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NathaN adriaN Two-time Olympian Four-time Olympic medalist


The most innovative paddles to hit the market, loaded with cutting-edge hydrodynamic features. The SMAO paddle is the answer to the elite sprinter’s need to refine the drive-in phase of the stroke, demand an aggressive entry into the water, and reinforce the high elbow catch for high intensity workouts. Speedo and

are registered trademarks of and used under license from Speedo International Limited.

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FEATURES 012 When It’s Time, It’s Time

042 Q&A with Coach Braden Holloway

By Michael J. Stott


parents on how to pick the best age group program for

043 How They Train Stephen Coetzer

their children. This month, we offer a parent’s guide to

by Michael J. Stott

changing age group programs.

018 Michael Andrew Tells All


by Shoshanna Rutemiller Michael Andrew: NAG record holder extraordinaire,

039 Dryside Training: The Basic Four

home-school scholar, professional swimmer...and he

only just turned 15 years old!


by Michael J. Stott

Last month, Swimming World provided information for

by J.R. Rosania Here are four very basic resistance strength exercises that will strengthen the shoulder, leg, core and side

024 The NAG Records Phenomena


by Emily Sampl National age group standards in the United States are

040 Ask Dr. Shannon

falling at a faster pace than ever.

by Shannon McBride There are other ways besides stretching to alleviate

027 A New Way to Train

post-workout soreness. Foam rolling is a very effective

by Michael J. Stott

method of self-massage that can also aid in faster re-

Coaches, scientists and swimmers weigh in on Ultra-

covery after workouts.

Short Race-Pace Training, also known as USRPT.


041 Nutrition: Improve Your Diet Quality 032 Indoor Air Quality

republished with permission of VeloPress from “Racing

Weight Cookbook: Lean, Light Recipes for Athletes”

by Ralph Kittler Causes and solutions are discussed for IAQ and breathing issues in natatoriums.

036 Top 10 Triumphs & Tragedies

by Chuck Warner

016 Goldminds: The Swimming Zones

Beginning in its April issue and continuing monthly

by Wayne Goldsmith

through January 2015, Swimming World Magazine is

There are five “zones” in swimming—the preparation,

counting down the top 10 triumphs and tragedies in

power, practice, performance and post-pool zones—and

the history of swimming. This month: #8 The Carliles—A

each one of them plays an important role in your swim-

Love Affair.

ming success story.

COACHING 010 Butterfly, Backstroke, Freestyle Breakouts


045 Up & Comers


by Jeff Commings The breakout after a turn is a very important element

008 A Voice for the Sport

of every race. Whether you’re swimming 50 or 1500 meters, the breakout determines the speed you carry into

018 SWIMMING WORLD MAGAZINE (ISSN 00397431). Note: permission to reprint articles or excerpts from contents is prohibited without permission from the publisher. The publisher is not responsible for errors in advertisements. Microfilm copies: available from University Microfilms, 313 N. First St., Ann Arbor, MI 48103. Swimming World Magazine is listed in the Physical Education Index. Printed in the U.S.A. © Sports Publications International, June 2014.


046 Gutter Talk

the first strokes and sets the tone for that particular length.

014 Swimming Technique Misconceptions

048 Parting Shot

by Rod Havriluk


The misconception that butterfly and breaststroke are

Michael Andrew, who just turned 15 in April, has already set

considered “short-axis” strokes is based on classifying

57 U.S. national age group records (through March 19) in his

strokes as “short” or “long” axis according to the direc-

young career. He is trained by his father, Peter Andrew, perhaps

tion of the most prominent body rotation.

the USA’s foremost practitioner of a new training system called Ultra-Short Race-Pace Training (known as USRPT). And Michael

019 Michael Andrew’s Favorite Sets

is also the youngest male swimmer ever to turn professional!

(See stories, pages 18, 19, 24 and 27). [ photo

by Peter Andrew

by azaria basile ]

June 2014

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A Voice for the Sport Swimming World Magazine

Remains Timeless by brent t . rutemiller

Inside the June issue of Swimming World Magazine, readers will find timeless content relative to aquatic sports. I PHENOMENA purposely use the term, “timeless,” to differentiate the type of content that readers find on today’s Internet as opposed to content that our readers will find in print. Let me backtrack a bit.... Content today can be divided into three areas: news content, social media content and magazine content. News is free content that must be reported immediately over the Internet either on or via our @SwimmingWorld Twitter account. However, Internet news reports are no longer unique to one outlet. A “scoop” is only unique for minutes. It only takes other outlets seconds to pick up a breaking story. It is often rewritten to their standards and then repackaged with a different headline and photo in an attempt to make it their own. It is an important platform for information, but in many cases, the content is rarely unique. Social media content is in the same boat. It is an important platform for information, but rarely goes deep enough and is often fleeting. It is more about lifestyle, sharing stories and less about breaking news, perspectives and in-depth analysis. Internet content cycles off pages too quickly, whereas Swimming World Magazine is the perfect platform for important timeless articles that many readers may have missed on the Internet. More importantly, our magazine continues to offer unique insights, photos and information that only a magazine can do. The June issue of Swimming World Magazine best illustrates how unique and diTHE TECHNIQUE & TRAINING ISSUE





JUNE 2014 - VOLUME 55 - NO. 06







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verse the magazine has evolved over the years to remain a thriving and respected media platform for the aquatic community. The current issue features timeless content on technique, training and nutrition. Inside you will also find new perspectives on controversial subjects such as Ultra-Short Race-Pace Training, indoor pool air quality and the avalanche of national age group records. Unique historical perspectives showcasing past triumphs and tragedies that help shape our sport today, important tips on mental preparation, misconceptions on technique, and Q&A articles with coaches and athletes can be found within the issue. These articles, along with spotlights on successful clubs, coaches and athletes, round out the magazine’s timeless content. Swimming World recognizes that readers want to get information on all platforms, and Swimming World will continue to deliver. In the upcoming months, readers of Swimming World will continue to see diverse content delivered to a very diverse audience on diverse platforms. We will be bringing teams of writers, reporters and social media contributors on board to give our readers what they want in the form that they like. We can’t reveal all of our plans, but we are confident that our readers will be excited with the direction of Swimming World over the next few months. Enjoy this “timeless” issue of Swimming World Magazine, and look for us on the Internet and in social media.

PUBLISHING, CIRCULATION AND ACCOUNTING OFFICE P.O. Box 20337, Sedona, AZ 86341 Toll Free in USA & Canada: 800-511-3029 Phone: 928-284-4005 • Fax: 928-284-2477 Chairman of the Board, President - Richard Deal Publisher, CEO - Brent T. Rutemiller Circulation/Art Director - Karen Deal Circulation Manager - Maureen Rankin Circulation Assistant - Judy Jacob Advertising Production Coordinator - Betsy Houlihan

EDITORIAL, PRODUCTION, MERCHANDISING, MARKETING AND ADVERTISING OFFICE 2744 East Glenrosa Avenue, Phoenix, AZ 85016 Toll Free: 800-352-7946 Phone: 602-522-0778 • Fax: 602-522-0744

EDITORIAL AND PRODUCTION Senior Editor - Bob Ingram Managing Editor - Jason Marsteller Graphic Arts Designer - Kaitlin Kelly Staff Writers - Michael J. Stott, Shoshanna Rutemiller Fitness Trainer - J.R. Rosania Chief Photographer - Peter H. Bick WebMaster:

MARKETING AND ADVERTISING Marketing Coordinator - Tiffany Elias

MULTI-MEDIA Writer/Producer - Jeff Commings

INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENTS Africa: Chaker Belhadj (TUN) Australia: Wayne Goldsmith, Ian Hanson Europe: Norbert Agh (HUN), Camilo Cametti (ITA), Federico Ferraro (ITA), Oene Rusticus (NED), Steven Selthoffer (GER), Rokur Jakupsstovu (FAR), Tom Willdridge (GBR) Japan: Hideki Mochizuki Middle East: Baruch “Buky” Chass, Ph.D. (ISR) South Africa: Neville Smith (RSA) South America: Jorge Aguado (ARG), Alex Pussieldi (BRA)

PHOTOGRAPHERS/SWTV Peter H. Bick, USA Today Sports Images, Reuters, Getty Images

Brent T. Rutemiller Publisher of Swimming World Magazine

official magazine of:



P.O. Box 20337, Sedona, AZ 86341 Phone: 928-284-4005 Fax: 928-284-2477

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Butterfly, Backstroke, Freestyle


by jeff commings


photos by christopher rattray

demonstrated by scottsdale aquatic club

THE BREAKOUT AFTER A TURN IS A VERY IMPORTANT ELEMENT OF EVERY RACE. Whether you’re swimming 50 or 1500 meters, the breakout determines the speed you carry into the first strokes and sets the tone for that particular length. A bad breakout ruins the momentum you built off the wall and forces you to work harder to regain that lost speed. A great breakout, on the other hand, puts you at an advantage over your competitors. The swimmers who have the best breakouts often win the race. Scottsdale Aquatic Club swimmers work on breakouts every time they push off the

(From left) Ryan Hoffer, Nick Magana, Joe Starkweather and Jack Blake of Scottsdale Aquatic Club (Ariz.) broke the U.S. national age group record in the 15-18 200 yard freestyle relay, finishing second at the U.S. Junior National Championships in 1:19.56.

wall in their workouts, a factor that has helped many of them achieve success in the junior national ranks.


When you’re done with your underwater kicking, don’t lift your head to check your depth before taking your first stroke. With enough practice, you’ll instinctively know the best point to take your first stroke. Keeping your head down on the first stroke allows you to hold your body line from the underwater kick better.




Don’t be timid on your first stroke! Make it just as aggressive as the rest of the strokes you’ll take in that length. Many of the world’s best swimmers do not breathe on the first stroke after the turn—even on the final length of a 200 butterfly. If you practice it, your lungs will be able to handle it during a race.



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The key in the transition from underwater dolphin kicking in backstroke to surface swimming is the body line. Don’t do your underwater dolphin kicks so deep that you’re nearly vertical on your first stroke, either to avoid going past the 15-meter mark or to get that needed first breath of air!



As with butterfly, lifting your head before or during the first stroke off the turn ruins all the good work you did on the turn. Keep your head in the neutral position—in line with the spine—and begin your flutter kick before the breakout. If you do dolphin kicks on your freestyle turn, transition to flutter kicking before you break the surface.




The first stroke should not only help bring you to the surface, but set up the momentum for the remainder of the length. Keep your head position at neutral to help maintain the ideal body line.



The first stroke should be identical to your normal freestyle stroke. This first stroke will dictate your stroke rate for that length, so don’t think about building into your stroke rate as the length progresses. Whether it’s a short sprint or a long sprint, your stroke rate should be consistent from the first stroke to the last one of that length.



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WHEN IT’S TIME, IT’S TIME by michael j . stott

photo by christopher rattray

Last month, Swimming World provided information for parents on how to pick the best age group program for their children. This month, we offer a parent’s guide to changing age group programs. 12

Changing age group programs can be a dicey proposition. “There are a multitude of reasons why people consider switching teams,” says Ted Sallade, head coach at Richmond, Va. Poseidon Swimming. “Performance stagnation, lack of attention from staff, injury and disgruntled parents lead the list,” he says. But a sense that the coach can’t help the athlete reach his potential, a desire to regain spirit for the sport, dissatisfaction with teammates and excessive team drama also contribute. For parents and swimmers, team shifts invariably qualify as life-altering events, pursued only after extensive soul-searching. And while there are no written protocols, common sense guidelines can expedite and smooth the process. “The first time I am contacted by someone who wants to change, I encourage them to engage people at their current club and see if they can’t work it out to stay,” says North Baltimore head coach and CEO Bob Bowman. “If that’s already been done, and they decide their needs can’t be met, then we have a conversation about joining our team,” he says. “Different coaches do things differently,” says Sallade. “Some take new athletes in the belief that their coaching staff is just better. Others don’t want athletes unless they are really good.” That said, most coaches are understandably cautious. “I just begin with a conversation trying to learn what the athlete is looking for,” says Sallade. “I explain our program, what we do, our core beliefs, how we differentiate ourselves from other programs and how we deal with issues and parents. Separately, I ask the parents if their athlete is doing his or her very best at the current program. At Poseidon, we are really big on the athlete/ coach/parent triangle, with the athlete at the top and the coach and parent below helping. Essentially, I try to under-promise and over-deliver,” he says. “The whole process is just about communication,” says Bowman. “Coaches make it difficult for themselves by not spelling things out on the front end. Because of our history and reputation, people who come to NBAC know what they are getting into, so we don’t have a lot of misunderstandings.” Bowman indicates that the two criteria for new swimmers joining NBAC are: 1) Will they make the team

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So, what does a parent hope for out of a move?

“You are looking for great coaching,” says Norris Baker, a career school administrator and parent of national (and junior national) team member Kathleen Baker, a four-time medalist at the 2013 FINA World Junior Championships. “There may be times when you are looking for a change, and it’s OK because all programs ebb and flow, coaches come and go, and cultures change. Facilities change, too. Loss of pool time and training hours can affect training drastically,” he says. “Also, some clubs are great with younger swimmers, while others excel with more mature athletes. Depending upon what your individual swimmer’s situation is and eventual needs are, the club you choose when they are small may not fill their needs when they get older,” he says. For years, Kathleen swam at Star Aquatics in Winston-Salem, N.C., a program that offered schedule flexibility and “a focus on technique and drills rather than heavy training,” says Baker. “It was a wonderful culture for our kids” (older daughter, Rachel, swims at Washington & Lee). However, in Rachel’s senior year, a facility closed, her coach moved, and practice time changed. Fortunately, the year ended on a positive note after Rachel and her teammates joined Enfinity Swim Club. At the time, Kathleen, a three-time national age group record holder (11-12

Among other things, before you switch, visit and observe a practice, meet with the coach, and talk to other swimmers and parents in the program. Above all, trust your gut. — Jeremy Boone

He advises families and swimmers to make sure family and prospective club values are aligned with respect to development, expectations and quality of experience. “Among other things, before you switch, visit and observe a practice, meet with the coach, and talk to other swimmers and parents in the program. Above all, trust your gut,” says Boone. Some club changes are not athlete-, but ego-driven, notes Boone. In the extreme, a “parent today can go start their own club if they don’t like the experience their child is having. This is not a good thing for three reasons. At that point, the move is all about the parent and their own desires; it is a huge undertaking financially; and the quality of coaching is usually poor from a longterm development standpoint,” he says. He also advises that parents should think “big picture” when picking programs. Programs with master coaching elements are well positioned to train swimmers with competitive designs past their age group days. “If one of your child’s goals is to swim competitively in college, don’t wait until your child is a teenager to decide a new club might be a better fit,” says Boone. ••• “Every place is not the right place for everybody,” says Bowman, citing three main reasons why past moves to NBAC didn’t work. “Usually, it has been because the swimmer didn’t share our values on coming to practice, there were disciplinary issues, or the training program just didn’t fit them. In all cases, I helped them find a new place. Every coach goes through it, and you handle some better than others. You learn as you go,” says Bowman. “There are many different ways to swim and train, but there is only one basic premise: seek to improve. That’s the essence of anything. Just do the best job you can, and good things will happen,” says Sallade. v

better by joining? 2) Can NBAC take them to the next level? “If both answers are ‘yes,’ we see if we can work it out,” says Bowman. “If one of those is a ‘no,’ then we probably won’t.” NBAC operates from the premise that success is inevitable. Because of its selectivity, the club “MO” is that coaches run the technical program—“100 percent,” says Bowman—and that parents support the team. “We arrange the practice groups; we decide what meets swimmers attend and what events they are going to swim. We don’t need any consultation. The parents are expected to do the parenting duties. If everybody does their job, it works really well,” he says.

in the 100 yard back and 100 IM, 13-14 in the 100 back), was training at a high level. In addition to the changes at Star, she lost her social connection when her lane mates went off to college, and she often found herself swimming in a lane alone and traveling solo to meets. “At that point, Kathleen came to us wanting to change,” says her dad. “She presented herself to the coaches at SwimMAC, explaining why she wanted to move. As parents, we weighed the pros and cons and decided we would support it. “I believe if there is a need to change programs, it shouldn’t necessarily be parent-driven. I’d like it to be athletedriven with parental support. If it is not athlete-driven, it is not going to work,” says Baker. And for Kathleen, the move to Charlotte is working just fine as she continues swimming lights-out as a member of record-setting SwimMAC relays and knocking on the door of numerous Katie Hoff NAG marks. “Moving to another team does not necessarily mean things will be better, that coaching relations will improve and swimmers will get faster. We were very fortunate that team transitions were positive with both of our daughters,” says Baker. Two ingredients to a successful transition are knowing one’s child and understanding the new environment.

Jeremy Boone, a sports performance consultant and owner of Athletebydesign. com, has counseled individual athletes on a variety of issues, including changing teams.

Michael J. Stott, one of Swimming World Magazine’s USA contributors, is based in Richmond, Va. June 2014

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SHORT-AXIS STROKES? by rod havriluk

Many people believe that the technique of the fastest swimmers is worth copying. In reality, even the fastest swimmers have technique limitations, but they offset them with strength and conditioning. The purpose of this series of articles is to address scientifically the technique misconceptions that have become “conventional wisdom,” and to present more effective options.

figure 1 > (top) reference axes for the human body. figure 2 > (right) butterfly arm drill to minimize vertical motion. figure 3 > (above) breaststroke arm drill to minimize vertical motion.


Swimming Technique Misconception: Butterfly and breaststroke are considered “short-axis” strokes. This misconception is based on classifying strokes as “short” or “long” axis according to the direction of the most prominent body rotation. REFERENCE AXES FOR adsf EVALUATING bODY MOVEMENT

There are three reference axes for evaluating body movement (see Fig. 1, top, left). All three axes pass through the center of mass of the body (in the middle of the body at approximately the level of the navel). The polar axis runs the length of the body from head to feet. The bilateral axis passes through the body from one side to the other. The antero-posterior axis enters the front of the body and exits at the back. Technically, none of the three axes are “short” or “long.” In addition, all three axes are important in swimming. For example, rotation about the antero-posterior axis distorts the body position and increases resistance. Therefore, it is important to consider all three axes in optimizing performance. When there is a need to distinguish butterfly and breaststroke from freestyle and backstroke, they are more appropriately designated as “bilaterally symmetrical strokes” (as required by the rules of swimming) or simply “bilateral” strokes. Freestyle and backstroke are “unilateral” strokes.

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For both freestyle and backstroke, rotation about the polar axis is beneficial. Torso rotation of 45 degrees helps to position the arm in the water effectively for both strokes and facilitates the freestyle arm recovery. The benefit of emphasizing rotation about the bilateral axis for the bilateral strokes, however, is a misconception. Conventional wisdom suggests that an emphasis on rotation about the bilateral axis promotes undulation. An undulating style of breaststroke started to become popular about four decades ago. An undulation for butterfly has been promoted even longer. If undulation produces an increase in propulsion without compromising resistance, it benefits the swimmer. However, an emphasis on rotation about the bilateral axis typically exaggerates vertical motion, which increases resistance and decreases the ability of the arms to generate force. In a recent presentation, Dr. Brent Rushall (2013) showed examples of world-class butterflyers and breaststrokers with excess vertical motion (consistent with excess rotation about the bilateral axis). He explained how the vertical motion limited their performance. Research also supports a butterfly and breaststroke technique that does not emphasize bilateral rotation. For example, one study found that a “flat” breaststroke was more economical than the “undulating style” (Vilas-Boas, 1996). Another study concluded that elite butterflyers have a smaller angle of trunk inclination than non-elite, and that even the elites can improve (Cappaert, Pease & Troup, 1996).

three non-breathing stroke cycles. Swimmers can then stop and kick butterfly to return to the wall. Similarly, in breaststroke, practicing an “arms-only” drill helps a swimmer control the natural (but counterproductive) upand-down head and torso motion (see Fig. 3, previous page, lower left). If a swimmer maintains the head, torso and legs motionless (and resists the urge to undulate), he/ she can learn to make the most effective use of the arms. After a push-off from the wall on the surface, most swimmers can perform three non-breathing arm motions. Swimmers can kick breaststroke to return to the wall.

previously listed. After the treatment, the swimmers were asked to continue to focus on the specified technique elements during one month of training. The post-test showed significant improvements in their butterfly and breaststroke technique (as measured by the active drag coefficient) (see Fig. 4, below). v Dr. Rod Havriluk is the president of Swimming Technology Research (Tallahassee, Fla.). He also presently serves as president of the International Society of Swimming Coaching. He can be reached at the STR website:



Minimizing vertical motion in butterfly and breaststroke decreases the body cross-section for a decrease in resistance. In addition, a more level torso positions the arms more effectively to generate propulsion. While the range of motion of undulation may decrease, the stroke rate can increase. Swimmers who minimize vertical motion in butterfly usually report that they not only swim faster, but they also fatigue less quickly. A recent study with national-caliber swimmers supports an emphasis on decreasing vertical motion in butterfly and breaststroke (Rod Havriluk, 2014). Nineteen members of a national team participated in two days of instructional sessions using practice strategies that included the drills

Butterfly and breaststroke are often referred to as “short-axis” strokes to promote rotation about the bilateral axis, presumably to improve undulation. Science, however, supports a level head and torso position to decrease resistance and provide a more effective torso position for arm propulsion without compromising leg undulation. Benefit from undulation can still be achieved by sequentially summing forces from the upper leg, lower leg and foot. TOTAL ACCESS MEMBERS CLICK HERE

to learn more about the references for this article.


Minimizing vertical motion can decrease resistance and position the body so that the arms can be more effective in generating propulsion. If the head and torso are maintained level, propulsion from leg undulation can still be achieved in both bilateral strokes. In butterfly, it is essential to maintain the head at the surface during the arm entry. Practicing an “arms-only” drill—where the head, torso and legs remain motionless at the surface—can help to minimize vertical motion (see Fig. 2, previous page, right). Most competitive swimmers can push off from the wall at the surface and perform

figure 4 > significant technique improvement for national-caliber swimmers from practicing drills designed to minimize vertical motion in butterfly and breaststroke. an “effect size” of 0.8 is considered large, and 0.4 is considered medium.

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GOLDMINDS The Swimming Zones by wayne goldsmith

You’re traveling through another swimming dimension—a dimension not only of muscles and tendons, but of mind...a journey into a wondrous land whose boundaries are that of imagination. That’s a signpost up ahead—your next stop: the Swimming Zones! (with apologies to Rod Serling, creator of the “Twilight Zone”). Do you want to improve your swimming? If you’re reading this article, the answer is a very loud, clear, emphatic “Yes!” But how? How can you find a few valuable seconds and turn your personal potential into perfect performances? Do you do more training? Should you buy some better training equipment? Could you find a new coach? Perhaps you should purchase a new super-fast swimsuit? Or maybe you need to become committed to maintaining a healthier diet? Or what about getting more rest and having better quality sleep every night? Sure. All these things may help. They might give you an advantage. They could even help you to swim a little faster. But there’s one thing that’s guaranteed to work—one thing you can do to ensure your swimming performance improves. And it’s free...and it’s easy...and it’s closer than you think. It’s the way you approach your training. You are now entering...the Swimming Zones. THE SWIMMING ZONES

Want to improve your swimming?

There’s five “zones” in swimming, and each one of them plays an important role in your swimming success story:

It’s all in the zones!






Each swimming zone can give you an edge in your preparation and an advantage in your racing performances. 16

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Zone 1: The Preparation Zone

As soon as you arrive at the pool, you enter Zone 1—the Preparation Zone. This is the area where you and your swim team meet immediately before training—for example, the locker rooms, the end of the pool, a specific place in the “stands,” etc. This zone is where you start to think about swimming and where you turn on your swimming mind and begin to focus on your swimming and training. There’s a great saying that goes, “Start the way you want to finish.” The Preparation Zone is the time and the place where you make the conscious decision that today—right here and right now—will be a great workout. It’s also the zone where you get your swimming “tool-kit” ready for the session ahead, including your kickboard, pull buoy and band, fins, paddles, water bottle and all the practical things you need to ensure that this workout will be outstanding. Zone 2: The Power Zone

Zone 2 is all about power—the area from the walls to the backstroke flags (i.e., the zone where you are either leaving or swimming to the ends of the pool). This zone is called the Power Zone because it is here— from the walls to the flags—that you can make some remarkable improvements in your swimming performance. A great way to think of the Power Zone is to think, “First three, last three” (i.e., make sure the first three strokes you take coming off a wall as well as the last three strokes you take as you approach a wall are powerful, lightning-fast and, in free and fly, done without breathing. In Zone 2, every dive is a race-quality dive; every start is a race-quality start; every turn is a race-quality turn; and every finish is a race-quality finish. Zone 3: The Practice Zone

The area of the pool between the flags is

Zone 3—the Practice Zone. Here, the focus is on technique, skills and learning. A great training habit to develop is to practice your skills, kick and technique work between the flags (Zone 3), but when you hit Zone 2, swim at maximum speed in and out of every wall. For example, if you are completing a lap of single-arm fly drill, streamline from the wall to the backstroke flag (Zone 2), complete the single-arm fly drill between the backstroke flags (Zone 3), then swim full stroke butterfly to the wall (Zone 2), including finishing with a race-quality finish (i.e., head forward, hips high, arms fully extended and legs still pumping).

Zone 1: The Preparation Zone

Zone 2: The POWER Zone

Zone 4: The Performance Zone

Think of the pool as a stage and yourself as an actor. The pool is where you come to perform. It is your stage. It is the place where you come to demonstrate your skills—your art—as a swimmer. From the moment you arrive at the pool, imagine you are on the swimming stage, and it is here where you perform the skills and techniques of swimming that you have mastered through years of hard practice and dedicated training. What you do at the pool is more than just swimming laps or kicking or doing drills. It is the place where you demonstrate your capacity for excellence and your commitment to success.

Zone 3: The PRACTICE Zone

Zone 4: The PERFORMANCE Zone

Zone 5: The Post-Pool Zone

Zone 5, even though it is outside the pool area, is just as important as all the other zones. This is where you help your body to repair, regenerate and recover from the hard work you’ve done in Zones 1, 2, 3 and 4. In fact, the better you are in Zone 5 (i.e., the better you are at managing your sleep, rest, recovery, hydration, nutrition and injury treatment), the better you can perform in the other zones. v

SUMMARY 1. Everyone who swims has access to the same “zones.” They are the same in every every every nation. It’s your choice as to how you use the “zones”­—and it’s your choice as to how successful you will be. 2. Try tapping into each “zone” at a time. Instead of thinking, “I’m going to practice,” think, “Today, I’ll get the most out of the ‘practice zone,’” or “Today, I’ll make sure everything I do in the ‘power zone’ will be outstanding.” 3. By understanding the “zones,” you can improve every aspect of your swimming: fitness, power, skills, technique, your mental skills and your recovery. In doing so, you will realize your full potential as a swimmer.

Zone 5: The POST-POOL Zone

Wayne Goldsmith is one of the world’s leading experts in elite-level swimming and high-performance sport. Be sure to check out his websites at and June 2014

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Michael Andrew Tells All by shoshanna rutemiller photos by azaria basile


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Michael Andrew: NAG record holder extraordinaire, home-school scholar, professional swimmer... and he only just turned 15 years old! Peter Andrew trains his son, Michael, three times a day in a two-lane, aboveground pool built in the backyard of his Lawrence, Kan. home. When the former collegiate swimmer from South Africa trains his son (who turned 15 on April 18), he expects him to do everything intensely, at race pace, and to failure. And when Michael isn’t swimming, he’s taking advanced math and science classes. In fact, the home-schooled student is a full grade level ahead of other kids his age. And did we mention he’s the youngest male swimmer ever to turn professional? Although the path Michael Andrew chose to follow has had its fair share of critics, no one can deny that the young man sees incredible success nearly every time he dives into the pool. In fact, he practically rewrites the entire national age group record book at each of his championship meets!


In between swim meet sessions at a recent competition in Daytona, Fla., Andrew, his mom, Tina, dad, and sister, Michaela, did what many families on vacation do— they headed to the beach for some bodysurfing and boogie boarding fun. “We are definitely water babies,” Andrew said with a laugh. And the water babies are aching to uproot their home in Kansas and move to the ocean. Before settling in Kansas, the Andrews had homes in Aberdeen, S.D., and Edina, Minn., where Andrew — continued on 20

Michael Andrew’s Favorite Sets by peter andrew

Michael Andrew swam a 46.95 in the 100 yard butterfly at the NASA Showcase Classic in Clearwater, Fla., April 18. We were pretty happy with this result, as we spent the lead-up week preparing for this race. I was pretty sure Michael would break the 15-16 mark (46.99) in this meet just based on his training. (Editor’s Note: Michael had turned 15 on April 18, but he competed as a 14-year-old throughout the meet, as that was his age on the first day of competition. His 46.95, therefore, counts as a 1314 national age group record.) Because the turnaround time between meets is pretty quick, I would say our training is geared toward keeping him sharp and not over-pushing in order to stay away from any fatigue as he comes into the meet. For the NASA meet, we targeted the 100 fly and the 100 breast. Michael swam the following morning workout on April 14, two days before the meet began: For warm-up, Michael does whatever he feels is good for him, which is usually about 150 yards and some ring bubble blowing. Then we swim two sets. The first set is 100 pace fly. The goal is for him to hold 11.70 for the 25-yard length, and we want to make 20 of these with a 15-second rest between repeats. These were the times he held. 1. 11.23 6. 11.43 11. 11.69 16. 11.40

2. 3. 4. 5.

11.68 11.65 11.48 11.07

7. 8. 9. 10.

11.51 11.43 11.43 11.33

12. 13. 14. 15.

11.49 11.43 11.58 11.35

17. 18. 19. 20.

11.65 11.15 11.16 11.60

Usually, we will stop the set when Michael fails to make 11.70, but I asked him for 20, and you can see that he really pushed himself on numbers 18 and 19, then almost failed on 20. I would

bet No. 21 would have been a fail. Then we take at least a 15-minute rest, where we worked on the dive and transitions. The goal for Michael’s fly for the NASA Showcase Classic was to do the underwater to the 7.5-meter mark (about 8 yards), which was the fourth line on the bottom of the pool in Clearwater. As you know, Michael’s underwaters are his weak point right now, so if he breaks out at the 7.5-meter mark, he holds a comfortable seven strokes and hits the wall perfectly on that seventh stroke. Once he is well recovered, we begin the next set, which is the 100 breast. For this, his target time is a 13.50: 1. 2. 3. 4.

13.12 13.86 13.24 13.53

5. 6. 7. 8.

13.30 13.90 13.30 13.80

9. 10. 11. 12.

13.30 13. 13.49 13.51 14. 13.70 13.16 15. 13.80 13.40

So, we stopped the set at 15, as he was just going to get worse from there. We were still pleased with that. After this, he warmed down for a bit, and we did 4 x 25 freestyle at overspeed off the blocks.

1. 9.00 3. 9.03 2. 8.98 4. 9.10

On these, he takes as much rest as he wants, as this is just all-out swimming to train that overspeed 50 free. And that’s the end of the workout. We both feel this is enough to maintain his fitness level without creating fatigue that would be carried over to the meet. The result was good, as he swam a 46.95 in the 100 fly. v

Peter Andrew is Michael’s father and coach. June 2014

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MICHAEL ANDREW — continued from 19

was born in the spring of 1999. “We aren’t really fans of the cold weather in Kansas,” said Andrew. “We aren’t sure where we would move yet, but, hopefully, it is somewhere by the beach—maybe by Clearwater in Florida.” The ocean water flows deep in Andrew’s veins. His father grew up surfing in his native South Africa. However, when asked about incorporating open-water training into his schedule, Andrew quickly dismisses the notion. “I’d be at the beach every day,” Andrew said. “But the distance of open water would be my issue.” A fair statement, considering Andrew owns nearly every boys 13-14 NAG record shorter than 500 yards or 400 meters.


When Andrew is not training in a pool or splashing around in the ocean, he loves learning about living creatures and exploring them in their native habitats. While traveling with his family to Florida, he collects anoles and lizards during class breaks in his home-schooling schedule.


“It’s cool,” he said. “I can go and catch them to look at their tails and figure out stuff on my own about them.” Although he is currently studying English, the Old Testament, chemistry, world history, algebra 2 and Spanish, Andrew wants to one day take courses in herpetology (the study of reptiles). Andrew says that reptiles are one of his biggest animal fascinations—he loves lizards and snakes. One day, he wants to own his own zoo. “Anything that crawls, breathes or walks, I want to come in contact with,” he said. “I have had a pet snake, a macaw—my family has had all sorts of animals. It would be really cool to open up some sort of zoo. Exotic animals especially interest me.” Another interest—and something that is on most every high school-aged boy’s mind—is the prom. Although he had a brief foray into the world of breakdancing when he was younger, Andrew really just wants to learn how to dance with a partner. “I just want to know what to do when I get to prom age,” he said. Let’s hope the girls won’t distract Andrew too much from swimming! v

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! a n e m o n e Ph RDS THE NAG RECO

ph otos

mp l by em ily sa ck bi . h r te by pe


o ph




ria basile]

National age group standards in the United States are falling at a faster pace than ever.

Seemingly every weekend during the championship meet season—and in nearly every event— young swimmers in the United States are crushing national age group records—sometimes even setting multiple marks on the same day or at the same meet. Are these records, indeed, being set

2008 2009

pictured > (from top) kevin cordes; missy franklin; michael andrew; karlee bispo; chase kalisz


at a faster pace than in previous years? If so, how can the phenomena be explained? Using data provided by USA Swimming, the following chart shows the number of NAG record-breaking swims by age group and by year for individual events only (no relays) from Sept. 1, 2008 through March 19, 2014:






10 & UNDER
















































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a z a r ia b a s i l e ]

te r




Ella Eastin (above)








Breeja Larson (above) Destin Lasco Katie Ledecky Felicia Lee Darren Lim Matthew Limbacher Justin Lynch Matthew Magness Rebecca Mann Simone Manuel Vincent Marciano Toonu Maruyama


h. bick ]

Kathryn McLaughlin Cody Miller Mamoru Mori Camden Murphy Max Murphy Ryan Murphy Lia Neal Elizabeth Nelson David Nolan Curtis Ogren Preston Padden Jacob Pebley Elizabeth Pelton Evan Pinion Joshua Prenot Ivan Puskovitch Eric Ress Isabella Rongione Maxime Rooney Alexis Santos Madeline Schaefer



Michael Andrew (above) Winn Aung Kathleen Baker Courtney Bartholomew Cassidy Bayer Seth Beer Elizabeth Beisel Gunnar Bentz Karlee Bispo Keaton Blovad Rachel Bootsma Bonnie Brandon Olivia Calegan Jonathan Carlisle Kasey Carlson Dylan Carter Frank Chi Seth Chun Santo Condorelli Kevin Cordes John Conger Cole Cragin Ethan Dang Kevin Darmody Jackson Defore Nicholas D’Innocenzo Madeline DiRado Michael Domagala Caeleb Dressel

Matthew Elliott Brett Feyerick Shayne Fleming Carson Foster Missy Franklin Arthur Frayler Kyle Gornay Longyuan Gutierrez Townley Haas Suzuka Hasegawa Christian Higgins Matthew Hirschberger Benjamin Ho Ryan Hoffer Lindsey Horejsi Janet Hu Liv Jensen Faith Johnson Chase Kalisz Hiroyuki Katou Alexander Katz Radoslaw Kawecki Edward Kim Lillia King Dagny Knutson Nolan Koon Jonatan Kopelev Tom Kremer



(from 9-1-08 through 3-19-14)







— continued on 26



Following are a few observations related to these numbers, the recordbreaking swimmers themselves and the overall increase in the number of national age group records being set: • Michael Andrew and Missy Franklin account for nearly one-fourth of the NAG records. One of the more interesting points to emerge from the data is that only 115 swimmers were responsible for setting the 464 individual records during this time span (2008-14)—an average of basically four records per swimmer. When skimming through more than 20 pages worth of record-breaking swims, however, a lot of the same names popped up in multiple age groups across multiple years. Of course, each swimmer on the list did not set four records. Most of the swimmers broke only one or two records, but a few swimmers broke many more than four records.

Yezan Alsader Olivia Anderson Thomas Anderson ia





Beginning with 2009, there definitely seems to be an upward trend in the number of records that have fallen. For 200910, an average of 63 individual records per year were broken. That increased to an average of 75.5 per year for 2011-12. And in 2013, 125 NAG marks were set, with 2014 (35 records in the first twoand-a-half months) on pace for more than 160 records! The total number of records set nearly doubled from 2011 to 2012, then increased another 25 percent in 2013, and is on pace to increase an additional 31 percent this year. There are a few noticeable spikes in the number of records broken within individual age groups as well, though it’s difficult to establish an obvious pattern, as some years have very few records in one age group and a plethora in another. Across all five age groups, however, the greatest number of records broken for that age group came in either 2012 or 2013; in the 11-12 and 17-18 age groups, the most records were set in 2012, while the 13-14 and 15-16 age groups saw the highest numbers in 2013. The 10-andunder age group had an even 14 records set in both 2012 and 2013.

Andrew Seliskar (above) Tom Shields Clara Smiddy Regan Smith Kendyl Stewart Seth Stubblefield Nathan Tankersley Cindy Tran Gray Umbach Nicholas Silverthorn Alexandra Szekely Alexander Velente Grace Vanbrunt Carsten Vissering Kristen Vredeveld Alexandra Walsh Sonia Wang Reece Whitley Madison Wright Ethan Young Annie Zhu v June 2014

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team members have set NAG records, including five of the six who are also on the Olympians list—Beisel, Bootsma, Franklin, Larson and Ledecky. The others are Karlee Bispo, Kasey Carlson, Kevin Cordes, Maya DiRado, Chase Kalisz, Dagny Knutson, Becca Mann, Simone Manuel and Elizabeth Pelton. WHAT’S CAUSING THE TREND? NAG RECORDS — continued from 25

[ph ot y o b

azar i a b a s il e ]

pictured > (from top) lia neal; becca mann; caeleb dressel; rachel bootsma; maya d irado; katie ledecky; elizabeth beisel


Michael Andrew, now 15, has posted 57 records since his first NAG mark as a 10-and-under (plus three more NAGs since March 19). Multi-Olympic gold medalist and world champion Missy Franklin has set 51 throughout her age group career. These two superstars alone accounted for 23 percent of the records. Katie Ledecky, the 2012 Olympic champion in the 800 free, has broken 20 individual records, while University of Florida-bound Caeleb Dressel’s total is 15. When looking at the numbers from this perspective, one could argue that there really hasn’t been a huge increase in the number of records set—rather, just a lot of amazing swims by a couple of incredible athletes. Franklin, for example, at the very least, is a once-in-a-generation swimmer, so it’s not surprising to see her wiping out so many records as she moves through the age group ranks. And Franklin isn’t the only swimmer to erase records across multiple age groups—several swimmers appeared on the list of record breakers across two or three different age groups. Janet Hu also set NAG standards across three different age groups in 11-12, 1516 and 17-18. • Olympic champions, world champions and college standouts are on the list of record breakers. Six Olympians (all medalists)— Elizabeth Beisel, Rachel Bootsma, Missy Franklin, Breeja Larson, Katie Ledecky and Lia Neal—broke national age group records from the end of 2008 to the beginning of 2014. Additionally, 14 world championship

Clearly, America’s age group swimmers are getting faster and faster each year. Pam Swander, North Region Manager and Senior I Head Coach at SwimMAC Carolina, cites a few contributing factors to the increase in national age group records. “Technically, we’re paying more attention to stroke mechanics at a younger age, and I think across the board, it gives us a lot of flexibility in developing our swimmers and being able to produce those kinds of records. “I also think the tech suit era taught us a lot about body position and posture, and it’s really changed the way people think about swimming. Coaches are using more dryland training and really paying attention to making it swimmingspecific,” she said. “A lot of programs across the country are focusing on developing athleticism, which is developing better swimmers. The records are a byproduct of that: great coaching at great programs.” Swander, who has seen SwimMAC swimmers set many of the recent national age group records, says that her kids are aware of the records and their potential to break them, but it’s not their main focus. And she believes that’s true for swimmers on other teams. Still, whether they are thinking about breaking the records or not, the fact remains that the NAG standards are falling at a faster pace than ever before. And it looks like 2014 will be another banner year. v

Emily Sampl, an editorial assistant for Swimming World Magazine, is a free-lance writer for USA Swimming and an assistant coach at Boulder High School and Boulder Elks Swim Team in Colorado.

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pictured > michael andrew

a new way to train [ photo

by mike lewis ]

by michael j . stott

Coaches, scientists and swimmers weigh in on Ultra-Short Race-Pace Training, also known as USRPT. There is a new energy afoot whose tenets challenge traditional and successful swim training methods used by the majority of the swim coaches in the U.S. The movement, USRPT—short for Ultra-Short Race-Pace Training—emphasizes brief and strictly monitored work and recovery levels that consistently simulate racing conditions without the negative effects of lactate buildup or fatigue. USRPT has as one of its bases the principle of specificity, which holds that training must be specific to a particular athletic event in order to achieve maximal

performance improvement. “It is only in recent years that the evidence to support race-pace training in an ultra-short format has emerged to produce a coherent total conditioning format,” says cofounder and 2011 codifier of USRPT, Dr. Brent S. Rushall (professor emeritus, exercise and nutritional sciences, San Diego State University). Rushall, a sport scientist, has impressive coaching credentials. He has been an Olympic staff member starting in Australia for swimming, freestyle wrestling, ski-jumping and cross country skiing. He

began coaching at Bondi Baths in New South Wales, Australia in 1958, and is classified as an elite international coach by the American Swim Coaches Association. When it comes to application in swimming, “USRPT sets are the ultimate in individualizing training when in a group setting,” says Rushall. That is because “swimmers perform at their own race pace for the distance being focused upon. No two swimmers perform similarly unless their performances for a racing event are identical. That individualization persists in all true USRPT sets at all practices. As swimmers advance at their own rates of achievement in training sets, the “race pace” is improved accordingly. Progression in performance levels at training is an individual matter and is accommodated by USRPT. Training sets are race-specific for stroke, distance, pace, technique and mental readiness. Importantly, they consist of repeated short sprints with 15-to-20-second rest intervals, 25s at 100 race pace, — continued on 28

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USRPT — continued from 27

50s at 200 race pace and 100s at 1500 race pace. When a swimmer fails to make the pace, he takes the next repetition off, and he stops altogether when he cannot get back on pace. Advocates maintain that USRPT allows for extremely effective and intense training in considerably less practice time and without the need for dryland training. KEY PROPONENTS

[ photo

by mike lewis ]

pictured > michael andrew (above, left; and below), who is coached by his dad, peter andrew (above, right), is the poster child for usrpt. in the last six months, michael has set and reset 40 nag records and currently holds 24 standards over three age groups.

[ photo


by azaria basile ]

“USRPT excludes drills, kickboard kicking or dryland work,” says the USA’s foremost practitioner, Peter Andrew. “Anything that is not race-specific for stroke, distance, pace, technique and mental readiness is discarded. “In simple terms, USRPT allows you to train how you compete. It is time-effective: 45 to 90 minutes per day is all it takes to achieve several training effects while preparing for multiple specific events. To work, USRPT requires accountability, total understanding and buy-in from athlete and coach,” says Andrew. The poster child for USRPT is Peter’s son, professional swimmer Michael Andrew, a home-schooled, parent-trained, 6-4, 15-year-old (on April 17) who, in the last six months, has set and reset 40 national age group records and currently holds 24 standards over three different age groups. This young man travels and races a lot (five straight weekends in March and April). Genetically gifted, (Dad is 6-5, Mom is 6-2), he has big hands and—like Michael Phelps—a long torso with reasonably short legs. Interestingly, two of the 1314 NAG long course records that he does not hold (200 fly, 400 IM) are held by— you guessed it—Michael Phelps. Michael Andrew’s total yardage is approximately 1,500 per session or 10-12,000 yards per week, says his dad. Peter Andrew concedes that he knew nothing about swim training when several years ago he decided to assume his talented son’s training. “There is so much dogma in the sport,” he says. He went to clinics, read voraciously, joined ASCA and sought out sport scientists in Russia, Africa (he is South African) and elsewhere. He met Rushall at the 2009 ASCA World Clinic and began

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a full-time student-mentor relationship with the Australian sport scientist who had already put his thesis to the test with two leading age-group clubs in Australia. To Andrew, Rushall’s concepts, as ultimately spelled out in his Swimming Energy Training in the 21st Century; the Justification for Radical Changes (2011), made sense. Andrew liked that the USRPT system was “scientifically based, fun (kids love to race), effective (no junk yardage), measurable, time-effective and required no taper. It also minimized injuries because of its self-regulating nature. When splits are not achieved, athletes are encouraged to rest. Less is more,” Andrew says. Five-time Olympic gold medalist and now master clinician Josh Davis has been self-training, using USRPT exclusively for two months and is sold: “If you can reach your potential with 45 minutes in the morning and 45 minutes at night, it changes everything—so why not do that? I’m finding it true for me. I feel better than I have in years. I’ll race anybody.” To him, the science behind USRPT and its tenets of perfect technique, race-pace and strategic rest make for fast, confident swimmers. Then there is Glen Gruber, 64, who began using USRPT in September explicitly to break the Masters world short course meters record in the 400 free, a goal he accomplished in March (4:55.10). “USRPT is all about race pace,” he says. “It makes sense to train at the speed you are going to race.” At the recent U.S. Masters Nationals, Davis won all his races in the men’s 40-44 age division, setting several USMS records, while Gruber was the highest-placing 64-year-old in the sprint freestyle events. Additionally, David Sims (men’s 50-54) and Douglas Martin (men’s 60-64)—who both use USRPT—won multiple events.

ogy, think the old way is better (or at least more comfortable) and are awaiting results from someone other than a teenage phenom. Still other perceived impediments are that “the USRPT model requires coaches to be teachers of technique and mental skills, not pool-traffic directors,” says Rushall. “Closely monitoring techniques, reminding swimmers to focus on racerelevant psychological content and being aware of swimmer fatigue levels in sets of repetitions are the basic requirements for a true USRPT coach. Anything less is not a maximal implementation of the USRPT model,” he says. Also, for better or worse, old ways die hard—and with good reason. Consider for a moment the way we were, circa 2012 and before, when United States men and women won 520 of 1,567 (33.18 percent) of all Olympic swimming medals ever distributed. Such a medal haul begs the question, “How wrong could the training

While there is considerable—and growing—enthusiasm for USRPT, not everyone is buying. One reason is its recent codification. Other reasons for caution are that coaches are still learning the methodol-

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In simple terms, USRPT allows you to train how you compete. To work, USRPT requires accountability, total understanding and buy-in from ATHLETE and COACH.


methods of George Haines, Doc Counsilman, Don Gambril, Jack Nelson, Mark Schubert, Richard Quick, Eddie Reese, Bob Bowman, Gregg Troy, et al. have been?” Those coaches reflect a swimming mindset that has been bolstered by a hard-work, high-volume culture tempered by super adaptation, carefully orchestrated tapering, significant dryland activity and God knows what else to produce impressive time drops at championship meets. The next question becomes, “In these days of seismic cultural shifts (social media evolution, same-sex marriage, health care for all, etc.), is a swim training revolution next on the list?” Answer: it depends on whom you ask. And while there is plenty of buzz about USRPT from some respected sources, it is important to note that not everyone is all in just yet. Richard Shoulberg at Germantown Academy is a high-volume guy—perhaps the highest of all time. In his 55 years of coaching, he has mentored more than a dozen Olympians, including gold medalists Dave Wharton and David Berkoff. “What makes me a successful coach is that I know the seven-day patterns of my athletes. And that’s how I base all my training,” he says. Each Monday, Shoulberg clocks repeat 25s to gauge athlete mindset and energy level. He then monitors athletes during the week, interjecting drills where necessary, always being mindful of individual rest cycles. “We do overdistance training because I see the 400 IM as the keystone to any program. I think the most important things in developing your grassroots program are dryland and stroke technique to decrease injuries, and the ability to change speeds regardless of race distance,” he says. “In my 55 years, the kids who could change speeds were the ones who became the most successful.” Dryland? Germantown has nine Vasa trainers, six Vasa ergometers, nine spin bikes, treadmills, steppers, incline boards, surgical tubing, TRX and five sta— continued on 30

— Peter Andrew

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USRPT — continued from 29

You can’t coach every kid in the same way and expect the same results for everyone. You almost have to INDIVIDUALIZE it.

tions of TRX. Creativity is intrinsic to the Shoulberg way. “You can’t coach every kid in the same way and expect the same results for everyone. You almost have to individualize it, even in a crowded pool,” he says. And there’s the rub. “You are limited when you have 40 kids in a six-lane pool; it’s hard for a coach to absorb all that information. That’s why you have assistant coaches.” Sergio Lopez, head coach at The Bolles School, agrees. He is well aware of USRPT because he spent three days at the recent Grand Prix in Austin sitting with Peter Andrew. Would the system work at Bolles? “I don’t know because I haven’t studied it enough and have been turned off by a couple of things,” he says in reference to Rushall’s “all-or-nothing” approach. “I think Michael Andrew is proof that whatever they are doing works, but that is one person. I think it would be very hard for me to run my practices that way with 50 kids. “I think there are a lot of coaches who don’t like the system just because they believe in a different way of coaching.” Lopez, whose Bolles teams were national high school champions in 2010 and 2012 and who coached Charlie Houchin to an Olympic berth, has a method that works for him. “I don’t understand volume, but I have been doing race pace for a long time,” he says. Ah, race pace. Dave Salo, head coach at Trojan Swim Club, is on the deck every day and shares a number of Rushall’s precepts, particularly in regard to high quality work, excellent stroke mechanics, lesser volume and racepace training. Also a sport scientist, Salo (Ph.D., exercise physiology, USC, ’91) has developed a highly successful training philosophy through study, practice and personal experience. He has found that a “less-is-more” approach—concentrating more on technique and race pace—tends to reduce the emphasis on volume and over-distance training. More than 75 percent of the repeats in his training sessions are at faster-than-race-pace intensities. At the

— Richard Shoulberg


same time, the distances are much shorter (i.e., 25-50-75, etc.) than the actual races themselves. “Because workloads are conducted over shorter distances at higher intensities, the average intensity of most training sessions is significantly higher,” he says. Sets such as 20 x 25 on 15 seconds rest—similar to those prescribed by USRPT—allow for 10 seconds of feedback for every 12 seconds of effort. Such an approach permits Salo to focus on the content and relevancy of training sessions in addition to making them shorter. While Rushall and Salo agree as to the cardiovascular and neuromuscular aspects of training, Salo’s application is not USRPT, especially since the USC coach continues to embrace the value of weight and strength training, believing that a stronger, more flexible athlete is going to be a better swimming athlete.


USRPT is gaining traction. Check the Internet. Media interest is high, questions are being asked, seminars are being held, and there is now a seven-DVD set available, called “Understanding & Implementing Ultra-Short Race-Pace Training” by Dr. Brent Rushall, proudly presented by Team Andrew Indie Swimming. Coaches are curious, and some are using USRPT—albeit in a hybrid form—to good effect. “The literature implies that even in

hybrid programs, significant athlete improvements occur in a very short time after USRPT/high-intensity training is introduced,” says Rushall. While no one has used USRPT for an extended period, early adapters are offering high praise. One is Don Wagner, six-time U.S. national team coach and head coach at Phoenix Aquatic Club (N.Y.). Wagner began using USRPT in January. Since then, he reports seeing better-split races and better personal accountability from his athletes. A recent Florida meet concluded with close to 100 percent lifetime best swims over distances from 50 to the 1650. He plans to fully implement USRPT shortly. Assuming USRPT takes hold, its role may be more like that employed by Dave Anderson at the Schroeder YMCA in Brown Deer, Wis. “I had used straightforward conventional training essentially since 1985 with training zones based on conventions like lactate, corresponding heart rates, perceived effort and colors,” he says. In November 2011, he began using elements of Salo’s training regimen because he found it “challenging, stimulating and effective.” Exposure to USRPT, considerable research in spring 2013 and experimentation last summer motivated Anderson to continue USRPT into the short course season. “I haven’t gone all in because the blending has been very effective,” says Anderson. “I have reservations about athlete willingness, and I think there are many barriers that make a full jump a difficult step. The racing aspect of the training has produced swimmer excitement and heart rates that exceed normal ‘very hard efforts.’ Race-pace training is up, too, from 600 yards per week in April 2013 to a current 2,000-to-4,000,” Anderson says.


To his credit, Rushall has written extensively on swim training for years, going back to his seminal Honors M.S. thesis at Indiana in 1967, where he first coined the term, “ultra-short.” Online, his Step-By-Step USRPT Planning and Decision-Making Processes and Examples of USRPT Training Sessions, Microcycles,

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Macrocycles and Technique Instruction as well as Understanding a USRPT Set are the bases for his seminars on the subject. Make no mistake: Rushall’s conclusions are scientifically-based. Lest one think USRPT is only for advanced athletes or sprinters, think again. Rushall offers suggested developmental progressions for children 8 years and older plus an outline for USRPT training for longer distances. For USRPT to really work, Rushall posits that “when formulating race-pace sets, the total volume swum should be at a minimum three times the race distance with a suggestion to favor five-to-ten times the event distance.” The 10 times race distance is hypothesized to prepare swimmers for longer distances, he notes. Rushall does offer caveats. He says USRPT is not intended for beginners, and “basic competency” is essential for any swimmer attempting it. “A heavy emphasis on technique and skill instruction at USRPT pace is a sound investment in the development of young people,” he says. As swimmers mature and advance in training, he urges coaches to “continue to

place great emphasis on skills and technique.” Clearly, USRPT is a system that requires close monitoring and precise implementation. Excellent skills (some coaches go so far to say, “perfect technique”), involvement with the athlete (and vice versa) and accountability are essential to USRPT success. Fortunately, all those elements are in place for Michael Andrew who remains the main recipient of his father’s coaching. Unlike Andrew, most coaches are not in a situation where their training groups are really small. In those cases, athletes of like abilities and training the same stroke need to be grouped together for maximum practice efficiency. Will USRPT work for distance swimmers? “With the right coach, the right mentality and the right athlete—absolutely. I think there are a billion ways to get kids to swim fast,” says Shoulberg. “There are so many bright minds out there, and new methods of coaching that are producing these great times. I am amazed at the different ways people get kids to Olympic Trials in the U.S.,” he says. “Doc Counsilman told me, ‘Don’t ever

judge a coach by one athlete. That’s when you make a mistake.’ “At a conference when his ‘The Science of Swimming’ came out, he said the book was already antiquated and obsolete. He continued, ‘If you try and take my sets and run them in your practices, you are hurting your team. My sets are designed for 75 percent of the current world record holders. Your job is to go back to your pool, read the book—and others—and control your environment.’ He was saying follow your own intuition, set up your own plans, create your own environment, and make it better,” says Shoulberg. So, is USRPT fad, folly, one of many roads to success or the final answer? The jury is still out and most likely the real answer lies in between, predicated upon coach, athlete and training situation. v Michael J. Stott, one of Swimming World Magazine’s USA contributors, is based in Richmond, Va. TOTAL ACCESS MEMBERS CLICK HERE to learn more about USRPT.

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[ photo

by john peterson ]

Indoor Air Quality by ralph kittler

causes and solutions for iaq and breathing issues in natatoriums


ntering the words, “swimming, chloramines and breathing,” into any Internet search engine will bring up a host of negative stories about the dangers of swimming in indoor pools. Swimming shouldn’t be a dangerous health risk. However, ill-functioning or improperly designed swimming facilities and their equipment might be to blame for respiratory illnesses in indoor swimming pools. Some recent indoor air quality (IAQ) problems at prominent swim meets have brought the issue to the front page of many newspapers. At the 2007 U.S. swimming championships in Indianapolis, for example, USA Today reported several pedigreed swimmers had substandard performances due to IAQ. Brendan Hansen, then the 200 meter breaststroke world champion, called the facility a “house of doom” when he finished a full second off his world record after allegedly suffering breathing issues. A more recent incident occurred just last December at two Speedo Winter Junior National prelims held at the Greensboro Aquatic Center, Greensboro, N.C. As reported by Swimming World Magazine,


competitive swimmer Caeleb Dressel allegedly reported lung issues prior to a trip to a local hospital emergency room during the meet. Jacksonville, Fla.-based Bolles High School coach Sergio Lopez said he suspected the facility’s IAQ and that other swimmers also experienced similar breathing issues. These are well-known incidents, however, for every incident that reaches the media, there are probably dozens more that are never reported. The universal term, “Lifeguard Lung,” is usually used to describe these types of respiratory problems associated with indoor pool IAQ problems. A more scientific term brands it granulomatous pneumonitis. Typically, it’s caused by long exposure to chloramines, which is common among indoor pool lifeguards and competitive swimmers. These respiratory issues aggravate asthmatic conditions in swimmers. The general public typically names excess chlorine as the cause. On the contrary, it’s actually excess chloramines due to insufficient free chlorine in the water that cause the chloramines/chlorine odor. Chloramines consist of one or any combination of monochloramine, dichloramine and trichloramine molecules. Free

chlorine attaches to organics in the water such as ammonia, urine and perspiration, and oxidizes them. When free chlorine is insufficient and organics aren’t oxidized, chloramines can form. The newlyformed substance then off-gasses a toxic and heavy gas, which, unfortunately, for swimmers, stratifies just above the water surface in their breathing zone. So, every breath during swimming can introduce a heavy dose of chloramines to the lungs. The first critical step in troubleshooting chloramines challenges is to ensure proper water chemistry. However, these IAQ problems can also stem from the facility operation itself, such as inadequate outdoor air induction, air stagnation and poor air distribution. THE BASICS OF NATATORIUM IAQ EQUIPMENT When looking at a facility’s air distribution effectiveness, it’s important to have a basic understanding of how indoor pool HVAC systems should work and distribute air. There are two common approaches of natatorium environmental control: 1) a refrigeration-based mechanical dehumidification system, and 2) a ventilation-

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pictured > (previous page and this page) jenks trojan aquatic center (okla.)

[ photo

only system. Regardless of which system is used, they all have to follow the same regulations and codes for the air they provide. Regardless of what approach is used, they’re all required to deliver the same amount of supply air, provide the minimum outside air as required by codes, maintain a negative pressure and, most critically, distribute the good quality supply air down to the deck and breathing zone. Like any mechanical equipment, these HVAC systems need periodic calibration and tuning by qualified and trained technicians. Unfortunately, this isn’t in many aquatic center budgets and as a result, some facility units might not condition and distribute air properly. For example, something as basic as the exhaust fans or outdoor air dampers not being adjusted or operating correctly could quickly lead to IAQ issues. ASSESSING THE AIR DELIVERY Conditioned air from the HVAC system may not be distributing properly, reaching the pool deck area or getting into the breathing zone at the deck level or above the pool surface. This could be due to a

host of design problems. An easy way to determine proper air movement at the deck area is a smoke test during an unoccupied pool period. If the smoke stagnates on the deck and nothing moves it around, the same is most likely happening with the airborne chemicals. Some pool operators use dry ice instead of smoke. This is a quick and effective method and is easily purchased at a supermarket. It provides an ample smoke effect to indicate air movement. If poor air movement is discovered at the deck level, an investment in an air balance contractor will help establish how much system air is moving and how much is delivered from any given supply grille. NEW TECHNOLOGIES New technology has developed chloramine source capture systems, which can be built into one side of the pool’s gutter system, typically nearest the HVAC system’s return air grille on the natatorium wall. Due to its close pool surface proximity plus the fact that the chloramines are relatively dense, this approach effectively draws chloramines off the water surface and expels them outside via a duct system. Facilities with these systems report

by melisa lukenbaugh ]

dramatic improvement in IAQ. This exhaust air is still energy-rich and there are technologies available that can be used for energy recovery to preheat the incoming outside air to help minimize a facility’s operating costs. While the in-gutter approach is probably more attractive for new construction because it can be planned into the gutter system during the design phase, there are also deck-mounted versions that are very effective. In the realm of water chemistry, ultra violet (UV) light treatments of pool water have shown a positive impact on the control or elimination of chloramines. Water-borne chloramines are drawn into the pool water circulation system where they pass through a UV light field. The UV scrambles any biological contaminant’s DNA and eventually kills or disinfects it so it can no longer exist as a microbe. A ROLE MODEL OF NATATORIUM IAQ One recently built natatorium that includes the aforementioned mechanical dehumidification, properly designed air distribution for spectators and swimmers, and a source capture gutter sys— continued on 34 June 2014

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AIR QUALITY — continued from 33 pictured > the 50,000-squarefoot jenks trojan aquatic center (okla.), which hosted the 2012 central zone senior sectionals, recorded a 3.9-rating (on a scale of 1 to 4) evaluation for iaq.

tem for chloramines might serve as a future role model for indoor pool IAQ. The 50,000-square-foot Jenks Trojan Aquatic Center (JTAC) in the Tulsa suburb of Jenks, Okla., wowed 626 swimmers, 80 coaches, 60 volunteers, 30 referees and more than 1,000 spectators at the 2012 Speedo Championship Series Central Zone Senior Sectionals. The meet’s USA Swimming referee and, at the time, the 2012 Central Zone officials chairman, Stephen Potter, surveyed 100 participants on JTAC’S facility conditions and recorded a 3.9-rating (on a scale of 1 to 4) evaluation for IAQ. It was by far the highest recorded IAQ rating in the prior 10 major meets held in the seven-state region’s premier venues. In contrast, the 2008 national championships in Minnesota were set back by swimmer-breathing challenges, according to Potter, so the region’s swimmers are already attuned to air quality conditions. “Venues struggling with air quality should make a trip to Jenks to see their unique set-up, and the facility should be strongly considered for the next available Central Zone or Sectional Championships,” said Potter, a 47-year veteran of swimming competition. 34

[ photo

“The IAQ was the best I’ve ever seen at a major swimming competition; there were no signs of coughing or burning eyes, and the environment was comfortable for swimmers and spectators alike,” said George Villarreal, JTAC’s manager and a 22-year swimming industry veteran. “The success of this facility is really due to the foresight of the design team.” LOOKING AHEAD TO FUTURE NATATORIUM IAQ While many natatoriums suffer IAQ challenges, the good news is they can either be serviced or retrofitted with modern-day HVAC and chloramine control technology. Besides chloramine control, another big challenge facing indoor pool facility owners and managers today is maintaining the HVAC systems to their original operating performance specifications. Natatoriums with HVAC systems more than 15 years old can benefit from today’s new cutting-edge HVAC technology that not only offers significantly higher energy-saving efficiencies, but also improved control and monitoring for peak IAQ performance. Many indoor pool dehumidifier manufacturers now offer web-based unit

provided by jenks high school ]

monitoring, where facility managers, service contractors and the factory can access dozens of real-time operating parameters 24/7 from a cell phone or computer browser and receive alarms for malfunctions. This assures the systems are operating at peak performances and guarantees the best possible IAQ for the facility. There’s enough knowledge, expertise and technology available today, that no facility should exist with IAQ and chloramine issues. v

Ralph Kittler, P.Eng., is co-founder and vice president of sales and marketing of Seresco USA, Decatur, Ga., a manufacturer of natatorium dehumidifiers and outdoor air ventilation systems. Kittler recently authored the “Natatorium Design Manual,” which is available free as a download at and can educate swimmers, coaches and facility owners on indoor pool IAQ basics. Kittler is a member of ASHRAE’s Technical Committee 9.8 and the reviser of the association’s handbook chapter that recommends natatorium design standards. He can be reached via e-mail at

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Beginning in its April issue and running through January 2015, Swimming World Magazine is counting down the top 10 triumphs and tragedies in the history of swimming. This month:


pictured > in 1956, when forbes (right) met ursula (middle), he had an assistant, a confidante and, ultimately, a partner in his ongoing effort to improve the science behind training to swim fast.

[ photo


provided by chuck warner ]


by chuck warner

How did a “love affair”get into Swimming World Magazine? Have we become People, Glamour or Us Weekly? When you finish reading this story, perhaps you will understand why we believe this love affair is one of the most important triumphs in the history of the sport of swimming. Coach and ASCA Fellow Chris Van Slooten was on a mission: to further his research on the great man he had just traveled halfway around the world to meet. And now he was there, sitting across the room from the man dubbed, “The Conscience of Australian Swimming.” It was five days into their weeklong meetings, and they were working in the home office of the 92-year-old researcher, coach and entrepreneur. A 58-inch computer monitor sat beyond the man’s desk, and while brushing away the effects of greatly diminished eyesight and a bad back as if they were no more than an an-

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noying fly buzzing about his head, Forbes Carlile spoke with a vigor that filled the room. On this particular day, they were pouring over Forbes’ massive collection of research, artifacts and memorabilia that filled most of the Carlile home. The Carliles also purchased the house next door to add to their collection space. Ursula, Forbes’ wife of 56 years, has been his working partner for even longer. Forbes met Ursula Allen in 1956, when she was 20 and a student at the University of Sydney. Although she was graduating at the top of her class, a part of her degree requirement was a credit for knowing how to swim. Her father sought an instructor to teach her. As a Sydney University lecturer in physiology and a leading swimming coach, Forbes agreed to take on the task. Luckily for Forbes, he was successful, and he and Ursula have been together ever since. Recently, Ursula had been in the hospital recovering from shoulder reconstruction. Forbes had focused much of the interview on what he perceived as good for the sport, along with his wife’s virtues. But Chris Van Slooten’s questions penetrated deeper into the magnificent life the man seated across from him had lived. SCIENCE

Born June 3, 1921, Forbes Carlile began to dabble in coaching swimming while studying and then lecturing at the University of Sydney. In 1943, during his studies in human physiology, he was noticed by former swimmer, scientist and scholar, Professor Frank Cotton. Cotton’s passion for excellence had found a match in the young Carlile. As a result, Dr. Cotton began to hone Forbes’ appetite for critical thinking and the integration of science with human performance. He challenged his protégé to coach swimming with a scientific basis. Forbes was motivated to undertake many studies in exercise physiology that included thrusting needle-thermocouples in muscles—mainly his own. He studied responses to intensive exercise on heart action and blood pressure changes, blood hemoglobin levels and failure of physiological adaptation with intense training. Forbes was so passionate about his work that he became a subject in many experiments. During that process, he moved

pictured > by 1972, the carliles had helped shane gould (right) develop into the greatest female swimmer in the world. that year, she held world records in the 100-200-400-1500 freestyles and 200 im.

[ photo

provided by australian information service ]

from grad student and young swim coach into Australian folklore. In one experiment, he swam across Sydney Harbor, testing a mix hailed as “shark repellant.” The news media loved the story, especially when it was discovered that the fabric bags filled with copper acetate did not repel sharks at all! In 1950, Forbes utilized studies of physiological adaptation to exercise to train for the Australian Marathon Championships and, ultimately, his goal of competing in the 1952 Olympics in the modern pentathlon. After minimal training, he finished a surprising 10th. However, he was diagnosed with acute renal failure—or, in simple terms, his kidneys were failing. Fortunately, after seven critical days in the hospital during which time leading specialists had given up on his prospects of survival—plus six more weeks in the hospital—he had recovered and was able to continue his training. Applying the techniques that he and Cotton had developed, Forbes trained in the five required disciplines: fencing, running, swimming, shooting and equestrian. In 1952, at the Olympics in Helsinki, Finland, he became Australia’s first ever competitor in the pentathlon, finishing 25th of the 51 competitors. And this effort to acquire more precise training data was after having served as head coach of the Australian Olympic swimming team in 1948. Has there ever been another person go from coach to athlete at the Olympics? In the Olympic swimming competition in 1936, the United States and Japan were

far outperforming Australia. Given the USA’s population is more than 10 times that of Australia, and Japan’s about five times larger, the Aussies needed a training program with superior effectiveness to compete. Forbes Carlile—with the mentoring of Frank Cotton—gave it to them, and triggered a revolution in Australian swimming training. When Professor Cotton passed on in 1955, Forbes devoted himself even more to coaching. In 1956, when he met Ursula, Forbes had an assistant, a confidante and, ultimately, a partner in his ongoing effort to improve the science behind training to swim fast. They continued studies with the electrocardiogram and found marked flattening of T-waves in athletes with failing adaptation. The Carlile/Cotton promotion of training five carefully crafted miles per day—five times the volume common in the 1940s—was paying dividends. By 1956 at the Melbourne Olympics, it was Australia that earned a dominating role when it won every freestyle gold medal and swept the relays. COACHING

In the 50 years since the start of the modern Olympic Games in 1896, Australia had set only four individual world records in long course competition. Three of those were by Boy Charlton in the distance races in 1923 and 1924. Since 1948, with an increase in the number of Olympic events and improved training, Australia has broken 144 long course world records. Many — continued on 38 June 2014

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[ photo

provided by chuck warner ]

pictured > forbes works with a magnifying application on his 58-inch computer monitor to study, explore, teach and advocate.

THE CARLILES — continued from 37 of those have been set by swimmers from the Carlile Club itself, including a great run of five world records in the 1500 by Jenny Turrall in 1973 and 1974. By 1972, the Carliles had helped Shane Gould develop into the greatest female swimmer in the world. That year, she held the 100, 200, 400 and 1500 freestyle world records, as well as the 200 individual medley. In 1972, for her key role in developing Gould, Ursula was named an assistant coach to the Australian Olympic team. In 1963, with Ursula’s help, Forbes published a compilation of his research and thoughts on swimming in a volume titled, “Forbes Carlile on Swimming.” Fifty-two years later, that book continues to offer some excellent guidance for any swimming coach. It references visualization, stroke technique and how to undertake training most effectively. Carlile and Cotton thoughtfully coined the term, “tapering,” for competition, and they presented a very effective plan that is, for the most part, consistent with some of the most successful practices today. Forbes and Ursula realized that in order to make a living from swimming, they needed more than a competitive team, so they began to explore teaching small children to swim. In 1962, when the couple rented a house in Sydney, their landlords returned from vacation to discover a pool in their backyard. Forbes and Ursula built a 12.5-meter, indoor heated pool to teach swimming. The Carliles purchased that house and still live in it. Today, the pool continues to be a thriving center and one of a dozen sites for teaching swimming to more than 30,000 children each week. 38

The Carliles have been creators more than competitors. They laud the work of the great American coach and researcher, Doc Counsilman, as well as the many superb Australian swimming coaches and John Coutts, their swim school director. But they have spent little time comparing what they’ve created, and, instead, maintain their devotion to improving their “Carlile System.” Most coaches within their competitive team—and nearly all of their competitive swimmers—first developed in one of their learn-to-swim schools. Those coaches rave about their growth because of the interest that the Carliles take in their development. ADVOCACY

There is a sign in the Carlile facilities displaying their motto: “Our aim is not to produce champions, but to create an environment in which champions are inevitable.” One might say they have looked after the sport as a whole in the same way. Forbes is a prickly thorn in the side of many of swimming’s governing bodies, on many subjects, in part because he wants to understand someone’s rationale in defending his or her position. For example, he might approach a colleague wearing a brown shirt and say, “That’s a very nice red shirt you’re wearing.” By making his comment, he will begin a ‘dance’ in conversation—a give-and-take over the color of the shirt. While Forbes has been outspoken about any injustice in the world of swimming, Ursula has helped him focus and organize that energy into a more effective outcome. A conversation with both Carliles can find Ursula finishing a sentence for Forbes, or one correcting the other. It’s not the result of two people having a ‘tiff,’ but a couple stimulated by finding the very best answer to a question. The Carliles have never needed to be right—they’ve just needed the collective us to be right and preserve the sport’s purity. Forbes has been forthright in his dissent against buoyant swimsuits, performanceenhancing drugs and Australian Swimming when it would not recognize professional coaches for many years, or set policies such as funding athletes to leave their home clubs for national training centers. Having called Australian Swimming an “inflexible oligarchy,” the press challenged him that he was giving the

body a bad name. He quipped, “They’ve accomplished that all on their own.” LOVE

The Carliles’ influence has exceeded three quarters of a century, but their passion and care for the sport continues. They have forgone a lavish lifestyle in favor of supporting a wide number of competitive training sites, helping develop swimmers who might otherwise not have access to an excellent program. They continue a lifestyle of early-to-bed and early-to-rise for what had long been 4:45 a.m. training sessions. At 77 years old, Ursula often awakes at 3 a.m. to get in a walk or exercise before the sun rises and their “work” begins. Forbes works as needed with a magnifying application on his large computer monitor to study, explore, teach and advocate. Forbes was inducted into the International Swimming Hall of Fame in 1976, and he and Ursula are the only husband and wife to have been elected Life Members of Swimming Australia LTD. Suddenly, during the conversation between Forbes and Chris Van Slooten, the office door flew open. Ursula had just returned home from the hospital and stuck her head through the doorway: “Hi guys!” Forbes lit up like an 18-year-old having his first Starbucks espresso. “Ursula, you better be flying in here on angel’s wings for all the nice things I’ve said about you!” Ursula was home, and for that simple reason, Forbes’ light shined brighter. And consequently, whoever was in the beam of Forbes Carlile that March day felt his glow. All of us have benefited from Ursula’s kindness and the Carliles role as guardian angels for this sport. Forbes acknowledged to Coach Van Slooten a most important loving relationship that the pair has: “We have only one child—it’s (the sport of) swimming.” And it is that love affair, which has produced so much research, applicable knowledge and leadership that convinces us that the Carliles are one of the greatest triumphs in the history of the sport. v Chuck Warner is a part of Swimming World Magazine’s editorial board and author of “Four Champions: One Gold Medal” and “And Then They Won Gold.” Both books are available for purchase online at www. Next month: “Swimming’s Top 10 Triumphs and Tragedies: #7.”

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With your arm bent at the elbow to 90 degrees and holding a medium tension tubing, slowly rotate the arm away from the body until you complete the range of motion. Repeat action.

FOUR The Basic

by j . r . rosania

photos by tammy ottomeyer demonstrated by maureen rankin

2 FULL STEP-UP Set up a six-to-10-foot step, using platforms, stairs or boxes. Place either foot on top of the platform. With your arms in a streamline position, step up onto the platform. Return to the floor and repeat.

CRUNCHES This is one of the most basic of core exercises. Lying on your back with your hands tucked behind your head, lift your head off the floor and press the low back into the floor. Lower and repeat.

4 SIDE CRUNCHES Lying completely on one side with the bottom arm extended overhead and your other arm supporting your head, lift upward, pulling your upper body off the floor. Slowly lower and repeat reps, then switch sides.


J.R. Rosania, B.S., exercise science, is one of the nation’s top performance enhancement coaches. He is the owner and CEO of Healthplex, LLC, in Phoenix. Check out Rosania’s website at www.


As we age, our bodies weaken, and our muscles decrease. As swimmers, we must come up with a way to slow down this process. One way to accomplish this is to begin a very basic resistance program. Simple exercises—done two to three times a week—will slow down the process and enable the swimmer to maintain a greater strength level. This in turn can help maintain stroke count and stroke distance and speed. In this month’s article, I have illustrated four very basic resistance strength exercises. These exercises will strengthen the shoulder, leg, core and side abdominal. These areas are vital to swimming performance and, therefore, it’s important to keep them strong. They also are areas prone to injury as we age and our bodies weaken. Begin strengthening these areas today with what I call my “Basic Four.” Complete each exercise two times a week, doing two sets of 12 repetitions per exercise. Stay consistent and stay strong! v


Maureen Rankin, a nine-time All-American swimmer from the University of Arizona and former coach, now swims Masters and is an Athletic & Lifestyle model for Sports & Lifestyle Limited.

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Here are four foam rolling exercises for a swimmer’s lower extremeties.

DR. SHANNON by shannon m c bride photos provided by shannon m c bride demonstrated by colby millen

There are other ways besides stretching to alleviate post-workout soreness. Foam rolling is a very effective method of self-massage that can also aid in faster recovery after workouts. Another benefit of foam rolling is that it helps to break up muscular adhesions. The best time to foam roll is at night after a workout. Gentle stretching after foam rolling is also suggested for increased muscle recovery. There are many types of foam rollers from which to choose. They range from firm to very soft, so choose one that is comfortable for you. You should plan to foam roll each body part for two to three minutes. Roll the foam roller the full length of the muscle you are working to relax. If you feel an area of extra tension, you can concentrate the foam rolling in this area until you feel the tension slowly dissipate. This typically will take around 60 seconds. Foam rolling may occasionally feel uncomfortable, so stop if you feel increased or sharp pain during foam rolling. v


GLUTEALS 1. 1 Sit carefully on the foam roller with both knees bent and feet flat on the floor. 2. 2 Support your body by placing your hands on the floor behind you. 3. 3 Cross your right ankle over your left knee. 4. 4 Use your hands and your left foot to gently roll back and forth on the foam roller.

Repeat on the other side.

HIP FLEXORS/QUADRICEPS 1. 1 Lie face down on the foam roller with your hands on the floor and your left ankle crossed over your right. 2. 2 Position the foam roller at the tops of your legs, just below your pubic bone. 3. 3 Use your hands and your right foot to roll the foam roller from your hip to the top of your knee. 4. 4 Do not roll your knee over the foam roller!

Repeat on the other side.

LATISSIMUS DORSI 1. 1 Lie on your right hip with your right arm extended on the floor. 2. 2 Position the foam roller just under your right arm. 3. 3 Place your left hand on the floor in front of you or on your left hip. 4. 4

Use your right hand and your right leg to roll the foam roller from just under your right arm to below your right shoulder blade.

Repeat on the other side.

RHOMBOIDS 1. 1 Lie face up with the foam roller at the top of your back. 2. 2 If you like, rest your head on the floor or on a pillow. 3. 3 Extend your arms to the ceiling and clasp your hands together. 4. 4 Roll the foam roller from the top to the bottom of your shoulder blades.

Dr. Shannon McBride, a licensed chiropractor based in Atlanta, Ga., has been practicing since 2001. She also is certified in Pilates through Power Pilates and the Pilates Method Alliance. 40

Stop this exercise if you feel any tension in your neck.


Colby Millen is the owner of Quenton Colby Arts, a high-end finishing and art business in Atlanta, Ga. In his spare time, he rides on the Lightspeed/BMW cycling team.

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[ photo

provided by velopress ]


IMPROVE YOUR DIET QUALITY The single most effective way to get rid of the excess body fat that stands between many endurance athletes and their optimal racing weight is to increase the overall quality of their diet. High-quality foods promote lean body composition and overall good health. Low-quality foods do the opposite. The six categories of high-quality foods are fruits, vegetables (including legumes), whole grains, lean meats and fish, dairy, and nuts and seeds. The four categories of low-quality foods are refined grains, fatty proteins, sweets and fried foods. Inreasing your diet quality is as simple as eating more of the high-quality food types and less of the low-quality food types. ••• In this month’s nutrition column, Swimming World continues to provide flavorful, easy recipes for athletes. This month’s recipe comes from “Racing Weight Cookbook: Lean, Light Recipes for Athletes” by Matt Fitzgerald and Georgie Fear (available online from The “Racing Weight Cookbook” makes it simple to dial in the right mix of carbs, fat and protein that will satisfy your appetite with high-quality, well-balanced meals. Try out this sample recipe (at right). This recipe calls for just a few ingredients that you are likely to already have on hand. Sprinkle granola atop Greek yogurt and add your favorite fruit for a no-cook meal that provides healthy fats, whole grains, fiber and protein. v

Republished with permission of VeloPress from “Racing Weight Cookbook: Lean, Light Recipes for Athletes.”





• 3 tablespoons smooth natural peanut butter • 3 tablespoons honey • 1/4 teaspoon vanilla extract • 1/4 teaspoon salt • 1 cup rolled oats (also called old-fashioned oats)


• Preheat oven to 300 degrees F. Line a baking sheet with parchment paper. • In a medium bowl, combine peanut butter, honey, vanilla and salt, and stir to mix. Heat in the microwave for 20 seconds if peanut butter doesn’t melt and mix in easily. • Add oats to the bowl, and gently fold to stir them in. Scoop mixture onto lined baking sheet and spread out. Small clumps will form. • Bake for 10 minutes, then turn off the oven (leaving the baking sheet inside) and allow granola to cool completely with the oven door slightly open. It will get crunchy as it cools. • Makes 1-1/2 cups


135 calories, 5 g fat, 19 g total carbohydrate, 2 g dietary fiber, 4 g protein



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HOLLOWAY by michael j . stott photos provided by north carolina state university

BRADEN HOLLOWAY Head Coach Men’s and Women’s Swimming North Carolina State University Raleigh, North Carolina

A backstroker and five-time AllAmerican, Braden Holloway (North Carolina State, B.A., parks, recreation and tourism management, ’01; Virginia Tech, M.S., education, ’07) quickly gravitated to coaching, serving as an assistant for one year at University of the South (Sewanee, Tenn.) and then seven years at Virginia Tech. This season, his men finished a close second to Virginia Tech at the Atlantic Coast Conference Championships (winning four of five relays), while the women were fourth. A 13th-place men’s (nine achieved All-American status) and 16th-place women’s finish (seven A-A) at the 2014 NCAAs marked the Wolfpack’s best national championship meets since 1979. In 2013, Holloway was named ACC Men’s Coach of the Year. In three years, he has compiled respective 1911-1 and 21-13 dual meet marks for the men and women while producing 54 All-Americans, 55 All-ACC performers, 26 All-ACC academic team members, eight ACC relay champions and five ACC individual champions.


A master technician and outstanding recruiter, Braden Holloway in just three years has assembled an impressive cast to return North Carolina State swimming and diving to the national conversation.

Q. SWIMMING WORLD: You were a successful age grouper, an ACC backstroke champion and five-time All-American. Any mentors along the way? A. COACH BRADEN HOLLOWAY: Many. My parents provided a good balance of guidance and independence. I have also had the privilege of swimming for coaches who varied in style and philosophy, so they all made impressions on me as I progressed in the sport. Perhaps the biggest impression was made by my club coach, Scott Colby, who is now a sports performance consultant for USA Swimming. He had a knowledge of work and science that has stuck with me. Other mentors were Scott Hammond, Max Obermiller, Dr. Steve Ripple, Dr. Ned Skinner as well as my current staff. sw: You were known as a great recruiter at Virginia Tech. What’s the secret to that? BH: I found a good balance of sharing the program and school with the student-athletes and then listening to them so I could find links that would lead down a positive path for both. I believed in what we were doing, so it was easy to relay those messages to the ones who wanted to listen.

sw: How did three Scandinavians find their way to Raleigh? BH: We communicated with Andreas Schiellerup (Denmark) and his coaches first. That opened the door to others interested in learning about our program and the U.S. college system. SW: Looks as if NC State will continue its strong sprint tradition through the matriculation of Ryan Held. How did that happen? BH: At the start, something just clicked. Associate Head Coach Todd DeSorbo leads our core sprint group, and he and Ryan agreed that Ryan’s goals really matched up to the program, so the relationship just built from there. SW: Any plans to broaden Wolfpack expertise beyond sprint free and relays? BH: We want to elevate our entire team structure further. Looking to the future, our goal is more balance. As a new staff three years ago, we focused on relays first and foremost to make a quick impact. SW: This year, what role did you ask your huge class of senior men to perform? BH: To be the biggest dreamers possible. On paper, we returned many from the

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HOW THEY TRAIN: STEPHEN COETZER NCAA squad and had good talent coming in. As such, I needed those seniors to dream big in order to help maintain the daily environment and to keep pushing for the big goals. Our first year, it was mainly a coach-led team. Now, it is an athlete-led team, with the seniors being the catalysts. SW: Did that leadership meet your expectations? BH: Yes. The ACC meet where our men finished second was one where everyone locked into their roles. They were living out their dreams as a group. I have never seen a team click the way they did over those four days. We met my expectations even more at NCAAs. When we didn’t get off to such a great start (first relay was DQed), the seniors led the charge to right the ship, and the other men followed. SW: Do your swimmers stay in Raleigh for summer training? BH: I do not require it. Our staff believes in supporting and being loyal to the swimmers’ roots. However, if athletes don’t have the same situation they once did at home, we may encourage them to stay. The value in staying is that we have a full array of academic resources to help them catch up on course work or get ahead. SW: What is pre-October training like, and how do you help a team create its own identity? BH: We usually wait until after Labor Day to get going. Before then, swimmers are getting re-acclimated to college classes and getting in shape. The captains and upperclassmen help get everyone going, which is great for team bonding. Our strength and conditioning program is front and center. After Labor Day, we usually split the men and women up to let them create their own team identity: why are they here, what do they want, what is their role? Men and women practice in separate pools, so the environment is all about specific gender. We focus on technique in the water with low levels of aerobic training. From there, we start our microcycles within our season plan. — continued on 44

[ photo

by peter h . bick ]

North Carolina State’s Stephen Coetzer set the conference record in the 200 yard back (1:40.53) during prelims of this year’s Atlantic Coast Conference Championships before finishing runner-up in finals (1:41.21). He then went on to place 13th at NCAAs with a time of 1:41.30. The “serene, passionate, realistic and coachable,” lightly-recruited South African by way of Wilmington N.C. arrived in Raleigh with good technique and a “huge upside,” says Wolfpack Coach Braden Holloway. Part mechanic and part artist, Coetzer “has a fire and passion that drives him each day to get better. Stephen works off emotion above all else, but needs the science-based side of splits, numeric progression and systemic approaches. He believes and knows he will swim fast all the time. We call it his ’swag,’” says Holloway. “He has a great work ethic, terrific feel for the water and a focus that makes it easy for him to make and accept adjustments. As a teammate, he is not afraid to hold peers accountable, and he continues to accept greater roles of responsibility,” says the coach. At NCSU, Holloway trains athletes through a series of cycles he calls “chapters.” Those are muscular endurance, strength, power and speed, with all training pointed to year-end championships. For Coetzer, who just completed his junior year, that means peak performance in the 100 (best time 46.94) and 200 back and 200 IM (school record 1:44.26). The muscular endurance phase concentrates on aerobic capacity, expansion and building threshold. A large portion of the aerobic work is kick. “The strength chapter emphasizes longer-term anaero-

bic work, building resistance to fatigue in race/lactate training and increases in strength limitation while maintaining stroke counts and kick counts. Here we work on specific race strategies, and it is where working off pace numbers and stroke counts begin,” says Holloway. “This season for Stephen’s 200 back, we worked off a back-half race pace time of 25.5 (add .5 or so for a flip) for a goal time of 1:41. His back-half 100 speed training time was 23.75 for a goal of 47.5. He was very consistent with the 200 back race pace each time we did it, and he was under 100 race pace most of the time. Stephen’s front-end speed has been a long work in progress and improved most this season. I thought he would be a good bit under the 47.5 goal, and his consistency stayed true, as he ended the year at 1:40 and 46.9.” The power chapter is centered around force production, explosion and shortterm anaerobic. Coetzer likes this chapter best because “we use toys the most here,” says Holloway. The speed chapter focus is on muscular recovery, mental attentiveness and final preparation of race strategies. Throughout the processes, Coetzer’s training is specific to his competition speeds, muscle fibers or energy systems. He is also given considerable rest because “we train him at a very high-intensity level, so keeping him healthy is the first step,” says Holloway. v TOTAL ACCESS MEMBERS CLICK HERE

to learn more about Stephen Coetzer’s sample workouts and progression of times. June 2014

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Q&A — continued from 43 SW: At one time, NC State had a strong diving program. Any plans to resurrect that? BH: Sure. We had a national champion in 2009, so we know the program can produce and can be a home for future champions. With the strength of diving within the ACC, we are in a great position to attract new student-athletes to come dive in one of the best conferences in the nation. Our infrastructure issues have been addressed, and a new dryland facility is in the works. We had low numbers on the boards this year and red-shirted two of our top women. Having them come back and having more additions on the men’s side will create more opportunities to score. SW: In prior years, the coaching rivalry between NC State and North Carolina has ranged from competitive to toxic. How would you describe it today? BH: As beautiful. All sports thrive on rivalries, and our rivalry is no different. It makes each program better and those game-day meetings more fun and meaningful, creat-


ing a level of adrenaline that sometimes cannot be matched in other ways.

pictured > braden holloway

SW: What are two pieces of advice you’d offer potential college swimmers and their parents? BH: First, enjoy the process. Many of your high school peers will not have the same luxury that you will have in picking a school. Even though the process is an emotional roller coaster, the end result is you end up being happy with the school of your choice! Second, start early. By doing so, you can usually identify the crucial factors, such as distance from home, rural versus urban, combined programs and size of the school. This can help in making official visit decisions and ease the process of turning down college coaches, which is usually the hardest part. v Michael J. Stott, one of Swimming World Magazine’s USA contributors, is based in Richmond, Va.

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AGE GROUP SWIMMERS OF THE MONTH by shoshanna rutemiller

[ photo

pictured > nicole oliva, santa clara swim club

provided by swimmingworld . tv ]

sponsored by


Santa Clara Swim Club’s Nicole Oliva set four individual Pacific Swimming records and was part of two record-breaking relays at the Far Western Championships in Morgan Hill, Calif., April 3-6. The 12-year-old set LSC standards in the 50 yard back (26.85 and 26.84r), 100 back (56.67) and 50 fly (25.80). She also swam backstroke on Santa Clara’s 11-12 girls 200 and 400 medley relays: 1:51.09 (Oliva, Nadia Bouraoui, Mikayla Tseng and Tina Le) and 4:02.92 (Oliva, Bouraoui, Tseng, Le). All but the 50 back were also Far Western meet records. Not surprisingly, Oliva was the girls’ 11-12 high-point champion—and her smoldering swims contributed key points to Santa Clara’s overall second-place finish. Oliva is coached by Luba Pohilenco in Santa Clara’s Gold Girls Group. She works out six days a week in the water for up to two hours, along with three days of on-land mobility work. Head Coach John Bitter adds, “Oliva enjoys working on the little things in regards to her swimming, and has really taken to working the underwater aspects of the sport.” BERKELEY AQUATIC CLUB; CLARISSA SABIN

[ photos

pictured > berkeley aquatic club 200 medley relay: (from left) clarissa sabin, tamsin formon, rachel heeren and catherine meisner

provided by berkeley aquatic club ]

pictured > berkeley aquatic club 200 free relay: (from left) clarissa sabin, julia meisner, rachel heeren and catherine meisner

Berkeley Aquatic Club’s 10-andunder girls broke three New Jersey state records at the Junior Olympics, March 14-16, at Rutgers University. Two came in relays—200 yard medley and 200 free— while the third was set by Clarissa Sabin in the 100 breast. The first record to fall for BAC was the 200 free relay, which included Sabin, Julia Meisner, Catherine Meisner and Rachel Heeren. They shattered the old mark of 1:55.53 by nearly four seconds with a time of 1:51.67. Shortly thereafter, Tamsin Formon, Sabin, Heeren and Catherine Meisner claimed the girls 10-and-under record in the 200 medley relay with a 2:06.69. All four girls split personal best times to break the previous state mark of 2:08.01 by more than a second. Riding high as a key member of both record-setting relays, Sabin also went on to post a state record in the 100 breast. Her 1:11.23 time broke the 15-year-old standard of 1:11.98, set in 1999 by a former Berkeley Aquatic Club swimmer, Ashley Evans. v June 2014

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guttertalk Sponsored By:

After nearly two years since announcing his retirement from the sport, Michael Phelps returned to competition at the Mesa


BAAACK! by shoshanna rutemiller

photo by azaria basile


Grand Prix in April. Months before the official announcement, people were still saying it wasn’t going to happen. The peanut gallery stated again and again that swimmers needed to stop their wishful thinking. But when Michael Phelps’ name was thrown back into the WADA drug testing pool late last year, the proof was as substantial as Phelps himself shouting from lane 4: “I’m back and ready to, where are my goggles?!” On April 14, USA Swimming unveiled that Phelps was entered in three events at the Arena Grand Prix in Mesa, Ariz. This

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SWIM MART revelation sparked one of the biggest swimming-themed Twitter blowouts the world of social media had ever seen—including Tweets such as, “Just when you thought you were safe to swim the 200 fly...Phelps is back. God help all us butterflyers.” At a press conference before his 100 fly at the 2012 Olympic Trials, Phelps claimed that the race would be his last “on American soil.” Nearly two years later, his statement was proven false. Phelps entered the 50 and 100 freestyle plus the 100 butterfly at the Mesa Grand Prix, but ended up scratching the 100 free before the meet began. Despite his lackluster event schedule, tickets to the meet seemed as valuable as an Olympic medal. They were snapped up left and right. All six sessions sold out, with spectators hoping to catch a glimpse of the most successful Olympian of all time. Phelps had a decent showing in the events he raced: • He placed second behind Ryan Lochte in the 100 fly with a 52.13 to Lochte’s 51.93. Even though he didn’t win, his time placed him fifth fastest in the world this year! • Phelps announced the morning of his 50 free that he would swim the event butterfly. His 24.06 failed to qualify him for a second swim, but he still placed 42nd out of 92 competitors. There was something reassuring about Phelps’ presence at the meet. Even though he hadn’t raced in 20 months, he can still put together a top-5 world-ranked swim. Phelps approached the meet as a chance to have fun and try his hand at racing again. In addition to the “fun,” Phelps still showed discipline and determination every time he dove into the pool. He was racing! Phelps isn’t going to swim the 200 fly or 400 IM again anytime soon (if ever again). But you know what he did do? He got people filling the seats at the Mesa Grand Prix. That fact alone was one of the biggest topics of conversation to come out of the meet. From one swim fan to another, no complaints here! v

ADVERTISING OPPORTUNITIES: Contact Swimming World Magazine At: ••• Or Call: 602.522.0778 800.511.3029 (Toll Free in USA & Canada) June 2014

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pictured > ryan lochte (left) was reunited with long-time competitor and friend, michael phelps (right), at the arena grand prix in april at mesa, ariz. it was phelps’ first competition in the sport since he announced his retirement from swimming after the 2012 london olympics. (see story, pages 46-47)

PARTING SHOT... [ photo

by azaria basile ]

or is it just the beginning?


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DIRECTORY — continued from 3

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Alabama Rising Tide Swim Camp Tuscaloosa, AL Mike Davidson, Camp Director The Arete Swim Camp Martinsville, NJ Chuck Warner, Coach


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DIRECTORY — continued from 7

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Prep Schools


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Record Boards



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DIRECTORY — continued from 13

Finis ...................... 888-333-4647 NIKE ....................... 800-806-6453 800-691-4065 Varsity Swim Shop .......... 800-622-2120

Temporary Tattoos

Hasty Awards ................ 800-448-7714 800-691-4065


AquaGear Swim Shop ...................... 888-707-0099 Finis ....................... 888-333-4647 NIKE ....................... 800-806-6453 Sprint Aquatics ............... 800-235-2156 800-691-4065 Towels Outlet ................... 305-624-1331

Toys for the Pool Tethered Devices

Lane Gainer/ Halo ....................... 888-443-8946 Sprint Aquatics ............. 800-235-2156 StretchCordz® by NZ Mfg. ............ 800-886-6621 800-691-4065

Time Systems

SportCount ......... 800-621-5483 800-691-4065

Touch Pads 800-691-4065 14

AquaGear Swim Shop ........... 888-707-0099 Finis ....................... 888-333-4647 S.R. Smith .................... 800-824-4387 Sprint Aquatics ............. 800-235-2156 Swimming World Magazine .................. 800-511-3029 800-691-4065


Underwater Video Equipment

Swimming World Magazine .................. 800-511-3029 800-691-4065

Warm Ups

Dolfin Swimwear ............. 800-441-0818 NIKE ...................... 800-806-6453

Speedo USA .................... 1-800-477-3336 800-691-4065

Water Polo Balls and Equipment

Finis ........................ 888-333-4647 Sprint Aquatics ................ 800-235-2156 Swimming World Magazine .................. 800-511-3029 800-691-4065

Waterproof Audio

AquaGear Swim Shop ........ 888-707-0099 Finis .................... 888-333-4647 Swimming World Magazine .................. 800-511-3029 800-691-4065

Water Training Products

Finis ...................... 888-333-4647 Lane Gainer/ Halo ...................... 888-443-8946 NIKE ...................... 800-806-6453 Sprint Aquatics ............... 800-235-2156 StretchCordz® by NZ Mfg. ............ 800-886-6621 Swimming World Magazine .................. 800-511-3029 800-691-4065

Weights 800-691-4065

Hasty Awards ................. 800-448-7714 Maxwell Medals & Awards ............... 800-331-1383 800-691-4065

2014 Aquatic Directory

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June 2014 Swimming World Magazine Online  

Michael Andrew, who just turned 15 in April, has already set 57 U.S. national age group records in his young career. He is trained by his f...

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