area for the occupants as they can make and sell things there. DOUBLE STOREY UNIT Vertical expansion created bigger space and opportunities to the occupants in improving their personal economy by renting the second floor to other people / outsiders.

TYPE 1 TYPE 3 Upper level

THE GREEN CONTAINER INTERNATIONAL AID METABOLIC SOLUTION

TYPE 2 FAMILY UNIT Consist of units that only perform as residential or living units. Expansion of flexible internal spaces followed the demands and needs of growing family.

FLEXIBILITY OF SPACE

FROM ONE SHELTER UNIT TO AN ECO-CITY The idea behind the modular configuration is to define a spatial solution which would be able to grow and adapt according to the changing needs, or according to varied conditions at different locations.

TYPE 4

Standardization of grid system and panel system allow transformation of spatial organization within the internal spaces. Within the grid of 2m, the space can be designed as required like a partition system.

Ground level

TYPE 5

PRECEDENT


MATERIALITY

FLOOR DECKING - Resysta floor decking is used as a starter to the life-cycle of the material

Main column may be constructed using durable construction material which is Concrete. The secondary structures are mainly made of prefab concrete and steel structure since it reduce fabrication waste and transportation.

SOLAR SYSTEM - installation of solar panel to generate solar energy for home usage's electricity. LOUVRE SYSTEM - allow hot air to flow out from below (stack effect) other than allowing air to flow through

Cladding material and flooring system are mainly made from engineered timber material which is made from rice husks, common salt and mineral oil since it is biodegradable. Since the system may produce plant and rice is a potential vegetation, it'll benefit the industry contribute in producing the resource for the material.

INTERNAL WALL SYSTEM - Resysta prefab panels was used to maximise sustainable adaptability and flexibility of internal spaces. PERMANENT PRIMARY COLUMN - act as the 1000 years components that will stay even though other building components deteriorate. It also installed according to the grid system to allow easy installation of services and electrical line

MATERIAL Vinyl polymer with organic contents Homogenous extrusion RAW MATERIALS USED Rice Husks = 60% Mineral Oil = 18% Common Salt = 22% MATERIAL CHARACTERISTICS Thermal Conductivity = ca. 0.14 W/(mk) Density = ca. 1200 kg/m3 Water absorption behaviour Low to no humidity absorption or dimensional change

Temperature inuence Linear thermal coefďŹ cient of expansion = 3.6x10(-5) 1/K Chemical resistance With suitable surface treatment, lower penetration and regrinding possible Fire behaviour B2 - normally flammable PROCESSING Work Like wood with wood processing machines - cutting, milling, drilling, sanding, gluing, screwing

a - substructure b - joists c - expansion joints d - butt joints e - overhang f - flooring pattern g - Constraint in jointing

Surface treatment Glazes, varnishes, and oils with brush, paint roller or spraying

FLEXIBLE SECONDARY COLUMN installed and positioned according the desired internal space requirements.

EXTERNAL STEEL COLUMN act as guide to any expansion of spaces and act as trellis when there's no expansion to provide a vegetation space


PRECEDENT IN PASSIVE COOLING SYSTEM

Drainage and storage during flood

AIR FLOW ABOVE WATER CREATING A COOLING EFFECT HENCE COOLING DOWN THE ATMOSPHERE IN THE HOUSE

RAINWATER STORAGE

STEPS PLANTATION CONCEPTUAL DETAILS

UNDER FLOOR CONCEPTUAL DETAILS

POOL SYSTEM The system also utilized water an element of cooling the house as an evaporative cooling system other than contained water for agricultural purposes.

SOURCE: VIETNAM PAVILION, EXPO 2015, HP ARCHITECT


STRUCTURAL FRAME

BASIC SPACE

HORIZONTAL EXPANSION

VERTICAL EXPANSION

RE-STRUCTURAL FRAME

SYSTEM SHOULD BE DESIGNED NOT ONLY FOR CURRENT NEEDS AND SPATIAL CHANGES, BUT ALSO PREDICTING WHAT THE STRUCTURE WOULD BE. AS THE SYSTEM IS GENERATING FOOD AND PRODUCING WASTE THAT COULD POTENTIALLY CREATING MATERIALS AND BIOMASS ENERGY, THERE WILL BE A FACTORY OR A CENTRE TO PRODUCE THAT THINGS WHICH POSSIBLY NEED TO BE WITHIN THE COMMUNITY.

FUNCTIONAL CHANGE


NATIONAL TRUST PAVILION PART III: CONSTRUCTION & DELIVERY


SENTRY + FORTIFY

TRANSPORTING PIECES TO CHATHAM WORKSHOP FOR VARNISHING

FORTIFY DRY ASSEMBLY AT SHED FILING WORK

SENTRY

WORK SUSPENDED

VARNISHING 1st COATING & 2nd COATING

WEEK DEC 2nd-6th 2

3

4

5

6

7

8

14

15

DRY CONSTRUCTION -DRILLING -FIXING COMPONENTS

METAL WORKS - MIRROR MECHANISM - ROTATOR MECHANISM BRACING WORKS

Continuing from Studio 4.1, the National Trust pavilion are to be buiilt and realized on site on the expected time which is due before Christmas Break - starting on 21st of December 2013. After a lot of discussions and tutorials regaring the technical ability and practicality of the structure, FORTIFY construction was suspended due to its complexity and unresolved fabrication method. It’s planned to be built in Manchester School of Architecture instead in Dunham Massey Winter Garden with the helps of engineers and professionals. However, there’s no certainty in its realization and delivery.

VARNISHING LAST COATING & WATERPROOF STAINING

WEEK DEC 9th-13th 9

10

11

12

COMPONENTS PREPARATION FOR TRANSPORTING - TOOLS CHECK - REINFORCEMENT CALCULATION

FINAL TOUCH UP AND FINISHING

ON-SITE COMPLETION

PRE-ASSEMBLY OFF-SITE & SAFETY CHECK

WEEK DEC 16th-20th 16

17

18

19

13


CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE

SENTRY assembly is certain and deliverable. As a group, we’re working hard to ensure its completion on the set dateline. Being in actual and real fabrication process, the planned and design scheme encounter many problems and redesign processes. The process of the fabrication was recorded as off-site construction and on-site construction. Offsite construction make the onsite construction easier, quicker and safer for us. It also can avoid accident occurences on site.


OFF-SITE CONSTRUCTION

THE LENGTH OF THE STEP WAS REDUCED FROM 200mm TO 150mm

200mm cut

130mm

POSSIBLE DAMAGE THAT CAN OCCUR

Splitting of the stand / step

CHILD’S STAND/STEP

CNC TOLERANCE

The material was procured by pieces. Timber ply sheets sponsored by Travis Perskin was sent to be CNC-cut. The cut timber components were then delivered to the university compound (RW Joinery). All of the compponents were calculated and arranged to get ensure that all of the components are matched and sufficient. Despite that, there was some error occur to the cut pieces. Due to the 6-10mm tolerance of the CNC cutting machine, the pieces came with curved edges instead of rightangled edge which allow accurate fixing.

Inaccurate fixing will make the gap between each component boxes further, hence allow water to seep throught the gaps into the structure. In a long time, it’ll affect the efficiency of the pavilion since it’ll make the internal part wet and may damage the mirror mechanism. In order to get back the accurate fabrication, the edges need to be corrected. We cut, file and sand it back so it’ll have smooth and right-angled shape.

The base or ratation part of the structure were fixed together to see whether the pieces were accurately delivered from the manufacturer, since it’s the most crucial and significant part of the structure. Any errors and miscalculation of that part can affect the workability of the structure. Thus, making it a failure since the rotating part is the main feature of SENTRY. While trying to arrange the pieces together, the designated dimension of child’s stand was seem to be projected out and supported only by a short inset, which make it unstable.

After some discussion with the groupmates, the designer decided to make the stand half of its initial dimension to avoid any split that will happen on site when children standing on it. Lever effect will take place since the length of the stand is greater than the inner piece, and the place where it’s slotted will act as the pivot. Any force exerted over the stand capabilities will create damage to the structure.

Splitting of thefront piece detachment of the screws

DURING THIS STAGE, I’VE BEEN INVOLVED IN FILING THE CURVEDCUT EDGES INTO MAKING IT RIGHTANGLED AND FIT THE COMPONENTS TIGHTLY. I’VE ALSO INVOLVED IN DECISION MAKING PROCESS ON DETERMINING THE DIMENSION OF THE CHILDREN STAND/STEP, WHETHER IT TO BE CUT TO HALF OR NOT - WHICH IS NECESSARY TO AVOID LEVER-EFFECT WHICH CAN DAMAGE THE BASE COMPONENT


BRACING | REINFORCEMENT After the trial of installing the components together, many discussions and negotiations happened between the designer and the tutor - on technicality, stability, sturdiness and feasibility of the structure.

Each boxes / components have 2 pieces of bracing plate. Since it's almost impossible to fix the boxes by screwing the edges together, the plates acted as the connectors between the boxes. Other than that, they gave more support to the structure by ensure good connection between the boxes hence avoid ease of dislocation and detachment of the boxes. BRACING PIECES

IN THIS PROCESS, I MAINLY INVOLVED IN HELPING MEMBERS TO MAKE SURE THE PLATE FIT TO BE FIX BETWEEN EACH BOXES. I ALSO HELP IN ASSURING THE SOLIDITY OF THE STRUCTURE WHETHER IT CAN STAND SUPPORT HEAVY WEIGHT BY ACTING AS THE USER FOR THE PAVILION. I’D STAND ON THE ROTATING BASE AND CHILD’S STAND. OTHER THAN THAT, I’VE BEEN TO msa TIMBER WORKSHOP TOO TO HELP THE MEMBERS IN WORKING OUT THE BRACING PIECES’ DIMENSION AND MEASUREMENTS.


ADDITIONAL COMPONENTS

A

WHEEL

SELF-CLEANING MECHANISM & ROTATION STOPPER

3RD WHEEL’S COVER

Initially, the design has 2 wheels for the rotational base/part. But it was revised and another wheel was added to stabilize the base. Since the base has a wide circumference, the rotational piece has a big surface that stand on 2 small wheels, which may seem unreasonably unsupported. This lead to the rocking of the piece which may make the structure is not safe enough for users.

SInce it’s an enclosed structure base, scrap will tend to trap and stuck in the base. To solve this problem, seal brush was stick at the bottom of the rotational component so it’ll swipe the trash whenever it rotates.

To avoid any damage to the bracing and wheel, a box was designed to cover up the part. Other than covering up the gap, it also helps to hold the wheel in place.

Any dynamic and motions can split the capping ring (labelled as A)

Rotation stopper also a must to limit the angle of the view - not 360 degree.


FOUNDATION SYSTEM

PERIMETER SUPPORT SYSTEM 10 Thick iron pegs or metal spikes of 400mm in length were used as the perimeter pins that hold the base on the ground by creating a grip around the circular base. This is the outermost layer of supports.

The Sentry is a tall and slim structure. In proportion, the base is relatively small. With such a ratio, the foundation of the pavilion needs to be very strong.

TIMBER BLOCK FOOTINGS Act as the intermediate structural support or as the middle layer of support to the structure.

Gravel / small stone to add friction between timber blocks and steel bars

A pair of 50mm long coach screw for each of timber footing

Sentry’s base would be nailed to the ground by ten thick iron pegs which are 400 mm in length. The pegs are put into the ground with an inclined angle to increase structural strength. Due to the fact that the base is plywood and is always in touch with the ground, it will be more vulnerable to water and weathering. Therefore we decided that the foundation sheet would be treated with extra damp-proof protection and a layer of 1mm bitumen paint shall be applied to it to it. TIMBER BLOCKS ADDITION Timber blocks were added as the footings. It were put into a hole filled with gravel and pinned to the ground with steel bars to create another layer of grip to the ground / soil.

CENTRAL SUPPORT

CORE

50mm diameter Steel Rod was used as the spine of the vertically high structure. The 2m high Steel Rod was then piled into the ground for about 1m to create a core that will fixed the position of the central part - resisting the horizontal movement of the central components. It also acts as the point of rotation.

38 mm Thk.Circular base 400mm long metal spikes / steel pegs OUTER SUPPORT

50mm diameter steel rod - 1m deep into the ground

INTERMEDIATE SUPPORT

CENTRAL SUPPORT

INTERMEDIATE SUPPORT

Steel bar pinned into the ground

OUTER SUPPORT

6 units of 60mm Thk. X 200mm X 300mm TImber Blocks footing coated with at least 1mm Thk. bitument paints - Grooved to allow insertion of the steel bar without any protruding part so that the base could sit on the blocks in balaned and flat surface.


COATING | WATERPROOFING VARNISHING Varnishing the pieces was quite hard due to unavailable space to varnish. However, due to small dimension of components allowing easy transportation, we manage to do it in the MMU workshop. This process needs to be done three times to make sure the timber is properly treated. The process of painting-drying was did within the week due to additional of new components and timber pieces. BITUMENT WATERPROOFING The staining was done for the base part and foundation’s timber blocks, which will experience direct contact with soil and consistent contact with water. It took 3 full 24-hours day to make it complete, since it need to be completely dry before re-coating it and it took 3 layers of coating to make sure its water resistability.


DRY CONSTRUCTION

COMPARTMENTALIZATION

Making the components into part or boxes allow easy tranportation. The pieces were fixed together to create the “3D jigsaw puzzle” pieces. Then, the pieces were fixed together by at least 2 units of it. Reducing the joining process on site from 7 to 3 fixing helps in reducing the erection time of the structure on site, hence the time can be used to check the workability of the mirror mechanism, rotation base and the firmness of the foundation system. DURING THIS STAGE, I WAS INVOLVED IN MAKING SURE THE SCREWS ARE FIXED IN A REGULAR ARRANGEMENT CREATING A HARMONIOUS RHYTHM AND CONSISTENCY. I’VE BEEN MEASURING THE INTERVAL OF EACH COMPONENTS AND MARK IT FOR DRILLING HOLES AND SCREWING.


VEHICULAR TRANSPORTING ROUTE

ON-SITE CONSTRUCTION

SITE

MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION There were 2 means of transportation from Manchester Metropolitan University - a truck and a car. Both vehicle started lifting the stuff from John Dalton Building’s shed. The car was used to transport small stuff and tools, while the hired truck obviously was used to transport the big an heavy stuff to the site. Car: Steel rod, Power drills, Steel bar, Metal Spikes, Foundation’s timber blocks, Screws and bolts, etc. Truck: Sandbags, Gravel, Pavilion components - base and mirror mechanism, Ply sheet, Geotextile fabric

Upon arriving at Dunham Massey, the components can’t be directly transported the exact site area since there’s no way of big vehicle to go into the garden.

PEDESTRIAN TRANSPORTING ROUTE LOADING & CHARGING AREA


FOUNDATION

The foundation work started as soon as we arrived on the site around 9.30am. It started with setting up the stuff, arranging the tools needed in sequential. After talking to the gardener of Dunham Massey, the digging process was executed exactly according to the size of the base circumference since our main concern was minimizing the impacts and damages on the garden or grass.

1

2

6

7

FOUNDATION MAKING

1- Setting Up 2- Marking & digging out soil 3- Digging the main footing area 4- Slamming metal rod into the ground for about a meter as the central structure

3

8

4

5

9

5- Laying geotextile fabric into each holes and gravel filling - act as the bearer for the gravel for easy removal after disassemble 6- Timber blocks setting 7- Levelling and compacting the soil 8- Puncturing the steel reinforcement through the timber blocks to the gravel then soil 9- Finishing the foundation


COMPONENTS FABRICATION

1

2

3

4

5

The assembly was carried out as what we’ve tried off site. But there’re some unexpected things that we encounters. 1- Levelling and making sure the base part was set in balanced and flat position. 2- Installing wires into the mirror mechanism before fixing the parts together - extra allocation of length so that there’ll be no shortage when installing the boxes together (5m long) 3- Making sure all of the parts are ready to be fixed together 4- Fixing together

(screwing)

the

parts

5- Laying the structure down to fix the topmost part 6- Trying to make the structure stand vertically and making sure whether it can stand by it own or not - not without support and it become worse due to strong wind flow 7- Separating it two parts before install it on the rotational base part. 8- Unable to fix the upper part due to its length and weight which make it impossible to be fix without accident. 9- One of the parts was taken out to lower the centre of equilibrium and make it more stable, avoid swaying 10- The installation continue with shorter parts.

6

7

8

9

10


FINISHING PROCEDURE Final steps of the construction involved:

1- Adjusting and tightening the wire of the mirror mechanism - with the helps of the gardener 2- Drilling and screwing the base platform to the foundation’s timber block to create another layer of structural supports other than the central metal rod and 10 metal spikes 3- Filling up the gap surround the pavilion to create a compact and stable soil around it 4- Putting in the metal spikes 5- Checking the workability of the mirror mechanism 6- Cleaning the workspace and workplace. 7- It’s done and have fun !! Work’s done around 4.30pm.


POST CONSTRUCTION

The client called and told regarding the mudding problems that occured due to the post contruction phase. The water flowed and trapped to the area surround the pavilion since the grass around the pavilion were taken out when digging and installing the foundation. Therefore, only soil were left and this lead to the water trapment. Other than that, there’s picture posted showing the standing of the pavilion although being in bad weather - when the storm hit Manchester. The picture has give us the assurance on the stability of the structure which we didn’t even expect it.


SENTRY FABRICATION

GROUPWORK DIAGRAM below shows the work involvement of every group members. Due to time limitation and constraint, all members involve in most of the work together. Working on weekends and late, made me realized the harsh reality of construction and fabrication stage of the project. Lots of power and quick decision were needed on-site instead going the off-site planning to ensure the realization. We're still having fun even being in stressed situation.

FILING / FINISHING BOYANA STOEVA

COATING / VARNISHING / PAINTING

JAMES SLOCOCK

BASE COMPONENT ASSEMBLY MOHD FAKHRURADZI

BRACING CALCULATION & INSTALLATION

RICHARD JEFFERIS

MEASUREMENT & CALCULATION DRILLING STEVEN ANTON

ELENI ECONOMIDOU

DESIGNING MIRROR MECHANISM TESTING SAIDATUL SHAZRI

TRANSPORTATION ON-SITE CONSTRUCTION RECORDING

WARREN LAMPSON SUEN


ECOLOGY

SEMINAR PRESENTATION SLIDES


ECOLOGY ESSAY REPORT


CONTENT

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION - SUSTAINABLE CITIES - POPULATION AND GLOBAL FOOD SECURITY - FOOD SYSTEM CASE STUDIES (SELF-SUFFICIENT COUNTRY / CITY) - INDONESIA - JAPAN - GLOBAL CONCLUSION - ROLE OF FOOD IN SHAPING THE CITY - ROLE AS AN ARCHITECT

Cities need to become far more compact – not unlike” Paris but with bicycles and rickshaws rather than cars. Cities that are pedestrian paradises, where anybody would want to live downtown. There would be food markets where you could buy food from local producers. The food would be less energy-intensive and possibly fresher and more interesting. These are but some of the ways we could structure our lives to make them more effective ecologically speaking and at the same time enhancing our quality of life.” – Wrestling The Footprint : ((Wackernagel, 2008

Creating a well-developed city is a foremost yearning agenda for every country in this thriving era. Even a trivial matter is going through a metamorphosis process in which it has to abide with the diversity towards the future development. Rapid urbanization – accretion of skyscrapers, construction of mega-infrastructural projects, and emergence of technology within a city created a liveable and independent environment for the occupants. More and more people started to move and migrate to the city since it provides occupational opportunities and comfortable living style. The appeal political stability and economic benefits has resulted a truly traveller and free-flow of goods traded globally.

SUSTAINABLE CITIES http://environmentalgeography.blogspot.co.uk/2013_03_01_archive. html

(Jurema Oliveira, Wikimedia Commons)

However, it seems that the world has abandoned the very purpose of this life where life is all about planning and making things for the future. There are ample evidence that the world may go towards self-distraction looking at the way of how human live in these days. World contamination, emission of carbon, consumption of natural resources, and production of waste to some extent has leaded the world towards its destruction. H. Girardet (2007) said that the facts that we’re shifting the ecology of how the Earth works, by putting carbon from coal, oil and gas back in the atmosphere in a large quantities, we’re changing the conditions that made initial life possible on Earth.


Sustainability can be achieved through various directions in life such as by making a healthy city, reducing the carbon footprint, and creating a self-sufficient city. Designing a structure that have a long life span will helps in reducing the carbon footprint through construction industry, since process of demolition and reconstruction can be minimized or even eliminated if the built environment sector implements the approach. Reuse back the waste produced can also reduce the emission of carbon into the atmosphere hence creating a healthy city. Rethinking back on how to improve the principles of living with the environment within a city has leaded toward the emergence of eco-cities. Ecocities were designed to eliminate carbon waste, produce energy through renewable resources, create compact communities, incorporate the environments into the city, and making a healthy city.

POPULATION & GLOBAL FOOD SECURITY (How do we feed the city? It’s one of the great questions of our time. Yet it’s one that rarely asked.” – (Steel, 2009”

http://www.zerowaste.org/case.htm

Surviving is hard. Especially in a world that currently face multi-pronged challenges namely– climate and temperature change, population growth, energy scarce, food insecurities, and emission of greenhouse gases. Obviously it depends on how sustainable we lead our lifestyle. Cradle-to-cradle design is becoming influential in making the environment sustainable. The principle simulates the life cycle of nature in maintaining a healthy ecosystem and safe metabolism. It’s a process of where practically no waste is produced. The waste will be used to contribute back to the Earth in any way – social, built environment, and economic. For example, Waste = Food. The waste produced from human activities will be a source of food for bugs, insects and other microbes. And it will decompose within time and back to its natural environment as sort of nutrients which we can use it back indirectly as our own food source. Diagram by Carsten Rodin

By 2050, the global city population is going to be twice as what it is now, hence doubling the demand for meat and dairy products. This may be due to people migration to urban centres. Research shows that 5 out of every 10 people in cities around the world. The booming urban population has leaded us to the question whether the current cities can sustain its growing population.

The cost of food has had a regular trend of increment over the past decade. This is due to a number of factors, such as uncontrollable natural disasters like huge amount of Australia’s agricultural land being flooded to the foot and mouth crisis that happened in the UK. Both of these wiped out huge amounts of crops and livestock – rising up the price of food.

/http://thinkprogress.org

In recent census, it’s showed that 1/3 of the world’s grain crop is used to feed animals. Half of the food produced in USA is thrown away. The unhealthy diet of western which shows that 10 calories are burnt for 1 calorie produced, lead to billion obese people and contradicting with billion people starve in other part as developing countries emerged. Apart from having a well-produced food quantity, the quality of the food may not be enough to provide nutrition to the people hence leading to malnutrition in the society.

There’s saying, “Without agriculture, there would be no urbanism.” The absence of sufficient agricultural activities will result in low food production hence rising up the food price. Food prices tend to rise four times faster than wages. Food prices always an issue in a country which incite riots and demonstration around the world.

http://www.odi.org.uk/future-diets

Other than that, oil also play an important part in controlling the cost of food since every country do involved in imports and exports. In UK food makes up a large scale of that sector - 40% of the UK’s food is imported. If each country became self-sufficient, the cost of transportation would greatly reduce, thus affecting the overall price of food.


FOOD SYSTEM Dyson (1996) found that the world’s population grew regularly by near 900 million every 10 years which is based on United Nation (UN) revision of population estimation. Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) estimates that food security is based on the total quantity of the available food human consumption in a given period. This involves collecting data on food production nationally, trade and aid, and then generate a result which comprises of quantities of food which are lost in storage, used as animals’ feedings and seeds.

Creation of unsustainable global food system was expanding for decades - exploiting the world’s soil, weaken biodiversity and unsustainable ways of water supplies’ usages. According to Edward Goldsmith, an environmentalist, the current food system is too dependent on a cycle of fossil fuels input. This can be seen through the use of fossil fuel in farm operation, fertilizers production and food distribution by means of air, sea, rail, and road transportation.

Food security is assured within developed and rich countries, since higher incomes countries are able and afford to buy food. Since historically, growth in the food and agricultural sector of the economy has been the main basis of economic growth of a country. Food security can be defined as a population’s competency to obtain enough quantities of food with a reasonable degree of security or certainty. http://www.sfgov3.org/index.aspx?page=753

Agricultural yield, starvation, poverty and sustainability are related with each other. Therefore, having a good plan and system in food production is a fundamental in sustaining the food source yet minimizes the waste production by reuse back within the system. Proficiency in food production can helps in making the city healthier, avoid poverty line in rural area and influence the community impacts towards better way. http://led.co.za/story/2012/08/10/commercial-farming-drives-countrys-foodsecurity

The image of the unsustainable food system also demonstrated through global food processing, refrigeration and trade monopolies activities. Developing countries and trade zones are continuing to encourage this trend towards the globalization of food by introducing unreasonable agricultural policies – e.g., the means of modern agricultural systems. From the context of energy use, to produce a ton of cereals or vegetable using modern farming system requires six to ten times energy more than it does in the application of sustainable agricultural methods. Surplus to it is the energy used for transporting and processing the food which will rise up the energy usage more. In this climatic chaos century, the trend could bring us towards deterioration rather than attaining the wisdom from traditional agricultural practices for future farming systems. Therefore, societal forces are vital in countering the issue to reverse the current trends.


What we must develop of course is an agricultural system that does not cause these terrible problems,” and which on the contrary helps to revitalize and hence build-up our soil resources.” – Edward Goldsmith ((H. Girardet, 2007

Some research found that increment in the miles of the food travel was due to different factors – globalization of the trade; changes in delivery patterns; raise in processed and packaged food; and travelling back and forth to the supermarket. All of these processes became the big contributor in emitting the greenhouse gas, which create 83% of overall carbon dioxide emission.

CASE STUDIES

SELFSUFFICIENT CITY / COUNTRY

INDONESIA

Despite that, community starts to gain awareness towards encouraging local food production for local needs. However, this trend should become a common practice within the community so it’ll head towards countries and food companies’ policy making. Local food production will lessen the activities of packaging and transporting the food, either by imports or exports. Thus, carbon dioxide emission could be reduced since most all of the food system is conducted within the city.

It may be prudent to implement policies urban regions and even entire countries to negotiate more formal long term trade, resource management” arrangements with the surplus (export) regions upon which they are dependent to ensure sustainable use of vital natural capital stocks, and to enhance “long term ecological security Urban Ecosystems: The Human Dimension-

We need to have creativity and initiative on the local” level, but we also need national policy.” – The Self(Sufficient City: (Herbert Girardet

Food security in Indonesia always articulated in the press as self-sufficiency in domestic rice production. Indonesia has been the 3rd largest rice producer as a country, but does the rice production manage to provide enough food for the growing population??

For many years following independence in 1945, rice production slowed considerably behind expanding domestic demand. But, there’s a start of increment in rice production in year 1965. Domestic rice production exceeded domestic rice consumption (Small, 1996). Indonesia Bureau of Logistics (BULOG) found that the production was dramatically increased from 485 tonnes in year 1975 to an approximately 102,467 tonnes in 1997.


The effort to increase production to provide the people with enough food containing sufficient carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins and minerals has received top priority in agricultural development as a necessary part of the national development programme. (Countries & FAO., 2001) Ch. 1. Taking that as the basis, Indonesia government has created a food security policy in 1979 as a part of implementing the Green Revolution in the agriculture which was promoted as part of a propoor growth strategy

An additional challenge on the horizon nowadays is the “supermarket revolution’. As consumers become more urbanized and divorced from the production of their food, the vast array of choices in modern supermarkets can, lead to worsened nutritional status. The utilization of the ‘focusing power’ of supermarkets to provide nutrition education through nutritional labelling can help to shape the consumer dietary patterns in healthier directions. This is a micro-approach of food security. (Timmer, 2004)

From social aspects, Indonesia has re-structured their rural rice production which intensified the production through cooperation. Instead of having a centralized control system or an independent distributed system, the interrelation between each county was created. Hence food security in rice production can be monitored and secured from the city. The rice production was tremendously increased due to the application of technology and improved infrastructural system. Network of irrigation and road were established to support rice production and improve access to market. Open, market-oriented sector such as a nation-wide complex of warehouse was means to achieve more advanced and progressive agricultural system through development of delivery and receiving mechanisms for farm input. (Timmer, 2004)

(The trick, as the Dutch knew very well, is to make sure you have control of the supply.” – (Steel, 2009”


JAPAN Due to urbanization and capitalism, Japan experienced a dietary shift towards the phenomenon of westernization. The citizens are consuming more meat than seafood. The average consumption of meat per day increased from 5g in 1947 to 90g per day in 2005. (Gadda & Gasparatos, 2010) Differ in topographical attribution than Indonesia, Japan don’t have land to produce food. Ratio of land required to produce animal feed to land required to produce human food is 4:1. Thus, making half of the meat products consumed in Japan is imported. (Nagata, 2008)

In achieving a sustainable food security, Ministry of Japan has encouraged greater consumption of rice and raw milk products by promoting them in school meal. In effort to gain trust in domestic products, the Ministry gave support for farmers who supply their products to the processed food industry.

Former chairman of the ministry’s Conference for Improving Food Self-Sufficiency, Shogenji suggested change of eating habits to traditional Japanese dietary in creating a self-sufficient, healthy life, which included less dependent on imported food and reduction of meat consumption. He also suggested the necessity of revitalize agricultural industry within the city in effort to limit food exports to ensure domestic demands on food as well as ethanol as biofuel. (Jin, 2000)

“Our urban agriculture activities promote production, increase competition, improve the quality of products, and allow us to identify discrepancies between local supply and demand, enabling us to consolidate processing and marketing. Our regulations accurately reflect our view that small producers and vendors, men and women are important actors.” – Mayor Washington Ipenza, Villa Maria del Truinto, Lima, Peru


Other than that, reformation of agriculture policy toward community based food production also heading towards urban agricultural sector and commercialization of local products.

Other than traditional and conventional ways of agricultural industry and policy making, emergence of new technology and innovation has allowed the globe to implement farming and agricultural activities to create a sustainable and self-sustained environment within the city. In San Francisco, local farmers’ markets were established to cultivate a healthy and sustainable food system and educate people towards a healthy lifestyle and consumption. City farms in Gothenburg and the sustainable food production towards 50% organic by 2014 also acts as a continuous education about the importance of reducing the amount of food that is thrown away yearly. This can protects the environment and helps people in saving their money.

Yamashita (2006) found that part-time rice farming households earn approximately 100,000 yen on agriculture revenue of 1.04 million yen. Growing food in the city should become a culture since it not only strengthen food production process but also control the rice price in the market hence controlling the economy of the country. Other recent approach in urban agriculture of Japan included Subway sandwich chain store hydroponically grown lettuce in store for their customers’ consumption and office blocks where the staff grows food hydroponically for lunch.

Other countries involved are Havana – establishing urban agriculture and striving towards self-sufficiency in vegetables production; New York - urban city farms; Egypt – implementation of backyard farm; Chicago – embedment of vegetated roof system within a building; and growing vertical farming concept in built environment industry.


CONCLUSION

Humans play a dominant role in these dynamics, fundamentally shaping the agricultural landscape in an effort to meet” local, regional, and global demands for food, animal feed, and fuel. At a broader scale, humans shape the agricultural landscape in order to generate incomes, employment, and in some cases ecosystem services (e.g., pollination, pest control, watershed management) that have positive impacts on the agricultural system itself and on surrounding areas.” – Rosamond L.Naylor (Chapin, Chapin, Kofinas, & Folke, 2009) ch.12

http://www.pwpla.com/projects/nishi-harima-science-garden-city

ROLE OF FOOD IN SHAPING THE CITY

Managing a food system within a city could lead towards a systemized urban system. Good transportation route, infrastructure, irrigation or drainage system should be well-planned in incorporating and complementing the food system which is generally associated with agricultural and farming activities. In a bigger scale of urban planning, Garden City Movement was initiated by Sir Ebenezer Howard in year 1898 showed how the residences, agriculture, and industry can be in balanced. It was intended to create a planned, self-sustained community surrounding the greenbelts – land designated for agriculture, wildlife or undeveloped that surrounded urban areas.

In a small scale of a city, Eco-cities concept was established by Richard Register in finding a way of reconstructing cities to be in balanced with nature. Encouragement of environmental friendly lifestyle and public transportation were the initial doctrine of an eco-city. However, the criteria have developed throughout the time. Nowadays, Eco-cities are known as a self-sustained, carbon-neutral, and resource conservation (zero-waste) environment where the design should able to adapt to the population growth and changing in needs within the city. Eco-cities design also should be able to restore environmentally damaged urban area. Apart from locally resourced, the system also should have the capabilities in providing affordable life and enhance the socio-economic state of the people. Both Garden City Movement and Eco-cities concept show that agriculture and food are directly related with the development of the city. Food system does play a role in developing the city. By implementing a competent food system, it’ll indirectly decrease material consumption and increase awareness in environmental and sustainability issues. Aside from that, good economic policies also ensure food security on a sustainable basis for both the country as a whole and the millions of households individually.


ROLE AS AN ARCHITECT The resilience of a city is crucial in this globally challenge world - achieving a capability to prepare for, respond to, and recover from serious multi-hazard with minimum damage to public safety and health, the economy, and security. In achieving that, as a designer we need to review and produce a design that could lead to sustainable life – good transportation system that will encourage people to walk rather than use motor vehicles; supports and aids in making people grow their own food and produce resources they needs; building types and forms are cleverly designed to reduce servicing and environmental footprints; and well-developed infrastructural system that will help in increasing energy efficiency and renewability.

In creating a sustainable community, every individual has to play their role in bringing the nature into our built environment. Authority or governor should be selective in deciding international trade and local production towards creating a healthy trade or selling process that can lead to a zero carbon footprint. Citizen of the city also need to be educated to inculcate behavioural change towards a sustainable lifestyle. Waste produced should be recycled or reuse back as a multi-functional sustainable energy resource which can contribute back to agriculture and biofuel manufacturing. As a designer, we need to know and study the ecology of food system and consider agriculture in our design towards creating a zero carbon environment. Good planning and urban design are needed to divide the space within the city so there’s place for food farms or sheds. Architects also should reassess how food system works within the community so the building can be designed based on its adaptability and evolutionary in accommodating agriculture or horticulture technological system and climate responsive system.

Getting to know how the food do affect our way of living towards sustainability, I've been trying to incorporate food production in my housing scheme. The food not only just become food for people but also can be developed beyond its main purpose.

http://www.aia.org/advocacy/publicpolicy/AIAB097740

WAYS TO INCORPORATE FOOD IN OUR HABITAT Any country, state or city that prepares itself for living well in a resource-constrained world will fare far better than those who do not.” -” (Wrestling The Footprint : (Wackernagel, 2008

For example, the materiality of my housing, I've decided to use a composite timber material which is made from rice husks and industrial waste. This can create an ecological system within the community. Food --> waste --> material / biomass --> fertilizer --> plant --> Food.


REFERENCE Chapin, F. S., Chapin, C., Kofinas, G. P., & Folke, C. (2009). Principles of Ecosystem Stewardship: Resilience-Based Natural Resource Management in a Changing World: Springer. Countries, U. S. U. f. T. C. a. D., & FAO. (2001). Sharing Innovative Experiences. Volume 5, Examples of Successful Initiatives in Agriculture and Rural Development in the South: UNDP, Special Unit for Technical Cooperation among Developing Countries. Dyson, T. (1996). Population and Food: Global Trends and Future Prospects: Routledge. Gadda, T., & Gasparatos, A. (2010). Tokyo Drifts from Seafood to Meat Eating. Development & Society. Retrieved from Our World website: Girardet, H. (January 21, 2014). THE SELF-SUFFICIENT CITY. Sustainable Cities, 2013 Girardet, H. (2007). Surviving the Century: Facing Climate Chaos and Other Global Challenges: Earthscan. Jin. (2000). FOOD SELF-SUFFICIENCY: Government Targets Rate of 45% by Fiscal 2010. Retrieved from Trends in Japan website: Nagata, K. (2008). Japan needs imports to keep itself fed. FOOD SELF-SUFFICIENCY. Retrieved from The Japan Times News website: Small, M. (1996). How has Indonesia's desire for food self sufficiency in rice compromised it's ability to address the issues of sustainable agricultural development? : Colby College. Steel, C. (2009). Hungry City: How Food Shapes Our Lives: Random House of Canada, Limited. Timmer, P. (2004). Food Security in Indonesia: Current Challenges and the Long-Run Outlook. Paper presented at the Ideas to Action: Independent research for global prosperity. Wackernagel, M. (2008). WRESTLING THE FOOTPRINT. Sustainable Cities, 2013 Yamashita, K. (2006). Food and agriculture problems for Japan and the World in the twenty-first century. Asia-Pacific Review, 13(1), 1-15. doi: 10.1080/13439000600697050

LINK FOR 1KHO CONCEPTUAL VIDEO

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vTNI7j80baQ&list=UUXpy4DIcVzV8g89LV0nHwCg &feature=c4-overview&hd=1

REFERENCES & PRECEDENTS

http://www.praton.com/pc_const_sys.htm http://2011.solarteam.org/design/architecture http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qanat http://www.graduatearchitecture.com/PROJECTS/ENGLISH/2011projec ts_2011/0033.25018/0033.php http://www.ctbuh.org/TallBuildings/AcademicStudentWork/ IllinoisInstituteofTech/2008_TallGreenChicagoStudio/WaterTower/tabid/2322/ language/en-US/Default.aspx http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evaporative_cooling#Physical_principles http://www.thebig5.ae/files/rice_husk_the_new_alternative_to_hard_wood.pdf http://pkb.gov.my/ http://inhabitat.com/amphibious-houses-could-provide-a-permanent-solution-forflooding-in-thailand/site-specific-amphibious-house-3/?extend=1 http://www.thestar.com.my/News/Community/2014/01/24/A-village-in-the-cityAfter-more-than-a-century-Kampung-Baru-remains-very-much-a-kampung/ http://agnieszkanowak.com/2012/04/15/rain-collector-skyscraper/ http://app.kwpkb.gov.my/greaterklkv/entrypoint-project-river-beautification/ http://www.archdaily.com/354845/vietnam-s-pavilion-at-expo-2015-competitionentry-h-and-p-architects/515ceac1b3fc4b9d4f0000b3_vietnam-s-pavilion-at-expo2015-competition-entry-h-p-architects_18-jpg/



Studio 4.2: D3 Housing Competition