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ESL Helpful Handouts __________________________________________________________________________________________________

The Cougar And The Cub Adverb Clauses With Time Expressions

Cougar. This is a word that is sometimes used to describe women over the age of 40 who have relationships with younger men. Frequently, the younger man is referred to as a cub.

Image: Federico Stevanin

Image: Maggie Smith

Stella is 44 years old. Her boyfriend, Mark, is 25 years old. When Stella was 42 years old, she met Mark. He was 23 years old at the time. Stella was 19 years old when Mark was born. She completed her high school education before he was born. Stella was attending college while Mark was attending nursery school. By the time Mark had received his college degree, Stella had married and divorced her first husband. Stella realized that she did not love her first husband after she discovered a terrible secret about him. After he had told her a great many lies in order to keep this awful secret, she divorced him. Then Stella began dating. She dated 27 year old Ben until she met Mark. When she met Mark, she fell in love at first sight. She broke up with Ben and immediately started dating Mark. Stella and Mark enjoy dating each other and go out on dates often. Before they go anywhere on a date, they stop at a little bar for a quick drink. They met each other at this bar and consider it to be a very special place. Since their first meeting, Stella and Mark have been very happy. Stella and Mark always have a wonderful time when they are together. After Stella and Mark feel that they know each other quite well, they will probably discuss marriage plans.

Adverb Clauses With Time Expressions A sentence that begins with an adverb clause always uses a comma to separate it from the rest of the sentence. A comma is not used when the adverb clause comes at the end of the sentence. Examples: When Stella was 42 years old, she met Mark. Stella was 19 years old when Mark was born. When is often used with the simple present tense or the simple past tense. Examples: Stella and Mark always have a wonderful time when they are together. When she met Mark, she fell in love at first sight. Before is used with the simple present tense or the simple past tense. Examples: Before they go anywhere on a date, they stop at a little bar for a quick drink. She completed her high school education before he was born.

While is used with the past continuous tense. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ This page has been downloaded from http://sites.google.com/site/eslhelpfulhandouts. Images: Federico Stevanin and Maggie Smith/FreeDigitalPhotos.net. Written by S. Watson.


ESL Helpful Handouts __________________________________________________________________________________________________ Example: Stella was attending college while Mark was attending nursery school. By the time usually uses the past perfect tense. Example: By the time Mark had received his college degree, Stella had married and divorced her first husband. After is used with the simple past tense. Another way to describe past events is to use after with the past perfect tense in one clause and the simple past tense in the other clause. It can also describe future events. After is used with the present tense in one clause and the future tense in the other clause. Examples: Stella realized that she did not love her first husband after she discovered a terrible secret about him. After he had told her a great many lies in order to keep this awful secret, she divorced him. After Stella and Mark feel that they know each other quite well, they will probably discuss marriage plans. Since is used with the simple past tense and the present perfect tense in order to describe an ongoing event that began in the past and continues in the present. Since can also refer to a specific point in time, and is used with the present perfect tense. Example: Since they first met, Stella and Mark have been very happy. Since their first meeting, Stella and Mark have been very happy.

Choose a cougar and a cub from the information in the boxes. Create a story about them using as many adverb clauses with time expressions as you can. Mary Age – 49 Divorced Two teenaged children

Larry Age - 21 Single Minimum wage employment

Belinda Age – 53 Separated 4 children, 1 grandchild

Janet Age – 60 Has never has been married Has always dated younger men

Thomas Age - 19 College student Lives with his parents

Serena Age – 44 Small business owner Addicted to Botox

David Age - 26 Divorced 1 child Executive Large alimony payments Henry Age – 29 Very handsome Loves older women

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ This page has been downloaded from http://sites.google.com/site/eslhelpfulhandouts. Images: Federico Stevanin and Maggie Smith/FreeDigitalPhotos.net. Written by S. Watson.


The Cougar And The Cub