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Switzerland in its diversity


Table of Contents Geography    

Facts and Figures Topography and Climate Towns Transport Network

Politics    

Federalism Direct Democracy Government and Parliament Foreign Policy

Science  Switzerland – A Research Nation  Swiss National Science Foundation / Support for Research

Education  Swiss Education System  Third-level Education

Economy  Structure and Competitiveness  Sectoral Composition  Work and Employment

People    

Demography Linguistic Diversity Multicultural Switzerland Quality of Life

Culture     

Music Museums Architecture Painting and Sculpture Religion and Customs

History : Timetable

Environment     

Biodiversity Water Forests Recycling / Waste Management Energy Policy

1


Geography: Facts and figures 41,285 km2, or 1.5‰ of world‟s surface area. Maximum distances:  North-South: 220 km  West-East: 348 km

Source: Swisstopo

2


Geography: Topography and climate Highest point: Dufour Peak (altitude: 4,634 m).

Main geographic regions

Lowest point: Lake Maggiore (altitude: 193 m).

1 Jura 2 Mittelland 3 Alps

Maritime climate north of the Alps; Mediterranean influence south of the Alps. Average temperatures for July:

Rivers

 Geneva: 19.3ºC

 Zurich: 17.6ºC  Lugano: 21.1ºC Longest glacier: Aletsch (approx. 23 km long).

3


Geography: Towns The 10 largest conurbations Conurbation Zurich

Swiss conurbations

Population 1,170,200

Geneva

521,400

Baslel

498,000

Berne

350,800

Lausanne

330,900

Lucerne

207,600

St. Gallen

149,600

Winterthur

137,000

Lugano

135,000

Baden-Brugg

115,700 Conurbations Spatial weighting as a function of the resident population in each municipality Source: SFSO, VZ 2000 / 漏 EPFL-Ch么ros / K2.6

4


Geography: Transport network Transport infrastructure – a priority: 5,100 km-long rail network, one of the densest in the world 71,500 km-long road network and 4 mn cars (514 cars/1,000 inhabitants) Access to the sea via the Rhine (Basel): 37-strong merchant fleet

Train, bus, tram, boat, aerial cableway and funicular railway stops Source: SwitzerlandMobility, 2011

North-South links through the Alps: 1882 Gotthard rail tunnel 1906 Simplon rail tunnel 1964 Great Saint Bernard road tunnel 1980 Gotthard road tunnel 2017 New Transalpine Rail Link (NEAT) through the Gotthard massif. At 57 km-long, it is the longest tunnel in the world. 5


Politics: Federalism 1848: Founding of the Swiss Confederation. Subsidiarity principle: Decentralised division of power and solving issues at the lowest possible level.

Federal state with three political levels:  federal government  canton  municipality

Solidarity: Fiscal transfers from richer to poor regions. Confoederatio Helvetica: Official Latin name of the Swiss Confederation.

Source: ThemaKart, SFSO

6


Politics: Direct democracy Instruments of direct democracy:

 popular initiative  optional referendum  mandatory referendum On average, four popular votes on a wide range of issues are held every year. Voting age: 18.

7


Politics: Government and parliament Legislative: Parliament with

 National Council (lower house, 200 members of parliament);  Council of States (upper house, 2 members of parliament per canton). Executive (government):  Federal Council: 7 members from several Swiss political parties. Federal Chancellery:  Assists and advises the Federal Council. Federal Chancellor is often referred to as the “eighth federal councillor”.

8


Politics: Foreign policy Switzerland is a member of various international organisations:  EFTA (since 1960)  European Council (since 1963)  OSCE (since 1975)  United Nations (since 2002) Swiss-EU relations are governed by a series of bilateral agreements. Neutrality and humanitarian tradition: cornerstones of Swiss foreign policy.  Neutral state (since 1815)  International Committee of the Red Cross ICRC (founded in 1863) 9


Science: Switzerland – a research nation Federal Institutes of Technology in Zurich (ETHZ) and Lausanne (EPFL): renowned worldwide for their research output. Two international research centres:  CERN (European Organisation for Nuclear Research) in Geneva; 8,000 scientists from 85 countries.  European laboratory of the high-tech company IBM in Rüschlikon (Zurich); 300 employees from 30 countries.

10


Science: SNSF/support for research Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) research areas:  Humanities and Social Sciences  Mathematics  Natural and Engineering Sciences  Biology and Medicine SNSF professorship programme facilitates the return of promising young researchers to Switzerland.

11


Education: Education system Responsibility for education is shared between the federal authorities, the Cantons and the communes. Decentralised school system. Compulsory schooling (9 years):

 Primary and lower secondary Post-compulsory schooling:  Upper secondary schooling based on a "dual system": Choice between vocational training routes (apprenticeship) and general education routes (preparation for the Matura) 60% of young people opt for the vocational training route. 12


Education: Universities and UAS “Bologna� system in all Swiss universities (Bachelor & Masters degree programmes).

Universities

UAS (Universities of Applied Sciences) education. 35% of 25- to 64-year olds are university graduates. 50% of students are women.

Swiss

UAS

Foreign nationals, educated in Switzerland Foreign nationals, educated abroad

Source: SFSO/Swisstopo

13


Environment: Biodiversity Over 50,000 species of plants and animals. Swiss National Park in the canton of Graubünden, established in 1914. Regional nature parks, e.g. Parc Ela. UNESCO biosphere reserves:  Swiss National Park (since 1979)  Entlebuch in the canton of Lucerne (since 2001)

14


Environment: Water Switzerland is Europe‟s reservoir: the Swiss Alps are the source of 6% of Europe‟s freshwater reserves. Switzerland has over 1,500 lakes. Glaciers cover nearly 3% of Switzerland‟s surface area. Protection of lakes and rivers written into the Swiss Constitution.

Tap water in buildings is as pure as bottled mineral water. Daily water consumption per head: approx. 400 litres. 15


Environment: Forests Forests cover 31% of Swiss surface area.

80,000 - 2% of Swiss employment - work in the forestry sector and timber industry. Tree line:  1,300 m altitude (Mittelland and pre-Alps)  1,900 m altitude (mountains) Forests are also essential for preserving the landscape. Wood is one of Switzerland‟s few abundant natural resources. 5 mn cubic metres are harvested every year.

16


Environment: Recycling/waste management Recycling:

Switzerland: “World Recycling Champion�.

Special recycling points provided free of charge. Incineration plants for all non-recyclable, combustible waste. The 29 Swiss incineration plants together generate enough electricity to power 250,000 homes.

17


Environment: Energy policy Two main planks of energy policy:

Energy consumption

 Reduce energy consumption  Promote the use of renewable resources

Switzerland imports 80% of its energy. CO2 legislation: reducing fossil fuel consumption.

Other renewable energies District heating Electricity Gas Fuel

Petroleum fuels Industrial waste Coal Wood Source: FOE

18


Economy: Structure and competitiveness Liberal market system. Major importer and exporter of goods and services. European Union (EU) is the most important trade partner. Well-developed industry and service provision (high-quality goods). High level of international competitiveness. High capacity for technological innovation.

19


Economy: Sectoral composition Service economy (banks, tourism, insurance, trade and commerce). 4%

99% of companies are small and mediumsized enterprises (SMEs), with a maximum of 250 employees. 24 %

Major exporter (machinery, chemicals, watches, jewellery).

72 %

20


Economy: Work and employment Big Mac Index 2010 Norway

7.2

Switzerland

6.19

Euro zone

4.33

Canada

4

Australia

3.84

USA

3.73

Japan

3.67

United Kingdom

3.48

Mexico

2.5

South Africa

2.45

Russia

2.33

China

 Average working week: 42 hours  GDP per capita (adjusted for purchasing power parity): USD 33,900.  Unemployment rate in 2010: 3.9%.  High female labour force participation, with most working part-time.  “Three-pillar” old-age insurance system: AHV (old-age and survivors„ insurance), pension fund and optional private savings scheme.

1.95

Price of 1 Big Mac in USD 21


People: Demography Population trends 2007

7.8 mn inhabitants Average fertility rate: 1.5 children per woman.

Densely populated, can vary from region to region. On average 189 people/km2. Life expectancy:  Women: 84  Men: 80 Men Women

Source: SFSO

22


People: Linguistic diversity Cultural diversity, strongly influenced by European neighbours.

Language regions

Four national languages:  German 64%  French 20%

 Italian 6%  Rumantsch 0.5%  Non-official languages 9%

Topography also shapes local culture and language.

German French Italian Rumantsch Darker shading = higher percentage Source: SFSO, VZ 2000 / © EPFL-Chôros / K4.11

23


People: Multicultural Switzerland Swiss foreign population by nationality

Nationality

Percentage

Italy

17.1

Germany

15.0

Portugal

12.3

Serbia

8.0

France

5.4

Turkey

4.2

Spain

3.8

Macedonia

3.5

Kosovo

2.5

Austria

2.2

Others

26.0

The culture of Switzerlandâ€&#x;s linguistic regions is influenced by neighbouring countries. Geography helps shape the cultural identity of Switzerlandâ€&#x;s regions Foreign residents: around 22% (children: over 25%). Foreign residents from Europe: over 85%. Foreign residents born in Switzerland: around 25%. Naturalised Swiss nationals: around 10%.

695,000 Swiss live abroad.

24


People: Quality of life Household expenses in % tax

12.4

health insurance

6.7

other insurance

11.7

housing and energy

16.2

transport

8.2

food and drink

7.2

restaurants and hotels

5.7

entertainment, recreation and culture

6.9

clothing and shoes

2.5

household items

2.9

health

2.6

communication

1.9

alcohol and tobacco

1.1

Around 65% of the population rent their home. Single-person households: approx. 37%. Good quality of life:  Personal safety  Welfare provision  Medical care  Public transport

25


Culture: Music

Diverse music scene. Internationally renowned musicians and Swiss bands.

Open-air rock and pop festivals (e.g. St. Gallen, Gurten near Berne, Avenches, Nyon). Jazz festivals (e.g. Montreux, Willisau, Berne). Classical music festivals (e.g. Lucerne, Gstaad, St. Moritz).

26


Culture: Museums Over 950 museums.

Annual visitor numbers: over 17 mn. Museums and galleries thanks to dedicated volunteers. Renowned museums at home and abroad designed by Swiss architects.

27


Culture: Architecture Peter Zumthor: Thermal Spa, Vals (top left). Annette Gigon and Mike Guyer: Kirchner Museum, Davos (top right). Herzog & de Meuron: Business Center Actelion, Allschwil (bottom left). Mario Botta: Church in Mogno (bottom right).

The services of Swiss architects are also in high demand abroad.

28


Culture: Painting and sculpture 19th/20th centuries: Albert Anker (top left), Arnold Böcklin, and Ferdinand Hodler. 20th century: Paul Klee (top right) and Alberto Giacometti. Installations by Jean Tinguely (bottom left) and Bernhard Luginbühl.

Playful art, e.g. by Meret Oppenheim (bottom right). Max Bill: the man behind “concrete” art.

29


Culture: Religion and Customs Religious affiliation Roman Catholic

41.8%

Protestant

35.3%

Muslim

4.3%

No religious affiliation Others

11.1% 7.5%

Many religious and seasonal customs/festivals. Great diversity, reflecting regional and local cultures.

Source: Population Census 2000

30


History of Switzerland  1291

Founding of Swiss Confederation

 1519

Beginning of the Reformation

 1798

Napoleon invades Switzerland

 1815

Congress of Vienna; Swiss permanent neutrality recognised

 1847

Sonderbund war

 1848

Founding of the modern Swiss state

 1914

First World War

 1918

General strike

 1939

Second World War: armed neutrality

 1978

Jura becomes Switzerland‟s 26th canton

 1999

Bilateral Agreements I

 2002

Switzerland joins the UN

 2004

Bilateral Agreements II 31


Thank you.


Sources/Copyright Graphs:

EPFL-Ch么ros; Federal Office of Energy (FOE) National Energy Statistics; Federal Office of Topography (swisstopo); Federal Population Census 2000; Swiss Federal Statistical office SFSO; ThemaKart. Photos: ABB, Actelion, Kaspar Bacher, Berne Tourism, Christine Blaser, Fribourg Tourism, Getty Images, Paul Helmle, ICRC, Imagepoint, IWC, Keystone, Lake Geneva Region, Lake Sempach Tourism, Montreux Jazz Festival, Paul Scherrer Institute, Presence Switzerland, Pro Litteris, swiss-image, Swiss Museum of Transport, Swiss National Science Foundation, Swiss Post, swissworld.org.

Catalogue - Switzerland in its diversity  

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