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ASIA’S IMPROVED COOK STOVES

Photo: Myanmar Cook Stoves project

Photo: Lao ICS project

Photo: Myanmar Cook Stoves project

Photo: Lao ICS project

Photo: SPRING project

A review of solutions and innovations by SWITCH-Asia projects in India, Laos, Myanmar and Pakistan

1 This project is funded by the European Union.

The SWITCH-Asia Network Facility is implemented by GFA Consulting Group GmbH and Collaborating Centre on Sustainable Consumption and Production (CSCP).


Asia’s Improved Cook Stoves

IMPRESS

CONTACT

Publisher SWITCH-Asia Network Facility Collaborating Centre on Sustainable Consumption and Production (CSCP) Hagenauer Straße 30 42107 Wuppertal • Germany

Silvia Sartori Communication Expert SWITCH-Asia Network Facility

Lead Author Theo Shand (SNV) Co-author Bastiaan Teune (SNV)

silvia.sartori@scp-centre.org

GET CONNECTED www.switch-asia.eu

Editors Dr. Uwe Weber, Silvia Sartori (SWITCH-Asia Network Facility) @EUSWITCHAsia Proofreading Judith Pretty Design Elmar Sander

#NetworkFacility SWITCH-Asia group SWITCH-Asia channel

Printed in December 2017

DISCLAIMER This publication has been produced with the assistance of the European Union. The contents of this publication are the sole responsibility of GFA Consulting Group GmbH and can in no way be taken to reflect the views of the European Union.

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Table of Contents

Table of contents Acronyms Introduction Research Methodology Structure of the Report Project Implementors Project Stoves: Charcoal Project Stoves: Wood Project Stove: Agri-residue gasifier Section A: Identifying the Baseline & Approaches Supporting documents in Share Point Asking the Right Questions Some Key Questions for Consideration Overview Project Baseline Data Reviewing Dissemination Models Summary of Approaches The Piggyback Model The Proprietary Sales Network SNV Laos GERES, Myanmar CARE India WWF Pakistan Section B: Stove Design Considerations Supporting Documents Cook Stove Testing Protocols Laboratory and Additional Testing Protocols Approaching Stove Design Analysing Design Changes on Performance Summary of Efficiency Testing Results Clay Testing and Effects of Additives Overview of Results Summary of Clay Test Findings Designing-for-fuel Overview of WWF Pakistan User-focused Design Development Section C: Stove Review Supporting Documents Testing Project Stoves SNV Laos, GERES Myanmar and CARE India Introduction to Testing The Testing Equipment Preparing Testing Equipment Disclaimer Testing Parameters Charcoal Stove Testing: Charcoal Protocol 4.2 (Draft) SNV Laos PTT3 Charcoal SNV Laos PTT4 Charcoal TGERES Myanmar, Pathein IPV5

4 5 5 6 7 8 10 12 13 13 13 13 14 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 17 17 17 18 18 19 19 19 20 20 20 21 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 23

Reviewing Charcoal Testing Results Fire Power Vs High Power Thermal Efficiency Reviewing Emissions Effect of Fuel Remaining Low Power Reviewing Result Inconsistencies Charcoal Test Conclusions Wood Stove Testing Protocol GERES Myanmar, A1 Standard CARE India Local Stove SNV Laos WS2 Reviewing Wood Testing Results Emissions Review Fuel Savings Conclusions Section D: Production, QC/QA and next steps Supporting Documents Clay ICS Production Step 1: Clay Mixing Step 2: Forming the Stove Body Raw Mould Step 3: Forming the Grate and Initial Drying Step 4: Stove Trimming and Grid Punch Step 5: Further Drying Step 6: Kiln Firing Step 7: Bucket Production Step 8: Adding Insulation Step 9: Adding Grate and Refractory Layer Ensuring Quality Control Definition Steps to Ensuring Quality How to Measure Frequency A Badge of Quality Promotion Tools of ICS SNV Laos Care India, Promotion of ICS by SHE Schools Final Conclusions The Value of the ICS Quantitative Summary Qualitative Summary Author’s Note Testing Summary Approach Assessment

28 28 28 29 30 30 31 32 33 34 35 35 35 35 37 37 37 38 38 39 39 39 40 40 40 40 41 41 41 41 41 41 42 42 42 43 43 43 43 43 43 43

24 25 26 27

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Asia’s Improved Cook Stoves

Acronyms Project Actors SANF SNV GERES WWF

SWITCH-Asia Network Facility Netherlands Development Organisation Group for the Environment, Renewable Energy and Solidarity World Wide Fund for Nature-Pakistan

Terminology AWBT Adapted Water Boiling Test CCT Controlled Cooking Test CO Carbon Monoxide CO2 Carbon Dioxide CoV Coefficient of Variation ICS Improved Cook Stoves HH Household PM2.5 Particulate Matter <2.5 microns QA Quality Assurance QC Quality Control RHA Rice Husk Ash RHC Rice Husk Char SHE Sustainable Health & Energy TCS Traditional Cooking Stove WBT Water Boiling Test

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Introduction

Introduction

F

or most products in the developed world, quality standards and performance indicators have been set to qualify or disqualify goods offered on markets objectively. For instance, before cook stove models for gas can legally enter the market in the European Union, it needs first to undergo a thorough testing assessment by independent, accredited testing agencies according to Gas Appliance Directive 2009/142/EC. This obviously protects customers from risks inherent in harmful situations like exposure to carbon monoxide. Solid fuel cook stoves in developing countries are often sold without any certification or tests and there are only very few laboratories across developing countries that actually can test such cook stoves, and even fewer that serve the purpose of compliance certification of cook stove models or cook stove producers. Over the last years, this issue has been addressed by various governments, INGOs and multilateral agencies, including EU SWITCH-Asia through its projects, supporting development of global standards for cook stoves under ISO, and capacity building to support the installation of laboratories and improved cook stove dissemination by regulated market development. The relevance of improving the cooking situation is underlined by the fact that nearly three billion people around the world burn wood, charcoal, animal dung or coal in open fires or in inefficient stoves for daily cooking and heating. Reliance on inefficient cook stoves and fuels contributes to a wide variety of environmental problems including deforestation, air pollution and climate change. At the same time, daily exposure to toxic smoke from traditional cooking practices is one of the world’s biggest – but least well-known – killers, leading to more than four million deaths a year. Penetrating deep into the lungs of its victims, this acrid smoke causes a range of deadly chronic and acute health effects such as child pneumonia, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart disease, as well as low birthweights in children born to mothers whose pregnancies are spent breathing toxic fumes from traditional cook stoves. (GACC, 2017, http://cleancookstoves.org) In 2017, the EU’s SWITCH-Asia Programme and SNV embarked on an exciting journey to assess cook stoves among four different interventions, all of which aim to address the environmental and health issues from traditional cooking in Myanmar, Lao PDR, India and Pakistan respectively. One

Photo: Lao ICS

striking observations was that for most projects, a clear need was identified for accessible stove testing services, as some lacked capacity and others the equipment to run appropriate tests. Another interesting finding is the difference in entry points of the interventions, some introducing new innovative technologies, others improving the performance of existing stoves and other conducting a village consultation approach featuring dozens of stove models. In this assessment, we have analysed the cook stoves, zoomed into the cooking context and described the strategy of the different projects, which gives a very interesting perspective. Cook stoves were tested at the cook stove test laboratory in Vientiane, capital of Laos, which was established in 2012. The aim of this study report is to collate insights across these countries and share observations, and implementation progression to date of each of the EU SWITCH-Asia funded ICS projects. This has the purpose to contribute to learning and development of current and future projects. The report describes in detail the common baselines and project cook stove designs, analyses the laboratory testing results, and describes the projects’ intervention strategies undertaken. We hope this contributes to discussions in the international cook stove domain and to contribute to the challenging task to reduce significantly the adverse impacts of traditional cooking practices around the world.

Research Methodology Desk Study For the investigation and compilation of this report, the author conducted an initial desk study reviewing documents and findings from each of the projects supported by the EU SWITCH-Asia Programme to gain a theoretical understanding of approaches and methodologies used for stove selection and dissemination.

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Asia’s Improved Cook Stoves

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Photo: SNV

Stove Testing Of the projects, it was possible to collect stoves from Myanmar, India and Laos for testing at the cook stoves test laboratory facility in Laos PDR, to assess stove performance while removing as many variables as possible. For example, standardised fuel, single tester, location, equipment and calibration, air temp, etc. Testing of the charcoal stoves involved was deemed successful with interesting results and conclusions drawn from findings. Testing of the wood stoves, however, presented problems due to repeated power outages at the test facility. Where originally the complete WBT 4.2.3 tests were intended, due to the time restrictions, this was had to be slightly modified to allow for as much information as possible still to be gathered on the stoves’ performance and to provide a reference understanding of emissions and potential exposure from each in the allotted time. As only SNV Laos had direct access to an emissions monitoring system, and FRI Yezin lab’s device, supported by GERES was found to be out of order during the visit, it was not possible to cross reference emissions findings, which could be worth addressing in a follow up study. The controlled cooking test (CCT) results shared in this report for the PTT3 and PTT4 models in Laos and the A1 Standard in Myanmar, were conducted by each of the respective projects themselves. Time limitations prevented conducting a separate CCT during field visits, and this was also conceptually challenged due to the identified differences in user behaviour, (un)familiarity with the stove and modal cooking recipes. The uncontrolled kitchen cooking test carried out by CARE India across the 20 stove models is still in the first stage of a 10-month testing period and who, at the time of writing, were not in a position to provide any direct quantifiable findings, which will be of highly interesting to assess as soon as they are released.

Photo: SNV Theo Sand

Field Visit To further support the desk study through first-hand learning, field visits were conducted in Myanmar, Laos and India to review project stoves and provide real-time understanding to fill in the knowledge gaps for stove review testing and content. During the field visit to India, the stove for inclusion in this report was chosen on the basis of ease of replicability for future projects. Of all the stoves seen during the field visit it was the only one produced locally, of an easily replicable construction and within the ‘willingness to pay’ bracket of the end user. Unfortunately, due to logistical challenges it was not feasible for the researcher to visit WWF Pakistan or receive the stove at Laos RENMI facility for laboratory testing and the review was conducted purely through desk study and Skype communications.

Writing of the Report The original scope of the report was intended as a purely technical review of the stoves in each project to allow for replication from tried and tested field experience. However, as the report developed, it was found that each of the projects was at a very different stage of completion with varying approaches and specialist foci. Some had distributed their first dozens, whereas other projects had exceeded 100 000. Therefore, through discussion with EU-SWITCH-Asia, it was decided that the report provide a much larger contextual review of each of the projects and showcase the steps taken from baseline study to stove promotion and marketing, contributing direct experiential learning in addition to stove design and performance review.

Structure of the Report The report is structured in five key sections: • Section A: Identifying the baseline through studies and testing Provides an overview of the key questions and approaches utilised by the different project implementers to identify the needs and requirements of the end user within each country. • Section B: Stove design considerations Looks at the testing protocols available for assessment of stoves as well as highlighting key findings within stove development and approaches taken through the R&D stages. • Section C: Final stove design, testing & review Provides a detailed overview of the testing conducted, an overview of the project stoves and results found.


Project Implementers Location: Myanmar Project: “Upscaling improved cook stoves dissemination in Myanmar through replication of best practices from Cambodia and the region” Duration: 2014-2018 Stove Description: • Charcoal-fuelled, clay-moulded natural draft ICS • Wood-fuelled, clay-moulded natural draft ICS

Location: Laos PDR Project: “Improved Cook stoves Programme” Duration: 2013-2017 Stove Description: • Charcoal-fuelled, clay-moulded with rice husk char insulation natural draft ICS • Wood-fuelled, clay-moulded with rice husk char insulation natural draft ICS

India

France

Location: India Project: “Evolving a women-centred model of extension of improved cook stoves for sustained adoption at scale” Duration: 2016-2019 Stove Description: • Wood-fuelled, clay inner chamber with sand insulation. Fixed, natural draft rocket stove • Additional 19 ICS in the field under end-user testing

Location: Pakistan Project: “Sustainable cotton production in Pakistan cotton ginning SMEs” Duration: 2012-2015 Stove Description: • Cotton gin agricultural residue fuelled, galvanised steel • Solar-powered, fan-assisted gasifier

• Section D: Stove production and QC/QA Stove production methodologies for clay ICS follow a similar pattern. Utilising the information available from both SNV Laos & GERES Myanmar, a step-by-step instruction guide is provided to support the manufacturing tool drawings. • Section E: Marketing and final conclusions At the time of writing, both SNV and CARE India were the only projects to have successfully undertaken marketing and awareness campaigns; examples are provided.

Contained within each of the sections is a snapshot of the steps required and undertaken by each of the projects to go from baseline study to final marketable product. Because of the extensiveness of just one of these sections, findings are both supported and explained in greater detail through the sharing link containing internal project documents and third-party research reports. The appropriate reports are noted at the beginning of each section so that the reader may focus their learning where desired.

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Asiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Improved Cook Stoves

Project Stoves: Charcoal

Photo: SNV

Laos PDR charcoal baseline: Tao Dam Market cost: $US 2-3 Life span: <3 months Fuel & max. load: 400g charcoal Avg. total time useful energy: 54 minutes Time to boil 2 litres: 18 minutes Estimated efficiency: 25% Manufacture: Various Local Manufacturers Product Overview: The Tao Dam is the baseline for charcoal stoves in Laos PDR. It is roughly based on the Thailand stove, though by lack of standardisation its construction process, dimensions and durability vary greatly from producer to producer. It is typically constructed with a raw clay internal stove body and grid and encased in a concrete insulation layer. Customer satisfaction levels with the Tao Dam are low as fuel consumption is perceived high and durability low. Efficiency of the stove for charcoal is low, but with wood the stove is performing relatively well.

Photo: Lao ICS project

SNV Laos: PTT3 (similar exterior as PTT4) Market cost: USD 5 Life span: 2 years Fuel & max. load: 400g charcoal Avg. total time useful energy: 43 minutes Time to boil 2 litres: 14 minutes Estimated efficiency: 32% from AWBT Fuel saving: 19% against Tao Dam Manufacture: SNV-certified local manufacturers Product Overview: The PTT3 developed and marketed by SNV Laos under a franchise propagated by the blue sticker, consists of an internal stove body and grate with a material composition of clay and rice husk char/ash. To ensure a homogenous mixture and reduce stresses which may result in cracks or breakage from uneven composition during firing this is typically machine kneaded. A high thermal resistance mixture of clay to rice husk ash (RHA heavy in ratio) is used to secure the grate in place and minimise heat loss through the stove body during use. To further raise the efficiency of the stove and provide additional strength, the internal stove body is encased by a layer of thermal insulation consisting of sand and rice husk ash within a sheet steel bucket.

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Introduction

Photo: Lao ICS project

SNV Laos: PTT4 (similar exterior as PTT3) Market cost: $US 3.5 Life span: 2 years Fuel & max. load: 400g charcoal Avg. total time useful energy: 51 minutes Time to boil 2 litres: 15 minutes Estimated efficiency: 35% from AWBT Recorded Fuel savings: 19% from CCT Testing Recorded Time savings: 18% from CCT Testing Manufacture: Accredited Local Manufacturers Product Overview: The PTT4 is a next generation improved cook stove design development by taking on board customer and producer feedback, and further analysing the design parameters of both the baseline Tao Dam and PTT3. The AWBT conducted in the stoves lab helped to improve the design further. The result is a lower-cost ICS with higher overall thermal efficiency. The key design change being affected is altering of dimensions related to the pot rest and exhaust gaps which allow for a longer period of high heat transfer from the charcoal bed to the pot. Overall, the final weight of the PTT4 is approximately 3.5kgs lighter than the PTT3 as desired by producers to reduce material/transportation and by the consumer who takes the stove back home. At the time of writing, production numbers of the PTT4 have overtaken the PTT3.

Photo: SNV

Myanmar charcoal baseline: Pathein traditional Market cost: $US 3 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 4 Life span: 1.5 year Fuel & max. load: 400g charcoal Time to boil 2 litres: 21 minutes Estimated efficiency: Varies depending on producer Manufacture: Local Artisans Product Overview: Without standardisation in place performance results vary by producer and even within a single production batch, caused by the fact that there are different groups of people working independently to create the final product. This can be clearly seen by the disparity of results from the AWBT testing conducted at the RENMI Lab and GERES, Myanmar with 9% and 25% estimated fuel savings seen at respective sites.

Photo: SNV

GERES Myanmar: Pathein standard Market cost: USD 4-5 Life span: 1.5 year Fuel & max. load: 400g charcoal Time to boil 2 litres: 20 minutes Estimated efficiency: 28% from AWBT Useful energy increase: 9-25% depending on quality of baseline Manufacture: Accredited Local Manufacture

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Asia’s Improved Cook Stoves

Product Overview: There are three stages to the Pathein production value chain: Group A – create the raw mould; Group B – conduct trimming and firing; and Group C – add the bucket with concrete insulation before selling to the end user. Currently, GERES have focused on Groups A and B for standardisation and improvements to design of the internal stove body. Key design parameters were addressed, such as pot rest height, combustion chamber, inclusion of refractory layer and clay mixture/additives in parallel to addressing quality issues from Group A to B which was resulting in loss of the product through breakages when firing. To highlight the significance of the changes made when conducting an AWBT for this report, the Pathein traditional failed to bring three litres of water to the boil with a full load of 400g of charcoal.

Photo: ICS project

Photo: servinghandskc - WordPress.com

Project Stoves: Wood

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Wood baseline all projects: Three-stone or mud fire Market cost: Free Life span: Indeterminant Fuel & max. load: Local wood, continuous feed High power thermal efficiency: <15% Tier 0 Manufacture: Household Product Overview: The traditional cooking stove used by rural households is the threestone fire or mud fire. The obvious benefit to this model is cost as it requires little to no financial input for construction, however, when it comes to fuel efficiency and emissions, this model achieves the lowest possible rating under the IWA ISO 011 Tier Standard. It accommodates feeding of smaller and larger logs and the stone configuration is easily adjustable according to, for instance, the dimensions of pots used.

SNV Laos: Wood stove version 2 (WS2) Market cost: $US 5 Life span: 2 years Fuel & max. load: Local wood, continuous feed Time to boil 2 litres: 10 minutes High power thermal efficiency: ≥34% Manufacture: Accredited Local Manufacture Product Overview: Using the same clay mixtures as the PTT3 & PTT4, the WS2, apart from the fuel loading system, has one significant difference, which is the inclusion of a concrete base to make the model bottom heavy and thus reduce the risk of the stove tipping when fuel is resting on the tray. The fuel opening is detachable and fitted in place by the retailer or household; this was developed to address the issue of economy of space during transportation allowing the producers to reduce transportation costs by increased volume per delivery. This stove is only incrementally better than the urban baseline Tao Dam stove when using wood.


Photo: SNV

GERES Myanmar: A1 standard Market cost: USD 3 Life span: 1.5 year Fuel & max. load: Local wood, continuous feed Time to boil 2 litres: 12 minutes High power thermal efficiency: â&#x2030;Ľ26% Tier 2 Fuel saving: 40% Manufacturer: GERES-certified local manufacturer Product Overview: Before the intervention of GERES, there was no standardisation for production of the A1 traditional stove, resulting in low consumer confidence in the product and varying results from one producer to the next. Addressing this issue, GERES improved the A1 standard model initially developed by the Myanmar Forest Research Institute (FRI) in the 1990s which has standard dimensions for all producers as well as further improvements to design parameters. The thermal efficiency and life expectancy of the stove are improved by the addition of rice husk char to the clay, with homogeneous machine mixing to minimise stresses to the stove body during production. In addition to this, GERES also applies a refractory layer around the combustion chamber to ensure the grate stays in place and reduce heat loss through the stove body.

Photo: SNV

Photo: SNV

CARE India: Fixed rocket stove Currently, CARE India are field trialling 20 different stove models of national origin. The stove selected for this study is made by a local entrepreneur in Odisha District, Southern India. Market cost: $US 5 without chimney, $US 10 with chimney Life span: 4 years Fuel & max. load: Local wood, continuous feed Time to boil 2 litres: 11 minutes High power thermal efficiency: â&#x2030;Ľ28% Manufacturer: Local Entrepreneur Product Overview: The India stove selected is a fixed stove for continuous wood feed that mirrors existing local cooking habits. The internal combustion chamber comprises of an iron frame with clay side panels; white cement and powered glass are added to the mixture to both strengthen the structure and reduce heat loss. To further improve thermal efficiency, sand is used as an insulating material between the inner chamber and the brick/ mud construction of the stove body with an additional air inlet located to the side of the fuel fed to minimise disruption to flow when used by the cook. The key component to the design is the inner chamber and the insulation allows the end user to dictate the overall look and function of the stove body; locally-sourced bricks, mud and sand are eventually used. For example, in one house, the user preferred to sit close to the ground as is the tradition in the region, however, in another home the user had raised the height of the stove to allow her to sit in a chair and to create a cutting surface. Since CARE India started the project, a chimney has been added to models which are being trialled and a two-pot is currently under development. Focus group feedback feeds into the design choice and around what technologies this project will evolve.

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Asiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Improved Cook Stoves

Photo: SPRING project

Project Stove: Agri-residue Gasifier

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WWF Pakistan: Cotton gin gasifier Market cost: $US 30 Life span: 1 -2 years Time to boil 2.5 litres: 12 minutes Fuel & max. load: Cotton gin agri-residue, continuous feed Manufacture: Low-skilled metal workshop Product Overview: As a sub-project to a wider EU-SWITCH-Asia funded programme, during the implementation by WWF of Sustainable Cotton Production in Pakistanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Cotton Ginning SMEs (SPRING), it was noted that agricultural residue of cotton gin was being ineffectively used or even burned in open fires. WWF Pakistan worked with the University of Engineering and Technology, UET Lahore to develop a gasifier technology that would enable the clean and effective burning of the cotton gin waste. The stove is made from standard off-the-shelf galvanised steel parts with universal dimensions to allow for ease of replication and aftersales service; the fuel hopper is constructed from a large cooking pan or wok. Because of the relative density of cotton gin agri-waste when loaded into the stove, a solar/battery powered fan is used to force primary and secondary air into the combustion chamber for effective gasification. Due to import/export issues, it was not feasible to test the stove in Laos PDR under the scope of this project report. Testing by both the WBT 4.2.3 and AWBT was attempted by WWF Pakistan, but the results were inconclusive. However, by replacing three-stone fires, these gasifiers eliminate the need for wood as it utilises an industrial by-product that was previously being open burned without specific purpose or harness of energy. Customer feedback from 50 households during the initial R&D pilot phase carried out by WWF has been extremely positive and has supported the further dissemination of 500 more stoves in a larger field trial.


Section A: Identifying the Baseline and Approaches Asking the Right Questions Success within any cook stove intervention depends on clear understanding of the intended target market. As noted by project implementers and highlighted in “Micro-gasification: cooking with gas from dry biomass, p8: Improvements to well-engineered stoves and fuels have proven to enhance the performance of cooking energy devices when tested in the laboratory. However, we should not assume that this directly translates to actual improvements within households; the entire cooking system is much more complex. Users not only make choices on stoves and fuels, they also decide on which meal to make, which cooking equipment (pots and pans) to use and, most importantly, how to cook (cooking practices ranging from high-heat stir fries to low-heat simmering).” Roth et al (2013) Get this wrong and then no matter how amazing/ingenuous the project or stove design, uptake and adoption by the market will at best be stagnated and at worst non-existent. It is also valuable to take the time at this stage to assess potential value chain actors in the area. This will strengthen the approach analysis and help define the steps required to reach the intended deliverables. Just as important as the questions asked is who the questions are asked to. A strong representative from the intended audience is important to gain as broad an insight as possible into the different socio-economic, geographical and demographic factors within the intervention area. Example: Due to the vastly anticipated difference between villages in the project area, Care India surveyed a total of 830 HHs, across 45 villages located in three districts. To minimise bias within results, random sampling was conducted throughout for final household selection.

Some Key Questions for Consideration Respondent Who: • Is the predominant cook and decision maker in the household? What: • Is the household baseline stoves and user perceptions/satisfaction levels? • Are the cooking habits, behaviour and requirements of the end user?

Supporting Documents in Share Point Asking the right questions • Questionnaire: Advanced Cook Stove End User Adoption Study SNV Vietnam • Roth et al (2013), Micro-Gasification: Cooking with Gas from Dry Biomass Overview Project Baseline Data • GERES Myanmar_Gender_Baseline • GERES Myanmar_Cookstove_Market_Assessment • WWF Pakistan Household Gasifier Report • CARE India Baseline Study • CARE India_ICS database - HH level testing Reviewing Dissemination Models • Johnson et al, (2015), From Theory to Practice of Change: Lessons from SNV’s Improved Cookstoves and Fuel Projects in Cambodia, Kenya, Nepal and Rwanda. • SNV, Mapping Successful Cookstove Distribution Models: Eight Success Factors to Reach the Last Mile. • SNV Teune (2016), A Recipe for Success in the Dissemination of Improved Cookstoves – a Case Study from Lao PDR.

• Are their primary and secondary fuel sources? • Do they forage or buy? • What is the cost either monetary or in time? • Who is responsible for collection? • How much do they consume per week on average? • Is the willingness to pay? What is affordable? How: • Aware of ICS are they and their perceptions? • Many households using ICS by locality, type and satisfaction levels? • Does seasonality affect cooking? • Many of the men in the HH are aware of HAP as an issue? • Willing are households to engage in ICS value chain? Why: • Would they change from their existing – what are the needs, desires, requirements, etc.? Where: • Are they cooking and ventilation capacity? • Do they source fuel from?

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Asia’s Improved Cook Stoves

Project Implementers Who: • Involved in Women Unions or village-level organisations, what are they? • Are the potential ICS value chain facilitators in area and their capacity? • Manufacturers • Technicians

• Retailers • Distributers Where: • Can existing ICS be sourced in the locality? Why: • Have previous ICS interventions failed in the region? • Have previous ICS interventions succeeded in the region?

Overview Project Baseline Data

End User

Characteristics

CARE India

WWF Pakistan

Willingness to pay Primary fuel Secondary fuel Cooking length

USD 5 Wood: 100% across project area Two sessions daily: time varies

USD 2-3 Agricultural waste: 100% across country Pellets, briquettes: limited vendors Continuous 8-10 hours daily

Wood: clay fixed stove or three-stone fire

Wood: clay fixed stove or three-stone fire

Key customer perceptions

• Smoke reduction is key • Ease of use • Poor durability, especially during rainy season • Fuel consumption

• Fuel cost saving • Reduced cooking time • Less smoke

Manufacturers Retailers Distributers

Limited Limited Limited

Yes Yes Yes

Characteristics

SNV Laos

GERES Myanmar

Willingness to pay Primary fuel Secondary fuel Cooking length

USD 3 to 5 Wood: across country Charcoal: urban & peri-urban focused Approx. 60 mins to make a large meal

USD 3.5 Wood: across country Charcoal: urban & peri-urban Approx. 200 mins for a large meal

Wood: three-stone fire = <15% efficiency Charcoal: cement/clay = 24/32% efficiency

Wood: three-stone fire = <15% efficiency Charcoal: cement/clay = NA

Key customer perceptions

• Low durability: product life <3months for charcoal stoves. • High fuel use.

• • • •

Manufacturers Retailers Distributers

Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes

Baseline stoves

Value Chain

End User

Baseline stoves

Value Chain

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Low durability: 50% repair < 1 year for clay stoves. High fuel use. Ease of use is priority for 81% of recipients


Summary Across all projects, the reduction of fuel use is the primary driver for intervention up take with willingness to pay in a similar bracket USD 3-5. With such a low willingness to pay, this can create a key barrier to entry without substantial promotion and awareness-raising activities or assisted financial modelling, especially in the case of metal gasifier stoves which tend to far exceed this price range. Other common themes in requirements are durability, ease of use and smoke reduction, though the last can be linked to the cleanliness of pots and kitchen rather than awareness of HAP and should be verified during the Baseline Study.

On average across all project areas assessed by CARE India, only 46% of HH have a smoke exit facility in their kitchens. Lowest recorded per region was 11% and highest 76%.

Reviewing Dissemination Models How will you reach the end user? How will the project become sustainable in the longer term? Why is the promoted ICS better than the identified baseline? Why should consumers switch? What is the added value for money spent? These are some of the key questions that must be answered during the project planning and dissemination analysis and a number of approaches have been tried and tested around the world, each of which brings their own advantages and challenges. Three key models were identified in a study conducted by SNV, The Global Alliance and Practical Action Consulting; full details are available in ‘SNV, Mapping Successful Cook Stove Distribution Models’ extracts below: “Village Level Entrepreneur (VLE) model is one that is enhanced by its use of local resources and its scalability in rural areas. The VLE model leverages local entrepreneurs to distribute products such as clean cook stoves in isolated communities. Instead of creating a costly new market infrastructure with a foreign sales force, the VLE model identifies entrepreneurs and artisans at the village level, and uses their direct knowledge of their communities to distribute products at limited costs. With enough support and oversight, these local entrepreneurs can effectively market new products to their peers while boosting their incomes.” “The Piggyback Model might be the best option in areas where demand is low. In this model, NGOs or stove distributors partner with supermarkets, hardware stores, microfinance institutions or other community-based organisations that are already operating in last mile markets. The piggyback strategy, by focusing on existing networks rather than individuals, opens a wide range of possibilities for partnerships and pooling customers. Depending on the characteristics of the targeted area and whether incentives can be aligned, some creative options can be explored. With low investment costs and limited need for additional infrastructure, the piggyback model represents an attractive option to reach the last mile.”

“The Proprietary Sales Network is a third possibility, particularly suited to introduce a wider range of products into urban and peri-urban communities. More time consuming and cost intensive than the other two, the proprietary sales network model requires setting up a new proprietary distribution channel, including a direct hire sales force, to serve the target market. Given the resources involved, this model is applicable to a more limited set of ideally suited situations. However, it presents several advantages, including a greater scope for control and oversight, increased opportunities for branding and the option to provide customer finance inhouse. It is often combined with the VLE or piggyback model in order to maintain costs within a reasonable range.”

Summary of Approaches Each of the approaches to stove selection varies with no two projects taking exactly the same route. The closest by comparison is GERES Myanmar and SNV Laos both of which are using the Piggyback Model to access markets through existing producer-retailer-end user value chains. The development of a new product brings with it the pros of being exactly that, new and from the start associated with quality. However, the slight increase in product cost and breaking producer and consumer familiarity are part of the challenges. GERES Myanmar do not face these challenges as they are improving an existing product, however are then limited in the scope of design alterations that can be made to improve performance without it becoming a new product. The Priority Sales Network model chosen by CARE India can be seen as resource heavy and drawn out though, if successful, it has the advantage of putting them in very strong position. With a full understanding of consumer needs in a market place where there is no defined/accepted alternative

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Asia’s Improved Cook Stoves

to the TCS and direct involvement and household education over a 10-month period overcomes a great barrier to the long-term sustainability of the project. WWF Pakistan have approached the problem from a different angle by bringing a new technology to solve an old problem, inefficient and ineffective burning of cotton gin agri-waste though with the key barrier of relatively high cost.

With initial in-field trials conducted with 50 households, the positivity of response has led to a wider study involving 500 stoves to gain data from a larger target audience. As this is a new technology outside most HH capacity or willingness to pay or having familiarity, this approach brings word-ofmouth marketing from village ambassadors who can promote the benefits of investment at the village level.

SNV Laos

GERES, Myanmar

Summary

New ICS design capable of being produced and sold by existing value chain actors.

New ICS design capable of being produced and sold by existing value chain actors.

Pros

• Can meet user willingness to pay • Early development of value chain actors for phase out • New product stands out in marketing • Producer material familiarity • End-user familiarity

• Can meet user willingness to pay • Early development of value chain actors for phase out • New product stands out in marketing • Producer material familiarity • End-user familiarity

Challenges

• Ensuring quality control & assurance • Overcoming high cost of tools • Initial time & resource heavy during set up and training • Low emission reduction as simple technology

• Ensuring quality control & assurance • Overcoming high cost of tools • Initial time & resource heavy during set up and training • Low emission reduction as simple technology

CARE India

WWF Pakistan

Summary

User-focused stove selection process with 20 models in field being trialled for full ten months to identify correct stove/characteristics by seasonality and region recording data by use of the uncontrolled cooking test.

Design and introduction of new gasifier stove to be used with cotton gin agriculture waste.

Pros

• • • • •

• Agro-waste is available in abundant quantity • Agro-waste is cheaper than other fuels, i.e. wood, LPG, kerosene, etc. • Gasifier is user friendly • Can be fabricated locally

Challenges

• Not demonstrating any single model gives more scope • Analysis and correct interpretation of data • Demonstrating a wide range of stoves of varied prices - which are within the price of willingness/purchasing capacity and also beyond

16

Gain direct user experience Community-led decision making Upscaling of the right stove Long-term promotion and marketing Change of user habits and increased familiarity

• High initial cost to consumer • Bridging the user willingness to pay gap • Demonstrating added value for finance spent • Changing user behaviour


Section B: Stove Design Considerations Cook Stove Testing Protocols There are many ways to prepare a good meal, and so there also are many ways to test a cook stove. Essentially, there are three categories: one is laboratory-based tests that are done under controlled conditions, and provide most consistent results, but with low certainty on the validity compared to actual practice. Some tests are partly controlled, like a panel assessment that is measuring time and fuel used for a standard meal, prepared in a central place with similar equipment, fuels and ingredients; this test also collects direct feedback on likability and proposed improvements. Thirdly, one can opt for uncontrolled kitchen performance tests at homes. This best reflects cooking system realities, but results could easily be affected by the many external factors that have no bearing on the cook stove itself. For this study, it was decided to lean on laboratory tests given the time available and based on the fact that these tests are best to compare and highly replicable compared to the other options. The most conventional laboratory test in the Water Boiling Test (WBT), which is a laboratory-based test that can be used to measure how efficiently a stove uses fuel to heat water in a cooking pot and the quantity of emissions produced while cooking. The WBT is a two-phase analysis (Time to Boil & Time to End) that can be conducted either as a comparative test or as standalone. The WBT protocol is used for the International Working Agreement (IWA) under the International Standard Organisation ISO. The IWA framework rates cook stoves on four indicators (efficiency, indoor emissions,

Supporting Documents Tier 0

Typical, unimproved, three-stone fire

Tier 1

Measurable improvement

Tier 2

Substantial improvement

Tier 3

Stretch goals which achieve significant, measurable health benefits

Tier 4

Aspirational goal

Supporting Documents Cook Stove Testing Protocols • GACC: http://cleancookstoves.org/technology-and-fuels/testing/protocols.html • Prasad (2012), Biomass Cookstoves Standards, Certification and R&D Experiences from India Approaching Stove Design • Bryden et al (2006), Design Principles for Wood Burning Cook Stoves • GACC & D-Lab (2017), Handbook for Biomass Cookstove Research, Design, and Development: A Practical Guide to Implementing Recent Advances. • Roth et al (2013), Micro-Gasification: Cooking with Gas from Dry Biomass • SNV, Test Results Report ICS Tao Payat • WWF Pakistan Gasifier Report User-focused design development • Uncontrolled Cooking Test: Entry Sheet (English) • CARE India: Brief note on SHE School • CARE India: Brief note on HH-level ICS Performance Testing

total emissions, safety), each along five tiers (0: lowest performing to 4: highest performing). For each indicator, the tiers’ boundaries are defined by quantitative values determined by laboratory testing. To accommodate international discussions, in this study, WBTs were conducted to show how wood stoves fit in the tier system. Because the WBT protocol is not completely applicable for batch-fed cook stoves, as is the case for charcoal stoves and gasifiers, GERES designed the Adapted Water Boiling Test (AWBT) which has also been adopted by the cook stoves projects in Laos and Myanmar. The main characteristics of the AWBT is that two cook stoves can be tested at the same time; the same quantity of fuel is used in both cook stoves; there is no ‘hot start’ step; the fuel is not weighed during the test; and approximate local cooking conditions are used. The graphs below display visually the stages the protocols of WBT and AWBT undergo during a testing cycle. All GACC protocols can be found at: http://cleancookstoves.org/technology-and-fuels/testing/protocols.html

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Asia’s Improved Cook Stoves

Laboratory and Additional Testing Protocols In addition to the AWBT, there are a vast number of test protocols from around the world that can be employed to analyse stove efficiencies and emissions. A full review of protocols can be found in ‘Biomass Stoves: Standards, Certification and R&D Experiences from India’. Common alternatives used by the project actors for emissions and thermal efficiencies are: • GACC Water Boiling Test 4.2.3 • BIS: Indian Standard on Solid Biomass ChulhaSpecification Advantages of Laboratory Testing • Internationally recognised and comparable • Records emissions and thermal efficiency • Higher levels of accuracy • Breaks down calculations by phase • Real time results for emissions depending on equipment • If passes BIS, then qualifies for government subsidies Disadvantages of Laboratory Testing • Costly • More scope for human error • Time consuming • Requires specialist machinery • Not suitable for field trials

Approaching Stove Design Improved Cook Stoves and the more ‘recent’ gasifier cooking technology have been around for decades in an open source sharing community. This is fantastic news for designers, whether novice or advanced, as there is a wealth of experiential learning and experimentation that can be readily drawn upon to support identifying the ‘right fit for purpose’ meeting target user requirements and willingness to pay. Designing any product requires prioritising the most important features and knowing when compromises can be made. For example, a user may prioritise a fast igniting stove that saves time and fuel. An NGO may aim to distribute stoves or fuels that offer health and livelihood benefits. A national government may support efficient cook stoves to achieve reductions of greenhouse gases. Manufacturers aim to make a stove as inexpensively as possible to be competitive in the market. While it is challenging to meet the needs of every stakeholder, a successful product will incorporate multiple ‘design ingredients’. (Handbook for Biomass Cookstove Research, Design, and Development: a practical guide to implementing recent advances)

WBT

Adapted WBT

Advantages of AWBT compared to WBT • Replicates HH user behaviours as closely as possible: fuel type and moisture, pot sizes and cooking style • Does not require specialist equipment or training • Relatively quick to conduct compared to other testing protocols • Provides easy comparison of stove capabilities • Gives overview understanding of stove performance • Can be used for assessing stove change impact during design development

Disadvantages of AWBT compared to WBT • Does not separate thermal efficiencies by Start - Boil Finish • Does not record emissions released • Results are less accurate than other testing protocols • Limited comparability on global scale with other cook stoves

18


Design Elements Performance • Energy efficiency • Health pollutants • Greenhouse gas emissions • Safety • Durability • Time

Affordability • Sales price • Unit cost • Service life • Fuel consumption

Usability • Time saved • Weight • User interface • Turndown ratio • Ease of ignition • Tending requirements • Portability • Maintenance & service • Cleanliness • Attractiveness

Analysing Design Changes on Performance Through applying sound technical understanding of stove design and materials with trial and error learning, SNV Laos worked directly with producers from an early stage to develop a sustainable cook stove model with design for manufacture and assembly at its core. For each design change made, the AWBT protocol was used to assess impact on stove performance. Summary of Efficiency Testing Results • Smaller exhaust gap: +14% • Enlarged combustion chamber (top): +6.5% • Grate: reducing the number of holes from 62 to 52 doesn’t impact the efficiency and increases durability • Adding refractory layer: +6% • Air inlet: the size of the air entrance doesn’t seem to impact much the performance of the stove. (SNV, Test Results Report ICS Tao Payat)

Exhaust Gaps and Pot Rests

Refractory Layer

Combustion Chamber Insulation Grate Air inlet

Clay Testing and Effects of Additives GERES took a very technical approach to design development with a large focus on clay material properties and ratios looking for the optimal formula/mixture that balances shrinkage, thermal resistance and flexural strength all of which are key to the production and performance of a stove. As GERES were standardising and improving two pre-existing models, A1 wood stove and Pathein charcoal, improving stove quality through clay mixtures with rice husk char and ash along with stove parameter dimensions were aimed at minimising deviation from the original design to maintain user and producer familiarity.

Common Additives Rice Husk Char (RHC): burns off during clay firing creating microscopic air pockets for increased thermal resistance. Rice Husk Ash (RHA): contains 90% of RHC silica which crystallises at high temperatures increasing flexural strength through strengthened bonding of the clay particles without the weakening caused by microscopic air holes. Parameters Flexural Stress: <1MPa=extremely fragile >10MPa=extremely resistant Desired CoV: <10%

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Asia’s Improved Cook Stoves

Overview of Results Sample Pure Clay RHC RHA Total RHA % Shrinkage Flexural Stress Thermal mixture Avg. σ (Mpa) Shock Avg. CoV Avg. CoV Trad. Clay 3500 0 0 3500 0 PT I.1. 1960 490 1,050 3500 30% PT I.2. 2184 546 770 3500 22% PT I.3. 2275 455 770 3500 22% PT I.4. 2231 744 525 3500 15% PT I.5. 1983 992 525 3500 15%

Summary of Clay Test Findings In theory, finding the ‘magic mixture’ should be relatively straightforward as it is known which clay/stove properties each of the additives influences. However, as shown by GERES studies, raw clay is very diverse in its behaviour and

Designing-for-Fuel Overview of WWF Pakistan`s Gasifier Project Scope During a sub-project to a much larger EU-SWITCH-Asia funded programme being implemented by the WWF in Pakistan, Sustainable Cotton Production in Pakistan’s Cotton Ginning SMEs (SPRING), it was noted that agricultural residue of cotton gin was being open burned ineffectively as waste. The cotton waste discarded by the ginning factories contains cotton, cotton chips and cotton seeds. The ratio of these ingredients varies from sample to sample, but it was found that more seed produces more smoke during gasification. However, by adding other abundantly available agri-residues such as rice husk or wheat straws it reduces smoke production overall. The suggested final ratio is at least 10% rice husk or 15% wheat straws per mixed total mass of cotton waste. The purchase cost of cotton gin residue is substantially cheaper, and 100% renewable in source, compared to wood, as a fuel. The objective of the project was to develop a portable household gasifier powered by solar system using cotton waste as a fuel.

20

18 12.3 12.7 14.7 12.6 18

7.6% 10.44 39% 2.3 19.5% 2.82 19.5% 2.71 12.7% 2.87 11.1% 2.77

21% 9% 17% 11% 10% 18%

Very Low Good Low Low Good Low

physical properties even when taken from a single source and tested under laboratory conditions, as highlighted by the CoVs, and we see great variations even without the inclusion of additives.


Product Overview Description: forced air continuous-fed gasifier cook stove Unit Cost: USD 30 Cost Breakdown • Stove body = USD 18 • Solar panel = USD 5.70 • Fan, battery, charger, • Wire, etc. = USD 9.50 • Total cost = USD 33.2 Key Challenges The willingness to pay and purchasing capacity of the user groups is much lower than the initial cost price of USD 33 for the original 50 stoves distributed for the field trial. As all parts are standardised components, it is expected that this cost will reduce with production volume increases and bulk orders making the stove more affordable

User-focused Design Development India has a long history with clean cook stoves with government and state subsidies given for stoves that qualifying under the BIS Protocol lessening the affordability gap for to the end user. A number of projects were identified to have taken advantage of this with cook stove interventions in the all CARE India intended project districts. In spite of this, during the baseline study, it was noted that of 67% recipients unsatisfied with their current cook TCS, only 21% were aware of ICS and only an average of 1.4% or 11 households out of 830 owned an ICS.

HH ICS Testing

To avoid the risk of a failing intervention, CARE India centres on the premise of the cook rather than on the cook stove. It introduced a concept of so-called Sustainable Household Energy School (SHE - School). Within each of the project villages, it puts four stoves to trail per SHE School. The village focus groups select these models from a menu of 20 stove model options. Consequently, trials will run for 10 months to capture both rainy, dry and winter seasons and are based on users’ recordings on fuel use per meal, and on weekly meetings to collect feedback and perceptions. Objectives 1) To generate HH-level usage data of ICS to inform project decision-making strategies around the following: • Identifying the suitable ICS options for scale • Season-specific suitability (i) dry months (ii) rainy/wet • Identify maintenance/repair requirements for after sales service • Etc. 2) To facilitate performance assessment/testing of ICS by users in-situ: • Users’ experience • Conditions: fuel usage, family size, conventional cooking patterns, food preference, etc. • Areas of improvement in ICS

21


Asia’s Improved Cook Stoves

Section C: Stove Review Testing Project Stoves SNV Laos, GERES Myanmar and CARE India

Supporting Documents

Introduction to Testing In February 2012, more than 90 stakeholders from 23 countries met in The Hague, The Netherlands to establish an ISO International Workshop Agreement that provides interim guidance for rating cook stoves on four performance indicators: efficiency, total emissions, indoor emissions and safety. Each of the four indicators has multiple Tiers of Performance: 0 to 4. As the stoves being tested are ICS without any forced or encouraged secondary air, the focus of the testing was on stove comparison and high-power efficiency levels as it was anticipated that carbon monoxide, CO, in particular would only be in the region of Tiers 0-2. Tests were conducted under the Aprovecho Portable Emissions Monitoring System 2026 at the RENMI facility Laos to try and capture real-time HAP and exposure to the cook over a single cooking task period, as well as an understanding of stove performance. The Testing Equipment In 2017, SNV Laos gifted the Aprovecho PEMS 2026 to RENMI at the end of the project for continued stove development, testing and QC in Laos. Emissions are measured in a control laboratory with a fixed hood commonly used in the Laboratory Emissions Monitoring System. The purpose of PEMS 2026 is to “quantify reductions in health-harming emissions from cooking stoves by collecting, measuring, and analysing emissions of CO2, CO and PM. Collecting emissions is essential for quantifying the total amount of pollution released without the effects of ventilation and dilution within the air of a kitchen. The combustion efficiency of the stove can be understood by investigating the reported measures such as emissions per task completed (specific emissions) and emissions per kilo of fuel burned (emission factors).” (PEMS User Manual)

Classification Tier 0 Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Tier 4

22

Typical, unimproved, three-stone fire Measurable improvement Substantial improvement Stretch goals which achieve significant, measurable health benefits Aspirational goal

Testing Project Stoves – SNV Laos, GERES Myanmar & CARE India • Full review of testing data_read only.xl • Aprovecho Research Centre: http://aprovecho.org/portfolio-item/portable-emissions-monitoring-system/ SNV Laos: PTT3 • PTT3 Design Drawings • PTT3 Standard Dimension Test Sheet • PTT3 Tool Design Drawings SNV Laos: PTT4 • PTT4 Design Drawings • PTT4 Standard Dimension Test Sheet • PTT4 Tool Design Drawings SNV Laos: WS2 • WS2 Design Drawings • WS2 Tool Drawings • WS2 Standard Dimension Sheet GERES Myanmar: Pathein IPV5 (Charcoal) • IPV5 Inner/grid Design Drawings • IPV5 Standard Dimension Test Sheet GERES Myanmar: A1 Standard (Wood) • A1 Standard Dimension Drawings • A1 Std, Standard Dimension Test Sheet CARE India: Local India Stove • India Stove Design Drawing Pakistan • Cotton Gin Gasifier Design Drawings

High Power Thermal Efficiency CO (g/MJd) <15 >16 ≥15 ≤16 ≥25 ≤11 ≥35 ≤9

PM2.5 (mg/MJd) >979 ≤979 ≤386 ≤168

≥45 ≤8

≤41


Preparing Testing Equipment In preparation and to minimise the risk of invalid results, the following actions were carried out on the PEMS machine: 1. Cleaning of lines and PM2.5 filter as recommended in the user maintenance manual. 2. Calibration of CO/CO2 was desired but gas unobtainable to verify readings a full WBT 4.2.3 test was conducted on fan assist batch-fed gasifier with pellet fuel known for consistent results for comparison against previous tests carried out just after the last calibration of the equipment; results were deemed acceptable.

Photo: SNV

• PM2.5 concentration is measured in real-time with a light scattering sensor. • CO concentration is measured in real-time with an electrochemical sensor. • CO2 concentration is measured in real-time with an NDIR (non-dispersive infra-red) sensor.

Disclaimer It should be noted that due to the modifications as listed within this document related to testing, results are not to be used as a direct ICS performance certification for international comparison and should be used for reference, interpretation and discussion purposes only.

Testing Parameters Further testing of full WBT 4.2.3 protocol for wood stoves is recommended and local CCT testing should be conducted where replication is desired to assess against local baselines. Charcoal Stoves

Wood Stoves

Testers

Bounthavy Sengtakoun, Energy Advisor SNV Laos Theo Shand, Energy Advisor SNV Global

Location

Renewable Energy and New Materials Institute, Vientiane, Laos

Equipment

Portable Emissions Monitoring System 2026 with fixed hood. Pot Scales accuracy ±5g

Air temperature

25-27°C air-conditioned room

Fuel source

Single supplier purchase

Single supplier Burpha manufactured eucalyptus

Mass fuel start

400g

600g

Mass starter fuel

15g Resin Wood

105g Resin Wood

Volume of water

2 litres

Pot added time

3 minutes after stove lit

Protocol

WBT 4.2 Charcoal Draft without lid

AWBT with fuel remaining recorded at boiling point to provide cold start high power efficiency

23


Asia’s Improved Cook Stoves

Charcoal Stove Testing: Charcoal Protocol 4.2 (Draft) To date, there is no officially agreed protocol yet for testing charcoal stoves for thermal efficiency and emissions. However, a draft proposal based on the WBT is available for reference, ‘WBT 4.2 Charcoal Draft’ from the GACC website. Alternatively, it is possible to use the AWBT though this does not use thermal efficiency as a metric or note changes across the phases Cold Start – Boil – End. To overcome this and allow a technical investigation of stove performance during ‘Time to Boil’ and ‘Simmer/Low

Stoves Tested SNV Laos • PTT3 • PTT4 • Tao Dam (baseline) Myanmar • Pathien IPv5 • Pathien trad. (baseline) Power’ phases of the stoves, WBT 4.2 Charcoal Draft Protocol was adopted with minor modifications.

Modifications

Reason

Justification

No lid added to pot

• When using formula in the WBT 4.2.4 sheet, water heated (sensible heat) and water vaporised (latent heat) is used to calculate thermal efficiency.

• With the lid added, this would have been incomparable with previous tests conducted on stoves and is not accounted for in the existing data entry sheet.

At end of the low power simmer weight of fuel remaining is recorded as 0

• It was noted that in lower performing stoves there was a higher mass of fuel remaining when water temperature falls 5oC below boiling point, as a result the remaining potential heat energy is not transferring to the pot. • The remaining fuel was being calculated into the low power/simmer thermal efficiency and not off-set by water vaporised from all pots. • As a result, keeping the weight of fuel remaining effectively penalises stoves for having higher burning rate, SFC and firepower harnessing more of the energy in batch fuel loads.

• Tests were run as a comparison with all stoves subjected to the same parameters. • If the remaining char is incapable of maintaining the temperature of the water above 5oC below boiling then has in effect used all its potential energy for the test. • Starting weight is recorded as weight of fuel remaining from the high power/cold start. • Regardless of the weight of fuel remaining, it is the effectiveness of the stove to transfer the whole potential energy to the pot of water that is being assessed during processing. • Data is also entered into the AWBT data sheet to note fuel-saving potential in comparison of ICS and the baseline across whole process.

To calculate burn rate, specific fuel consumption, specific energy consumption and fire power at the end of the low power/simmer phase weight of fuel remaining is included

• These measurements are calculated using the mass of fuel consumed from start to end of the low power/ simmer phase. • Without the fuel remaining, calculations for the noted measurements are invalid.

• These calculations are representative of the stove performance during the low power/simmer phase while the stove is in use which is important to understand for the end user acceptance. • Is required for stove comparison and analysis.

24


SNV Laos PTT3 Charcoal

Avg. weight: 12kg Production cost: USD 2.8 Retailer cost: USD 4.20 End-user cost: USD 5 Life span: 2 years

Test Results Overview

mins g/min % g/litre watts

PTT3 Avg. 14 6 35% 46 3105

TD Avg. PTT3 vs Tao Dam. 18 25% Decrease 4 42% Increase 39% 10% Decrease 46 0% Increase 2269 36% Increase

Time to reach 93°C from boil Thermal efficiency Firepower

mins % watts

41 30% 2532

36 21% 1892

13% Increase 39% Increase 33% Increase

Total time taken Fuel remaining Water remaining all pots

mins g litres

55 77 788

54 153 1168

1% Decrease 50% Decrease 32% Decrease

Phase

Measurements

Units

1. HIGH POWER TEST (COLD START)

Time to boil pot #1 Burning rate Thermal efficiency Specific fuel consumption Firepower

2. LOW POWER (SIMMER)

1. END

Additional Test Results AWBT: Report Testing Estimated efficiency Estimated fuel saving CCT: SNV Laos Vientiane Total fuel consumption (kg) Fuel saving Total time Time saving

Bill of Materials

PTT3

Tao Dam

32% 23%

25%

95.1 19% decr. 78 3% incr.

120.9 76

No. Part Ref. Material 1 Clay PTT3 clay mould Rice husk char Rice husk ash 2

PTT3 bucket

0.5mm sheet steel

3

Insulation layer

Sand Rice husk ash

4

Concrete seal

Concrete

5

Grate

Same as clay mould

6

Refractory lining

Clay Rice husk ash

Parts 2 1 1

1 12

1 5

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Asia’s Improved Cook Stoves

SNV Laos PTT4 Charcoal

Avg. weight: 8.6kg End-user cost: USD 3.5 Life span: 2 years

Test Results Overview

mins g/min % g/litre watts

PTT4 Avg. 12 9 29% 56 4516

TD Avg. PTT3 vs Tao Dam. 18 32% Decrease 4 93% Increase 38% 24% Decrease 46 22% Increase 2269 98% Increase

Time to reach 93°C from boil Thermal efficiency Firepower

mins % watts

42 37% 2474

36 21% 1892

16% Increase 74% Increase 30% Increase

Total time taken Fuel remaining Water remaining all pots

mins g litres

51 67 650

54 153 1168

7% Decrease 57% Decrease 44% Decrease

Phase

Measurements

Units

1. HIGH POWER TEST (COLD START)

Time to boil pot #1 Burning rate Thermal efficiency Specific fuel consumption Firepower

2. LOW POWER (SIMMER)

1. END

Additional Test Results AWBT: Report Testing Estimated efficiency Estimated fuel saving CCT: SNV Laos Savanna khet Total fuel consumption (kg) Fuel saving Total time Time saving

26

Bill of Materials

PTT3

Tao Dam

35% 30.45%

25%

85.1 19% decr. 83 18% incr.

104 101

No. Part Ref. Material 1 Clay PTT3 clay mould Rice husk char Rice husk ash 2

PTT3 bucket

0.5mm sheet steel

3

Insulation layer

Sand Rice husk ash

4

Concrete seal

Concrete

5

Grate

Same as clay mould

6

Refractory lining

Clay Rice husk ash

Parts 2 1 1

1 12

1 5


GERES Myanmar, Pathein IPV5

Avg. weight w/ bucket: 10.6kg End-user cost: USD 4-5 Life span: 1 year

Test Results Overview

mins g/min % g/litre watts

IPV5 Avg. 20 3 53% 33 1456

Trad. Avg. 21 4 40% 44 1927

IPV5 vs P.Trad. 2% Increase 20% Decrease 24% Increase 23% Decrease 24% Decrease

Time to reach 93°C from boil Thermal efficiency Firepower

mins % watts

44 20% 2799

37 20% 2595

15% Increase 3% Increase 7% Increase

Total time taken Fuel remaining Water remaining all pots

mins g litres

64 77 983

58 77 1100

10% Increase 0.00% 12% Decrease

Phase

Measurements

Units

1. HIGH POWER TEST (COLD START)

Time to boil pot #1 Burning rate Thermal efficiency Specific fuel consumption Firepower

2. LOW POWER (SIMMER)

1. END

Additional Test Results AWBT: Report Testing Useful energy Useful energy increase Estimated efficiency Estimated fuel saving AWBT: GERES Myanmar Estimated useful energy Useful energy increase

Bill of Materials No. 1

Material Part number Path. std. clay Clay Rice husk char mould/grate

2659

Not shown in picture

Pathein Std. bucket

0.5mm sheet steel

25.57

Not shown in picture

Insulation

Cement

IPV5

Trad.

2923 9% 28.1 9%

2593 25%

2066

Parts 2 1

Note: The disparity in results from the AWBT in Myanmar can be attributed to the baseline stove selected for trial. As there is no previous standardisation between the created Pathien traditional cook stoves, the performance greatly differs as shown, from one stove to the next, which clearly highlights the importance to the end user of QC processes in production.

27


Asiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Improved Cook Stoves

Reviewing Charcoal Testing Results Fire Power Vs High Power Thermal Efficiency As can be seen in Graph A, the lower the fire power the higher the efficiency which is also supported in Graph B â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the highest efficiency stove at 58% is the slowest burning and takes the longest time to boil water. On the other end of the spectrum is the stove with the lowest high power thermal efficiency at 30% with quickest TTB and greatest fire power. A final check to see whether this was resulting in a greater mass of fuel being burned showed that it was all relative as depicted in Graph C and a similar mass is burned off whether it is an 11-minute or 23-minute boil time. Reviewing Emissions All stoves, whether baseline or ICS, 19 tests in total, were conducted under the PEMS hood to record CO, CO2 and PM2.5 emissions. The graphs shown below are a representative of all the results seen from start to finish. In all cases, CO levels were Tier 0 and PM Tier 3-4 consistently. Without the addition of forced secondary air to improve CO combustion, these levels could be assumed to be consistent in future tests on similar stove models. The initial spike to PM2.5 during the lighting stage was caused by the high resin starter fuel and once fully extinguished, PM2.5 levels become almost non-existent.

A

B

C

High Power: Firepower Vs Thermal Efficiency

High Power: Time to Boil Vs Efficiency

High Power: Time to Boil Vs Burn Rate

CO2 and CO Emissions During Test

CO2 CO background cold start hot start simmer

28


Particulate Matter Emissions, Pot Temperature, and Relative Humidity during Test

PM pot temp. RH background cold start hot start simmer simmer temp.

Effect of Fuel Remaining Low Power Graph D and E are representations of the ‘low power’ results with the ‘fuel remaining (charcoal)’ left in. From the perspective of the tester, this seemed inconsistent with visual observations and the question was asked: “If a stove has X amount of fuel remaining which can no longer be used for the task at hand should it be accounted for in thermal calculations? In actual use, is the remaining char used or saved to provide useful energy at a later time, or is the remaining char not used and discarded?” These questions need to be addressed during the baseline study, however from personal experience the char it is noted that char is left to burn out if not further topped up. Graphs F and G show the change in Low Power thermal efficiency patterns when ‘fuel remaining’ is discounted from the calculation and assumed as spent fuel. The results are much more consistent with what is happening. From the perspective of the user, utilising as much of the energy as possible is anticipatedly more desirable than having 140-180g of charcoal left that won’t transfer heat to the pot. At present, there are ongoing discussions about

D

Low Power: Water Remaining Vs Thermal Efficiency (Char Remaining)

E

Low Power: Fuel Remaining Vs Thermal Efficiency (Char Remaining)

F

Low Power: Fuel Remaining Vs Thermal Efficiency (Char Removed)

G

Low Power: Water Remaining Vs Thermal Efficiency (Char Removed)

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Asia’s Improved Cook Stoves

Phase

Measurement

Units

IPV5 CoV

PTT3 Path. Trad. Avg. CoV

PTT4 CoV

TD. CoV

1. HIGH POWER TEST (COLD START)

Time to boil pot #1 Burning rate Thermal efficiency Specific fuel consumption Firepower

mins g/min % g/litre watts

15% 28% 13% 16% 28%

10% 18% 19% 22% 18%

11% 19% 12% 11% 20%

27% 43% 26% 29% 41%

6% 3% 6% 9% 2%

2. LOW POWER (SIMMER)

Time to reach 93°C from boil Thermal efficiency Firepower

mins % watts

1% 1% 2%

19% 14% 19%

2% 5% 5%

13% 34% 20%

14% 8% 11%

1. END

Total time taken Fuel remaining Water remaining all pots

mins g litres

4% 15% 3%

11% 20% 7%

4% 20% 9%

8% 11% 11%

8% 15% 11%

13%

17%

11%

25%

9%

REVIEW

the validity of the low power thermal efficiency as a metric and as such low power thermal efficiency is recorded as ‘low power specific fuel consumption’. This recording system for the WBT 4.2.3 sheet does not seem to be set up for charcoal stoves as all achieved Tier 0, which appears to be inconsistent with direct comparative findings. Reviewing Result Inconsistencies As can be noted from the results of the charcoal testing, when entered into the WBT 4.2.3 calculations sheet, CoV in certain cases far surpasses the 10% threshold as recommended. The test parameters removed as many variables as possible and a 4th test was conducted on each stove as a check against the previous three once discrepancies were noted. The final entered results were the three closest tests per stove. Only the Tao Dam CoV is close to consistent. The assumed reason for this is that whereas the other stoves were tested over four days with subsequent rotation of charcoal, the Tao Dam was completed over a single day. The charcoal was therefore collected from a single layer of the fuel bag and may have had more consistent qualities. These inconsistencies can be explained/supported by referencing the results of previous tests carried out by SNV Laos into the issue of charcoal effects on stove performance; the following results were found for estimated efficiency: Size of charcoal lumps: large vs small 1) Large pieces are slower to boil water than smaller (+53%) 2) Large pieces last longer (+33%) 3) Large pieces are overall less efficient (-5.9%)

30

Charcoal quality: high vs low density 1) Density of good quality charcoal is higher (+24%) 2) Good charcoal is slower to burn and lasts longer (+18%) 3) Good quality has higher efficiency (+7.9%) Quality from the same bag: good vs bad 1) Tester identified good charcoal has higher efficiency (+4.3%)

Charcoal Test Conclusions The testing of charcoal stoves performance is heavily reliant on the consistency of the charcoal being used, which makes it very difficult to achieve consistent results for replicable validity. The AWBT and CCT are therefore shown to be the greatest indicators of stove performance and the best way of reducing CO is therefore linked to reducing fuel use. As has been clearly demonstrated emissions results are consistent for ICS without forced air and therefore these results could be assumed for future tests with similar stove models. Apart from emission, reduction in fuel use has the potential also to reflect back through the value chain to a reduction in charcoal production as demand decreases. It is estimated that in traditional beehive kilns, roughly 6kg of wood are required for 1kg of charcoal and.


Wood Stove Testing Protocol

Stoves Tested

The ICS stoves being promoted by SNV, GERES and one selected by CARE India were tested as fit for purpose at the RENMI testing facility in Laos to assess stove performance and emissions of PM2.5 and CO during a typical single dish cooking task by the end user. The protocol used closely resembled the AWBT with minor modifications made to allow for assessment of the stoves’ performance at the end of each phase. The baseline for all stoves in rural settings is the traditional three-stone or mud stove which under the ISO IWA 011 rating system achieves Tier 0 for all parameters.

SNV Laos • WS2 Myanmar • A1 traditional India • Local fixed rocket stove

Modifications

Reason

Justification

2 litres only boiled for test

• Initial AWBT showed that some stoves struggled to bring 3 litres of water to the boil. • Stoves are designed for 2-3 litres, as that is the requirement of end users. • 2 litres selected as it has the same mass as used for charcoal tests.

• All calculations in WBT 4.2.4 sheet are still reported as an average across all parameters both for stove performance and emissions. • 2 litres is closer to household cooking requirements and shows realistic readings of emissions: highest levels of pollutants given off during ‘cold start to boil’. • In Laos, during charcoal CCT for a single dish, highest water volume used was two litres. • In Myanmar, only one litre of water is boiled at a single time.

Single test run for each stove prior to official recording of emissions to record char remaining at time of boil

• To minimise as much as possible disruption to the testing procedure which may adversely affect results as only one ‘high power phase’ was recorded. • Time saving.

• Wood is standardised from a single source and a type selected for testing with uniform density and calorific value. • Across tests, ‘char remaining’ was consistently around 4-8% of fuel consumed regardless of stove. • Removal and recording of the char is typically only recorded at the end of the cold phase in the WBT 4.2.3 protocol and assumed to be consistent for hot start.

Set quantity of wood used over two phases: cold start and simmer

• The full WBT 4.2.3 protocol takes approximately 2-3 hours to complete a single test, which, due to technical difficulties (repeated power outages), was not feasible in the allotted time. • Testing protocol is more closely based on the AWBT protocol to represent actual end user usage behaviour. • Cold start has the lowest efficiency as the stove body absorbs more heat.

• SNV Laos has conducted extensive testing of stoves from around the world using both AWBT protocol and WBT; from experience there is very little difference in the final results. • Stove performance parameters are calculated with the base of time vs fuel vs water evaporated. • Emissions rates are calculated mass of emission vs time. • All parameters are maintained in testing.

Wet fuel moisture content 17-19% of wood fuel instead of recommended ≤15%

• Due to testing being conducted during the monsoon season in Laos, the wood was purchased 3 weeks prior to planned testing. • Wood was stored in a dry facility but due to humidity failed to dry sufficiently.

• It was deemed better to have a uniform wood source across testing than to change the source to local, which is inconsistent in quality and source, as well as having much higher moisture content.

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Asia’s Improved Cook Stoves

GERES Myanmar, A1 Standard

End-user cost: USD 2-4 Life span: 1 year Do you use the same amount of firewood? • “Much less but can’t quantify” • “She saves much fuel. She would say 50%”

Test Results Overview CoV

mins g/min % g/litre watts

A1 Std. Avg. 12 17 26% 114 4787

Time to reach 93°C from boil Burning rate Thermal efficiency Specific fuel consumption Specific energy consumption Firepower

mins g/min % g/litre kJ/litre watts

24 10 32% 102 1703 2910

9% 9% 5% 3% 3% 9%

Water remaining Total time taken

litres mins

1302 37

2% 4%

Phase

Measurements

Units

1. HIGH POWER TEST (COLD START)

Time to boil pot #1 Burning rate Thermal efficiency Specific fuel consumption Firepower

2. LOW POWER (SIMMER)

1. TEST END

Additional Test Results CCT: GERES Myanmar Total fuel consumption (kg) Fuel saving Total time Time saving

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5% 8% 2% 8% 8%

The baseline for the A1 standard is the threestone or iron bar fire, high power thermal efficiency levels for such are rated as <15%. It can therefore be assumed that there is a minimum 70% increase in thermal efficiency against the baseline.

Bill of Materials

A1 ICS

3-stone fire

No. 1

Part ref. A1 clay mould/ grate

Material Clay Rice husk char

586 40% decr. 241 6% decr.

974

Not shown

Binding rings

0.5mm sheet steel

227

Not shown

Refraction layer

Clay Rice husk ash

Parts 2 1

1 5


Textile and garment industry

CARE India Local Stove

End-user cost -standard: $US 5 End-user cost - chimney: $US 8 Life span: 4-5 years Based on feedback, two new models have been developed: 1) with chimney 2) with dual pot rests

Test Results Overview

Bill of Materials

CoV

mins g/min % g/litre g/litre kJ/litre watts

India Avg. 12 17 28% 107 114 1894 4822

Time to reach 93°C from boil Burning rate Thermal efficiency Specific fuel consumption Specific energy consumption Firepower

mins g/min % g/litre kJ/litre watts

18 13 25% 100 1669 3,620

31% 18% 17% 15% 15% 18%

Water remaining Total time taken

litres mins

1438 30

11% 22%

Phase

Measurements

Units

1. HIGH POWER TEST (COLD START)

Time to boil pot #1 Burning rate Thermal efficiency Specific fuel consumption Temp-corrected specific consumption Temp-corrected specific energy consum. Firepower

2. LOW POWER (SIMMER)

1. TEST END

6% 5% 7% 2% 2% 2% 5%

No. 1

Part ref. Inner chamber hold

Material 20mm*3mm* varying lengths cast iron

2

Side/Front panel

Clay (1000g) White concrete (50g)

3

Powdered glass (50g)

4

Securing ring

0.3mm sheet steel

Not shown

Insulation

Sand

Not shown

Bricks

Clay

Not shown

Covering

Mud/Red sticky sand

Due to prototype build errors, the testing results for the India stove were inconclusive. Only two tests recorded suitable results for comparison, though on low power, issues were noted. It is believed that this is due to sand loss through gaps as firing was carried out. Initial results however do show promise and efficiency is expected to rise as heat would have been adsorbed by damp clay and sand during testing â&#x20AC;&#x201C; with the inclusion of the chimney this will greatly reduce indoor emissions and already meets Tier 2 for high power thermal efficiency, however with correct experienced construction could potentially reach Tier 3.

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Asia’s Improved Cook Stoves

SNV Laos WS2

End-user cost: Life span:

USD 5 1-2 years

“The wood feed tray of the WS2 is detachable as a result of producer, not user, feedback. Before when fixed, it limited the number of stoves they could transport effectively at any one time. The concrete base is taken from the original design and used to lower the centre of gravity to minimise risk of tipping either through human-applied pressure or large sticks being fed.”

Bill of Materials No. Part ref. Material WS2 clay mould Clay 1 Rice husk char Rice husk ash 2

WS2 bucket

0.5mm sheet steel

3

Concrete base/ seal

Concrete

4

Insulation layer

Sand Rice husk ash

Parts 2 1 1

No. Part ref. Grate 5 6

Refractory lining Clay Rice husk ash

7

Wood feed tray

CoV

mins g/min % g/litre g/litre kJ/litre watts

WS2 avg. 10 15 34% 82 87 1449 4163

Time to reach 93°C from boil Burning rate Thermal efficiency Specific fuel consumption Specific energy consumption Firepower

mins g/min % g/litre kJ/litre watts

37 8 37.8% 108 1798 2108

12% 13% 8% 15% 15% 13%

Water remaining Total time taken

litres mins

1183 47

6% 10%

Measurements

Units

1. HIGH POWER TEST (COLD START)

Time to boil pot #1 Burning rate Thermal efficiency Specific fuel consumption Temp-corrected specific consumption Temp-corrected specific energy consum. Firepower

2. LOW POWER (SIMMER)

1. TEST END

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1 5

0.5mm sheet steel and 5mm iron rod

1 12

Test Results Overview Phase

Material Parts Same as clay mould

11% 1% 7% 13% 13% 13% 1%

The baseline for the WS2 is the three-stone or iron bar fire for rural areas; high power thermal efficiency levels for such are rated as <15%. It can therefore be assumed that there is a 120% increase in thermal efficiency against the baseline and the WS2 is only 1% off being a Tier 3 ICS under this testing procedure with highest recorded efficiency across all three tests being 37%. It is generally seen, though not always, that the hot start phase of the WBT 4.2.3 has a higher thermal efficiency and may have averaged the stove >35% making this a Tier 3 stove for thermal efficiency.


Reviewing Wood Testing Results Emissions Review A representative of results from A1 Standard is shown to provide a visual understanding of the patterns of emissions during a typical cooking processes. As can be seen clearly, the greatest spikes in CO and PM2.5 are predominantly created after adding the pot for the first time. This is assumed to be due to the sudden restriction of air to the combustion chamber and after a short period, the fire/cook/ stove adjusts. Additional spikes are noted when fresh sticks are added or adjusted to redirect heat to the pot; once the testing enters the Low Power simmer phase, there is very little disruption to the fuel as, under this testing constraint, the quantity of fuel was relatively low. Interestingly, the emissions for PM2.5 were in direct contrast to the High Power thermal efficiency results: High Power Thermal Efficiency (%)

High Power PM2.5 (Tier)

Low Power PM2.5 (Tier)

A1 standard

24

3

3

India stove

27

2

3

WS2

34

1

2

As was anticipated, CO levels are exceptionally high, with only the A1 Standard achieving Tier 1 for high power CO. As previously mentioned in the charcoal review, none of these stoves are forced air models (the encouraged addition of oxygen to the combustion chamber) or natural draft TLUD stoves, which would result in higher conversion to CO2. Fuel Savings The only completed CCT for wood-fuel ICS is the A1 Standard which shows a direct fuel saving of 40% for the end user against the traditional three-stone fire in Myanmar. Under the testing protocol applied, the A1 Standard had the lowest high power thermal efficiency which is very encouraging overall as it can be safely assumed that the WS2 and India stove will have a greater impact in reducing fuel consumption against TCS, once CCTs are conducted. Conclusions Like with the charcoal, the key benefits of the wood ICS are fuel saving and PM2.5 emission reduction. Without the added technology of forced or encouraged secondary air to increase oxygen, it is very difficult to lower the CO levels, though the addition of a chimney to the India stove will greatly reduce exposure. As both the A1 Standard and WS2 are portable, this means that end users can be encouraged to cook in more ventilated areas without inconvenience.

CO2 and CO Emissions during Test

CO2 CO background cold start hot start simmer

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Asiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Improved Cook Stoves

Particulate Matter Emissions, Pot Temperature, and Relative Humidity during Test

PM pot temp. RH background cold start hot start simmer simmer temp.

The fuel saving potential for the end user is extremely high against the TCS and is one of the key drivers for adoption with the potential knock on effects in terms of health and savings in time/finance that are typically promoted by intervention actions. It would be advised to conduct an additional round of testing with the full WBT 4.2.3 2 phase to verify results and findings, especially in respect to efficiency vs PM2.5 levels.

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Section D: Production, QC/QA and Next Steps Clay ICS Production

Supporting Documents

All clay stoves and pottery tend to follow the same process of production with the obvious changes being tools required and the final design of product. Contained in this Section is a step-by-step guide to the production of Laos ICS to complement technical and tool drawings. Definition of a Mineral: a solid inorganic substance of natural occurrence. What is Clay? In general terms, clay is formed by the breaking down of minerals such as quartz, carbonates and metal oxides into fine-grained particles of <2μm (micrometres).

Clay ICS Production • GERES: Technical training of a1 standard and monitoring training • GERES: Clay Mixing Technical Drawings Ensuring Quality Control • SNV Laos Quality Monitoring System, https://www. youtube.com/watch?v=DlD17Gw08As&t=15s • SNV Laos SDT Sheet: 28-02-2017-QM1-lot-a1.xl • GERES Myanmar A1 Std Quality Control Promotion Tools of ICS • SNV, Teune (2016), A Recipe for Success in the Dissemination of Improved Cookstoves - a Case Study from Lao PDR. • CARE India: Brief note on SHE School

Clay Mixture Preparation

Grate Moulding

Stove Body Moulding

Grate Punching

Stove Body Trimming

Drying Process

Drying Process

Dried Punched Grate (Ready for Firing)

Dried Stove Body (Ready for Firing)

Firing Stove Body and Grate

Fired Stove Body and Grate

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Asia’s Improved Agriculture and Cook natural Stoves resources

Interesting Properties of Clay 1) Most clays have an affinity for water with particle sizes capable of swelling up to 100% their original size when exposed, and then releasing the moisture as the environmental state changes (drying). 2) When placed in water, clay will act similarly to a gas state in a closed room, as it will disperse evenly throughout the water to create a slurry. 3) The surface atoms of clay are positively charged (have free electron spots) and will therefore exchange and share electrons with others. It is this property that allows it to bond to and transport organic matter; this can be seen in the use of ceramics as water purification filters.

Step 1: Clay Mixing Rice husk char and ash are key additives which are traditionally created by open burning rice husk which results in the release of GHGs. Creating a simple oil drum gasifier limits the release of GHG emissions and allows greater volume production of RHA as RHC will self-extinguish once volatile material (combustible gases) are used up, the use a fan means the RHC will continue to burn until only ash left.

Photo: SNV

Step 2: Forming the Stove Body Raw Mould The table shown is adapted to fit the needs of the user. This table has been fitted with a rotation and locking mechanism for ease of trimming before removal.

External Mould

Inner/Pot Rests

Photo: SNV

Photo: SNV

Where does it form? Most clay minerals form in locations where larger rocks are in contact with water, air or steam. Typically, therefore, we find clay deposits in the following areas close to or above the earth’s surface: • Weathering rock formations • Soil horizons • Continental and marine sediment • Geothermal fields • Volcanic deposits

Clay Mixing: is traditionally done by kneading with the feet, however for time and labour savings and to ensure a homogeneous mix of clay and additives, the use of a machine is recommended. Clay-mixing machine design from GERES Myanmar.

Grate Rest

Creating the stove mould: due to varying clay properties and shrinkage factors, the blade on the butterfly mould is fastened with bolts – this allows the producer to alter the position to suit and additionally increase product life as the part wears. It is recommended to put a layer of rice husk ash around the inside of the mould before adding clay for ease of removal at the end.

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Photo: SNV

Step 3: Forming the Grate and Initial Drying Fresh homogenous mixed clay has an average moisture content of 25% which sits between clay particles â&#x20AC;&#x201C; this is evaporated by slow uniform drying out of clay, out of direct sun light. Initial drying time is typically 2-3 days depending on weather conditions.

Photo: SNV

Photo: SNV

Photo: SNV

Step 4: Stove Trimming and Grid Punch Trimming/punching occurs once the stove body harden enough to be workable without deformation but not too hard to cause cracks in the mould. Stoves may also be partially dipped in a pure clay water solution for aesthetics as seen in Laos.

Step 5: Further Drying After forming, the stove bodies and grates need to be further dried prior to firing. The stove bodies must dry slowly, otherwise they may become distorted because some parts of the body may dry faster than others. Also, uneven drying may cause tension to build up inside the stove body. Drying typically takes a further 12-15 days.

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Asia’s Improved Cook Stoves

Photo: Myanmar Cook Stoves project

Step 6: Kiln Firing After the stove bodies and grates have been moulded and dried, they are fired to increase their strength. Stoves are loaded into the kiln in 3-4 layers, depending on the kiln’s capacity and model. Typical kilns at the village level use wood as a fuel source.

Typical kiln in Myanmar, Meiktila.

Photo: SNV

Photo: SNV

Photo: SNV

Step 7: Bucket Production Stove outer buckets made in Laos are constructed from a variety of materials and production methods vary by supplier or producer. Materials seen include low cost sheet steel, paint tins, etc.

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Step 8: Adding Insulation Layer A layer of insulating material of RHA and sand is added to the base to minimise heat loss downwards – this can be used to raise and align the internal stove body so that air inlet matches with the bucket. Once satisfied with the height, a concrete seal is added around the air inlet to stop insulation falling out during packing and then another seal added around the top once the sides filled.

Step 9: Adding Grate and Refractory The adding of the grate and refractory layer is the last stage in the stove build. Ideally, the refractory layer should be 7-10mm thick to ensure full vitrification on firing with charcoal. Wood stoves struggle to reach temperatures high enough to vitrify the silica contained in the RHA and it is recommended to fire with 50g of charcoal to vitrify the silica improving strength and thermal properties.


Ensuring Quality Control Ensuring that the quality of the manufactured ICS is maintained is essential for long-term sustainable uptake by the local households. If, after all the hard work conducted through R&D, producer training and marketing the stove is sub-standard as a result of not maintaining a quality control system, consumer confidence can be lost quickly and the anticipated benefits, whether fuel savings or emissions, become obsolete. SNV Laos Quality Monitoring System: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DlD17Gw08As&t=15s Definition Quality Control: is the operational techniques and activities that are used to fulfil the requirements for quality and maintaining standards. Quality Assurance: is the properly planned and systematically implemented activities within a quality system, and demonstrated as needed, to provide adequate confidence that a producer fulfils the entire requirements for producing a quality product. Steps to Ensuring Quality Standardise • Production Tools • Production Process • Training Procedures Shrinkage Factor Testing • Clay is typically purchased/collected in large volumes. Before mass production with a new clay source shrinkage tests should be carried to give producers an indication of the parameters for setting tools and limit rejection through breakage or failure to pass SDTs.

Frequency Every three to four months, a random selection of five stoves should be collected from the producer and tested to ensure quality products are still going to market and identify if further support is required. How to Measure 1) Standard Dimension Tests of key design features: Dimensions are rated on a scale of 5-0 with (5 being 0 variance and 0 ≥ 5mm) • Combustion chamber • Pot rest height/exhaust gaps • Air inlet • Grate dimensions • Etc. Producers are given a batch production score: Laos ≥50 points Myanmar ≥45 points 2) AWBT: Estimated efficiency Laos: ≥35% Myanmar: ≥26% A Label of Quality Once producers have passed QC and QA in Laos, they are presented with a certificate of excellence and promotional stickers for their ICS products. This allows the end user to easy identify and associate the stove with a quality brand and high performing ICS as well as assisting aftersales monitoring for the project.

41


Asia’s Improved Cook Stoves

Promotion Tools of ICS SNV Laos SNV & GERES Myanmar have utilised the a range of techniques to great effect. Working directly with existing manufacturers, retailers, women’s union groups and medium outlets to ensure consumer confidence in the ICS, strong brand promotion and awareness activities. Examples of activities conducted nationwide include: Promotion Activities: • QA stickers • Billboards • Leaflets • Word of mouth • User workshops • Lucky draws • Advertisements • T-Shirts • Social media

Care India, Promotion of ICS by SHE Schools Change through empowerment and inclusion “One of the most significant constraints in sustainable ICS adoption has been the lack of a learning methodology that is consistent, empowers and enables communities to make good management decisions around clean energy transitions, encourages and supports a culture of learning and adaptation and generates high quality data that can be used to document the advantages of and advocate greater support for sustainable energy transitions. In this backdrop, SHE schools are promoted in each project village based on the Farmer Field School (FFS) approach to lay an ideal foundation for triggering learning and participatory experimentation leading to appropriate product development and acquisition, with due attention to aspects like cooking traditions, user engagement, gender dynamics, culture and religion to bring about correct and consistent use, and sustainable adoption of clean cooking technologies.” Understanding through action “Each SHE school has a tenure of 12-months’ duration in synchronisation with seasonality aspects covering all the seasons within a year. The SHE schools have 30 sessions spread over a year and carried out per the session calendar. The sessions are broadly organised under areas like functioning and relevance of SHE schools, challenges cooking in traditional cook stoves, clean energy options, ICS testing and reflection, features and promotion of improved cook stoves and so on. Each SHE school has two fixed dates in a month

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when sessions are conducted in a place and time convenient to and decided by the members. Each SHE school maintains a register where proceedings of sessions and events organised in SHE school platform are recorded. The session materials are mostly in pictorial form to enable SHE champions and the members to understand and easily grasp the information/messages. The sessions follow a mixed methodology of classroom deliberations and on-field practical exercises like cooking sessions in improved cook stoves and traditional cook stoves to understand the benefits of ICS and problems with TCS.” (Extracts taken from CARE India, Brief note on SHE Schools.)


Final Conclusions The Value of the ICS We can measure the success factors and impacts of the ICS in two ways, quantitative and qualitative.

Author’s Note When it comes to clean cooking solutions there are a vast number of designs and options available. The challenge is to bring the stove which meets the needs and requirements (behavioural, financial & social) of the end user/ community for consumer driven up take. Although there are quantifiably higher performing stoves available the value of ICS should not be overlooked in bridging the first gap to cleaner cooking in low income or BPL countries. With significant fuel reduction capabilities, reductions in PM2.5, job creation, empowerment of locals and an affordable end product that can be locally/sustainably produced they create valuable steps to improving quality of life in a vast number of ways. Each of the project implementers reviewed are striving towards, achieving and surpassing these goals and would like to thank each for their support and sharing of knowledge without which this report would not have been feasible. I wish all continued success.

Quantitative Summary Fuel Savings: The charcoal stoves have the hardest benchmark to compete against and show direct minimum savings through the CCTs of 19% over traditional char stoves for the PTT3 and PTT4 with up 18% savings in cooking time. The wood stoves also show huge improvements and potential in reducing fuel consumption with minimum recorded savings during CCT testing of the A1 standard of 40%. Emissions: Testing has shown that wood-based ICS can reduce PM2.5 emissions over the TCS significantly and the charcoal all but eliminates it in accordance to the IWA 011 benchmarks. Through the reduction of fuel use for both charcoal and wood, along with education in cooking in ventilated spaces, it is expected that the CO exposure to the cook can also be significantly reduced. Quality through life expectancy: Traditional models in Laos have an expected life span of 1-3 months and Myanmar <1 year. Now with the ICS, end users can expect quality products with life spans of up to two years. Reduced Expenses: For the end user, they are seeing an increase in personal finances as a result of fuel reduction and stove frequency purchase with production sales and monitoring showing that people are willing to spend the slightly higher cost for the long-term rewards in Laos PDR. Improved margins: The sales price of the promoted stoves in Laos and Myanmar are slightly higher than the traditional cook stoves but they have greater profit margins which benefit and incentivise the producer and retailer. The increase in product life does not currently appear to have hampered production volumes as more consumers take up the stove.

Testing Summary The laboratory tests are invaluable for understanding the emissions that can’t be observed directly. Careful consideration should be given to how much emissions dominate the selection processes of ICS that do not incorporate forced or encouraged secondary air. Although the protocols followed in the testing for this report are slightly modified to account for external factors such as time, comparison, etc., the results still show a clear improvement in PM2.5 though minimal in CO over TCS. The Un/Controlled Cooking Test and consumer feedback are the clearest real-time tools to understanding the impact potential of a basic combustion ICS.

Qualitative Summary At the core of each project is the word ‘Empowerment’ and stove interventions achieve this in a variety of ways that can’t always be measured but can be noted: • The empowerment of women through the project involvement and training. • The increase to financial gains through new ICS sales. • The training in Quality Control and finance management of producers. • The improved quality of life as a direct result of financial and time savings in fuel. • Customer product confidence and value for money.

Approach Assessment There is no set ‘one size fits all’ masterplan to stove selection and dissemination. Only guidelines and continuous learning can contribute to decision making. As was shown each of the project implementers has taken a slightly different approach to stove selection and dissemination with accompanying advantages and challenges. Each carried out thorough baseline analysis of the requirements of the end user, local supporting networks and team capacities before arriving at their plan of action. So, which is the best? The answer is all of them in their direct scenario whether that be social, economic, demographic or environmental.

• These are just a few examples identified though every project implemented brings its own unique qualitative impacts.

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Photo: Myanmar Cook Stoves project

Asia’s Improved Cook Stoves

Nearly three billion people around the world burn wood, charcoal, animal dung or coal in open fires or in inefficient stoves for daily cooking and heating. Reliance on inefficient cook stoves and polluting fuels contributes to a wide range of environmental problems including deforestation, loss of biodiversity, air pollution and climate change. At the same time, daily exposure to noxious smoke from traditional cooking practices is one of the world’s biggest – but least well-known – killers, leading to more than four million premature deaths a year. This study collates insights across the countries with EU SWITCH-Asia funded cook stoves projects, sharing observations and implementation progression to date of each. This report describes in detail the common baselines and project cook stove designs, analyses the laboratory testing results, and describes the projects’ intervention strategies undertaken. This study intends to contribute to discussions in the international cook stove domain and to the challenging task to reduce significantly the adverse impacts of traditional cooking practices around the world.

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Asia's Improved Cook Stoves  
Asia's Improved Cook Stoves  
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