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ANNUAL REPORT SHARING INNOVATION


Facilitate research, technology transfer and commercialization initiatives

Business office: Place de la Cité, Tour Belle Cour 2590, boul. Laurier, suite 450, Québec, QC G1V 4M6 Telephone: 418-650-4300 Fax: 418-650-1626 www.swineinnovationporc.ca Graphic design: Communication Publi Griffe © Canadian Swine Research and Development Cluster ISBN 978-2-922276-64-0 (printed version) ISSN 1925-9689 Legal deposit– Library and Archives Canada, 2013

Swine Innovation Porc is a corporation of the Canadian Pork Council.

The Canadian Swine Research and Development Cluster is established within the Growing Canadian Agri-Innovation Program – Canadian Agri-Science Cluster Initiative of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC).


TABLE OF

CONTENTS MESSAGE FROM THE CHAIR

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MANAGEMENT REPORT

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RESEARCH PROJECTS

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TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER REPORT

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OUR RESEARCH PROGRAM AROUND THE WORLD

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BOARD OF DIRECTORS

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MANAGEMENT TEAM

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SCIENCE ADVISORY BODY

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GOVERNANCE STRUCTURE

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INDUSTRY PARTNERS

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PARTNERS IN RESEARCH

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ANNUAL REPORT 2012

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MESSAge FROM

THE CHAIR iville • Chair Claude M

2012: The wide ranging

project of strategic planning

In 2011 the Canadian Pork Council (CPC) confirmed their wish that Swine Innovation continues to play an active role over the next few years in developing a research projects portfolio targeting, among other items, the reduction of production costs, all the while ensuring the transfer of research results as efficiently as possible to the swine producers. To meet this mandate, the Board of Directors of Swine Innovation has initiated the enormous work of strategic planning that revolves around the following vision: • Swine Innovation is a group that demonstrates a thorough understanding of the Science and Innovation relevant to the needs of its partners; • Swine Innovation can help define how both Science and Innovation contribute to the attainment of the strategic planning of its partners, including the Canadian Pork Council; • Swine Innovation is a recognized effective enterprise for developing, together with various partners, a portfolio of relevant research projects and transferring the results to producers quickly. The strategic planning is built upon these four pillars: • Research: determining what research priorities are in line with the pork industry’s vision and creating a portfolio of research projects; • Coordination: coordinating swine research on a national level and maximizing leverage of research funding for better efficiency and synergy;

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• Succession: renewing research networks with the aim of attracting new researchers and forming the next generation of professionals in the industry’s service; • Transfer: searching for effective ways to transfer results quickly and efficiently and so, lead to real innovation.

Mobilization of the Board Members of the Board were mobilized to take an active role in this strategic planning exercise. I would like to thank John Webb, Jean Howden, Jean-Paul Laforest and Mike Teillet who undertook the thinking and discussions concerning each of the pillars. Members of the Steering Committee, meanwhile, kept their eyes on the big picture of the strategic planning process. In addition, we reviewed the working of the Board of Directors through the committees looking to improve the efficiency of management of the group’s activities and exploit the Directors’ capacity for strategic vision. Swine Innovation also adopted a policy of financial risk management to ensure a smooth transition from the current program to the new program that should be announced in the near future by the federal government. The Board also continued its policy of rapprochement with its provincial partners and with the scientific community. After the University of Saskatchewan and the University of Guelph in 2011, the Board held a meeting in the offices of Manitoba Pork. Board members had the opportunity to meet researchers from the University of Manitoba.


2013

A few results

The challenges for

Swine Innovation conducted an extensive planning and consultation exercise that culminated in a pan-Canadian meeting between researchers and industry partners last June. Swine Innovation identified six priority research areas for the pork sector and has launched a call for proposals for research projects from the Canadian community with regard to four of these priorities.

Swine Innovation is a mature organization that has acquired a certain renown. The challenge for 2013 is to ensure the smooth transition from the research program which ends March 31, 2013 to the new program that takes over from April of the same year.

Swine Innovation initiated a coming together of the Canadian Swine Health Board (CSHB) and Canada Pork International (CPI) to encourage the realization of research projects in swine health and market research (consumer expectations, characteristics). Swine Innovation has managed to obtain the acceptance of the vast majority of provincial associations of swine producers to contribute to a national levy to fund the new research program in swine production.

Swine Innovation will also deploy its strategic planning to intervene on key issues in the Canadian pork industry.

Acknowledgments In closing, I wish to convey my gratitude for the exemplary work of the Directors during the past year. My thanks also go to the Swine Innovation management team who put all their enthusiasm into achieving the outcomes set by the Board of Directors.

We also took advantage of the forums given to us to drive home the importance of securing the next generation of scientists and qualified professionals. Even if we can claim to have 46 master’s or doctoral students associated with research projects funded by Swine Innovation, efforts must continue to attract the next generation.

Claude Miville Chair

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MANAGEMENT

REPORT • General M alardeau Pierre F

anager

It is with much pleasure and pride that I present here the third annual management report of Swine Innovation Porc. This year has been dedicated to four major activities: managing the current swine cluster program, implementing the new found research, strategic planning and preparing the swine cluster program for the next five years.

Research Program Now that our research program is nearing the final stage, the team is at work putting the newly generated knowledge into effect. The research activities are due for completion by December 31, 2012. Coordination was, once again, one of our major tasks. The management team prepared and submitted four Quarterly and Financial Activity Reports along with an Annual Report to Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) for the period 2011-2012. Over the course of this year, the Swine Innovation team has succeeded in visiting all the researchers. We submitted requests for funding for two essential projects. The Lead-User Project was submitted to the Agricultural Council of Saskatchewan (ACS.) and another project to the Conseil pour le développement de l’agriculture du Québec (CDAQ). The objective of this second project is to identify strategies designed to uniquely position the Canadian pork sector as a highly competitive and sought after supplier of domestic and international markets. We also worked with the Canadian Pork Council to investigate the type of research that could be undertaken for a potential health claim project.

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In June, we held two workshops in Montreal with producers and researchers from across Canada. This operation laid out the research priorities of the pork sector along with a sub-set of priorities for Swine Innovation. The report then led to the call for Letters of Intent which we launched in August.

Human Resources In addition to our two full time and 3 part time employees, one valuable new member joined the team this year. We appointed a Project Manager. This much-needed assistance was very welcome in carrying out the tasks mainly related to Technology Transfer.

Secretariat In order to achieve all the strategic objectives set out by the Board of Directors, a number of meetings took place. The management team was responsible for the preparation and coordination of one Annual General Meeting, five Board of Directors meetings, together with several committee meetings: one Audit, one Finance, one Strategic, two Steering and six Executive meetings. Following the Board meeting in January, the governance structure changed somewhat in order for the Board to assume a more strategic leadership role. The three committees that remain are the Executive, Finance and Audit.


Communications & Events

Conclusion

Several events were organized this year. Thanks in part to the collaboration of producers and researchers across Canada and a rigorous process, Swine Innovation has identified what the pork industry really needs to thrive.

The swine cluster research program finishes on March 31, 2013. Completing the program on time remains a challenge although we are confident that we will be able to finalize everything on time. During the course of the coming months, we will continue to provide support to researchers in completing their projects.

We also organised a reception where more than 80 collaborators, researchers, industry leaders and government shared their knowledge and exchanged their ideas and experience in a relaxed setting. In January 2012, Swine Innovation held a nutrition workshop over two consecutive days at the Banff Pork Seminar. Three researchers from our research program and who are involved in nutrition, presented preliminary results from their projects in the workshop to the more than 120 people who attended. A symposium on mycotoxins is planned for next December in Montreal, Quebec . The Technology Transfer team has also been very busy this past year, disseminating and communicating preliminary results through various media, electronic (e-newsletters and radio interviews), in-person communication (seminars and conferences before various industry stakeholders) and print (magazines, posters and pull-up banners).

Over the upcoming year, much time will be devoted to preparing the next five year swine cluster research program for AAFC’s Canadian Agri-Science Clusters Initiative, which should operate from 2013 to 2018. In conclusion, I would like to personally thank each and every member of the management team. Through your dedication and determination, you have contributed to the success of this year’s outstanding accomplishments. On behalf of the entire staff of Swine Innovation Porc, I would also like to acknowledge the commitment and much appreciated guidance of the Board of Directors. In particular, I would like to highlight the vision and ready availability of our Chair, Claude Miville. The management team is determined to continue its careful and persistent work and maintain its momentum in order to finish the current research program while also laying out plans for the next five years.

Pierre Falardeau General Manager

ANNUAL REPORT 2012

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EVENTS RESEARCH PRIO

RITIES WORKS

Banff Pork Seminar

Reception

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HOP


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The use of tools related to molecular characterization, systemic analysis of stakeholders and geomatics for identification of the principal vectors and of contamination by bacteria and viral indicators at farm and slaughterhouse level PROJECT LEADER Ann Letellier, University of MontrĂŠal, St-Hyacinthe, Quebec

PROJECT OBJECTIVE To identify vectors and microbial dissemination among herds and at a slaughterhouse using geomatics, systemic and genomic tools.

SUMMARY OF THE PROJECT The scientific literature contains very little information on sources of contamination outside the farm. In this project, we propose to investigate the route from farm to slaughterhouse as a first step toward better understanding the dissemination of contamination and the relationships between stakeholders regarding contamination. This first step will help the industry to improve biosecurity measures not only at the farm level but also at various stages in the food chain through to the slaughterhouse. Improving biosecurity is a guaranteed means of increasing long-term industry profitability and sustainability. Effective biosecurity at farm and industry levels is extremely important in mitigating the risk of introducing and/or spreading animal diseases. 10

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The project design is such that the anticipated results will be very useful to the Canadian pork industry because we aim to identify the main movements and traffic between farms and slaughterhouses in a specific area. Using microbial indicators, geospatial data (GPS), analysis and characterization of stakeholder interaction, we also intend to identify the main sources of contamination as well as the stages or practices and attitudes related to an increased risk of contamination. At project end, we intend to confidentially inform all levels of the pork industry food chain of the impact, if any, that each sector has on the spread of contamination. We will also recommend ways to reduce the risk and request that stakeholders become involved in the food safety process as a primary requirement for maintaining marketability and competitiveness.


Š nXstream Technologies Inc.

SIGNIFICANT ACHIEVEMENTS The network studied includes one slaughterhouse, ten farms, animal delivery trucks, feed supplier, veterinarian, technicians and carcass or meat disposal facilities. Preliminary results are available on viral and bacterial indicators. 1. Viral indicators Preliminary results highlighted several hotspots of fecal contamination within the network. Viral strain genotypes will now be characterized and then matched with geospatial data. Once completed, the final and comprehensive results should provide possible mitigation options for pathogen dissemination in swine production networks. 2. Bacterial indicators Salmonella On the farms, preliminary results indicated that landing stage, followed by the mobile units were the best places for Salmonella contamination detection. Mobile units are very similar to receiving pigs in landing stage activities. Salmonella was found on eight farms.

Š University of MontrÊal

We also took samples from different spots on the mudguards on the trucks. Samples from the truck cargo liner were 71% positive for Salmonella, making it the most contaminated location. Results from samples in the slaughterhouse yard showed 15 different types of Salmonella with Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella infantis the most prevalent. Detection of Salmonella typhimurium was significantly higher in the places connected to animal delivery and carcass disposal. These preliminary original results will be looked at from a biosecurity perspective in a slaughterhouse-farm network with vehicles identified as the contamination vector of Salmonella from the farm and back. Escherichia coli Preliminary results indicate that Escherichia coli stx1 (shiga toxin of group 1) was found on various objects and tracks at the slaughterhouse but rarely on the farms. This strain of Escherichia coli is rarely found in pigs, but more commonly in cattle and other ruminants. Its presence at the slaughterhouse could reflect contamination of mobile vectors in contact with these animal species. Monitoring for this factor might indicate transmission from the slaughterhouse to associated farms. More results will be available at the end of the project.

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Sow Housing: risk factors and assessment techniques for lameness, productivity and longevity in group and individually housed gestating sows

PROJECT LEADERS

SIGNIFICANT ACHIEVEMENTS

Nicolas Devillers, Dairy and Swine Research and Development Centre - Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC), Sherbrooke, Quebec

Preliminary results are available for some aspects of this project.

Laurie Connor, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba

A force plate scale was successfully developed at the Dairy and Swine Research and Development Centre – AAFC. Initial results indicate that it allows accurate measurement of weight distribution on each limb of a sow. As sows tend to put less weight on an affected limb, preliminary results indicate that the force plate scale could become an effective tool for early detection and measurement of lameness. Preliminary results also indicate that analgesia could relieve the pain associated with lameness. Results of further validation will be available at the end of the project.

PROJECT OBJECTIVE Assessment of risk factors affecting the productivity and longevity in gestating group housed sows, and over a variety of management systems, with a special focus on lameness.

SUMMARY OF THE PROJECT In the transition to group housing of gestating sows, the ability to identify the risk factors affecting sow welfare and longevity in the herd becomes increasingly critical for assurance of animal well-being and economic viability. The research proposed here will use conventional and new technologies to identify factors, such as social rank, lameness, nutrient balance and early reproduction management, that impact sow welfare and longevity in the herd. By assessing the relationships of these factors to lameness and longevity, reliable tools for early identification of lameness and temperament traits can improve animal selection for particular housing conditions, provide valuable data for validation of a sow investment longevity model and thereby contribute to economic viability of the pork sector.

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1. New methods for measuring lameness

First results showed that the infra-red thermography techniques employed up to now in the project to measure lameness cannot distinguish between characteristics of no lameness and slight lameness (score 1). Further work will aim to refine these techniques. 2. Factors contributing to sow lameness, productivity and longevity Temperament traits Preliminary results on assessment of sow temperament indicate strong correlations between various temperament tests. However, the results also suggest that each test assesses a different temperament dimension. Additional analysis will examine the relationship between temperament traits and productivity in different management systems. Calcium-phosphorus balance and bone density Preliminary results show a correlation of 0.49 between muscle density and muscle adiposity. More work will be done on estimation of muscle density as it is a significant factor affecting bone strength.


© AAFC, Sherbrooke

© University of Manitoba

© AAFC, Sherbrooke

ANNUAL REPORT 2012

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© AAFC, Sherbrooke

© AAFC, Sherbrooke

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© AAFC, Sherbrooke

© AAFC, Sherbrooke


A study on the efficiency of water sprinkling in the truck after loading and prior to unloading at two different environmental temperatures on core body temperature and carcass and meat quality in pigs

PROJECT LEADER

SIGNIFICANT ACHIEVEMENTS

Luigi Faucitano, Dairy and Swine Research and Development Centre - Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC), Sherbrooke, Quebec

Two pot-belly trailers, one outfitted with a custom-made sprinkler system and one control, were used for this study. Two hundred and eight pigs per trailer were transported two hours to slaughter. The sprinkler system released approximately 125 liters of water immediately before departure from the farm and immediately before unloading at the plant.

PROJECT OBJECTIVE This project aimed to provide the pork industry with a clear procedure to be employed on the truck in warm conditions, with the intention of limiting animal losses during transportation and improving pork quality.

SUMMARY OF THE PROJECT This study was to evaluate the efficiency of water misting in a stationary vehicle on core body temperature and carcass and meat quality in pigs and, by assessing variation in temperature and humidity inside the truck, to identify the most appropriate average temperature (between 15 째C and 25 째C) to obtain the maximum efficiency. In addition, these aspects were also examined: ammonia level variation, core body temperature variation in pigs, stress indicators in blood at exsanguination, the behavioral response of pigs in the truck (at unloading and in lairage) and carcass and meat quality.

According to the results, water sprinkling in the stationary truck can help alleviate some of the stress associated with transport at ambient temperatures above 23 째C. The pigs transported in the sprinkled trailer had a lower core body temperature on arrival at the plant. They also spent more time lying down during lairage. Furthermore, sprinkling did not affect slips or falls by the pigs during unloading. Starting water sprinkling at 20 째C can also reduce pig fatigue at slaughter and improve meat quality in pigs located in some compartments. This project should have a definite influence on transport practices as its recommendations are now included in the training handbook of the Canadian Livestock Transport Certification Program.

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A comparison of three animal welfare assessment programs on Canadian swine farms

PROJECT LEADERS

SIGNIFICANT ACHIEVEMENTS

Tina Widowski, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario

Preliminary results are available on inter-observer reliabilities for different measures.

Penny Lawlis, Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Woodstock, Ontario

PROJECT OBJECTIVES • Compare three on-farm animal welfare programs as they pertain to Canadian farms: - Canada’s Animal Care AssessmentTM (ACA) - USA’s Pork Quality Assurance® (PQA) Plus - EU’s Welfare Quality® Assessment • Determine inter-observer reliabilities for different measures included in each of the assessments.

SUMMARY OF THE PROJECT This project involves the collection and analysis of data from swine farms across Canada (Ontario, Quebec, Manitoba and Saskatchewan) in order to identify the practical implications of applying each of three animal welfare assessment programs on Canadian swine farms. Results of this project will allow us to determine the concordance (agreement) among the different programs in ranking farms and to investigate the repeatability among observers for different measures that may be included in the Canadian ACA. The project will also provide baseline data on the status of Canadian farms and their compliance with all three on-farm animal welfare assessment programs.

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Standard measures used in animal welfare assessments include resource-based measures (RBM), managementbased measures (MBM) and animal-based measures (ABM). RBM are obtained by observing the facilities, for instance non-slip flooring in walkways. MBM are obtained by interviewing farmers and checking records, for example a written or posted euthanasia plan. ABM, such as body condition score, are obtained by observing the animals. Preliminary results indicate that RBM and MBM generally have a higher agreement among observers, than the ABM. When using two different scales to compare two similar ABMs, such as body condition score, the simpler ABM displayed greater reliability. Surprisingly, some measures that should have had a clear yes or no answer showed variability. The wording of questions or the personal standards or experience of observers may have affected responses. Results of this study can be used to identify the best measures and revise training programs for on-farm animal welfare assessments.


Use of non-penetrating captive bolt for euthanasia of neonate, suckling and weaned piglets up to 9 kg

PROJECT LEADERS

SIGNIFICANT ACHIEVEMENTS

Tina Widowski, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario

Results indicate that the Zephyr was highly effective for euthanasia of piglets up to 9 kg. In 98.6% of piglets immediate and sustained unconsciousness was arrived at, leading to death in a timely manner. Although technique varied slightly between stockpersons, this had no influence on the effectiveness of the method.

Suzanne Millman, Iowa State University, Iowa, USA

PROJECT OBJECTIVE Investigate the effectiveness of the modified design of the non-penetrating captive bolt for euthanasia of neonates, as well as older piglets.

SUMMARY OF THE PROJECT The project aim is to determine the maximum weight of suckling pigs so that the Zephyr non-penetrating captive bolt effectively induces rapid loss of consciousness, to determine the maximum weight of suckling pigs so that the Zephyr non-penetrating captive bolt effectively, quickly and consistently leads to death and to develop appropriate restraint techniques that support use of the Zephyr for piglets up 9 kg.

Š University of Guelph

The post-mortem damage assessment confirms that damage was present throughout the brain with both surface and tissue haemorrhage present. Although haemorrhage severity decreased as weight increased, damage was still sufficient in all weight categories to cause insensibility and death. A Portable Collapsible Animal Restraint Sling was used as the restraint device. The sling worked very well in combination with this euthanasia technique. Piglet welfare and stockperson safety improved thanks to reduced handling stress enabling the worker to focus on safe and controlled use of the equipment for an effective, humane euthanasia. Although the Zephyr is not yet commercially available, training materials for on-farm use have been created.

Š University of Guelph

ANNUAL REPORT 2012

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© IRDA

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© IRDA

© IRDA


Development of an innovative air cleaning system for swine buildings

PROJECT LEADER

SIGNIFICANT ACHIEVEMENTS

Stéphane P. Lemay, Research and Development Institute for the Agri-Environment (IRDA), Québec, Quebec

The first two phases of the project, laboratory-scale ATU development and evaluation and combination of a biofiltration treatment with the ATU, have been completed.

PROJECT OBJECTIVE The overall objective of this project is to improve the acceptability of swine facilities in rural areas by reducing their potential environmental impacts.

SUMMARY OF THE PROJECT This project is designed to develop air cleaning technology that will reduce the offensiveness of the exhaust air from swine grower-finisher facilities. This technology should improve the mutual acceptability among residents and production facilities. More specifically, the project will measure reductions in odour, gases and pathogens (including a model pathogen) obtained with a laboratoryscale air treatment unit (ATU) under various operating conditions. Three empty bed residence times, two types of biotrickling filter media and two liquid solution flow rates will be tested. This will lead to the design of an ATU capable of reducing odour, gas and pathogen emissions exhausted from new or existing swine buildings while providing low capital and operating costs and minimum maintenance requirements. Researchers will also measure reductions in odour and gas emissions from the combination of the ATU with a biofiltration treatment using the optimised ATU operating conditions. The ideal ATU configuration will then be tested in a commercial-scale swine facility.

For the various operating parameters tested, preliminary results indicate that the main observable differences in performance were for the removal of ammonia (NH3). After a start-up period of 10 to 30 days, the NH3 removal efficiency of the ATUs improved rapidly, attaining a maximum value of up to 75%. Subsequently, the performance decreased gradually until the end of the trial, reaching values as low as 10%. The accumulation of inorganic nitrogen salts in the recirculation liquid is thought to have partially inhibited the microorganisms. If these salts are actually inhibitory, their concentration in the recirculation liquid will have to be controlled in order to maintain long term NH3 removal efficiency, so that the ATU is viable for farm applications. Preliminary results for odour removal were inconsistent, varying from -30 to 90%, and the effect of the operating parameters is unclear at this point. Further data analysis is required. Preliminary results for the viral surrogates (non-pathogenic phages) show that the aerosolized particles containing the phages are poorly captured by the ATUs. This may be due to the relatively small size of the particles produced by the nebulizer (0.8 µm). The final experimental phase of the project, evaluation of a commercial-scale ATU in an actual swine barn, took place during summer and fall of 2012 at the Prairie Swine Centre.

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Development of an innovative precision farming system for swine

PROJECT LEADER

To achieve these objectives, a number of activities were undertaken:

Candido Pomar, Dairy and Swine Research and Development Centre - Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC), Sherbrooke, Quebec

1. Model the metabolism of phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca) and develop a system approach so as to estimate individual daily requirements for each pig

PROJECT OBJECTIVE

2. Modify current feed formulation programs for simultaneous optimization of two premixes with environmental constraints and optimal nutrient density

To acquire the required scientific knowledge to feed pigs individually with tailored daily diets for optimal management of feed and animals and institute the numerical procedures necessary for development of a fully automated commercial precision feeder system for swine.

SUMMARY OF THE PROJECT

3. Study the individual feed intake patterns for early identification of diseases 4. Update the current model for real-time prediction of feed intake, weight gain and nutrient requirements 5. Calibrate the model for optimal formulation of lysine and threonine 6. Evaluate the economic and environmental impact of precision feeding systems

This project will provide useful information and significant insights about swine nutrition and the benefits of precision feeding techniques obtained through automation and intelligent management of feeding and animals. Animal studies were performed though some are still to come to modify current feed formulation programs for the simultaneous optimization of premixes, including: • Environmental constraints • Study of individual feed intake patterns for early identification of diseases • Updating the current model for real-time prediction of feed intake, weight gain and predicting nutrient requirements The model will be calibrated for optimal formulation of lysine and other essential amino acids, as well as for phosphorous and calcium. Lastly, the project evaluated the technical, economic and environmental impact of precision feeding systems under commercial conditions. 20

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© Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada


© Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada

© Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada

© Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada

SIGNIFICANT ACHIEVEMENTS Preliminary results are available for some of the activities. Model the metabolism of phosphorus and calcium and develop a system approach to estimate each pig’s individual daily requirements A first model simulating the metabolic fate of dietary phosphorus and calcium in growing pigs has been developed. The model is consistent when predicting an increase in P absorption, excretion and retention flows, while P concentration in soft tissue remains fairly fixed when Ca is not limiting for bone mineralization. The model is helpful for fine-tuning P and Ca levels depending on the economic and feeding contexts. P and Ca metabolic regulation has to be included in further model improvements. Update the actual model for real-time prediction of feed intake, weight gain and predicting nutrient requirements

© Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada

and nutrient requirements of each animal and the optimal dietary energy and nutrient concentrations by taking into account the change in animal intake and growth. The proposed model can be integrated into feeders and supply each pig with tailored daily diets. Evaluate the economic and environmental impact of precision feeding systems Evaluation showed that the transition from a conventional to a precision feeding system would lead to savings associated with new methods of feed formulatio associated with new methods of feed formulation and manufacture, a more efficient use of phosphorus and amino acids and a significant reduction in the nitrogen and phosphorus content of manure. Initial trial results indicated that, with this proposed precision feeding system, the nitrogen and phosphorus intake of pigs was reduced by 25% and 29% respectively, while excretion of these same nutrients was reduced by nearly 40%. These preliminary results confirm previous numerical simulations.

A new model able to accurately monitor the real-time average feed intake and feed weight trajectory of each individual animal was developed and evaluated. Basing the model on these trajectories and using classical factorial equations, enables estimation of both the energy ANNUAL REPORT 2012

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Evaluation and Development of Standards for Swine Production Systems

PROJECT LEADERS Lee Whittington, Prairie Swine Centre, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan Bernardo Predicala, Prairie Swine Centre, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan

PROJECT OBJECTIVES • To develop a methodology for analyzing the cost/benefit of system optimization and standardization that can be applied to commercial swine farms. • To ensure that concepts identified in this project can be translated to the farm, providing a competitive advantage to Canadian pork producers.

SUMMARY OF THE PROJECT The project comprises five distinct phases. Firstly, to evaluate existing standards developed in other industries and estimate the value they bring to their respective industries. Can such approaches to standardization be applied to pork producers and do pork producers stand to gain from lessons learned in other industries? Secondly, to benchmark current systems in operating swine barns (i.e. ventilation & heating) to determine

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both operating efficiency and operation expenses, and to identify strategies to improve the operation. For example, benchmarking may lead to approaches for better energy use. According to preliminary research, utility cost per pig shipped varies by a factor of 4 between highly efficient and less efficient farms. Thirdly, the project also evaluates the existing standards for livestock barns and current codes of practice for swine production to determine if they still meet the requirements of modern pig production. More specifically, we will look at the impact of major changes over the past 20 years in pig genetics (body weight, growth rate, reproductive capacity, etc.), management practices (stocking density, space allowances, etc.), technology (building materials, barn equipment, etc.) and welfare demands, among others. Also, the adequacy of the existing standards and codes, many established decades earlier, will be examined to determine if they still satisfy the requirements of modern pig production. Fourthly, to investigate opportunities for system standardization and optimization on-farm. This will involve developing a methodology for evaluating an operation and identifying what systems are not fully optimized. This is particularly important given there are so many different types of production systems in Canada. And lastly, to survey the industry to identify problems in design and operation that may lead to the development of new or modified standards or codes of practice that reflect the current environment under which modern pig production takes place.


© Prairie Swine Centre

SIGNIFICANT ACHIEVEMENTS The five most significant systems in the production of pork were identified as: • Physical building: space allocation, animal housing, penning, flooring • Mechanical systems: feed storage, distribution, water treatment, heating/ventilation • Animal handling: hallways, handling/loading facilities • Electrical systems: lighting, ventilation, pumps and motors

A review of scientific literature found no significant information on benchmarking, thereby reinforcing the novel approach used in the project to assess system design and operating efficiencies. It also means our methodology does not have the advantage of learning from others. With the analysis of standards and review of benchmarking literature completed, the evaluation of opportunities to reduce operating costs or improve efficiency for the five systems was undertaken. When complete, the project will have identified the top five or six areas in the barn where there are knowledge gaps preventing effective standards from being developed.

• Waste systems: manure, mortality disposal We completed a thorough analysis of the current in North American standards (and some European) for the five systems. The result is substantial and provides a significant original overview of pork production standards.

ANNUAL REPORT 2012

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Novel swine feeding programs to enhance competitiveness and pork differentiation: The Canadian feed & pork value chain

PROJECT LEADERS Ruurd Zijlstra, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta Kees de Lange, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario Eduardo Beltranena, Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development, Edmonton, Alberta Andrew Van Kessel, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan

PROJECT OBJECTIVE To develop knowledge to support a unique Canadian feed management strategy and feed ingredient database for optimum productivity that also considers nutrient excretion, reduced antibiotic use during the growth phase, and pork quality. This unique database combines digestibility and bioavailability trials and novel feedstuff analyses.

SUMMARY OF THE PROJECT In this research program, underlying mechanisms of nutrient absorption, energetic efficiency, and nutrient interactions will be explored to a) support growth performance; b) produce uniform and consistent carcass quality; and c) support opportunities for product differentiation based on pork quality, reduced environmental footprint, reduced antibiotic use, etc. Collected data on feedstuff characteristics will be integrated into a growth model, and will be validated using performance trials in commercial swine facilities.

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Feedstuff data Novel feeding programs require novel feedstuff information. Reaching a predictable growth and carcass composition starts with a credible feedstuff database for feed formulation. New knowledge on digestible and net energy is required about the new co-products that have become available recently to reduce feed costs and control quality of pork products. Furthermore, starch digestion and fiber fermentation kinetics and the impact on intestinal microbiota, gut health, and environment (zoo-pathogens/nutrients) should be defined. Model New knowledge of nutrient digestibility and utilization in growing pigs described in mathematical equations will be integrated into an existing biological and dynamic pig growth model. This model demonstrates principles of nutrient utilization in growing pigs and evaluates the environmental and economic impact of alternative pig management strategies that reflect variation in feeding levels, feed ingredient composition, pig performance potentials and carcass grading schemes. Validation Live animal performance and carcass and pork quality are the best validation tools available for assessing the effects of changing the feedstuff composition and formulation strategy of pig diets. To confirm that novel feeding programs result in unique pork quality and other value-added attributes, validation trials will be conducted with grower-finisher pigs under research and, ultimately, commercial conditions.


Š University of Guelph

SIGNIFICANT ACHIEVEMENTS FEEDSTUFF DATA 1. Co-product digestibility and enzymes (Leader: Ruurd Zijlstra, University of Alberta) R. Jha, A. Owusu-Asiedu, P. H. Simmins, A. Pharazyn, R. T. Zijlstra. Microscopic matrix and in vitro degradation and fermentation characteristics of wheat co-products from flour milling in the pig intestine. Use of co-products from wheat flour milling (WFM) in pig diets may ameliorate high feed cost. However, digestibility of WFM is lower than feed grains, with limited information about its fermentation characteristics and matrix structure. In vitro degradation and fermentation characteristics of 6 WFM samples were studied. The results suggest matrix structure, fiber components and crude protein (CP) were associated with degradability and fermentability of WFM. Thus, treatments targeted to reduce the impact of fiber and protein may increase the digestibility and fermentability of wheat co-product from flour milling. R. Jha, J. Li, M.R. Bedford, C.R. Christensen, T. Vasanthan, R.T. Zijlstra. Microscopic matrlx and in-vitro pig model fermentation of wheat and corn distillers dried grains with solubles with supplemental carbohydrases and proteases. Digestibility of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) by porcine enzymes is lower than that of grains. The physico-chemical basis for the difference is poorly understood. The results indicated that carbohydrases unlocked the fiber-starch-protein matrix better for fermentation than carbohydrases+proteases, indicating that the substrate for carbohydrases hinders degradation of the DDGS matrix. The matrix of cDDGS is less imbedded and hence more fermentable than wDDGS.

Š University of Guelph

S. Moehn, R.T. Zijlstra, R.O. Ball. Net energy of Canadian feedstuffs in growing finishing pigs. The objective was to determine the energy content of diets based on Canadian feedstuffs of major importance for pig production. Diets containing barley, wheat, corn, field pea, soybean meal, zerotannin faba bean, canola meal or corn DDGS were formulated so that dietary methionine (pea, bean) or lysine (other feedstuffs) content limited protein deposition to similar rates to minimize its impact on dietary net energy (NE) determination. The results demonstrated the ranking of energy content was similar for feedstuffs within the three energy systems. The estimated NE contents were 12.4 MJ/kg (wheat), 11.7 MJ/kg (corn), 11.6 MJ/kg (barley), 11.5 MJ/kg (field pea), 10.3 MJ/kg (soybean meal), 10.1 MJ/kg (faba bean), 8.5 MJ/kg (DDGS) and 6.5 MJ/kg (canola meal). 2. Starch digestion and fiber fermentation (Leader: Ruurd Zijlstra, University of Alberta) R. Jha and R. T. Zijlstra. Physico-chemical properties of purified fiber and starch sources affect their in-vitro fermentation characteristics. An in-vitro model was used to study the fermentation characteristics and shortchain fatty acids (SCFA) production of four purified fiber and starch sources differing in physico-chemical properties in two separate studies. Results confirmed the physico-chemical properties of fiber and starch type affect fermentation kinetics and SCFA production (in vitro) and influence the NPA of glucose, GLP-1 and insulin production (in vivo). R. T. Zijlstra. In vitro starch digestion of feedstuffs. For 50 feedstuffs samples that contain starch (cereal and pulses), in vitro starch digestion kinetics were determined using a previously developed technique (Van Kempen et al, 2010.) The database was developed.

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J.L. Yanez, S. Moehn, R.O. Ball, T.A.T.G van Kempen, R.T. Zijlstra. High vs. low amylose starch increases methane and volatile fatty acid production and reduces energy retention in pigs. The energy contribution of starch is usually considered constant among starch types. However, starch chemistry can impact its kinetics of digestion and fermentation and thus net energy content. The results indicated high amylose starch increased CH4 production and reduced NE content due to increased fermentation instead of digestion. A. D. Woodward, P. R. Regmi, M. G. Gânzle, T. A. T. G. van Kempen, and R. T. Zijlstra. Slowly digestible starch influences mRNA abundance of glucose and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) transporters in the porcine distal Intestinal tract. The relationship between starch chemistry and nutrient transporters in the intestinal epithelium is not well known. The results indicated slowly digestible starch increased ileal glucose and decreased ileal SCFA transporter messenger RNA abundance, possibly due to an increased presence of glucose in the lumen of the ileum. Effects of starch on colonic SCFA transporter mRNA abundance were inconsistent, with slowly digestible starch increasing monocarboxylic acid transporter-1 (MCT1) but decreasing Na+-coupled monocarboxylate transporter (SMCT). J.M. Fouhse, M.G. Gânzle, P.A. Regmi, T.A.T.G. van Kempen, R.T. Zijlstra. Increasing amylose content of starch shifts bacterial populations in the cecum and colon of weaned pigs. After weaning, pigs have an unstable microbiome and compromised gut integrity, which can lead to gut disorders. We hypothesized that increasing dietary amylose shifts microbial profile in the cecum and colon and changes gut morphology. The results indicated manipulating dietary amylose content altered the microbial profile of Lactobacillus spp. (LAC) in the cecum and colon and Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyrmonas (BAC) in the colon; however, amylose content did not affect crypt depth and villus height. 3. Intestinal microbial composition (Leader: Andrew Van Kessel, University of Saskatchewan) A first study demonstrated that diets containing high levels of heat damaged soybean meal induce an inflammatory response and modulation of the epithelial barrier in colon on weaned pigs. The response did not appear to be ameliorated by the fibre type and amount chosen (sugar beet/ wheat bran.) The practical significance of the observed inflammation response was potentially twofold. Firstly, the increase in mucin secretion, cell turnover and immune activity could represent a significant maintenance nutrient cost limiting nutrient availability for growth. Secondly, and potentially more importantly, the response may compromise the ability of the pig to respond to enteric infection.

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A second study was carried out to confirm the inflammatory response to diets containing a high level of heat damaged soybean meal and to extend this finding to another protein source, namely pea meal. Further, diets were formulated using one of two hulless barley varieties differing in β-glucan content. It was anticipated that β-glucan within the cereal matrix would reach the colon and modify fermentation differently from the primarily insoluble fibre provide in the previous diets. Statistical analysis and analysis of intestinal contents and mucosa are underway. 4. Liquid feeding of grower pigs – in vitro steeping and fermentation studies (Leader: Kees de Lange, University of Guelph) A series of in vivo studies has been completed to establish optimum levels of fiber degrading enzymes and microbial inoculants to enhance the nutritional value of wheat shorts and DDGS. The variation in nutritional value of 84 DDGS samples collected from seven corn-based ethanol plants that supply DDGS to Ontario was evaluated. There was considerable variability, which underscores the importance of identifying simple predictors of nutritional value. MODEL 5. Liquid feeding of grower pigs - Model development (Leader: Kees de Lange, University of Guelph) Recent activities undertaken to support model development include: • Completion of metabolism studies to evaluate the dynamics of body protein and body lipid deposition in entire males pigs immunized against gonadotrophin releasing hormone for controlling boar taint • Lead in development of software to estimate nutrient requirements of different categories of swine, and under varying conditions, published in the NRC (2012) publication ‘Nutrient Requirements of Swine’, and introduced at the American Society of Animal Science (ASAS) and the Canadian Society of Animal Science (CSAS) meetings (July 2012) • Evaluation of video image analyses for non-invasive and real-time monitoring of commercial pig growth performance • Conclusion of a series of nutrient metabolism studies to evaluate the impact of immune system stimulation on utilization of methionine plus cysteine and tryptophan for body protein deposition New knowledge of nutrient digestibility and nutrient utilization in growing-finishing pigs has been integrated in an existing biological and dynamic pig growth model, PorkMaster.


VALIDATION 6. Validation of the net energy value of wheat distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) for growing-finishing pigs under commercial scale conditions (Leaders: Ruurd Zijlstra, University of Alberta, Eduardo Beltranena, Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development) French researchers have developed equations based on chemical analyses for predicting the net energy (NE) value of feedstuffs. However, these were derived for complete diets, not for feedstuffs. Using equations to predict the NE value of feedstuffs is the most economic and speedy method compared to indirect calorimetry or serial slaughter. For producers to realize the potential for large feed cost savings and profit associated with high dietary inclusions of wheat DDGS in growout diets, it is imperative to empirically validate the NE value of wheat DDGS under commercial conditions. We fed 1056 growout pigs housed in 48 pens by sex from 30 to 120kg diets including 30% wheat DDGS assuming NE values of 1.5, 1.7, 1.9, 2.1, 2.3 and 2.5 Mcal/kg over five growth phases. Based on preliminary feed intake and feed efficiency results, the NE value of wheat DDGS is not greater than 2.1 Mcal/kg. Backfat to loin depth either measured by real time ultrasound of near market weight pigs or by light differential reflectance in warm carcasses did not reflect assumed differences in the NE value of wheat DDGS. 7. Increasing dietary inclusions of yellow-seeded, expeller-pressed, juncea canola meal on pig growth performance, carcass characteristics and lipid composition of pork grown under commercial scale (Leaders: Ruurd Zijlstra, University of Alberta, Eduardo Beltranena, Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development)

8. Liquid feeding - pig performance studies (Leader: Kees de Lange, University of Guelph) A series of finishing pig performance studies were conducted to assess the response to exogenous enzymes in pigs fed wheat shorts based diets. When evaluating the response to enzymes in pigs fed wheat shorts based diets pigs were assigned to treatments according to a 2 x 2 factorial design (liquid and conventional dry feeding; with or without added enzymes.) The results indicated an interactive effect of feed form and the use of enzymes on growth performance, except for ADG. In general, pigs on liquid feeding performed better than pigs on conventional dry feeding, while the response to added enzymes was not significant. In this experiment, it appeared that the higher growth rate achieved in pigs on dry feeding increased body fat deposition and reduced estimated carcass lean content. In a second liquid feeding performance study the effect of liquid feeding DDGS steeped with exogenous enzymes and inoculants on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass and meat quality in finishing pigs were determined. The results confirm steeping DDGS with enzymes, inoculants, or a combination of both increased lactic acid content in the liquid fraction, body weight gain and feed intake. It also resulted in an increase in apparent digestibility of ash and a numerical increase in apparent digestibility of crude protein. Hot carcass weight, back fat depth, loin depth and estimated carcass lean yield did not differ among treatments. This study suggests that the combined use of exogenous enzymes and inoculants is more effective at enhancing the feeding value of high fibre containing co-products in liquid-fed finishing pigs.

The dietary energy value of conventional dark-seeded canola meal (Brassica napus) is considered low because of its relatively high fiber and low oil content. B. juncea is a novel yellow-seeded canola species with thinner seed coat and therefore lower fiber content. If seeds are expellerpressed rather than solvent-extracted, residual oil remains in the meal (12 – 17%) and higher dietary energy value can be expected. Extrusion prior to expeller-pressing could reduce effects of glucosinolates by inactivating the seed enzyme myrosinase and increase both fat and AA digestibility. To evaluate effects of feeding increasing (0, 5, 10, 15, 20%) inclusions of extruded + pressed (EP) B. juncea meal on pig growth performance and carcass traits, 1,056 pigs housed in 48 pens by sex were fed 0, 5, 10, 15, 20% B. juncea meal over 5 growth phases. In conclusion, increasing dietary inclusions of EP B. juncea meal up to 20% linearly reduced growth performance and carcass traits. The reduction in performance could be attributed to high 3-butenyl (10 ¾mol/g) content in EP B. juncea meal, a bitter glucosinolate than others found in dark-seeded B. napus canola meal.

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Novel nutritional strategies for optimum sow and piglet productivity

PROJECT LEADERS

Summary of the project

Martin Lessard, Dairy and Swine Research and Development Centre - Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC), Sherbrooke, Quebec

In this research project, various dietary means will be explored to:

Kees de Lange, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario Ron Ball, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta

PROJECT OBJECTIVE The ultimate goal is to develop unique Canadian feeding management strategies for optimum sow and piglet productivity, taking into consideration production efficiencies that include pig performance up to market weight, food safety, pig welfare and use of antibiotics. We shall investigate underlying mechanisms so that we capitalize on potential synergies between the different sow and piglet feeding strategies that are evaluated. Secondary goals are to further stimulate interactions among multidisciplinary (physiology, immunology, microbiology, nutrition) Canadian swine researchers in nutrition.

a) Best meet the nutrient requirement of sows during gestation and early lactation b) Stimulate the development and health of the gut, immune function and productivity of nursing and newly-weaned piglets, and c) Determine the long-term impact of post-weaning feeding strategies on growth performance and disease resistance up to market weight, as well as carcass and meat quality. To achieve these objectives, a number of activities will be undertaken in several different provinces: 1) The importance of in utero vs post-natal transfer of some vitamins and minerals in pig (Leaders: Jacques Matte and Martin Lessard, Dairy and Swine Research and Development Centre - AAFC, Quebec) This activity is designed to evaluate the importance of in utero and post-natal transfer of some vitamins of the B complex and minerals such as zinc and copper. 2) Development of novel feeding strategies aimed at improving gut development, defense functions, health and performance of piglets (Leader: Martin Lessard Dairy and Swine Research and Development Centre - AAFC, Quebec) This activity is designed to evaluate the influence of administering nutraceuticals (vitamins, trace minerals) and functional feed ingredients (cranberry, milk by-products, yeast-derived products, probiotics, prebiotics, essentials oil) during lactation and the peri-weaning period to best meet piglets’ needs according to their stage of development.

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Š Martin Schwalbe, courtesy AgMedia inc

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© Centre de développement du porc du Québec

3) Biomarkers to relate management of piglets post-weaning to subsequent growth performance, carcass and meat quality (Leader: Kees De Lange, University of Guelph, Ontario) This activity is designed to identify the relationship of diet quality and use of antibiotics with starter pig performance, on performance up to market weight, carcass and meat quality, and response to an immune challenge. This could also help in the development of simple tests on blood or selected tissues (biomarkers) that could be used to predict the impact of starter pig management on productivity of growing-finishing pigs, including susceptibility to disease challenges. 4) Sow nutrition during gestation (Leader: Ron Ball, University of Alberta, Alberta) This activity is designed to obtain information on 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th limiting amino acids for sows and discreet values for the requirement of 3rd limiting amino acids for gestating sows. As well, this activity could help in identifying information on appropriateness of the phase feeding program and prepare a recommendation to the industry.

SIGNIFICANT ACHIEVEMENTS 1) The importance of in utero vs. post-natal transfer of some vitamins and minerals in pigs. Preliminary results on niacin and pyridoxine, two vitamins of the B complex, showed that the post-colostrum transfer (in utero + colostrum) from the dam to the piglets is good. Regarding minerals, preliminary results indicated that the post colostrum transfer (in utero + colostrum) is very poor for copper and selenium and could be a concern. Results on more vitamins of the B complex will be available at project end. 2) Development of novel feeding strategies aiming to improve gut development, defense functions, health and performance of piglets Animal experimentation conducted at the Dairy and Swine Research and Development Centre (DSRDC) tested the following four diets containing nutraceuticals and functional feed ingredients on weaned piglets from 32 different litters (8 litters per experimental group): • Control (including spray-dried animal plasma) • Control (including spray-dried animal plasma) + antibiotics (chlotetracycline)

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• Control (including spray-dried animal plasma) + Cocktail (probiotic, prebiotic, carvacrol, cranberry extract, vitamin and mineral supplementation) • Control + Colostrum (where spray-dried animal plasma is replaced by bovine colostrum) + Cocktail From each litter, four low weight (LW) and 4 high weight (HW) piglets (based on weight gain from birth to 14 days of age) were used for the trial. Preliminary results showed that LW and HW nursing piglets have distinct intestinal bacterial populations at 16 days of age. Moreover, the expression of several intestinal genes was markedly reduced in LW piglets compared to HW piglets. Concerning weight gain after weaning, no matter which diet piglets received, HW piglets grew faster than LW piglets until the end of the trial (42 days of age). During the animal experimentation conducted in commercial conditions, 5 diets were evaluated during two weeks following weaning. Four dietary treatments were the same as that used at the DSRDC, the fifth being: Control + Colostrum (where spray-dried animal plasma is replaced by bovine colostrum). Results for performance indicated that pigs fed the diet containing bovine colostrum and dietary additives (cocktail) had a better gain to feed efficiency ratio than pigs receiving the control diet or the supplemented control diet (+ cocktail).

4) Sow nutrition during gestation Results showed an increase in requirements for energy and all amino acids studied in late gestation compared to early gestation. These changes in nutrient requirements indicate that feeding sows a single diet throughout their entire gestation is not appropriate. Parity segregated phase feeding with two diets is proposed to supply sows with the correct amount of nutrients throughout their life cycle. Preliminary results showed that two phases, one from breeding to 84 days of gestation (early gestation), and one from 85 days of gestation to entering the farrowing room (late gestation) would be appropriate. The two diets suggested are one with a lower amino acids content and one with an increased amino acids content. Those diets can be used separately or mixed to meet sows’ different amino acid requirements. The feed allowance should be adjusted according to the energy expenditure of sows and should than be greater in late gestation, for gilt, etc. Preliminary results indicated that this new feeding strategy could reduce feed costs by $10 per sow per year. Trials under commercial conditions are planned to confirm these findings.

3) Biomarkers to relate management of piglets post-weaning to subsequent growth performance, carcass and meat quality Preliminary results showed that feeding rather simple, corn and soybean meal based diets to nursery pigs reduced post-weaning growth performance, but had no long-term effect on growth performance in the growing-finishing phase, days from weaning to market and carcass characteristics. A reduction in feed costs of more than $2 per pig could be obtained in the nursery phase by feeding less complex diets without compromising subsequent growth performance and carcass value. Trials under commercial conditions are planned to confirm these findings. Study of the underlying physiology showed that reduced growth performance obtained for piglets fed a less complex diet is associated with transient changes in activity of digestive enzymes, gut structure, gut microflora and plasma levels of insulin like growth factor-1. Therefore, compensatory growth observed in these pigs may be due in part to an improved digestive capability. Preliminary results on gene expression showed that early nutrition impacts long-term immune function. This means that piglets fed complex diets in the nursery have a better disease resistance that may persist as they grow.

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Efficacy of feed additives to mitigate the negative impacts of mycotoxincontaminated feed on the performance and health of piglets

PROJECT LEADERS

SUMMARY OF THE PROJECT

Frédéric Guay, Laval University, Québec, Quebec

The project aims to develop quick indicators of mycotoxin exposure that enable early detection of mycotoxicosis in live animals by means of a simple blood or urine sample. The effects of mycotoxin-contaminated feeds on immune and vaccinal responses in weaned piglets will be assessed, together with an in vitro and in vivo study of the effects of mycotoxins on viral replication of porcine circovirus (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) in connection with the mycotoxin exposure. Researchers will also assess the effects of mycotoxin-contaminated feeds on: a) barrier integrity and function of the intestine, including digestive enzyme activities; b) digestibility and retention of nutrients. Finally, a protocol will be developed to assess the efficacy of feed additives available in Canada to attenuate toxicity of naturally contaminated grains that may contain more than one mycotoxin and to mitigate the negative impact of mycotoxins on pig performances.

Martin Lessard, Dairy and Swine Research and Development Centre - Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC), Sherbrooke, Quebec Younès Chorfi, University of Montréal, St-Hyacinthe, Quebec

PROJECT OBJECTIVE Develop a protocol to evaluate the efficacy of feed additives available in Canada to attenuate the toxicity of naturally contaminated grains that may contain more than one mycotoxin, and to mitigate the negative impact of mycotoxins on immune and intestinal functions of pigs.

© Laval University

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© Laval University

SIGNIFICANT ACHIEVEMENTS Preliminary results are available for some aspects of the project. 1. Effects of mycotoxin-contaminated feeds and feed additive supplements on growth performance: Sixty piglets were used to evaluate the effect of deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxin and four dietary supplements on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of weanling pigs. The six treatments were: • Positive Control (feed not contaminated with DON, <0.5 ppm) • Negative Control (DON-contaminated feed, 4 ppm) • Negative Control + Integral™ (Alltech) • Negative Control + Biofix® (Biomin) • Negative Control + MXM (Jefo) • Negative Control + DEFUSION® (Provimi) Piglets were fed one of six treatments for 15 days postweaning. Data showed that the diet contaminated with DON led to reduced growth performance (average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), Gain: Feed (G:F)) while adding the DEFUSION® supplement improved the performance of pigs fed with a contaminated diet. Biofix® supplement increased ADFI but not ADG and G:F compared to Negative control diet.

© Laval University

2. Effects of mycotoxin contaminated feed on susceptibility to viral infections and on immune response in piglets: The effect of DON was evaluated on PRRS virus and PCV2, in vitro. Non-infected cells and cells infected with PRRS virus and PCV2 were treated with increasing concentrations of DON mycotoxin (0, 70, 140, 280, 560, 1200 ng/ml). DON significantly affects the survival of non-infected cells at a concentration of 560 ng/ml or higher, but had no impact on cytokine expression of these cells. DON increased the survival of cells infected with PRRS virus significantly at a lower concentration, by decreasing the replication of the virus. However, high concentrations of DON completely block PRRS virus replication, presumably by affecting cell survival. These results have been repeated on pulmonary alveolar macrophages, the primary target cell of PRRS virus. DON significantly affects the survival of non-infected NPTr (newborn piglet tracheal) cells at concentrations of 280 ng/ml or higher. The effect of DON on PCV2 replication has been genotype dependant. DON significantly decreased the survival of cells infected with PCV2b, even at lower concentration, by increasing virus replication. Interestingly, DON significantly increased the survival of cells infected with PCV2a, even at lower concentration, by decreasing virus replication. More results will be available at the end of the project.

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Mycotoxins content evaluations of corn hybrids adapted to QuEbec growth conditions

PROJECT LEADERS Gilles Tremblay, Centre de recherche sur les grains (CEROM), Saint-Mathieu-de Beloeil, Quebec Sylvie Rioux, Centre de recherche sur les grains (CEROM), Québec, Quebec

PROJECT OBJECTIVE The main objective of this research is to determine, under natural disease pressure, whether there are any differences between hybrids (Genotype effect, G) in grain content levels of four different mycotoxins (Deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin (FUM), zearalenone (ZEN) and T-2 toxin) in 3 different environments (Environment effect, E). G x E interactions will also be evaluated.

SUMMARY OF THE PROJECT In collaboration with Réseau grandes cultures du Quebec (RGCQ); corn trial managers will collect representative samples of grain corn at harvest and dry the samples before submitting them to the laboratory for analyses. After that, the relationship between mycotoxin contents and physiological maturity of the hybrids will be determined using the method developed by Tremblay et al. (2008). The effectiveness of a fungicide application on mycotoxin grain content among 24 different hybrids will also be evaluated. This test was carried out on two sites in 2010 and 2011. This test was done previously, in 2009. Grain samples from the 2009 plots are available and mycotoxin analyses on these grains were of particular interest because climatic growing conditions in 2009 were highly conducive to the development of the fungi that eventually lead to mycotoxin contamination. 34

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Because the weather in 2009 was conducive to the development of many diseases, analyses on grain corn from that particular RGCQ harvest are of interest. The crop is being analyzed for mycotoxin content.

SIGNIFICANT ACHIEVEMENTS Preliminary results are available from four experiments. Two were held in 2009, one at St-Mathieu-de-Beloeil (2700-2900 Corn Heat Unit (CHU) area) and one at L’Assomption (2500-2700 CHU area) and two others in 2010 at the same sites. In each trial, 24 adapted corn hybrids were compared. To evaluate the effectiveness of a fungicide application on mycotoxin grain content, corn hybrids underwent two treatments: one with and one without fungicide at tasseling. Preliminary results showed differences between hybrids in the grain content level of DON in the four experiments. Genotypes effect (G) was also observed for the FUM but only at St-Mathieu-de-Beloeil and only in 2010. For the T-2, genotype effect was observed only at L’Assomption site and only in 2009. Preliminary results of the fungicides trial showed that the application of fungicide (FUN) was effective in reducing only the content level of FUM and only in 2009 at L’Assomption. Preliminary results usually showed no interaction between genotype effect and application of fungicide (G x FUN) except in 2010 for the content level of DON at L’Assomption and in 2009 for the content level of T-2 at the same site. During these four experiments, 1,486 samples were collected. Table 1 shows the results of laboratory analyses obtained for each mycotoxin.


Table 1: Mycotoxin content attained in 1,486 corn grain samples from 24 hybrids collected in 2009 and 2010 at St-Mathieu-de-Beloeil (2700-2900 Corn Heat Unit (CHU) area) and L’Assomption (2500-2700 CHU area) Mycotoxin

Content of corn grain samples

None

• 0.9 % of samples contained no toxin (DON=0, FUM=0, ZEN=0, T-2=0)

Deoxynivalenol (DON)

• 92.2 % of samples contained DON toxin • 6.9 % of samples contained DON content over 1 ppm • 2.0 % of samples contained DON content over 2 ppm

Fumonisin (FUM)

• 74.5 % of samples contained FUM toxin • No sample contained a FUM content over 5 ppm

• 95.0 % of samples contained ZEN toxin

Zearalenone (ZEN)

• 0.6 % of samples contained a ZEN content over 250 ppb

• No sample contained a ZEN content over 1000 ppb

T-2 toxin

• 90.7 % of samples contained T-2 toxin • No sample contained a T-2 content over 1000 ppb

Analyses also showed that 7.1 % of samples contained one toxin over critical level (DON fixed to 1 ppm) and 0.3 % of samples contained two toxins over critical level (DON fixed to 1 ppm and ZEN to 250 ppb).

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Capturing genetic merit in differentiated pork production systems through genomics

PROJECT LEADER

SIGNIFICANT ACHIEVEMENTS

George Foxcroft, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta

1. Investigate if litter birth weight is a repeatable phenotypic trait in commercial sows

PROJECT OBJECTIVE Demonstrate that alignment of the excellent genetic potential of Canadian dam-line sows with management strategies that recognize the origins of major variation in phenotypic traits of terminal line litters and provides major competitive advantages to Canadian pork producers.

SUMMARY OF THE PROJECT Collaborate with production systems and their genetic suppliers to collect large phenotypic datasets on crossbred sows (commercial genotypes) to characterize the repeatability of the genotype effect (G) x environment effect (E) interaction driving differences in litter birth weight over successive parities. This project will provide the basis for establishing â&#x20AC;&#x153;High vs. Lowâ&#x20AC;? sow populations that allow: a) estimates of achievable differences in production efficiency and product differentiation b) linkages between phenotype and genotype to be understood through new generation genomic application

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Data collected from two large cohorts of commercial sows confirmed major variance in litter birth weight phenotype. In litters of 9 to 16 total pigs born, less than 4% of the variance in litter average birth weight was explained by numbers born. Repeatability/predictability of litter birth weight phenotype increased with sow parity. From a management perspective, three litter records were almost totally predictive for the 15% of sows with the lowest litter birth weight phenotype continuing to produce low, or low-to-average, birth weight litters. 2. Investigate effects of high versus low birth weight litter of origin on piglet lean growth performance in the nursery and grow-finish periods and estimated carcass value Still-born progeny from Low (L) (<1 SD previous two litters) compared to High (H) (>1 SD previous two litters) birth weight (BW) litters had lower placental weight, higher brain:liver, brain:intestine and brain:Semitendinosus muscle weight ratios, and LBW litters had higher pre-weaning mortality, than HBW litters. Average daily gain of live-born pigs tended to be higher in HBW than LBW litters in lactation, and was higher throughout the nursery and grow-finish (GF) phases. Average daily feed intake was higher in HBW than LBW litters in the nursery and GF phases, and LBW litters needed nine more days to reach the same slaughter weight as HBW litters: measures of carcass quality were not affected by birth weight phenotype. Therefore, segregated management of LBW litters in the farrowing house could target interventions to improve preweaning growth and survival. In the nursery and GF phases, segregated management of LBW litters could decrease within-pen variation in growth rates, allow better feed budgeting and appropriate marketing strategies.


© University of Alberta

© University of Alberta

In a further collaborative study using accumulated data from successive farrowings to identify sows with a predicted LBW litter phenotype, we were able to show that supplementation of omega-3-fatty acids to these sows resulted in a significant improvement in post-natal growth performance of their progeny. This offers some of the first evidence that nutritional interventions targeted at a specific population of sows and litters might be of more economic value than targeting the entire sow herd. 3. Record phenotypic traits and develop in vitro measures of the immune status of high and low birth weight litters Blood samples taken from progeny of LBW and HBW litters at the time of weaning were used for in vitro analysis of immune status. After applying rigorous criteria for RNA integrity, matched samples (mitogen and mock-stimulated PBMC cells) from 18 LBW and 27 HBW animals were used to measure expression of the MAD2L1, IL2, IL2RB, and IL15 genes, as biomarkers of a mitotic response by PBMC. Overall, a significant increase in gene expression was recorded after mitogen stimulation, but no difference in the proliferative response of cells from LBW and HBW progeny was established. The hypothesis that litter birth weight will affect the immune system of the weaned pig, as one component of prenatal programing of post-natal performance, was, therefore, not proven. 4. Use ovarian, embryonic, placental, and endometrial tissues from high and low birth weight phenotype sows to explore the epigenetic basis for phenotypic variation in litter birth weight

© University © Laval ofUniversity Alberta

© University of Alberta

both commercial populations in early gestation confirmed the hypothesis that a high ovulation rate is the predominant phenotypic trait of contemporary high parity sows that can potentially drive early intra-uterine crowding of embryos. Differential expression of candidate genes controlling angiogenesis, apoptosis and encoding intra-follicular growth factors was demonstrated in the corpus luteum (CL), granulosa cells (GC) and denuded oocytes recovered from a subset of mature sows with a repeatable LBW or HBW litter phenotype on day five of gestation. These initial results suggest that genes controlling differences in CL vascularity and function, and ovarian follicular development, may contribute to differences in ovulation rate and embryonic survival as important component traits determining litter birth weight phenotype. Expression analysis in embryonic and uterine tissues is continuing. 5. Use blood samples collected from high and low birth weight phenotype sows and litter sires to explore genotype-phenotype associations and potential SNP-based markers of this phenotypic trait A preliminary study is still in progress to identify potential genome-wide markers for the component reproductive traits (high ovulation rate, high embryonic/foetal survival and limited uterine capacity for normal pre-natal development) that underlie the impact of the “maternal environment” on the LBW litter phenotype in mature commercial sows. SNP analysis was completed for 84 sows for which DNA samples were of acceptable integrity. Association analysis with recorded phenotypic traits is proceeding but clear relationships will likely require collection of phenotypic data from larger populations of mature sows.

The collection of detailed reproductive phenotypic data from higher parity HBW and LBW sow phenotypes from

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Development of new genomic tools to improve meat quality traits and production efficiency in pigs

Mohsen Jafarikia, Canadian Centre for Swine Improvement (CCSI), Ottawa, Ontario

Thanks to the Swine Cluster initiative, this project provides a unique opportunity to build a work team focused on developing new genomic tools to improve meat quality traits, enhancing product differentiation and improving the efficiency of pork production. The development of genomic evaluations will be especially useful for traits, such as meat quality, that are difficult or expensive to measure.

PROJECT OBJECTIVE

SIGNIFICANT ACHIEVEMENTS

Develop new genomic tools to improve meat quality traits as well as enhance product differentiation and efficiency of pork production.

The project comprises six modules: Fresh meat quality, Conformation and morphology, Behaviour, Reproduction, Known genes and markers, and Gene expression. Preliminary results are available for most modules.

SUMMARY OF THE PROJECT

Initial results showed that genomic evaluation has the potential to provide breeding values for pigs that are more accurate than the traditional values.

PROJECT LEADERS Brian Sullivan, Canadian Centre for Swine Improvement (CCSI), Ottawa, Ontario

The Canadian Centre for Swine Improvement (CCSI) and Canadian swine genetic organizations are collaborating to evaluate the 60K SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) panel, a new genomic tool available to the Canadian swine industry since January 2009. The SNP panel and its practical application were assessed in major Canadian swine breeds during two station test trials completed in April and November of 2010. Pigs entering the test station were evaluated for growth, feed conversion, feeding behavior and conformation. Extensive meat quality phenotypes were collected at the slaughter plant and in the laboratory and the station-tested pigs were genotyped using the 60K SNP panel. In addition, researchers compiled on-farm phenotypic data measured on relatives of station-tested pigs, especially the sires, dams and full-sibs, and participating breeders collected tissue samples thereby increasing the size of the resource population as well as providing additional data for further genomic analyses.

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SWINE INNOVATION

Fresh meat quality The inclusion of genomics information in evaluations for intramuscular fat gave a 67% increase in accuracy, compared to parent average Estimated Breeding Values (EBVs) based on available ultrasonic measurements on live pigs. Genomic evaluations for drip loss had an average accuracy of 24% while genomic evaluations for meat colour (Minolta L*) had an average accuracy of 36%. Drip loss and pork colour are examples of meat quality traits that cannot be evaluated in other ways on the live pig. Conformation and morphology Accuracy in predicting backfat EBVs was 11% greater when the SNP panel results were included in analyses than when just using the parental average EBVs of pigs at birth.


Reproduction For number of piglets born, a 20% higher reliability was found by including genomic information when compared to parent average EBVs.

These six genes are ADIPOR1, LEP, PPARGC1A, PRKAG3, TNC and FABP4. These genes are promising markers for selecting different carcass and meat quality attributes.

Known genes and markers

Potential application of genomics

PRKAG3: The PRKAG3 (5â&#x20AC;&#x2122;-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit gamma-3) polymorphism at position I199V in the gene was associated with higher pH, darker meat color and lower drip loss in the Duroc breed.

Implementation of genomic selection methods throughout the entire industry may take time but the results yielded as part of this project show promise and are encouraging.

MC4R: Pigs genotyped as AA for the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene had greater average daily gain, more backfat thickness and higher feed intake than their GG counterparts. The MC4R genotype had no effect on feed conversion ratio. Including the genotypes of these two genes in Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) evaluation would increase pig EBV accuracy for their corresponding associated traits. Gene expression

The current project gave rise to an additional initiative: the development of procedures to use economical, lower density SNP panels with high accuracy for imputing SNPs on the 60K SNP panel. A lower cost panel is important for the commercialization of swine genomic evaluations in Canada and in other parts of the world. Furthermore, based on these promising gene expression results, regulatory regions (promoter, enhancers, etc.) of several genes are being studied to see if polymorphisms upstream from the genes might explain differences in observed gene expression patterns.

Samples from a subset of animals with high, average or low indices for five traits related to meat quality were used for gene expression analyses. Six genes had differences in gene expression levels between high and low groups in at least two of the three studied breeds (Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire).

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Technology Transfer REPORT COMMUNICATION STRATEGY The primary goal of the Technology Transfer program is to inform the pork industry throughout Canada as to how projects funded through Swine Innovation Porc can be of benefit to them. Effective communication is key to taking these research results and making sure the industry adopts them. This past year we met with individual scientists with a view to developing separate communication plans for each Swine Innovation Project. Traditional forms of communication (in-person, publications, electronic) form the basis of the communication plan for each project, supplemented by on-farm demonstrations of the several projects with an associated short-term impact on the pork industry.

An effective communication strategy will focus on delivering timely research results, facilitating adoption at farm or industry level, on providing effective corporate communication and ensuring that industry, government and funding agencies recognize the work of Swine Innovation.

2011-2012 ACTIVITIES ELECTRONIC Electronic communication is the most effective and timely means of disseminating the results of research associated with Swine Innovation. • Development and implementation of a bi-weekly e-newsletter. The goal of the e-newsletter is simple: highlight a research project that addresses a current opportunity or challenge facing the pork industry combined with a take-home message focusing on the benefit to producers both in English and French. Development of this e-newsletter not only provides timely relevant infor- mation, but also demonstrates the breadth of expertise and knowledge associated with Swine Innovation. • Interviews on FarmScape.com. FarmScape is a radio and on-line information source, hosted by Bruce Cochrane, 40

SWINE INNOVATION

which provides information about the pork industry to the pork industry and agricultural community. FarmScape produces information on Swine Innovation projects on a weekly basis, and is dedicated to providing at least one story/feature per project. • Swine Innovation Database. This on-line database houses all reference material and publications associated with Swine Innovation research projects. It provides an easy-to-use search function enabling users to access information from swineinnovationporc.ca or any global search engine. • SwineWeb.com. In association with the Prairie Swine Centre, information is sent to SwineWeb highlighting research conducted within the Swine Innovation research program. SwineWeb provides access to more than 40,000 unique visitors to its website per month. IN-PERSON COMMUNICATION Developing relationships is an important ingredient in the delivery of effective messages associated with Swine Innovation. While electronic communication is an important aspect of the overall communication plan, producers and the industry still prefer one-on-one communication prior to adoption of research results. • Seminars/Conferences. Over the past year a representative of Swine Innovation has attended all major swine conferences/events in Canada. • Mycotoxin Conference. Slated for December 2012, this conference will focus on topics such as new features in field crops and animal nutrition, Canadian regulations regarding mycotoxins together with presentation of new technology for the management of contaminated grain for crops, animal health and nutrition. ANNUAL SEMINAR The first annual Swine Innovation seminar was held in conjunction with the 2012 Banff Pork Seminar and featured the session, “Breakthroughs in Canadian Swine Nutrition”. There were more than 120 people in attendance at the sessions. A similar event will be part of the 2013 Banff Pork Seminar and will feature presentations on “The Impact of Genomics on Farm in the Near Future”. Two other topics will be presented featuring researchers from our program “Sow Welfare Assessment Systems” and “New NRC Nutrient Requirement for Swine”.


PRINTED A number of communication streams are necessary in order to achieve optimal saturation. • Trade Magazines. Advertisements and technical articles featuring Swine Innovation research appear in each issue of the Western Hog Journal and Centred on Swine. • Pull-Up Banners. Two pull-up banners featuring Swine Innovation’s objectives are displayed at all major pork industry events. • Posters. Two posters highlighting the economic benefit of Swine Innovation research have been created targeting the producer audience and are displayed at industry events. • Research Summaries. Summaries were prepared for each of the 14 research projects, explaining their content and practical components.

3. Efficiency of Water Sprinkling in Transportation After Loading

4. Use of Non-Penetrating Captive Bolt for Euthanasia 5. Development of an Innovative Precision Farming System for Swine 6. Development of Innovative Air Cleaning System Workshop

CONCLUSION This past year we have focused on developing and implementing a unique communication strategy for individual research projects. Because audiences need to receive messages from seven to ten times before they take action, we are using several communication streams as a way to ensure our message is received and the results of our research adopted.

LEAD-USER PROGRAM A key piece in the communication strategy is the development and implementation of the Lead-User program. Funded through the Agricultural Council of Saskatchewan (ACS)– the Lead-User project is designed to demonstrate the results of six Swine Innovation projects with the goal of increasing the rate of adoption within the industry. The activities regarding the Lead-User project include:

Lee Whittington President & CEO Prairie Swine Centre

1. Novel Swine Feeding Programs to Enhance Competitiveness

Pierre Falardeau General Manager Centre de développement du porc du Québec inc.

2. Sow Housing: Risk Factors and Assessment Techniques Workshop

Technology Transfer TEAM Marie Vachon Project Leader Swine Innovation

Ken Engele Manager – Technology Transfer Swine Innovation

Abida Ouyed Research Coordinator Swine Innovation

Pierre Falardeau General Manager Swine Innovation / Centre de développement du porc du Québec

Susan Joyal Research Coordinator – Western Canada, Swine Innovation (absent)

Lee Whittington President & CEO Prairie Swine Centre

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Our research program

around the world The Canadian Swine Research and Development Cluster was officially incorporated without share capital under Part II of the Canada Corporation Act. Its objectives are to facilitate research, technology transfer and commercialization initiatives designed to enhance the competitiveness and differentiation of Canada’s pork industry; it is aligned with the four pillars of the Canadian Pork Value Chain Strategic Framework. The Canadian Swine Research and Development Cluster is funded through the Growing Canadian Agri-Innovations Program – Canadian AgriScience Clusters Initiative and also receives financial support from the private sector and other provincial government organizations. Our program comprises 14 research projects focused on reducing the cost of production and product differentiation and also includes three technology transfer initiatives.

CD - A.3, A.6, A.7, A.10, B.11, B. 13 CDPQ CD IUCPQ - B.13 IRDA - B.13 Laval University - A.2, A.3, A.4, A. 6 Lava University of Saskatchew che h an A.1, A.5, A.8 Prairie Swine Centre r A.7, A.8, A.9, A.10, B.1 B 3 University of Sherbrooke A.10, B.14 Universi e ty of Alber be ta be A.1, A.22, B.13.

CÉROM - A.4 University of Montréal A.3, B.14

Universityy of Manitoba baa - A.8 PAMI - A.77

AAFC AA A - A.1, 1, A A.2, 2, A.6,A.9 A.6, A.99, A..10

CCSI - A.6 OMAFRA RA AB.11, B.12

AAFC - A.6, A.6, CFIA F - B.144

University of Guelph A.1, A.2, A.6, A.8, A.9, B.11, B.122

AAFC - A.2, A.2, A.9

Abbreviations AAFC: Agriculture et Agri-Food Canada CCSI: Canadian Centre for Swine Improvement Inc. CDPQ: Centre de développement du porc du Québec inc. CÉROM: Centre de recherche sur les grains inc. CFIA: Canadian Food Inspection Agency CRIQ: Centre de recherche industrielle du Québec FPPQ: Fédération des producteurs de porcs du Québec INRA: Institut national de la recherche agronomique IRDA: The Research and Development Institute for the Agri-Environment IUCPQ: Institut universitaire de cardiologie et de pneumologie de Québec OMAFRA: Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs PAMI: Prairie Agricultural Machinery Institute PIC–North America: Pig Improvement Company

LEGEND 42

SWINE INNOVATION

Universities and Research Centres

CRIQ Q-B B.133 IRDA - B.13

Alberta Pork - A.7 Sask Pork - A.7, A.8, A.9, B.13

nXstream - B.14, Lc - B.14, Laboratoire M2 - B.14

PigGen - A.5 Manitoba Pork - A.7, A.8

CÉROM - A.4, FPPQ - A.2, B.13, Institut Rosell Lallemand - A.2 CCAP - A.6

Ontt rio P Onta Pork ork or - A.1, A.8,, B.11 B.1 Nutr N utreco ec - A.22

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada

Industry Partners

Les es A es Alili een Alim ent ents nts nt n tts B Brreeton Bre t to A.10


EU UROPE Sub-project A: Danisco - A.1

Increasing Canadian pork industry competitiveness

Provimi - A Prov A.11 Freiee Universit Fre Frei si t Berlin and Charitéé sitä sit Univ i ersitätsmedi med zin Berlin med A.1

A.2: Novel nutritional strategies for optimum sow and piglet productivity (M. Lessard et al.)

Evonik - A.10

Un versi Un Univ e tat dee Lleid d l a - A.10

A.1: Novel swine feeding programs to enhance competitiveness and pork differentiation: The Canadian feed & pork value chain (R. Zijlstra et al.)

INRA and nd d Uni U vers Un rssité i it Fran an ançois nç s Ra Ra elaaaiis Rab de Tours de our u - A.10 .1 .1

A.3: Efficacy of feed additives to mitigate the negative impacts of mycotoxin contaminated feed on the performance and health of piglets (F. Guay et al.) A.4: Mycotoxins contents evaluations of corn hybrids adapted to Québec growth conditions (G. Tremblay et al.) A.5: Capturing genetic merit in differentiated pork production systems through genomics (G. Foxcroft et al.)

USA A

A.6: Development of new genomic tools to improve meat quality traits and production efficiency in pigs (B. Sullivan et al.) A.7: Evaluation and development of standards for swine production systems (L. Whittington et al.)

Iowa State Universi rsi y - B rsit B.. 12 1

Pfizer A.12 National Pork Board - B.12 PIC - North America - A.5

A.8: Sow Housing: risk factors and assessment techniques for lameness, productivity and longevity in group and individually housed gestating sows (L. Connor et al.) A.9: A study on the efficiency of water sprinkling in the truck after loading and prior to unloading at two different environmental temperatures on core body temperature and carcass and meat quality in pigs (L. Faucitano et al.)

SOUTH AMERICA

A.10: Development of an innovative precision farming system for swine (C. Pomar et al.)

Sub-project B: Increasing Canadian pork industry differentiation

Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (Brazil) A.10

B.11: A comparison of three animal welfare assessment programs on Canadian swine farms (T. Widowski et al.) B.12: Use of non-penetrating captive bolt for euthanasia of neonate, suckling and weaned piglets up to 9 kg (T. Widowski et al.) B.13: Development of an innovative air cleaning system for swine buildings (S. Lemay et al.) B.14: The use of tools related to molecular characterization, systemic analysis of stakeholders and geomatics for identification of the principal vectors and contamination sources by bacteria and viral indicators at farm and slaughterhouse level (A. Letellier et al.)

AU USTRAL LIA Sub-project C: Implementation of technology transfer strategies C.15: Annual technical seminar and mycotoxin forum C.16: Development of a Canadian Swine Research and Development (CSRDC) website Massey Massey Ma Mass e Unive niv rsit sityy A A.1

C.17: Knowledge and technology transfer activities

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Board of Directors Conseil d’administration Neil Ketilson Treasurer / Trésorier Sask Pork

Mike Teillet Director / Administrateur Manitoba Pork

John Webb Director / Administrateur Pork Value Chain Roundtable Table ronde sur la chaîne de valeur de l’industrie du porc

Jean Howden Director / Administratrice Ontario pork sector Secteur porcin ontarien

Jean-Paul Laforest Chair of the Science advisory Body Président du Comité consultatif scientifique

Normand Martineau Director / Administrateur Fédération des producteurs de porcs du Québec

Daryl Possberg Director / Administrateur - Alberta Pork (Absent)

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Stewart Cressman Vice-Chair / Vice-président Ontario Pork

Claude Miville Chair / Président Quebec pork sector Secteur porcin québécois


Management team Équipe de gestion

MAXIME ELMALEH Responsible, Administrative and Accounting Services / Responsable des services comptables et administratifs

MariE Vachon Project Leader / Chargée de projets

Madeleine Laurendeau Secretary / Secrétaire

Abida Ouyed Research Coordinator / Coordonnatrice de recherche

Isabelle Bolduc Operations Director / Directrice des services à la gestion

Pierre Falardeau General Manager / Directeur général

Susan Joyal Research Coordinator – Western Canada / Coordonnatrice de recherche - Ouest canadien (Absent / Absente)

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Science Advisory Body

Comité consultatif scientifique Jean-Paul Laforest

Department Head / Directeur de département • Animal Sciences Department / Département des sciences animales • Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences / Faculté des sciences de l’agriculture et de l’alimentation • Laval University / Université Laval Mr. Laforest is a physiologist and Chairman of the Science Advisory Body with research interests that include meat quality and swine production. M. Laforest est physiologiste et président du comité consultatif scientifique; ses intérêts de recherche comprennent la qualité de la viande et la production porcine.

Ron Ball

Professor / Professeur • University of Alberta Mr. Ball is involved in swine nutrition research. He also worked at the University of Guelph for 16 years. He leads research on meat quality and is member of the Boards of the National Institute of Health (NIH) and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC). M. Ball est impliqué dans la recherche sur l’alimentation des porcs. Il a également travaillé à l’Université de Guelph pendant 16 ans. Il mène des recherches sur la qualité de la viande et, de plus, est membre des conseils de National Institutes of Health (NIH) et du Conseil de recherches en sciences naturelles et en génie du Canada (CRSNG).

Bill Ballantyne

Consultant Mr. Ballantyne holds a PhD in Food Science from Michigan State University and is presently a consultant for the pork industry. As well, he has been involved with Maple Leaf Foods for a number of years. M. Ballantyne est titulaire d’un doctorat en sciences alimentaires du Michigan State University et est actuellement consultant pour l’industrie du porc. En outre, il travaille avec les Aliments Maple Leaf depuis de nombreuses années.

Steve Dritz

Professor / Professeur • Kansas State University An accomplished veterinarian, Mr. Dritz holds a PhD in swine nutrition and has been a professor for the past 15 years. He is one of the leading researchers dedicated to increasing weaning age in piglets in the United States. Vétérinaire accompli, M. Dritz est titulaire d’un doctorat en nutrition porcine et est professeur depuis quinze ans. Il est l’un des chercheurs qui est dévoué à l’augmentation de l’âge au sevrage des porcelets aux États-Unis.

Sylvain Fournaise

46

Vice-President / Vice-président • Food Safety and Technical Services / Sécurité alimentaire et services techniques • Olymel Mr. Founaise is a veterinarian who also obtained his M.Sc. in Food Science from Université Laval. He has been working for Olymel for the past 12 years and is responsible for food safety, quality management and regulations. He also manages collaborative research projects between Olymel and third-party university scientists and research centres. M. Fournaise est un vétérinaire ayant également obtenu une maîtrise en sciences alimentaires de l’Université Laval. Il travaille chez Olymel depuis 12 ans et est responsable de la sécurité alimentaire, de la gestion de la qualité et des règlements. Il gère également des projets de recherche en partenariat avec des tiers tels que des scientifiques universitaires et des centres de recherche.

SWINE INNOVATION PORC

John F. Patience

Professor / Professeur • Iowa State University Mr. Patience worked many years at the Prairie Swine Centre but now resides in the United States. He has served on Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) panels. M. Patience a travaillé de nombreuses années au Prairie Swine Centre, mais réside maintenant aux États-Unis. Il a siégé à de nombreux panels du Conseil de recherches en sciences naturelles et en génie (CRSNG).

Serge Pommier

Scientific Advisor / Conseiller scientific • Olymel Mr. Pommier is now Scientific Advisor for Olymel. He was Technical Accounant Manager for PIC (Eastern Canada) for 16 years. He holds a PhD and for several years before joining PIC, he worked at the Meat Science Centre of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. M. Pommier occupe présentement le poste de conseiller scientifique chez Olymel. Il a également été gestionnaire de compte technique de PIC (est du Canada) pendant 16 ans. Il détient un doctorat et, pendant plusieurs années avant de rejoindre PIC, il a travaillé au Centre de recherche sur la qualité du produit d’Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada.

John Webb

Director of Genetics and Science / Directeur de la génétique et de la science • Maple Leaf Foods Inc. / Les Aliments Maple Leaf Inc. Mr. Webb obtained his PhD at Edinburgh University in Scotland and worked for a number of years in swine research at the Roslin Institute of the same university. He is presently Director of Emerging Science at Maple Leaf Foods and is also involved in the Pork Value Chain Roundtable. M. Webb a obtenu son doctorat à The University of Edinburgh en Écosse et a travaillé pendant plusieurs années en recherche porcine au Roslin Institute de cette même université. Il est actuellement directeur des sciences émergentes chez Les Aliments Maple Leaf Inc. et est également impliqué au sein de la Table ronde sur la chaîne de valeur de l’industrie du porc

Jacques Surprenant

Director, Research and Development / Directeur, Recherche et Développement • Dairy and Swine Research and Development Centre / Centre de recherche et développement sur le bovin laitier et le porc • Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) / Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada (AAC) Mr. Surprenant is the Director of the Dairy and Swine Research and Development Centre of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC). He has been managing research activities with AAFC for the last 17 years. He has a PhD from the University of Minnesota and a Master’s degree in Public Administration from L’Université de l’administration publique (ENAP). M. Surprenant est le Directeur du Centre de recherche et de Développement sur le bovin laitier et le porc, d’Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada (AAC). Il gère des activités de recherche à AAC depuis 17ans. Il a un PhD de l’Université du Minnesota et une Maîtrise en Administration Publique de L’Université de l’administration publique (ENAP).


Governance Structure

STRUCTURE DE GOUVERNANCE

BOARD OF DIRECTORS CONSEIL D’ADMINISTRATION Claude Miville Chair / Président • Québec pork sector / Secteur porcin québécois Stewart Cressman Vice-chair / Vice-président • Ontario Pork

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE COMITÉ DE DIRECTION Claude Miville Chair / Président Stewart Cressman Vice-Chair / Vice-président Neil Ketilson Treasurer / Trésorier

NEIL KETILSON Treasurer / Trésorier • Sask Pork Jean Howden Director / Administratrice • Ontario pork sector / Secteur porcin ontarien Jean-Paul Laforest Director / Administrateur • Chair of the Science Advisory Body / Président du comité consultatif scientifique Normand Martineau Director / Administrateur • Fédération des producteurs de porcs du Québec

AUDIT COMMITTEE COMITÉ DE VÉRIFICATION Daryl Possberg Chair / Président Jean-Paul Laforest Normand Martineau Claude Miville

Daryl Possberg Director / Administrateur • Alberta Pork Mike Teillet Director / Administrateur • Manitoba Pork JONH WEBB Director / Administrateur • Pork Value Chain Roundtable Table ronde sur la chaîne de valeur de l’industrie du porc

FINANCE COMMITTEE COMITÉ DES FINANCES Neil Ketilson Chair / Président Jean Howden Claude Miville Mike Teillet

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Industry Partners

Partenaires financiers

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SWINE INNOVATION PORC


Partners in Research Partenaires DE recherche

ANNUAL REPORT 2012 / Rapport ANNUAL annuel REPORT 2012

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www.swineinnovation.ca

Profile for Swine Innovation Porc

Swine Innovation Porc 2012 Annual Report  

Swine Innovation Porc 2012 Annual Report  

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